_____J
Publishef by
ISBN 9559347004
FOREWORD
A.C. Visvalingam
MA, PhD, DIC, MICE, MIStructE, MIE(SL), CEng
PRESIDENT, Society of Structural Engineers  Sri Lanka
2 March 1995
GRADED EXAMPLES IN REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN
CONTENTS
Introduction 1
Educational purists may argue that Worked Examples are detrimental to student learning
because there is an element of "spoonfeeding" involved. While acknowledging that there is
some tnith in this argument, the author would like to contend that Worked Examples do have
a place in the educational process.
Knowledge can be acquired using two broad approaches  i.e. the deductive approach, having
its roots in Greek rationality, and the inductive approach, having its roots in Renaissance
empiricism. Learning through worked examples is an inductive approach, and both the
format and content of this book reflect that approach.
The book has been developed through the author's teaching of a course in Reinforced
Concrete Design at the University of Moratuwa. The examples are graded, leading from an
appreciation of reinforced concrete behaviour, through the design of structural elements, to
the analysis of a reinforced concrete structure. The student's understanding of the calculations
is deepened by the "Notes on Calculations" while the Introductory and Concluding Notes set
each example in a wider context. Hence, in this book, design principles are reinforced
through practice, with guidance from notes.
However, this book cannot and should not be used as a "stand alone" text. It must essentially
be complementary to another text or series of lectures that teaches design from a deductive
approach  i.e. one which moves students from principles to practice. It can, of course, be
used by practising engineers, who already have a grasp of reinforced concrete fundamentals.
In order to equip students for real design practice, the book is very much code based, with
extensive references given in the calculations to clauses in BS 8110 (1985)  "Structural use
of concrete". This is another reason for the book's usefulness for Practising engineers. The
examples cover most of the reinforced concrete elements and stress states dealt with by Part
1 of BS 8110. In addition, examples are also given for the de&gn for torsion and the
calculation of deflection and cracking, dealt with in Part 2 of BS 8110.
Sections of code are referred to by indicating the relevant clause, table or equation of BS
8110: Part 1. Where clauses, tables, charts or equations from Parts 2 and 3 of BS 8110 are
referenced, the relevant Part is also indicated. One very useful feature of BS 8110 is that
each table also gives the equation from which its values. are derived. This is a clear
advantage for computerised design, and even hand calculations. Therefore, although the
tables have in fact been referred to in the following calculations, very often it is the
corresponding equations that have been used.
Table 3.4 in Part 1 of BS 8110 (1985) specifies durability by oover and grade, but also
indicates cement contents and water/cement ratios corresponding to the grade specified. The
background to this table is given in the paper by Deacon and Dewar ("Concrete durability
1
.,
 specifying more simply and surely by strength. Concrete, February 1982, pp.1921), which
describes how U .K. concrete strengths vary for given cement contents and water/cement
ratios and shows how the grade specified covers the cement content and water/cement ratio
requirements 96% of the time.
It must be emphasised here that the index of durability used in BS 8110 is mix proportions.
However, it has related these mix proportions to strength, which is a much easier parameter
to measure and control. This is clearly evident in the provisions made in the code for
reducing the grade if a checking regime establishes that a lower grade of concrete complies
with the cement content and water/cement ratio limits (Clauses 3.3.5.2 and 3.3.5.3 of Part
1). Such a relaxation of grade is not allowed, however for concretes using blended cements.
Even a cursory glance at Table 3.4 in BS 8110: Part 1 will indicate that at least grade 40
concrete will have to be used for all but mild and moderate exposure conditions, although
the corresponding minimum cement content and maximum water/cement ratio are only
325kg/m3 and 0.55 respectively. This seems to be a very stringent condition to be imposed
on concreting practice in developing countries, where most concrete specified is still grade
20 to 25. In fact, even in the U.K., the most commonly used grades were grades 20 to 30,
even up to the early 1980s.
The question arises as to whether Table 3.4 in BS 8110: Part 1, developed for the U.K. is
applicable in other (especially developing) countries, where materials and practices may be
very different. This problem was studied by the author using Sri Lanka as a case in point.
The strengths that could be achieved for various cement content and water/cement ratio
values were obtained on the basis of a batching plant survey.
Specifications based on the above survey are given in TABLE 1. This table is taken from the
author's publication "Specifying for Concrete Durability: Part II  The Sri Lankan Context,
Engineer, Vol. XX, Nos 14, 1992, pp. 414". The Notes in TABLE 1 indicate the scope
of the specifications, and also conditions under which deviations from the tabulated values
can be allowed. In particular, Notes 5 and 6 allow reductions in grade and cover values that
bring these recommendations in line with current Sri Lankan practice. In short, these
recommendations rationalise satisfactory Sri Lankan practice (especially under mild exposure
conditions) with respect to BS 8110, while suggesting improvements to Sri Lankan practice
where problem areas (such as concrete exposed to sea spray) are concerned.
Although the recommendations in TABLE 1 make it possible to use grade 20 concrete for
mild exposure conditions, it was felt that basing the examples on such a low grade would
have deviated too much from the provisions of BS 8110, where grade 25 is specified as the
lowest grade to be used with normal weight aggregate concrete (Clause 3.1.7.2) and where
all tables and charts have grade 25 as the lowest grade. As such, it is grade 25 concrete that
is used for all the following examples, except in Examples 28 and 29, where the use of grade
30 concrete is illustrated.
