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Adedotun Agbemuko, Mario Ndreko Marjan Popov, Jose L. Rueda,

Intelligent Electrical Power grids Mart A.M.M. van der Meijden

Faculty of EEMCS Intelligent Electrical Power grids

Delft University of Technology Faculty of EEMCS

Delft, the Netherlands. Delft University of Technology

Delft, the Netherlands.

AbstractThis paper proposes a new knowledge-based control compensation may be required. In such situations, the priority

philosophy for the direct voltage and power control of a multi- is keeping the voltages at all terminals of the MTDC grid

terminal voltage source converter based offshore HVDC grid. strictly within acceptable boundaries established by grid codes

The limitations of the classical direct voltage droop control

strategy are discussed and mainly the difficulty to reach power for which droop is capable [7], [8]. Notwithstanding, droop

reference set-points is stressed. In that context, a knowledge based control strategy while being very exceptional, it has inherent

intelligent controller (namely Fuzzy) is proposed. It is capable drawbacks associated with its implementation. It is known that

of addressing these weaknesses by combining the advantages of droop is a combination of constant voltage and constant power

the droop controller such as robustness and exceptional ability to control [1]. One of the most reported drawback is the voltage

compensate for imbalance during contingencies, and the constant

active power controller which has the ability to easily reach and the power deviations when set points are ordered [1], [5],

power set points. In this context, the power dispatch of the [9].

HVDC grid converters is achieved without the need to solve This problem is not new and several proposals have been

before-hand HVDC grid load flow equations where the droop made in literature [1], [9], [10]. Most proposals have been

constant is included in the algorithm. The advantages of the new analytical in nature, often by means of solving the power flow

Fuzzy controller is the reduced computational effort, the high

degree of flexibility, and the zero percentage error. The efficacy algorithms, whilst including the influence of the droop constant

and robustness of the control strategy is demonstrated by means in these equations. However, these methods that includes the

of time domain simulations for a three terminal voltage source influence of droop constant require computational resource,

converter based offshore HVDC grid system used for the grid they are tedious, and may require a high level of power

connection of large offshore wind power plants. systems expertise. There is also uncertainty with the flexibility

and influence of topology on analytical methods to solve the

Index TermsMTDC grids, voltage control, power control,

gain scheduling, supervisory control, fuzzy control problem.

Alternatively, constant voltage and power whilst very sim-

I. I NTRODUCTION ple, always reach set points without need for pre-calculations

of the MTDC grid load flow. However, such control assumes

Ever since the advancement in power electronic controls that the system always operate under normal conditions [1] at

coupled with the development of Voltage source converters all times. In contingency cases, they cannot compensate for

(VSCs), there have been a vested interest in the concept of power imbalances and will make the MTDC grid unstable.

multi-terminal direct current (MTDC) grids for integration This paper proposes a non-analytical solution to the prob-

of large scale renewable energy sources (RES), bulk power lem of power and voltage deviation in an MTDC grid. The

transfer, and improvement of system security. More important proposed methodology is non-analytical in the sense that,

is the flexibility and controllability of VSCs which could while still employing power flow calculation, it does not

allow for near seamless operation with high voltage alternating include the influence of droop constant in the power flow

current (HVAC) grids with flexibility in operation. There are algorithm. Power flow is only used to obtain direct voltage set

three (3) widely proposed control strategies, viz., constant points that provide the specified power dispatch in the HVDC

voltage, constant power, and droop strategies [1][6]. grid. Fuzzy controller then uses knowledge about the system

Droop control strategy is the most accepted method con- in the form of selected signals that describe the important

sidering its peculiarity with the droop control in high voltage dynamics to transition online from the droop mode to the

AC (HVAC) transmission systems. It is almost a ubiquitous constant power mode (since the set points will be always

term in MTDC literature. It is robust with an exceptional be reached) when new set points are ordered. After steady

response particularly in contingency situations where power state conditions are fulfilled, it transitions autonomously in a

c 2016 IEEE

978-1-5090-3358-4/16/$31.00
smooth manner to droop (as we would have it be in steady

state) and remains in this mode for as long as is required. The Knowledge Base

proposed methodology acts as a gain scheduling system that Inputs Fuzzification

Inference

Rule Aggregation Defuzzification

Outputs

schedules droop gains based on defined conditions such as set

point changes and fault. Fuzzy theory is applied here for its

ability to incorporate highly nonlinear control and combine Fig. 1. Static Map of a Typical Fuzzy Controller

several strategies that is otherwise not possible with a single

analytic equation. Hence, droop constants are highly adaptable

grids where topology or market conditions can change at any

and flexible, without any influence by topology or market

moment.

constraints, or size of grid. The proposed solution can be

Fuzzy control is typically applied to feedback control as is

installed as a plug n play box on all droop active terminals.

the case in this paper. The general structure of a knowledge-

This paper is organized as follows, section II gives an

based fuzzy controller is depicted in Fig. 1 and a similar

overview of the state of art of control in MTDC grid, section

structure was applied in this paper.

