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Basic Outline of

Automobile

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Chapter 1
DESCRIPTION OF AUTOMOBILE
On this chapter, the following will be discussed:
Modes of transportation
Features and function of automobile
Parts of automobile
Development of early automobile
Modern automobiles

Modes of transportation

There are various modes of transportation to carry people and cargo from one
place to another. They are as follows:

A. Air transport
An air based mode of transportation
Can travel at high speed
Generally used to carry people and
cargo for long distance in short period of
time

B. Rail Transport
Land based transportation
Used to carry people and hand heavy
cargoes by means of intercity or region
railway stations.

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C. Water Transport
Sea based transport
Cruises at low speed
Used to carry people and to haul heavy
cargos

D. Road transport
Land based transport
Can be driven at variable speed
Used to carry limited number of passengers
and light cargo load

What is Automobile?
The term auto means self and mobile means moving.
Automobile is common type of self-moving locomotive.
It is used to carry passengers and cargo.

A. Features and Functions of Automobile


1) Driven on roads using rubber tires
Provides cushion and absorbs shocks
Keeps the wheel in close contact with road
surface

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2) Consists of on-board energy source and
engine
A vehicle is driven by internal combustion
engine using different types of fuel as follows:
a. Gasoline
b. Diesel
c. LPGLiquefied Petroleum Gas
d. CNG-Compressed Natural Gas
e. Alternate electric motor

A vehicle also uses alternate electric motors


like hybrid engine.

3) Can carry people and cargo

Busses can carry group of people and light


cargo.

Trucks can carry people and heavy cargo.

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4) Can be driven by a person
Automobile can be driven by a single person.

B. Parts of Automobile

A. Engine B. Drive Train

C. Suspension D. Steering System

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E. Brake F. Tires and Disc Wheel

G. Engine Electrical H. Body Electrical

I. Body

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C. Development of Early Automobile

1886: Benz created the first gasoline


automobile with three wheels

1894: Benz created the first gasoline


automobile with four wheels

1909: Ford created model T, the first mass


produced car

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3. Modern Automobile
Various vehicle models are designed to satisfy the increasing demands for:
1. Driving performance
2. Comfort
3. Safety
4. Fuel Efficiency
TOYOTA NISSAN

MISTUBISHI HONDA

MAZDA SUZUKI

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Chapter 2:

CLASSIFICATION OF MODERN AUTOMOBILES


Automobile can be classified as follows:
1. Engine construction and combustion
2. Motive power (Source of energy)
3. Engine mounting position
4. Application
5. Body style and shape
6. Space
7. Body construction
8. Number of doors

1. Classification According to Engine Construction and Combustion

A. External Combustion Engine


Engine wherein the combustion occurs outside the cylinder

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B. Internal Combustion Engine:
Reciprocating Engine
Engine that produces power by igniting or
burning the fuel inside the cylinders

C. Internal Combustion Engine


Rotary Engine
Has oval like shaped housing and triangular
rotor
Converts the pressure generated inside the
housing into a rotary motion of the rotor

2. Classification According to Motive Power (Source of energy)

A. Gasoline Engine
Gasoline Engine

This is an internal combustion engine using


gasoline fuel
Small in size, lightweight but with high power
output
Fuel Tank
Has less vibration and engine noise (Gasoline fuel)

Commonly used for passenger cars and


Sporty Unity Vehicle (SUV)

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B. Diesel Engine
An internal combustion engine using diesel
fuel
Is fuel cost efficient and cheap
Has move vibration and loud engine noise
Has lower acceleration compared to
gasoline engine
Commonly used in most of trucks, Light
Commercial Vehicle (LCV), and Sport Utility
Vehicle (SUV)

C. Alternative Fuels
A vehicle driven by the power generated by
internal combustion engine. It uses the
following alternative types of fuels;
a. CNG - Compressed Natural Gas
b. LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas

D. Electric Vehicle
A vehicle driven by electric motors powered
by series of automotive batteries
Requires external recharging of batteries
Does not emit pollutants
Very quiet operation

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E. Hybrid Vehicle
Vehicle driven by both gasoline engine and
electric motor
Does not require an external source for
recharging the battery
The gasoline engine generates electricity
and recharges the battery
Reduces exhaust emission
Improves fuel economy

F. Fuel Cell Vehicle


Uses hydrogen fuel to create electricity
The ultimate form of low pollution vehicle

3. Classification According to Engine Mounting Position

A. Front engine, Front wheel drive (FF)


The engine is mounted on front of the
vehicle
The power train drives the front wheels.
It has a compact and lightweight power
train.
This is commonly used for small passenger
car.