2
TABLE 1  NOMINAL COVER TO ALL REINFORCEMENT (INCLUDING
LINKS) TO MEET DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS  ADAPTED FROM
BS 8110: 1985 FOR SRI LANKAN PRACTICE
Maximum free water/cement ratio " 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45
Minimum cement content {kg/m3) 275 300 325 350 400
(300) (325) (350) (400) (450)
Lowest grade of concrete 25 30 35 . 40 45
Note 3 Cover values marked with asterisks (*) can be reduced to 15 mm, provided
the nominal maximum aggregate size does not exceed 15 mm, subject to the
conditions in Notes 1 and 2.
Note 6 The above cover values can be reduced by 5 mm, subject to the conditions in
Notes l and 2 and a minimum of 15 mm, provided a 1:3 cement: sand
rendering of 10 mm, 15 mm or 20 mm is applied to concrete made to
waterIcemen t ratios of 0. 65, 0. 6 and 0. 55 respectively.
3
EXAMPLE 1  ANALYSIS OF UNDERREINFORCED SECTION
Determine the lever arm for the beam section shown in the figure; find also its moment of
resistance.
( 225 )
f cu = 25 N/mm2
f y = 460 N/mm2
320
0 oo
Introductory Notes
1. This example is regarding the analysis of an existing beam. The first step in finding
the moment of resistance is to find the lever arm.
Notes on Calculations
5
should be checked later on, of course, using the x/d value.)
3. The condition that tensile reinforcement has ~ielded when the concrete strain is
0.0035, is x/d < = 0.64 (for fy= 460 N/mm) and x/d < = 0.76 (for fy = 250
N/mm 2). This can be shown by assuming a linear strain distribution. However the
code recommends that x/d < = 0.50, in order to accommodate redistribution up to
10% (Clause 3.4.4.4).
Concluding Notes
4. The lever arm is the distance between the centroids of the tensile and compressive
forces. This separation between two opposite forces is what creates the moment of
resistance in a flexural element.
5. Because this distance has to be accomodated within the depth of the section, flexural
elements tend to have larger cross sections than compressive elements.
( 150 )
f cu = 25 N/mm2
f y = 460 N/mm 2
225 Id=300
0 0
Introductory Notes
6
Reference Calculations Output
Area of steel = 981. 7 mm2
Try x = 200 mm
C = (0.45)fcub(0.9)x = (0.45)(25)(150)(0.9)(200)
= 303750N
Note 3 E5 = (0.0035)(300200)/200 = 1. 75 x103
Hence, f5 = (1.75 xio3)(200 xl<>3) = 350 N/mm 2,
and T = (350)(981.7) = 343595 N
7
Notes on Calculations
2. In some rare cases, as in this one, a beam may be overreinforced, meaning that the
yielding of steel will not take place before the crushing of concrete. If such a beam
fails, it will do so suddenly, without warning, and hence overreinforced beams are
discouraged in practice.
3. Since the steel has not yielded, the stress can no longer be assumed to be 0.87fy.
Rather, the stress is the steel is obtained by
(i) determining the strain in the steel, assuming a linear strain distribution across
the section and
(ii) using the stressstrain curve in Figure 2.2 of the code to arrive at the stress.
"'8
8 0.87x460=400 N/mm 2
........
z
<Jl
I
<Jl
Q)
I
s.
...., I
d VJ I
I
200 I
kNAnm 2
2xl0'3
Strain
Strain diagram StressStrain diagram
4. It is possible to use this method because the stressstrain curve for steel below the
yield point is a single straight line.
Concluding Notes
5. One way of ensuring that the beam failure is ductile is to introduce some compression
steel, so that x/d will be reduced to 0.5 (See Example 3).
8
EXAMPLE 3  ANALYSIS OF DOUBLY REINFORCED SECTION
l
Determine the amount of compression steel required, in order to make x/d 0.5 in
Example 2. Find also the moment of resistance of the resulting beam.
~ 0150 .) ~
A' d' f cu = 25 N/mm 2
s d=300
f y = 460 N/mm 2
225
0 0
Introductory Notes
2. Increasing the breadth of the section will generally be uneconomical. Therefore, if the
depth of the section cannot be increased due to nonstructural reasons, option (iii)
above is used.
9
Reference Calculations Output
Table 3.27 Note: 100A5 ' I Ac = (100)(452.4) I (150)(350)
Note 5 = 0.86 (> 0.2), Hence O.K.
Notes on Calculations
3. The value of d' will depend on the cover, and other requirements (See Example 8).
4. If the compression steel provided is greater than that required, the neutral axis depth
will be reduced slightly; this is desirable, as it will increase the ductility of the
section. When providing four bars within a width of 150 mm, it may be necessary to
use the bars as two pairs of bars.
Concluding Notes
t
I
~
4l~m 2
 d'=50
>
 _
0
:~~i
1 ~<~>
j
r  1
141Z:m 2 1 T
d=300 ......_.........._
+ I I

232.5 I I 250
1982 mm 2
0 0
570mm 2
Jc I 412mm~ J:.
L~J
10
EXAMPLE 4  ANALYSIS OF NONRECTANGULAR SECTION
Determine the moment carrying capacity of the trapez.oidal beam section shown below.
