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Applied Thermal Engineering 89 (2015) 1001e1005

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Applied Thermal Engineering


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng

Applied thermal engineering solutions through process integration,


modelling and optimisation

a b s t r a c t

Keywords: This special issue of Applied Thermal Engineering contains thirteen selected contributions that were
Process integration originally presented in the 17th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy
Modelling Saving and Pollution Reduction e PRES 2014. The PRES conference offers a unique and prestigious stage
Optimisation
for applied thermal engineering innovations achieved through ingenious process integration and holistic
Engineering solutions
design approaches. The long collaboration between the PRES conference and the Applied Thermal En-
Applied thermal engineering
gineering Journal is epitomised by this selection of high quality articles covering a wide variety of topics
ranging from complex thermal network analysis and optimisation, to operations and control of thermal
processes, innovative thermal equipment design through efcient computational tools, and nally to
mathematical models for thermal systems.
2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction especially close working friendships. Out of 551 abstracts, prepared


by 2133 authors from 57 countries, the PRES 2014 Scientic Com-
Applied Thermal Engineering is in the centre of the develop- mittee selected 216 oral presentations, 33 keynote, and 4 plenary
ments in the quest for highly energy efcient, sustainable, and lectures common for PRES and CHISA, and 233 posters. From pre-
cost effective process systems. Process Integration and Intensica- sented papers 25 have been invited to this SI and after a thorough
tion concepts have been pivotal in product and process design reviewing 13 papers have been accepted for this Special issue.
and optimisation. The conference series of Process Integration, PRES conferences offer a comprehensive publication strategy of
Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution best papers. This Special Issue (SI) has been already the 15th SI of
Reduction e PRES [1] has established itself as a worldwide stage Applied Thermal Engineering, dedicated to selected contributions
where innovative solutions incorporating existing but also intro- from PRES conferences starting from PRES'99 in 2000 [2]. It has
ducing new tools are being presented, discussed, and critically been followed by SI of PRES 2000 [3], PRES'01 [4], PRES 2002 [5],
assessed. The delegates of PRES'14 brought forward through PRES'03 [6], PRES 2004 [7], PRES'05 [8], PRES 2006 [9], PRES'07
numerous distinguished contributions a unique blend of chal- [10], PRES 2008 [11], PRES'09 [12], PRES 2010 [13], PRES'11 [14],
lenging scientic and industrial problems and proposed solutions PRES 2012 [15], PRES 2013 [16]. In addition to Applied Thermal En-
that made a signicant impact in a variety of subjects relevant to gineering, other well-known journals have been collaborating with
applied thermal engineering. PRES and related conferences: Energy e PRES 2010 [17], PRES 2012
PRES series commenced within the CHISA shell in 1998, in [18] and PRES 2013 [19], Journal of Cleaner Production e PRES'11
Prague, Czech Republic. Since then, PRES conferences have also [20], Cleaner Technologies and Environmental Policy e PRES 2010
been organised in Hungary, various places in Italy, Canada, and [21], PRES'11 [22], PRES 2012 [23], and PRES 2013 [24], Theoretical
Greece. In the year 2015, for the rst time, PRES conference will Foundations of Chemical Engineering [25], Heat Transfer Engineer-
be held in Asia at Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. ing e PRES 2008 [26], Resources, Conservation and Recycling e
PRES'14 was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in late August 2014 PRES 2008 [27] and Waste Management e PRES'99 [28].
and provided an excellent opportunity for the dissemination of
novel ideas in applied thermal engineering, ingenious design pro-
cedures, Heat Integration and computer aided solutions to indus- 2. Selected contributions and the main thematic groups
trial challenges and experimental results. The organisers of the
PRES conferences in 2014 joining forces with CHISA are proud to The Special Issue articles have been thoroughly evaluated and
continuously attract many professional scientists/researchers then selected, applying the high standards for quality assurance
from various countries and continents providing a genial platform during the peer review process. They are briey presented grouped
for the fast and efcient spreading of novel ideas, processes, and thematically to provide the readers with a structured guide to the
individual research efforts and achievements. The presentation