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B. Front engine, Rear wheel Drive (FR)
The engine is mounted in front of the vehicle
The rear wheels are the drive wheels
Commonly used by big passenger cars and
trucks

C. Rear engine, Rear wheel drive (RR)


The engine and power train are installed on
the rear part of the vehicle
The rear wheels are the drive wheels
This is commonly used for sports car

D. Mid-ship engine, Rear wheel drive (MR)


MR vehicle have a good weight balance on
the front and rear axles.
This results to better controllability

E. Four Wheel Drive (4WD)


The power is transferred to all the wheel
making front and rear wheels the drive
wheels.
This type of vehicle is ideal for all road
conditions (poor road, snowy road)
Heavier than other types of vehicles

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4. Classification of vehicle according to application

A. Passenger vehicle
Designed to transport small number of
passengers and carry light luggage.

B. Commercial vehicle
Designed for commercial purpose of
carrying cargo and transporting group of
passengers.

C. Bus
Designed to transport large group of
passengers and their luggage.

D. Truck
Designed to carry heavy and large cargo.

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E. Special purpose vehicle
Designed for its special purpose and
particular applications

5. Classification of Vehicle According to Body Style and Shape

A. Sedan
Type of passenger car with an emphasis on
passenger and drivers comfort
With row of seats in front and at the back

B. Coupe
Sporty look with 2 seats, one for the driver
and for the passenger
Emphasizes styling and performance

C. Hatchback or Lift back


Similar to the coupe in which the luggage
areas and occupant are integrated
Rear door and rear window opens together

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D. Hardtop
Sedan without window frames and center
pillars
The back and front windows open up as for
wide or good views.

E. Convertible
Passenger sedan or coupe that can be
driven with its roof on up or down condition

F. Pickup
This is a compact truck with an engine
compartment that extends forward of the
drivers seat

G. Wagon and Van


This type has integrated occupant and
luggage space
Carries many occupants or pieces of
luggage
Vans mainly carry luggage
Wagons mainly carry occupants

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H. Limousine
Long passenger vehicle with a partition
between the driver and passenger cabins
Provide privacy on the occupants of the rear
seats

6. Classification of Vehicle According to Space

A. 3 box type
Separate engine/cabin/luggage room design
Has a separate partition space for engine,
occupants and luggage.
a. Engine Space a b c
b. Passengers Space
c. Luggage Space

B. 2 box type
Integrated cabin/luggage room design
Has separate space for engine
Has an integrated space for occupants and lug-
gage
Generally applies to compact vehicles a b c
a. Engine Space
b. Passengers Space
c. Luggage Space

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C. 1 box type
Integrated cabin/luggage room design with
under-floor engine
This type integrates the space used by the
engine, occupants, and luggage.
It is well-suited for transporting many b c
occupants and pieces of luggage. a
Allows efficient use of space
a. Engine Space
b. Passengers Space
c. Luggage Space

7. Classification of Vehicles According to Body Construction

A. Frame body
This type of construction consists of a separate body and frame.
Engine, transmission and suspension are mounted in the frame.

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B. Monocoque Body
This type of construction consists of body and frame that are integrated into a
single unit.
The entire body maintains strength as a single box.

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8. Classification of Vehicles According to Number of Doors

A. 2 door
This is a vehicle with driver and passenger
doors.

B. 4 door
This is a vehicle with driver, front and rear
passenger doors.

C. 5 door
This is a vehicle with doors for driver, front
and rear doors for passengers and rear
doors.

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Chapter 3

BASIC FUNTIONS OF AUTOMOBILE


A driver shall be able to control the vehicle as to required driving situation. The
following are the basic function of automobile
Accelerating or Running
Braking or Stopping
Converting or Turning

1. Accelerating of Vehicle

The power of the engine allows the vehicle


to accelerate and run.
The drive train transmits the power from the
engine to the driving wheels.
The drive train system consists of clutch,
transmission, propeller shaft differential,
axle shaft or drive shaft.