300
f
h=450
I
d=400
fcu = 25 N/mm 22.
fy = 460 N/mm
l 1
156
(All dimensions in mm)
Introductory Notes
'I
The area of the section under compression =
(0.5)(0.9)x[600 {(300150)/450}(0.9)x]
Area of steel = 981.7 mm 2 ~300~
w
Assume also that the steel has yielded. \!0.9x
Try x = 100 mm 0
Area in compression, Ac ~
= (0.5)('90){600 (0.33)(0.9)(100))
= 25650 mm2
C = (0.45)fcuAc = (0.45)(25)(25650) = 288563 N
T = (0.87)(460)(981.7) = 392876 N
Try x = 139 mm
Then, C = 392868 N and T = 392876 N.
This approximation is satisfactory. x = 139 mm
Note also that x/d = 139/400 = 0.35 < 0.5; hence
assumption that steel has yielded is O.K.
11
Reference Calculations Output
The centroid of the compression zone from the top of
the section will be given by
y = {(150)(139)(139/2) + (0.5)(150)(139)(139/3)} I
{(150)(139) + (0.5)(150)(139)} = 61.8 mm
Note 2 Hence, lever arm = 400  61.8 = 338.2 mm z = 338 mm
Notes on Calculations
2. The lever arm cannot be calculated as d  (0.45)x in this case, because the
compression block is nonrectangular.
3. This calculation will become a little more complicated if the section is not under
reinforced (see Example 2).
Concluding Notes
4. This approach from first principles, using the idea of strain compatibility, will have
to be employed even in the desi&n of beams such as these, which are nonrectangular,
since the design formulae and charts apply only to rectangular sections. When
designing, the amount of steel has to be assumed, and the moment carrying capacity
checked to ensure that it is greater than the design moment.
5. It should be noted that the form of the formulae given in the code is such that,
although they can be used to design rectangular sections, they are not meant to find
the moment of resistance of a given section. This has to be done using strain
compatibility concepts from first principles, as illustrated in Examples 1 to 4, or by
suitably rearranging the form of the equations.
12
EXAMPLE S  DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR SECTION
Introductory Notes
~JG;JlTh
= (475)[0.5 + {0.25  (0.118)/(0.9)}051
3.4.4.l(e) = 401 mm < (0.95)(475) = 451 mm; hence O.K.
A8 = M / (0.87)frz
= (150 xlW) (0.87)(460)(401) = 935 mm 2
Hence, use'2T25 (A5 = 981.7 mm 2) As = 935 mm 2
Table 3.27 lOOA/Ac = (982)(100) I (525)(225) = 0.83 Use 21'25
Note 4 > 0.13; hence O.K. (981.7 mm 2)
13
Reference Calculations Output
(b) Overall depth restricted
Notes on Calculations
2. In practice, the ratio of depth to breadth for a beam will have a value between 1.5
and 2.5.
3. Many designers still choose dimensions for beams and columns in steps of 25 mm,
because 1 inch is approximately 25 mm. Furthermore, depths considerably in excess
of the minimum depth for a singly reinforced section may be chosen, in order to
reduce the steel requirement.
4. The check for minimum reinforcement is almost always satisfied for tension steel in
14
beams. A little care should be excercised, however, for compression steel.
5. The overall depth of the be.am may have to be restricted, due to architectural
requirements. On the other hand, there may be some economy in designing beams
with a marginal amount of compression steel, because longitudinal steel on the
compression face will be required anyway, in order to support the shear links.
6. This is keeping with the idea that the difference between overall and effective depths
is 50 mm.
7. When calculating the are of tension steel, it is sufficient to use the value of
compression steel required (as opposed to that provided), in this equation.
Concluding Notes
9. Design charts (in Part 3 of the code) could also have been used to design the steel
required for these sections. The relevant charts are Chart No. 2 for the singly
reinforced section and Chart No. 4 for the doubly reinforced section, since d' Id =
50/350 = 0.143.
10. The design charts are given for ,, d'/d values ranging from 0.10 to 0.20, in steps
of 0.05. The chart with d'/d value closest to the actual value should be used for
design. If the actual d'/d value lies exactly between the chart values, the chart with
the higher d'/d value should be used in the design, as this is more conservative.
If the beam section in part (a) of Example 5 (i.e. h = 525 mm, d = 475 mm and b = 225
mm) was carrying an ultimate moment of 150 kNm after a 30% downward redistribution
of moment, design the steel reinforcement required. Assume that d' = 50 mm, fcu = 25
N/mm 2 and fy = 460 N/mm 2. Use the methods of formulae and design charts.
Introductory Notes
1. If the moment at a section has been reduced by downward redistribution, that section
must have adequate rotational capacity at ultimate limit state, in oder for plastic hinge
action to take place. This capacity is ensured by restricting the x/d ratio to a specified
value.
15
Reference Calculations Output
(a) Using formulae
Chart 3
(Part 3)
<bl Using charts
21~
22.5
0 0
475
Hence, the values for lOOA/bd and 100A8 ' /bd must
be read off the point at which the horizontal line
Note 2 M/bd 2 = 2.95 cuts the x/d = 0.3 line.
Thus, lOOA/bd = 0.85 and lOOAs'/bd = 0.1 As = 908 mm 2
A8 = (0.85)(475)(225)/(100) = 908 mm2 ; Use 2T25 Use 2T25
A5 ' = (0.1)(475)(225)/(100) = 107 mm 2; Use 2T12 A'
s = 107 mm
2
16
Notes on Calculations
2. Any combination to the left of the line corresponding to the x/d = 0.3 line will give
a feasible combination of lOOAjbd and 100A8 ' /bd. If a point on the line itself is
chosen, the solution will generally be the most economical one, in terms of the total
amount of steel required.