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.07.060
1359-4311/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1002 P. Seferlis et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 89 (2015) 1001e1005

starts with articles on network issues, proceeding then to operation temperature scale and enables the direct consideration of the ef-
and control, equipment design, and computational aspects. fects key parameters such as heat capacity owrates, stream tem-
peratures and temperature differences have on the HEN. It is
2.1. Complex thermal networks design and optimisation capable of accounting for both thermodynamic constraints and
target loads enabling a competent screening of feasible retrot op-
Design and optimisation of thermal networks pose signicant tions. Furthermore, insights regarding possible trends and oper-
challenges due to the high complexity and substantial inherited ating limits to heat recovery can be easily derived after a new
interaction among the various constituent subsystems. This is a HEN path is specied.
direct result from higher degree of integration that is deemed
necessary to enable additional energy savings and emissions reduc- 2.2. Process operation and control via advanced techniques
tion. There is a great need for new tools that can unveil the major
underlying phenomena and provide insights into the main trends The increased degree of process integration and intensication
and bottlenecks of such networks. Four contributions cover the makes the process operation an even more challenging tasks. To
area of process tools for thermal network design and optimisation this end, simulation tools for operation training, control system
offering superstructure optimisation [29], tools for the strategic design methods, and the consideration of operability and controlla-
introduction of renewables in community energy networks [30], bility properties in the design stage are essential for the achieve-
total site heat integration [31], and heat exchanger network retrot ment of high valued products and subsequently highly protable
through a novel visualisation decision support tool [32]. and sustainable process systems. Two contributions investigate
Optimisation of pump networks for cooling water utilities in a the introduction of advanced control techniques in heat exchanger
plant is the subject of Sun et al. [29]. A two steps approach is units [35], and the incorporation of operability and process vari-
selected consisted of a step that identies the optimal in terms of ability in the selection of the optimal working medium in solar
the total annualised costs cooling water heat exchanger network organic Rankine cycles [36].
based on thermodynamic considerations. Secondly, an additional An advanced control strategy for a heat exchanger that employs
step calculates optimally the necessary hydraulic head that is a neural network predictive control framework combined with a
required by the network pumps to compensate for the pressure fuzzy controller is presented in Vasickaninova  and Bakosova [35].
drop. The resulted network combines cooling water heat ex- The controlled variable is the outlet temperature of the process
changers connected in both parallel and in series congurations. stream, whereas the main manipulated is the auxiliary stream
Despite the higher cooling water return temperature to the cooling owrate. The neural network is trained through a set of simulated
tower and a larger pressure drop, signicant reduction in the total data from a nonlinear model with the interval parametric uncer-
utilised water quantity is achieved. A 23% reduction in the annual- tainty. A fuzzy controller is introduced that utilises a second manip-
ised costs is possible than the conventional network conguration ulated variable; namely the process stream owrate. In this way,
with a 63% reduction in the used cooling water. fast system dynamics are controlled by the secondary manipulated
Kostevsek et al. [30] employed the concept of Locally Integrated variable whereas the slower dynamics are controlled by the main
Energy Sectors (LIES) introduced by Perry et al. [33] for the estab- control loop. The proposed combined control scheme exhibits su-
lishment of renewables energy sources (RES) based networks. The perior dynamic performance than conventional control
main aim is to support the transformation of any energy conversion congurations.
network towards a sustainable local energy system. Municipal en- The contribution by Mavrou et al. [36] addresses the selection of
ergy systems are excellent candidates for the integration of LIES working uid mixtures in view of operating variability in solar
concepts to accomplish greater energy efciency as stated by Var- Organic Ranking Cycles (ORC). A systematic sensitivity analysis pro-
banov and Klemes [34]. LIES integrates various sectors such as in- cedure explicitly considers the impacts of working uid and ORC
dustry, households, transport, agriculture, service and public design/operating decisions on the ability of the ORC to alleviate
sectors together in terms of energy usages. The incorporation of the effects of deviations from the nominal operating conditions.
an efcient RES utilisation network during the planning phase of The proposed method calculates the effects of variability resulting
such installation has been demonstrated with a case study. The hi- from the simultaneous consideration of multiple system design
erarchical design procedure achieves higher efciency and sup- and operating parameters on multiple ORC performance indicators
ports the sustainability and viability of municipal energy systems. taking into account the system nonlinearities and constraints. Each
A systematic Total Site heat integration methodology that aims ORC system with a different mixture as the working medium is
to reduce the capital cost of heat transfer units at Total Sites is pre- then assessed and rank ordered based on thermodynamic and
sented in Chew et al. [31]. The methodology employs a set of heu- operability performance indicators. The merits of the method are
ristic rules that enable the identication and prioritisation of the demonstrated for several working uid mixture candidates
strategic process modications that have the greatest impact on through the identication of the mixtures with minimum sensi-
the Total Site performance. More specically, the most critical tem- tivity in operating variability and maximum overall ORC perfor-
perature intervals for the overall heat integration improvement mance. The authors concluded that without a systematic
have been effectively selected whereas the keep hot stream hot consideration of operation variability signicant performance los-
(KHSH) and keep cold stream cold (KCSC) principles have been ses may be inherited in the process by the mixture selection.
applied to modify the Total Site prole (TSP) favourably. A meticu-
lously implemented design procedure exploits individual process 2.3. High performance novel thermal equipment design
knowledge to result in a holistic improvement of Total Site Heat
Integration. Thermal equipment design can really make a great difference in
Heat exchanger network (HEN) retrot has been established as the overall improvement of energy efciency. High heat transfer
an important and efcient task in process design with multiple rates, enhanced mixing, suitable ow properties, and reduced pres-
alternative approaches proposed. Yong et al. [32] propose an sure drop are some of the key directions in which advances are ex-
enhanced visualisation and decision-making tool for HEN retrot. pected through ingenious and creative thermal equipment design.
The tool is based on an extended type of Grid Diagram properly vis- Obviously, computer aided process engineering methods and tech-
ualising the HEN arrangements that incorporates a shifted niques offer the tool-kit for a speedy and effective design
P. Seferlis et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 89 (2015) 1001e1005 1003