clutch disc and Differential Axle Housing


pressure plate

Propeller shaft

Transmission

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2. Braking of the vehicle

Brake system enables the vehicle to stop


and slow down.
Braking force takes place when the driver
applies pressure by stepping on brake
pedal
Continuous application of the brakes will
enable the vehicle to stop
The following are the methods of braking
1) Foot brakes
2) Parking brakes

A. Foot brakes
Foot brakes used to control the speed and
stop the vehicle
Disc brakes are commonly used in the front
wheels
Drum brakes are commonly used in the rear
wheels

B. Parking Brakes
Parking brakes or handbrakes are used to
secure the car when parked
Mechanical brake system locks the rear
wheels

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3. Cornering of the vehicle

Cornering of the vehicle is done by steering system and suspension system


The tire is mounted on the axle by means of disc wheel
The axle is mounted to the body through the suspension system
Suspension system is supported by springs and other parts. It absorbs the bouncing
effect due to the unevenness of the road surface

A. Steering system
Enables the vehicle to corner
The steering wheel movement is transmitted
to the tires to change the direction of the
vehicle.

B. Suspension system
Undercarriage mechanism that supports the
body
Provide a comfortable ride

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Chapter 4

AUTOMOBILE SAFETY

1. What are the causes of traffic accident?

Even with modern vehicles, accidents still occur frequently because of:
1. Drivers with low sets of driving skill
2. Driving overconfidently
3. Driving unreasonably
90% of death caused by traffic accident takes place inside the car.
This is due to the injuries on head, chest, and stomach and upper half of the body

2. The aspects for making a safety vehicle


A. In modern vehicles, the following are highly
recognized:
Safety driving
Prevention from accident
Escaping from accident
Protection of passengers

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B. In manufacturing a vehicle, there are two fundamental of safety devices. They are:
1. The protection of the passenger before collision happen (ACTIVE SAFETY)
2. The protection of passenger during collision (PASSIVE SAFETY)

3. Active Safety

When driving a car the driver repeats a cycle as follows:


1. Recognition
2. Judgment
3. Operation
Active safety supports this method in order to prevent occurrence of accidents.
Note:
It is especially important to lower the risk of
failing to recognize potential dangers. This is
cause of 70% of accidents.
Manufacturers are utilizing the most
advanced technology to improve the three
basic functions of a car, drive, turn and stop.

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4. Passive safety

Passive Safety is the safety devices that protect the passenger in case of collision.
To secure the safety of the passengers, the space inside the passenger cabin is
given utmost importance.
The following are essentials of passive safety:
1. Easy access to rescue the passenger.
2. Extinguishment of fire.
3. Safety measures after collision
5. Active Safety Devices

A making sure that you are visible to the cars


following you.
For this reason, the following devices are
being used.
1. High mounted stop lamp
2. Installing rear lamp in big and various
sizes.

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B. Guaranteeing Driving Visibility
This is needed to secure good visibility for
driver
Devices for better visibility:
a. Low beam headlamps:
b. The turning lamp and cornering lamp
c. Fog lamp
d. Widening of front wiper area
e. Installation of rear wiper
f. Side mirror with heater
g. Rear window defogger
h. The clearance sonar

C. Securing easy access to controls


Better human engineering or ergonomics
1) Having control of the steering wheel
height and distance
2) Meter, switches, and pedals are
accessible

D. Comfortable (less fatigue) driving space


Usage of devices, which lessens the fatigue
and stress of the driver
1) Automatic air-conditioner
2) A comfortable seat

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E. Improvements to enhance basic driving
ability and emergency driving ability
1) Accelerating
a) Four Wheel Drive (4WD)
b) Traction Control (TRC)

2) Cornering
For smooth cornering, the following systems are
introduced:
a) Automatic controlled suspension (TEMS)
b) Electric Air Suspension
c) Four Wheel steering system

3) Braking
a) The 4Wheel ABS
(Anti-lock braking system)
prevents the tires from locking up to prevent
skidding of tires
provides better steering control on following
conditions:
a) During panic braking
b) When braking on slippery road surface

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6. Passive Safety Devices

A. Provide safety space for the passenger


1) Body Collapsible construction
It consists of the worlds top-level energy absorbing body and high strength
cabin.