3. The differences between the solutions by formulae and charts are very small indeed,
despite the fact that the design charts are based c:>n the parabolic stress block for
concrete stress, while the formulae are based on the simplified rectangular one. It is
the design charts that are used for everyday designs.
Concluding Notes
4. Although the applied moment for this section was the same as that in Example 5,
because of the restriction on the neutral axis depth for the purpose of ensuring plastic
hinge rotation, this section had to be doubly reinforced.
17
EXAMPLE 7 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF BEAM
Determine the design ultimate load moments for the beam shown in the figure, using also the
following information.
(i) Dead load from the parapet wall can be taken as a line load of 2.0 kN/m.
(ii) Allowance for finishes on the slab can be taken as 1.0 kN/m 2 .
(iii) Imposed load on slab should be taken as 4.0 kN/m 2
(iv) Density of reinforced concrete = 24 kN/m3
Introductory Notes
100
Beam Section
'"' Sectional Elevation
'i' ..
A~<lgj():i~~6CXX)~~
The critical moments for design will be
(i) Hogging moment at B
(ii) Sagging moment in span BC
~
Ma = (7.0)(1.4)(1.95) + (45.28)(2.0)2/2 Ma= 110 kNm
= 109.7 kNm (hogging)
19
Reference Calculations Output
Syging moment in BC:
~< ..~
MB = (7.0)(1.95) + (16.34)(2.0) 2/2 = 46.33 kNm
Taking moments about B for BC,
Rc(6.0) + 46.33 = (45.28)(6.0)212
Re= 128.1 kN
Mx = (128. l)x  (45.28)x 2/2
dMx/dx = 0 when (45.28)x = 128.1
x = 2.83 m
Mmax = (128.1)(2.83)  (45.28)(2.83f/2 MBc=l81 kNm
= 181.2 kNm (sagging)
Notes on Calculations
2. Idealiz.ation is the first step in analysis. Since it is not possible to model the actual
structure with complete accuracy, idealiz.ation should be performed such that the
results obtained are conservative. For example, although point C has a certain degree
of restraint, it is impossible to quantify it. However assuming the end C to be simply
supported will give a higher (and hence conservative) moment in the span BC. The
restraint moment at C can be subseqently accounted for by providing a nominal
amount of.hogging steel there.
3. Since the beam spacing is 3.5 m, each beam carries the loads acting on a strip 3.5
m wide.
Concluding Notes
4. Where dead and imposed loads are combined, as in the case of this example, the
design moments at critical sections have to be arrived at by a proper combination of
loading patterns.
20
EXAMPLE 8  DESIGN OF BEAM FOR FLEXURE
Design the reinforcement for hogging and sagging moments in the beam in Example 7. Use
fcu = 25 N/mm 2 and fy = 460 N/mm 2
Introductory Notes
1. In this example, only the reinforcement for the maximum sagging and hogging
moments need to be calculated, since the beam section is already specified in
Example 7.
2. Furthermore, as the bending. moment diagram for the beam has not been drawn
(although it could be), the curtailment of reinforcement is not considered. This aspect
is considered in Example 12.
21
Reference Calculations Output
3.4.4.4 Assume that the neutral axis is within the flange.
K = MI (b.d 2 .fcu)
= (181 x106)/{(1140)(397.5f(25)}= 0.040 <0.156
z = d[0.5 + {0.25  K/(0.9)} 0.S]
= d[0.5 + {0.25  (0.04)/(0.9)}0.s]
= (0.95)d = (0.95)(397.5) = 377.6 mm
x = (dz)/(0.45) = (397.5377.6) I (0.45)
= 44.2 mm < 125 mm.
Hence, neutral axis is in fact within the flange, and N.A. is in
the beam can be designed as a rectangular beam with flange
b = 1140 mm.
Chart 2 M/bd 2 = (181 x10 6) I (1140)(397.5) 2 = 1.00
(Part 3) lOOA/bd = 0.27
A5 = (0.27)(1140)(397.5) I 100 = 1224 mm 2 As = 1224 mm 2
Use 2T25 & 1T20 (A8 = 1295 mm2) Use 2T25 &
Table 3.27 bwfb = 250/1140 = 0.22 < 0.40 1T20
Note 6 lOOA/bwh = (100)(1295) I (300)(450) (1295 mm 2)
= 0.96 > 0.18; hence O.K. (sagging)
Iranverse steel
In ordeJ:l that flanged beam action is ensured, the
minimum amount of transverse steel (to be provided
in the top of the slab) is given by
Table 3.27 lOOAsilhtl = 0.15
Ast = (0.15)(125)(1000) I 100 = 187.5 mm 2/m Transverse steel
Note 7 Use R6 @ 150 (min.) (Ast = 190 mm 2/m) R6@150 (min)
(190 mm 2/m)
Slenderness check
3.4.1.6
Continuous portion  clear distance between restraints
is 5700 mm
(60)bc = (60)(1140) = 68400 mm
(250)b//d = (250)(1140) 2 I (397.5) = 817358 mm
Since these values are > 5700 mm, check is O.K.