procedure. Four contributions investigate the enhancements that Spiral-wound heat exchangers possess signicant advantages as
new equipment developments bring in red heaters [37], heat ex- they offer compact equipment design, enable operation under high
changers [38] printed circuit heat exchangers [39], uidised-bed pressure, achieve good thermal compensation performance, and
evaporation [40], and multi-stream spiral-wound heat exchangers especially allow multi-stream heat transfer capability. Lu et al.
[42]. [41] investigate the impact changes in the geometry of multi-
Fired heaters are commonly used processes in reneries. The stream spiral-wound heat exchangers have on the on ow and
American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 560 is a frequently heat transfer performance. The geometrical factors that have
used procedure for the design of such equipment. The work of Jegla been examined are the space bar thickness, the tube pitch in the
et al. [37] adopts a novel methodology to analyse heat transfer in a rst layer, the tube external diameter, the number of layers, and
red heater. The methodology employs a Computational Fluid Dy- the centre core diameter. The investigation is performed through
namics (CFD) model with main focus on the balanced application of numerical simulations of a validated physical model accounting
adequate models for turbulence, combustion chemistry and radia- for the mass, momentum and energy transfer and a suitable turbu-
tion. In addition to the three dimensional CFD model, two dimen- lence model. The shell-side and tube-side Nusselt number and
sional simulations of radiative heat transfer are developed to pressure drop per unit length increase with a higher number of
provide insight into the effects tube deformations have on circum- layers, a larger centre core diameter, and a larger tube external
ferential tube heat ux non-uniformity. It is specically concluded diameter. On the contrary, they decrease with the increase of space
that standard one dimensional design calculations of red heaters bar thickness and tube pitch in the rst layer. Quantitatively esti-
signicantly underestimate real heat ux variability especially in mation of the effects of these ve geometrical parameters is
the longitudinal direction. achieved by Taguchi type of experiments. Finally, a multivariate
Enhanced inner surfaces in heat transfer equipment are model becomes available that expresses the behaviour of the
routinely used because they can produce improved tubeside heat shell-side Nusselt number and friction coefcient with respect to
transfer coefcients without a limiting pressure drop. The 1EHT the main geometrical parameters of the heat exchanger equipment.
surface is generally a hybrid surface that enforces the separation
of ow and induces an increased surface area. Kukulka et al. [38] 2.4. Models and computational techniques for improved design
investigate experimentally the heat transfer phenomena in the solutions
condensation and evaporation of R410A, R22 and R32 at a newly
developed enhanced surface Vipertex 1EHT tube. This enhanced Modelling has been the undisputed greatest aid in the evolution
heat transfer tube produces enhanced performance of more than of process design. Supported by high performance computation
100% when compared to a smooth tube for most evaporation or techniques offers the ability to cover a vast design variable space
condensation condition. Such an enhanced heat transfer surface seeking the optimal design solution. Process models may vary in
enables an increased performance through a combination of resolution, complexity, and rigour but when developed properly
several factors such as increased turbulence; boundary layer within a meaningful set of assumptions become the mean for an
disruption; secondary ow generation; increased heat transfer sur- exhaustive investigation and evaluation of multiple process cong-