III give a brief introduction of fuzzy control, section IV

describes the proposed strategy, section V simulation studies,

and finally the conclusions in section VI. DPdc _ droop Active current

component of

idmax the VSC-HVDC

II. C URRENT S TATE OF THE A RT *&) + R - ki _ P

kp_P +

Current proposals are now heading towards the direction - + s

idmin

idref

of hierarchical control and coordination from a system level '&) +

*&) ,$ (

perspective. In [11], the authors proposed general control -

strategies for multi-terminal HVDC VSC connected systems '&) ,$ (

and [6], [12], gave a detailed overview of most relevant control

strategies. A priority-based control system was implemented

2

in [13] which reiterates the influence of the topology, size, and ( + !2)

Fuzzy Supervisor "#$%&

market structure in the implemented control. A drawback of (&'$ ( )2

this priority scheme is the lack of flexibility; for instance, in

the event priority changes from the one converter to another, Fig. 2. Adaptive Fuzzy based droop controller

or in the event where network topology changes.

Similar to the previous, [14] proposed a configuration-

based approach to control of voltage in a 3 terminal DC IV. P ROPOSED C ONTROL S TRATEGY

grid. This is to show the influence of different configurations

A. Strategy and Network

to robustness of control approaches.

Authors in [7] described the problem of distributed slack The objective of this control strategy is to autonomously

bus system where several converters which are installed with combine the capabilities of two well known strategies droop

constant voltage controller may try to act on changes in their and constant power. The classical PI regulator is not changed,

own bus voltages leading to chaotic oscillation of voltage and only the droop gain is accordingly defined by the Fuzzy control

power. The solution proposed by the authors was still to use loop on-line.

a distributed approach but with droop rather than constant The proposed strategy employs a fuzzy controller to transi-

voltage at all distributed terminals [15]. tion from droop control to constant power when new set points

are received to enable system track set points accurately. After

III. M ODEL -BASED F UZZY S UPERVISORY C ONTROL steady state conditions are fulfilled, fuzzy initiates a smooth

L. Zadeh in 1965 put forward the theory behind fuzzy logic transition back to droop. A block diagram of the proposed

and control as we know it today [16]. Fuzzy control is one of control strategy is depicted in Fig. 2. As it can be seen, the

the many computational intelligence methods applied to expert droop gain is scheduled by the output of the fuzzy controller.

control systems. It is also classified under a set of knowledge- The strategy is tested on a three terminal offshore HVDC

based control methods that utilize human knowledge about grid as shown in Fig. 3 presented in [18]. The model consists

a system in order to make control decisions. Fuzzy exploits of two grid side VSC stations (VSCs 2 & 3) connected to AC

the fact that in the real world, physical parameters seldom grids and one VSC station (VSC 1) connected to wind power

possess a definite classification. Fuzzy control is no longer plants. VSC 3 is a slack terminal in constant voltage priority,

a theoretical concept as have been applied to thousands of and VSC 2 in droop. The offshore converter station injects

industrial processes with seemly successful results [17]. It constantly the delivered power by the wind turbines to the

is now a very popular choice for non-linear control, on-line HVDC grid. Fuzzy-based strategy was implemented on VSC

supervisory controller, and adaptive gain scheduler especially 2 in this study. In principle, it can be installed on all droop-

to power system problems. Fuzzy is usually lauded for its active terminals in any grid size. In addition, the proposed

high flexibility and its ability to cope with any level of non- strategy relies only on local measurements such as, terminal

linearity, unanticipated changes, as is the case in HV-MTDC voltage, power signals, and adjacent grid voltage.

Offshore Power Plant

1 1

Membership degree

Membership degree

ZERO

FAULT

PBIG

0.5 OK

1000 MW AC_A 0.5

Df ac 781 MW

Equivalent system

320kV

dc 1 Cdc

ac

AC_B 3

Equivalent system Cdc dc

Meq, (3) Meq = 8 0

327.32kV

U dc slack 0

D=3 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02

200 MW 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

2 U (1) Input

dc 325.48kV dc Input

ac

1

Membership degree

Cdc HVDC cable

U dc(2)

L12=L13=300km ZERO

PBIG 20

DroopGain

0.5

10

Fig. 3. Network Model

0

0

0.1

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5

B. Implementation of Strategy 0.05

Input 0 1

Error GridV

First, a simple power flow is run to determine the set

points that give a specified power flow in the DC grid. Then Fig. 4. Plot of MFs and 3-D Surface Plot

the DC grid is initialized also from power flow. At defined

times, both Udc,ref and Pdc,ref are received simultaneously

by the droop controller. The fuzzy controller then extracts all

the information required to decide whether to transition from The first input is the main signal that combines the error

droop to constant active power, or remain in droop. If condition from both the voltage control block and power control block

satisfies that required for transition to constant power, fuzzy since both errors are sufficient to represent the whole system.