22
Notes on Calculations
4. The cover values are obtained from TABLE 1 in the Introduction to this text; this
Table is relevant for Sri Lankan concreting practice. The figures in the table can be
further modified by Notes 5 and 6 of the table, as has been done here. It is assumed
in this example therefore, that the mix proportions correspond to a grade 30 mix
(although the strength achieved is only grade 25) and also that a 15 mm (min)
cement:sand rendering protects the concrete surface.
5. The calculation of effective depth from the overall depth is illustrated by the figure
below.
6. Although the actual steel requirement is calculated using the value of flange width,
the minimum steel requirement is based on the web width.
7. This transverse steel will also have to resist the hogging moment in the slab, and a
greater amount than this will need to be provided in most cases.
8. This slenderness check is almost always noncritical, except perhaps in the case of
long, deep cantilevers.
Concluding Notes
9. When designing beamslab systems, care must be taken to note where flanged beam
action takes place and where it does not. Furthermore, such locations will be reversed
in systems where upstand beams are used.
10. If the neutral axis of a flanged beam falls within the flange, the design is identical to
a rectangular beam, as seen here.
11. When designing for hogging and sagging moments at support and span respective! y,
care must be taken to remember what steel has to be placed at the top of the beam
section, and what steel at the bottom.
23
EXAMPLE 9  DESIGN OF FLAN~ED SECTION
Design an edge beam of a beamslab system to take an ultimate moment of 200 kNm at mid
span.
Spacing of beams = 4.0 m; Span of beams = 6.0 m;
Thickness of slab= 100 mm; fCU = 25 N/mm2 I f Y = 460 N/mm 2'
Introductory Notes
l. An edge beam will have a transverse slab only on one side; hence it is called an
Lbeam. The beam in the earlier example is called a Tbeam, since the slab extended
over both sides of the beam. If the beam is below the slab (as is the case most of the
time), the slab will act as a flange only in the span, when the top of the section is in
compression, and not at the supports.
24
ReCerence Calculations Output
equation 1 A1 = [M + (0.l)fcu.bw.d{(0.45)dh,}] I
Note 7 ((0.87)f {d(0.5)flt}]
==[(200xl<>6)+(0.1){25~2S){(0.45)(325)100}f
[(0.87)(460){325(0.5)(100)}] == 1894 mm A.== 1894 mm2
Use 21'32 & 1T20 <A. = 1922 mm2) Use 21'32 &
3.12.6.1 lOOAJbwh == (100)(1922) I (225)(375) 1120
Note 8 . == 2.28 < 4.0; hence O.K. (1922 mm 2)
Notes on Calculations
2. A web width of 225 mm is around the minimum that is practically desirable, in order
to accommodate the reinforcement. A width of 200 mm can be considered as the
absolute minimum for all beams save those which carry very nominal loads.
3. The difference between d and h has been taken as 50 mm, although the actual
calculation of cover should be carried out as in Example 8.
4. This trialanderror approach has to be adopted to find out whether Clause 3.4.4.S has
to be used (singly reinforced flanged beam design) or whetha' it is sufficient to use
Clause 3.4.4.4. (rectangular beam design, since the neutral axis is within the flange).
5. It is easier and more accurate to use equation 2 to obtain the value of Pt rather than
to resort to double interpolation in Table 3.7.
6. /Jt.fcub.d'l is the greatest moment capocity for a singly reinforced section when x is
restricted to (0.S)d.
8. This check for maximum percentage of reinforcement is also almost always satisfied,
except for very heavily reinforced sections. Although the check is satisfied here, care
will have to be exercised if lapping is done.
Concluding Notes
9. This example illustrated the situation where the neutral axis fell below the flange of
a flanged beam. Design charts cannot be used in such a situation, and the equations
., in Clause 3.4.4.5 have to be employed.
10. In addition, if the moment is greater than /Jf.fcub.d2 (i.e. compression steel is
required), or if more than 10% redistribution has been carried out, the beam has to
be designed from strain compatibility first principles as given in Clause 3.4.4.1.
25
EXAMPLE 10  D~IGN OF SECTION FOB. SllEAB.
A simply supported beam of cross section b = 225 mm and d = 400 mm carries an ultimate
load of 60 kN/m over its clear span of 5.0 m. Design the shear reinforcement required near
the support, assuming that the pe.n:entage of teDsion moforcemmt at the support is 0.8~.
Assume feu = 25 N/mm2 and ~ = 250 N/mm2
Introductory Notes
1. The two main effects caused by flexure are bending moment and shear. The bending
moment in a conercte beam is carried by steel reinforcement parallel to the bmm
axis. The shear force is carried by steel reinforcement in a transverse direction,
generally in the form of :linb.
2. If possible, mild steel of fyv = 250 N/mm2 is prefCrred for links, as it is easier to
bend into shape, compared to high yield steel. Links generally have diameters varying
from 6 to 12 mm, in steps of 2 mm.
Reference Calcuiatioas Output
Note3 Although the shear force will be maximum at the
3.4.5.10 face of the support, the deaign shear force for
uniformly distributed loading is at a section d" from
the face.
vmax~
~d~ "".
~2!500 ~ ""
Vmax = ((J())(5)/2 = 150 kN
Vmax = (150 xlol) I (225}(400) = 1.67 N/mm2 vmax = 1.67
(0.8)(f'cu>o.s = (0.8)(25)05 N/mm2
3.4.5.2 = 4 N/mm 2 > 1.67 N/mm2 < 5 N/mm2 ;
Note 4 hence O.K.