face area; and a high density of nucleation sites. Vipertex 1EHT urations and operating conditions. Two contributions in this eld
enhanced tubes recover more energy and provide an excellent op- discuss the modelling of turbulent free jets [42] and of waste supply
portunity for design advancements in many heat transfer chains [43].
processes. Turbulent free jets are of signicant importance for numerous
Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is recommended as an chemical engineering processes as they enhance heat and mass
intermediate heat exchanger in Very High Temperature Reactors transfer, intensify mixing, and enable entrainment and momentum
(VHTR). Manufactured by means of photochemical etching, main- exchange. The development and optimisation of such processes are
tains the internal structure and metal properties. Ma et al. [39] usually supported by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simula-
investigate the manufacture of the airfoil PCHE plate by photo- tions, which allow the profound understanding of the underlying
chemical etching. The resulted PCHE airfoil ns exhibit resem- ow phenomena. The selection of a proper turbulence model is
blance to a n-endwall llet. The thermal-hydraulic properties of paramount importance to generate meaningful results. The
of the PCHE are studied through the development of a CFD model work of Miltner et al. [42] offers a detailed analysis of the ow eld
for a single uid and two uids. Simulated experiments reveal of a straight and a slightly rotating turbulent free jet both experi-
that the n-endwall llet can increase the heat transfer and pres- mentally and through CFD simulations under various employed
sure drop in the cases with the non-dimensional longitudinal turbulence models. Experimental analysis is performed by Laser-
pitch being 1.63. The effect of n-endwall llet on thermal hy- Doppler-Anemometry to measure three-dimensional ow and tur-
draulic performance decreases with the increase of transverse bulence elds. CFD simulations are performed with a commercial
pitch. An extensive sensitivity analysis unveils signicant features solver applying commonly used models for turbulence description.
in the complex heat exchanger geometry and sets the basis for The work concludes that unless the correct turbulence model is
design. employed in the CFD calculations the simulated results may fail
Mizuno et al. [40] proposed a novel seawater desalination pro- to predict the real ow conditions. Reynolds Stress Model has
cess using a uidised-bed evaporator to prevent scale deposition been proved to provide results that best match the experimental
on the heat-transfer surface for the co-production of salt and trends and features.
pure water. The operating principle of the uidised-bed evaporator Uninterrupted supply of waste to plants dedicated in waste-to-
is based on the uid collision with heated uidised particles. A energy activities is identied as a unique most critical factor for
shortcoming of the evaporation process is the occurrence of parti- plant protability. Ferdan et al. [43] present a complex methodol-
cle agglomeration that leads to deuidisation. Therefore, the ogy towards investment risk quantication in a waste-to-energy
agglomeration behaviour is experimentally investigated. A balance (WTE) project. A novel approach is proposed, where waste avail-
for the liquid bridge, solid bridge, and hydrodynamic forces is per- ability is assessed considering the future competition in the waste
formed in order to describe the agglomeration effects. Subse- market. The approach encompasses the logistic-based optimisation
quently, a conceptual model is developed based on the tool, NERUDA, which allocates processing capacities and proposes
experimental investigation. waste ows between producers and processors within a targeted
1004 P. Seferlis et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 89 (2015) 1001e1005