facilitates this. By principle, system change from one set Each of Pe and Ve could be used as separate inputs but

point to another is not instantaneous, and the calculated error combining both dramatically simplifies the strategy. AC grid

reflects this. Hence as error gradually reduces, fuzzy controller voltage is used to detect when there is fault in the connected

(simultaneously as error is reducing) smoothly transitions the AC grid, and derivative of reference power ensures that the

system from constant active power towards droop and when fuzzy controller only transitions to constant power for a

the error is definitely within bounds of steady state condition, reference change. Without this signal to discriminate, the fuzzy

fuzzy completes transition to droop and remains in droop controller will facilitate a transition to constant power for every

except new set points are received. non-zero error detected.

The following procedures were followed to implement the This is important because any change at all in the DC grid,

proposed strategy as is generally used for fuzzy controller including contingency events, will cause a non-zero error at all

implementation. terminals. However, if and only if there is a non-zero error at

1) Experimentation by Simulation: The first step is exper- the measuring terminal and the rate of change of reference is

imentation with model to determine the universe of discourse non-zero, will the fuzzy controller facilitate transition to con-

of input variables. Experimentation also allows for observing stant power, otherwise, system remains in droop. The square

the behaviour of the test system from the time where new set of variables eliminates inherent oscillations, nonlinearity, and

points are ordered, to when set points are reached, and steady dramatically reduces the complexity of implementation

state conditions are fulfilled. reduces number of rules, reduces number of MFs.

2) Inputs and Output: As previously mentioned in section

III the output is the variable to be manipulated. In this case, 3) Membership Functions and Linguistic Terms: MFs were

the droop constant R is the output to be manipulated between selected for each variable. For (Pe2 + Ve2 ) and dPref 2

, the

0-20 (5% droop) as singletons. Determining the input is not sigmoidal MF with two linguistic terms, ZERO and PBIG

very straight forward as initially thought, but a knowledge of were chosen. PBIG implies positive big, and is just a term

the system and the desired control objectives can support in which is highly subjective. Sigmoidal MF was particularly

determining inputs. chosen to imitate a smooth transition from constant power to

These are the inputs for the proposed strategy: droop. Trapezoidal MFs are also suitable but they lead to sharp

edges at transition points which is not acceptable, but there

are ways around this such as normalization. Trapezoidal MF

2 2

(Pe + Ve )

Inputs = Egrid was sufficient for AC grid voltage with two linguistic terms,

2 Faulty and OK (for simplicity). The output is singleton with

dPref gain of 0 or 20 (VLOW or HIGH respectively) at extremes,

Where Pe = Pdc,ref Pdc , Ve = Vdc,ref Vdc , Egrid is but between the transitions, gain vary smoothly as dictated by

the AC grid voltage, and dPref is the rate of change of power the sigmoidal MF of the error signal. The MFs are depicted

reference set point. in the Fig. 4

4) Knowledge-Base and Inference Engine: This is the main -100

part of the implementation. The rules encode the required -200

Proposed Strategy

Droop Only

control actions from the perspective of an operator. The rules Desired Set Point

Power (MW)

-300

usually take the form of, IF...THEN. For this implementation,

the rules have been reduced from 27 possible rules that -400

The rules are highlighted below:

-700

IF Error is ZERO AND GridV is OK THEN DroopGain 0 2 4 6 8 10

time (s)

is HIGH

IF Error is PBIG AND GridV is OK AND dPref is ZERO 326

THEN DroopGain is HIGH Proposed Strategy

IF Error is PBIG AND GridV is OK AND dPref is PBIG 324 Droop Only

Desired Set Point

Voltage (kV)

THEN DroopGain is VLOW 322

IF GridV is Faulty THEN DroopGain is HIGH

320

To keep simplicity, the Mamdani inference was used and

the centre of gravity (COG) method used for defuzzification. 318

316

the case when the objective is to switch from one mode to 0 2 4 6 8 10

V. S IMULATION R ESULTS 20

Droop Gain

To demonstrate the robustness and efficacy of the proposed

15

control strategy to the described control objectives, several

Droop Gain

changing set points over a time line, offshore wind side

HVDC station outage, and loss of an onshore HVDC converter. 5

In all scenarios it was assumed that wind power of 1000

MW injected to the HVDC grid. The objective does not 0

0 2 4 6 8 10

include the WF (wind farm) VSC as they usually have a time (s)

more complicated control strategy which was not modelled.