V delip = (150)(2500400) I (2500) = .126 kN
equation 3 v = Vl(bv.d) = (126 xl<>3) I (225)(400)'
Notes = 1.4 N/mm2 v =; 1.4 N/mm 2
100.AJb,,d = 0.8, d =:= 400 mm, fcu = 25 N/mm2 ;
Table 3.9 Hence, Ve = 0.58 N/mm2 vc = 0.58
Table 3.8 Since v > ve + 0.4 N/mm2, links have to be N/mm2
Note 6 designed.
A.v > = bv.sv<vvJ I (0.87)fyv
Note 7 Assuming 10 mm links, A.v = 157.1 mm 2
Hence, Sy < = (157.1)(0.87)(250) I (1.40.58)(225)
3.4.5.5 = 185 mm < (0. 75)d = 300 mm; hence O.K. Links
Note 8 Use R,10 links@ 175 mm. RlO@ 175
26
Notes on Calculations
3. This is the simplified method to account for the enhanced shear resistance near
supports. The section considered should be an effective depth away from the face of
the support. Where support details are not available, it will be comervative to
measure "d" from the centreline of support.
4. This is the maximum shear check. If this fails, there is no alternative but to change
the beam dimensions. It is prudent therefore, to make this check fairly early in the
design procedure.
5. bv for a flanged beam should be taken as the average width of the web below the
flange.
6. 0.4 N/mm2 is the shear resistance that can be carried by nominal shear links.
7. When using this ine.quality for providing links, either the A.v value or Sy value must
be chosen. In g~. the A.., value is assumed and the 5v value calculated. The A,v
value refers to the total cross section of links at the neutral axis of a section.
Geatetally, it is twice the area of the chosen bar, since in most cases it is links with
2 vertical legs that are used. The resulting Sy value should not exceed (0. 75)d, to
ensure that at least one link crosses a potential shear crack. The transverse spacing
betweea the legs of a link should be such that it does not exceed d" and that no
longitudinal tension bar is greater than 150 mm from a vertical leg.
8. The link spacing is also often specified in stq>s of 25 mm, because of the tendency
to think in Imperial units. (1 inch is approximately 25 mm.)
Concluding Notes
9. In this example, only the shear reinforcement requirement near the support has been
calculated. The re.quimnent close to midspan will be much less. This aspect will be
considered in the next example.
27
EXAMPLE 11  DESIGN OF BEAM FOR SBEAlt
A simply supported beam, with d = 550 mm and b = 350 mm and clear span 6.0 m is
subject to a triangularly varying shear force diagra.m, with a value of 400 kN at the face of
the supports. The mid span steel consists of 4 Nos. 2S mm bars. Design the shear
reinforcement required over the entire span, if two of the main bars are bent ~ at 45 near
the supports. Take fcu = 2S N/mm2, fy = 460 N/mm2 and fyv = 250 N/mm .
Introductory Notes
1. In this example, two. bent up bars are also used to provide shear reinforcement near
the beam supports.
2. The most reasonable way to provide shear reinforcement for the entire span would
be to consider three areas  i.e.
(i) the support area where bent up bars are also effective in addition to links,
(ii) the middle of the beam, where only nominal links would suffice , and
(iii) the portion in between the above.
28
Reference Calculations Output
Asv > == bvSv{(l.20)/2} I (0.87)fyv
Putting A1v = 157.1 mm2 for 10 mm links,
5v < = (157.1)(0.87)(250) I (350)(0.6)
= 163 mm < (0.75)d; hence O.K.
Use RlO links @ 150 mm; this can be used over the RlO @ 150 mm
entire area over which the bent up bars are (support area)
effective  i.e. for 0. 71 m from the face of support.
Middle area
lOOA/bv<f = (100)(1963) I (350)(550) = 1.02;
Table 3.9 hence ve = 0.63 N/mm2 ve = 0.63
Table 3.8 Shear stress taken by nominal links = 0.63 + 0.4 N/mm 2
= 1.03 N/mm2
Shear force taken by nominal links =
(1.03)(350)(550)(103) = 198 kN
Hence, extent of area covered by nominal links =
{(198)/(400)}(6.0) = 2.97 m
Steel for nominal links is given by
A.., > = (0.4)bv5v I (0.87)fyv
Putting A.v = 157.1 mm2 for 10 mm links,
5v < = (157.1)(0.87)(250) I (0.4)(350)
= 244 mm < (0.75)d; hence O.K. RlO @ 225 mm
Use RlO links@ 225 mm (middle area)
f
Area. inbetween
Extent of this area = 3.0  (2.97)/2  0. 71 = 0.81 m
Shear force at distance 0. 71 m from support face =
{(3.00. 71)/(3.0)}(400) = 305 kN
v = 1.58 N/mm2 v = 1.58
Notes ve = 0.63 N/mm 2 N/rnm2
Table 3.8 Since v > ve + 0.4 N/mm2 , design shear links. Ve= 0.63
A.v :=: = bvSv(vvJ I (0.87)f'vv N/mm 2
Putting A1 v = 157 .1 mm2 for 16 mm links,
5v < = (157 .1)(0.87)(250) I (350)(1.580.63)
= 103 mm 2 RlO@
Note6 Use 2Rl0 links @ 200 mm < (0. 75)d; hence O.K. 200 mm
l~
(area in
..