geographical region. A new term accounting for waste availability is [16] H.L. Lam, P.S. Varbanov, J.J. Klemes, Applied thermal engineering towards sus-
tainable development, Appl. Therm. Eng. 70 (2014) 1051e1055.
dened and incorporated in the project assessment. The practical
[17] J.J. Klemes, H.L. Lam, Process integration for energy saving and pollution
implications of such an approach are demonstrated through a reduction, Energy 36 (8) (2011) 4586e4587.
case where a stochastic simulation study with several uncertain pa- [18] J.J. Klemes, P. Varbanov, Q. Wang, H. Lund, PRES 2012 special section: process
rameters is concluded. integration, modelling and optimisation for energy saving and pollution
reduction, Energy 55 (2013) 1e4.
[19] P.S. Varbanov, Y. Wang, J.J. Klemes, H. Lund, PRES'13 special section: process
3. Conclusions integration, modelling and optimisation for energy saving and pollution
reduction, Energy 75 (2014) 1e4.
[20] J.J. Klemes, P.S. Varbanov, D. Huisingh, Recent cleaner production advances in
Thirteen selected articles have been included in this special process monitoring and optimization, J. Clean. Prod. 34 (2012) 1e8.
issue covering the scientic elds of complex thermal process [21] I. Bulatov, J.J. Klemes, Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a
summary, Clean. Technol. Environ. Policy 13 (4) (2011) 543e546.
network design and optimisation, process operation and control [22] J.J. Klemes, P.S. Varbanov, Special issue editorial, Clean. Technol. Environ. Pol-
via advanced techniques, high performance novel thermal equip- icy 14 (3) (2012) 369e370.
ment design, and models and computational techniques for [23] J.J. Klemes, P.S. Varbanov, Process intensication and integration: an assess-
ment, Clean. Technol. Environ. Policy 15 (2013) 417e422.
improved design solutions. The selection of these thirteen articles
[24] P. Seferlis, P.S. Varbanov, PRES'13: contribution of process integration and
demonstrates the diversity of methodologies, techniques, and intensication to development of clean technologies, Clean. Technol. Environ.
design procedures for the achievement of highly performing ther- Policy 16 (2014) 1227e1228.
mal process systems. Any advance in the area of applied thermal [25] J.J. Klemes, P.S. Varbanov, S. Pierucci, Process sustainability and operability via
integration, energy saving and pollution reduction, Theor. Found. Chem. Eng.
engineering requires deep understanding of the underlying phys- 46 (6) (2012) 621e626.
ical and chemical phenomena. Such phenomena initiated at molec- [26] J.J. Klemes, P. Stehlk, Heat transfer in industrial applications: PRES 2008, Heat
ular level interactions interrelate to the unit operation level with Transf. Eng. 31 (9) (2010) 707e710.
[27] J. Klemes, P. Stehlk, E. Worrell, Waste treatment to improve recycling and
interplay with the equipment congurations. The extension to minimise environmental impact, Resour. Conserv. Recycl 54 (2010) 267e270.
the plant-wide level enables the holistic consideration of the effects [28] F. Friedler, J. Klemes, Editorial, Waste Manag. 20 (2000) vii.
of decisions. Eventually, integration at the enterprise level exem- [29] J. Sun, X. Feng, Y. Wang, Cooling-water system optimisation with a novel two-
step sequential method, Appl. Therm. Eng. 89 (2015) 1006e1013.
plies the potential benets towards energy efcient and sustain- [30] A. Kostevsek, J. Petek, L. Cu  cek, J.J. Klemes, P.S. Varbanov, Locally integrated
able engineering. energy sectors supported by renewable network management within munic-
The editors would like to thank all the authors for the fruitful ipalities, Appl. Therm. Eng. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
j.applthermaleng.2015.01.037.
collaboration and express their gratitude to the reviewers for the [31] K.H. Chew, J.J. Klemes, S.R. Wan Alwi, Z.A. Manan, Process modication of total
hard work and the constructive comments that resulted in such site heat integration prole for capital cost reduction, Appl. Therm. Eng. 89
an excellent outcome. The reviewing is a key requirement for (2015) 1023e1032.
[32] J.Y. Yong, P.S. Varbanov, J.J. Klemes, Heat exchanger network retrot sup-
peer-reviews publications and work of reviewers should be most
ported by extended grid diagram and heat path development, Appl. Therm.
appreciated and also recorded by recently introduced r-index [44]. Eng. 89 (2015) 1033e1045.
[33] P.S. Varbanov, J.J. Klemes, Integration and management of renewables into to-
tal sites with variable supply and demand, Comput. Chem. Eng. 35 (2011)
1815e1826.
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P. Seferlis et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 89 (2015) 1001e1005 1005

Petar Sabev Varbanov, Jir Jaromr Klemes* *


Corresponding author.
Centre for Process Integration and Intensication e CPI2, Research E-mail address: klemes@cpi.uni-pannon.hu (J.J. Klemes).
}
Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering e MUKKI, Faculty of
Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Veszpr em, Hungary 4 July 2015
Available online 12 August 2015