2) Slide door beam


A high strength steel pipe is install in the
vertical midsection of the door

B. Protection of passengers
1) Systems on seat belts
a)ELR (Emergency Locking Retractor
seatbelt) Are designed to lock and hold the
bely only when it sense that the vehicle is
stopping rapidly, as in a head-on collision. 3 point type ELR seatbelt

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b) Adjustable shoulder belt anchor

This makes the seatbelt fits the way it was


designed and comfortable for the
passenger.

c) Pretensioner:

The pretensioner is a device that retracts the


seat belt instantaneously at the beginning of
a collision. It maintains the effect of the
restraint of the passenger.

d) Force Limiter:
is a device that extends the belt to reduce
the force applied to the chest when the belt
load reaches the specified value.

2) Systems on steering that absorbs impact

a) Collapsible steering: helps prevent the


steering main shaft from injuring the driver in
two ways:
1. By the breaking at the time of the collision
2. By reducing the secondary shock imposed
upon the drivers body when it hits the
steering wheel due to inertia.

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3) SRS (Supplemental Restraint System) Airbag:

Designed to provide better protection to occupants


Work together with the seat belts to prevent or reduce injury by inflating

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Chapter 5

BODY
1. Name of Body parts
A. Exterior fittings

The following are the description of the number indicators:

1. Bumper 12. Outside rear view mirror


2. Radiator grille 13. Door panel
3. Engine hood 14. Front fender panel
4. Windshield glass 15. Protection moulding
5. Front pillar 16. Mud guard
6. Sliding roof glass 17. Back window glass
7. Roof panel 18. Rear spoiler
8. Door frame 19. Trunk panel
9. Center pillar 20. Fuel lid
10. Door window glass 21. Rear fender panel
11. Out side door handle 22. Quarter panel

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B. Interior Structural Parts

The following are the description of the number indicators:

1. Vent 9. Seat belt


2. Center console 10. Headrest
3. Instrument panel 11. Seatback
4. Inner rear view mirror 12. Reclining adjustment lever
5. Sunvisor 13. Seat (cushion)
6. Door trim 14. Seat slider lever
7. Assist grip 15. Scuff plate
8. Center armrest 16. Glove box

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C. Door Trim

The following are the description of number indicators:


1. Inside door handle
2. Door armrest
3. Door lock button
4. Door window regulator handle
5. Door pocket
6. Weatherstrip

D. Seats

Supports the occupants


The seats absorb road shocks
Parts of the seat
1. Head rest
2. Seat back
3. Lumbar support
4. Seat Cushion

E. Seat adjustment junctions

1. Sliding adjuster
2. Reclining adjuster
3. Vertical adjuster
4. Lumbar support adjuster
5. Side support adjuster
6. Headrest adjuster

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2. Door Lock Mechanisms

A. Door locks
Door lock prevents the doors to open easily form vibration or impact.
Prevents the door locks from becoming unlocked by outside or inside handle.

a. Door open
b. Door ajar
c. Door closed

B. Wireless door unlock remote control system functions:

1) Locking and unlocking wirelessly


2) Answer-back function:
the turn signal lights flash when the doors are locked once or unlocked twice.

1. Wireless tuner
2. Door lock assembly
3. Transmitter

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C. Door closer system

a. When the ECU (Electronic Control Unit) detects that a door is ajar, it automatically
fully close the door.
b. This is also available to fully close the luggage compartment.

A. Unlock/Lock the door 1. Lever


B. Cancel steering lock and start engine 2. Expose the mechanical key
C. Open luggage compartment door 3. Door lock switch
4. Engine start switch
5. Luggage door push switch

Hint:
The mechanical key inside of the smart key can be used to open doors and start the
engine as usual.

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3. Paint

Paint is a type of film that is applied to the body surface of the car
It enhances the appearance of the body
It protects the vehicle body from rust, sunlight, dust and rain.

1. Sheet metal
2. Primer coat

Protects the body from rust.


3. Intermediate coat:

Makes the substrate and the


primer coat smooth.
4. Top coat:

This is the final coat that gives


the paint its gloss and
attractiveness.

REFERENCE:
Type of top coats

A. Solid color
B. Metallic color
C. Pearl mica color:
1. Light reflecting

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