., 1CQ1100 ... 2/l(QJ;ro ...
between)
1~25 4T25
3. Since fJ should be taken as > 45 and 51> is restricted to 1.S(d..d'), this assumed value
of 67 .5 for fJ is reasonable and easy. for calculation purposes.
4. This is the same approach described in Note 3 of Example 10. The links designed can
be used from the support upto the point where the main bars are cranked up.
S. a
Although 2 bars are bent up, they also continue for at least distance "d" from any
point in this section of the beam. Hence, the value of vc will be the same as in the
middle area.
6. If the link spacing is less than around 150 mm, it will be difficult for concreting to
be carried out. Hence, as in this case, 2 links can be placed together, spaced wider
apart. An alternative would have been to use 12 mm dia. links; however fabrication
will be easier if links of the same diameter are used throughout the beam.
Concludina Notes
7. It is not very common practice to use bent up bars as described in this example,
although it was in the past.
30
EXAMPLE 12  SERVICEABllJTY CHECKS AND DETAil.JNG
Carry out serviceability checks on the be.am analysed in Example 7 and designed in Example
8. Also carry out detailing of reinforcement, including curtailment and lapping. Assume that
type 2 defonned bars are used as reinforcement.
Introductory Notes
1. The serviceability checks consist of span/depth ratio calcu1ations for deflection and
bar spacing rule checks for cracking. If these simplified checks are satisfied, the beam
is deemed to satisfy" the serviceability limit state requirements.
Curtailment of reinforcement
31
Reference Calculations
Note S For po BC. the controlling load cue is when AB
has the minimum design ultimate'load w BC has
the maximum design ultimateload~ This case has
already been considered in Example 7.
~nn~l.95m 6.0m x
A B C
t ""=::::zt~.R
Example 7 For span BC, Mx = (128. l)x  (45.28)x2/2
Mx. = Oatx O.
Mx. is max. at x = 2.83 and equal to 181.2 kNm
Mg 0 again at x = 5.66 m
32
Reference Calculations Output
Note 8 For support B, the controlling loading case is when
spans AB and BC have the max. and min. design
ultimate load& respectively.
7
.oxi. 4 45.28 kN/m /16.34 kN/m
A jB
My= Oaty =OandMy_= 109.7atB.
My = 0 again at y = 4.ZJ m.
33
Refereoce Calculations Output
The difference between thesmaller y values is
(l.80  1.22) = ().58 m or 580 mm. This is greater
than (12)4> (192 mm) or d (397.5 mm). The
difference between the larger y values is (3.102.30)
= 0.80 m or 800 mm,.which is also greater than
(12)4> or d.
Hence, the practical cutoff points are
=
y 1.22 m and y 3.10 m.= Curtail 1Tl6
Length of 16 mm bar required = 3.10  1.22 top bar 0. 78 m
Note IO = 1.88 m (left) and
Distances to B are (2.0  1.22) = 0.78 m (span AB) L10 m (right)
and (3.10  2.0) = l.10 m (span BC) ofB.
Table 3.29 Since the distances to either side of B > = (40)4> l.algth of bar is
Note 11 {i.e. (40)(16)= 640 mm}, anchorage is satisfied. 1.88 m.
I ap,pin& of bars
34
Reference Calculations Output
1Tl6
mo 2ra) Z14> ZI12
,.
I
,.
~ ~
'
~
' . }
zr12 t21..:!5 2I25
rra>
2f25t
A B c
Crack width cbeck CBar spacin& rules>
35
Notes OD Calculations
2. The span is taken from Example 7. More guidance regarding the calculation of
effective spans is given in clauses 3.4.1.2 to 3.4.1.4.
3. The use of eqlJ\llon 7 will be more convenient than obtaining F 1 from double
interpolation in Table 3.11.
4. In a practical beam, there will be some bars on the compression face, in order to
anchor the shear links. These may be considered as compression reinforcement;
neglecting them is conservative.
S. If the structure is simple, instead of drawing the entire bending moment envelope, the
controlling loading cases for each situation can be consideced. Where the span BC is
concerned, the controlling case will be that which causes the points of contraflexure
to be as close as pouible to the supports Band C.
7. Since the curtailed bar will be anchored in the tension zone, one of the conditions (c)
to (e) in Clause . 3.12.9.1 must be satisfied. In general (c) can be used in sagging
moment regions and (e) in hogging moment ones.
8. The controlling loading case for the hogging moment steel at support Bis that which
produces the maximum moment at B, while causing the point of contraflexure closer
to Bin the span BC to be as far as possible from B.
9. For sagging moment curtailment, generally condition (e) is thecootIOUing one, over
(a) and (b) in Clause 3.12.9.1, in order to determine the distance between the
theoretical and practical cutoff points. For hogging moment situations, however,
since the moment values drop sharply from the point of maximum moment,
conditions (a) and (b) may govern over (e).
10. For the same reason given in Note 9i.e. the bending moment diagJam being convex
to the baseline  the lengths of curtailed bars at supports are much smaller than those
in spans.
11. The anchorage length has to be provided on. either side of the critical section for
design, so that the full strength of the steel can be utilized. The anchorage lengths
vary depending on the surface characteristics of the reinforcement as well as its yield
strength. The anchorage length check may become critical when curtailing support
steel.
12. The continuing bars at the top (2T20) and the bottom (2T25) can be lapped with
smaller bars, when the former are no longer required to carry tensile stresses. At
least two bars are required at any section for anchoring the shear links. The minimum
diameter for such bars will be around 12 mm, so that the reinforcement cage will
have adequate stiffne.u during erection.