Studies were performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK (R2015b) Fig. 5. System Response to a Set point change at Terminal VSC 2

environment.

A. Set Point Change

system back in droop mode. Observe that there is no deviation

To further illustrate the capabilities of the control strategy, at all from ordered set points in steady state.

a set point change scenario was simulated. The proposed

strategy in Fig. 2 was implemented in VSC 2, while VSC B. Constantly Changing Set Points

3 was kept in voltage control priority. Network was initialized To further prove the robustness of the proposed strategy to

as shown in Fig. 3 from a simple power flow calculation. constantly changing set points every 10s over a 50s range,

Now, at 1s new set points were sent to VSC 2 to increase simulation was carried out with set points changing from first

the power from 200 MW (inversion) to 600 MW (inversion). from initial of 200 MW to 400 MW in steps of 100 MW, then

A time constant block was used in the power reference to the reverse is done, and in the final step, set point changed

prevent oscillations and interactions. This in no way affects the from 200 MW (inversion) to 200 MW (rectification). The plot

operation of the proposed strategy. Fig. 5 for VSC 2 shows the shown in Fig. 6 shows how efficient the proposed strategy

comparison between the droop only method and the proposed is in both direction inversion and rectification, without any

strategy and the droop gain adapted by the strategy. As can deviation from ordered set points in steady state. Observe how

be observed, at the moment new set points were ordered, the droop gain is adapted on-line each time new set points are

a definitely large error was detected by the fuzzy controller received.

accompanied with a large rate of change in power reference.

This signified that a change in set points have been ordered. C. Wind Outage

Fuzzy facilitated a change to constant active power (R = 0) and As already described in the course of this paper, the

remained in constant power until both the power and voltage objective is to have droop in steady state in order to ensure

error start to reduce (4.3s) (subplot 3 for droop gains) at which balance is maintained during contingencies to keep voltages

fuzzy controller very smoothly initiated transition to droop. within acceptable limits. In such cases, priority is given to

At about 5s conditions for steady state had been fulfilled and voltage control. So long as new set points are not received, it

400 600 21

VSC 2 (Proposed)

Droop Gain

Proposed Strategy 400 VSC 2 (Droop only)

200 Droop Only 20.5

Power (MW)

Droop Gain

Desired Set Point 200

Power (MW)

0 20

0

-200 19.5

-200

-400 -400 19

0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 10

-600 time (s)

time (s)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

time (s) 1.02 1

VSC 2 (Proposed) VSC 3

VSC 2 (Droop only)

1.01 0.98

335

Voltage (pu)

Voltage (pu)

Proposed Strategy

1 0.96

Droop Only

330 Desired Set Point

Voltage (kV)

0.99 0.94

0.98 0.92

325 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8

time (s) time (s)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

time (s)

20 0

VSC 2

-200

VSC 3

Power (MW)

15

-400

Droop Gain

10 -600

-800

5

-1000

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0 time (s)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

time (s) 21

Droop Gain

20.5

Droop Gain

20

19.5

is expected that the system maintain droop mode. As depicted

in Fig. 7, complete loss of wind power was simulated at 1s. 19

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The figure (subplot 2) shows the robustness of the strategy time (s)

in keeping the maximum droop gain (20) as it is required 1.06

to be, thus ensuring that voltages at both VSC 2 and VSC VSC 2

1.04 VSC 3

Voltage (pu)

strategy and the conventional droop have exactly matching 1.02

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

In a similar manner as for the loss of wind, loss of time (s)

Fig. 8. Complete outage of VSC 2

droop properties so long as there is no set point change. This

is very important in ensuring voltages are maintained strictly

within limits (0.9-1.1) as is depicted from the plots. At 3s,

sudden outage of VSC 2 was simulated. grid power. However, priority is given to voltage control during

contingencies. Subplot 3 shows clearly the voltage barely rose

E. Fault initiated at VSC 2 grid side from the pre-disturbance value for a fault as severe as a bolted

To ensure the proposed strategy is robust for the most fault. Subplot 4 shows the droop gain which remained stable at

contingency scenarios, a fault was simulated by initiating the maximum gain as required to be. As part of the rules base

a 100% dip in voltage for 200ms (1-1.2s) at adjacent grid in Section IV, Rule 4 gave complete priority to droop mode if

connected to VSC 2. This represents complete loss of a power conditions for a fault are detected no matter the previous mode

sink and thus excess power in the DC grid. This leads to the system was pre-fault. This demonstrates the robustness of

voltage rise during the fault. Fig. 9 (subplot 2) shows the AC the strategy.

1000 [6] T. K. Vrana, J. Beerten, R. Belmans, and O. B. Fosso, A classification

1500 I cab1 VSC 2

VSC 3

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I cab2 800

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