36
13. In this instance, it is sufficient to satisfy OODdjlioos (a) and (b) alone in Clause
3.12.9.1 is used, as the bars will not be anchored in the tension wne.
14. All the references in Clause 3.12.8.13 are to the smaller of the two lapped bars.
Although the basic lap length does not need to be increased in this example, it may
need to be in some cases.
15. In general, lapping should not be done at supports, Since column or wall
reinforcement will add to reinforcement congestion. In this example however, the
bottom lap extends into the support.
16. No downward redistribution of moments has been carried out at this support section.
If such redistribution bad been performed at a support ectioo, the muimum spacing
allowed becomes fairly small.
17. The continuing bars are able to carry twice the moment actually applied, as
curtailment has been done according to condition (e) in Clause 3.12.9.1. As the
service stress will thtn be quite small, marginal W:llations of the bar spacing rules can
be allowed. In any case, see Note 19.
18. Both maximum and minimum spacings have to be satisfied. The maximum spacings
apply to the tension face and are "deemed to satisfy ru1e.s for crack control. The
minimum spacing rules apply to both faces and ensure that concreting can be carried
out satisfactorily. The most commonly used aggn:gate size in pmctice is 20 mm
(maximum size).
C........ Notes
19. If the "deemed to satisfy" serviceability checks ae not satisfied, the more aocurate
calculations for deflection and crack width in Section 3 of BS 8110: Part 2 can be
resorted to, in order to find out whether the Rlquimnents of Clause 2.2.3 are met.
37
EXAMPLE 13  ONE WAY SLAB
A slab which has several continuous spans of 5 m is to carry an imposed load of 3 kN/m2
as a one way spanning slab. The loading from finishes and light partitions can each be
considered equivalent to a uniformly distributed load of 1 k:N/m2 Taking the density of
reinforced concrete to be 24 kN/m3 , fcu = 25 N/mm 2, and fy = 460 N/mm2, design a
typical interior panel.
Introductory Notes
2. Where the loadings from light ~tions is not accurately known, it is reasonable to
85$Ume a udl value of 1 kNlm2. Furthermore, partitions whose positions are not
known should be treated as additional imposed load. The imposed load value specified
in this example corresponds to .that for a school building. Imposed loads assumed for
office buildings and domestic buildings are 2.5 kN/m 2 and 1.5 kN/m2 n=spectively.
Further guidance can be obtained from BS 6399: Part 1 (1984)  Design loading for
buildings: Code of pmctice for dead and imposed loads".
38
Reference Calculations Output
Ultimate bendin& moments and shear forces
3.5.2.3 Since gk > <Ile and 'be < = 5.0 kN/m 2, and if we
assume that bay size > 30 m2 , for an interior p&!lel,
2.
Table 3.13 Span moment = (0.063)F.l = (0.063)(13. 7)(5.0) M~ =
= 21.6kNm/m 21.6 kNm/m
Support moment = (0.063)F.l = (0.063)(13.7)(5):a. M rt=
== 21.6 kNm/m 2t'16~m1m
Shear at support = (0.5)F = (0.5)(13. 7)(5.0)
= 34.3 kN/m V = 34.3 kN/m
39
Reference Calculations Output
'
~h~k {Qr lib~
Secondary reiJ>forcement
, ~
Notes on Calculations
3. Although the bending moment is the controlling factor in the choice of depth for
beams, where slabs are concerned, the controlling factor is the span/depth ratio,
representing the check for deflection. A trial Vcllue has to be used initially; a value
of around 34 is a reasonable estimate for lightly loaded one way continuous slabs; this
should be reduced to around 30 for heavily loaded .slabs. A lightly loaded slab would
have an imposed load of around 4 kN/m2 , while a heavily loaded slab would have one
of around 10 kN/m2
4. Slabs are generally designed such that shear links are not required; hence, no
allowance need be made for link diameter.
5. One way and two way slabs are generally designed  i.e. loads evaluated and
reinforcement calculated  on the basis of a strip of unit width (e.g. 1 m wide).
6. The minimum steel requirement is in fact based on lOOAJ ~ However, since the
40
lOOAJbd is obtained from the design charts, it provides an approximate check on the
minimum steel requirement.
7. Although we can use the slightly larger spacing of 200 mm (giving Ag = 392.5
mm 2/m), we adopt this smaller spacing, as it results in the minimum steel
requirement being satisfied even after half the steel is curtailed.
8. Although 60% of the steel can be curtailed, in practical slabs, curtailing 50% is
easier, because every other bar can be curtailed.
10. The area of steel used here is that of the top (tension) steel at the support.
11. In general, apart from .some cases in flat slabs, it is sought to avoid shear
reinforcement in flat slabs. Hence, if v is greater than vc the slab thickness is
increased. This should always be borne in mind, and p&haps an approximate check
for shear made early in the design, especially if the slab is heavily loaded (e.g. with
a water load).
12. Where the curtailment of steel is toncemed, the distances corresponding to top steel
are given from the face of the support and those corresponding to bottom steel from
the centreline of support.
Concluding Notes
13. Although it is quite easy to satisfy minimum steel requirements and maximum bar
spacing rules at critical sections (such as midspan and support), care should be taken
to ensure that the above checks are not violated after curtailment of reinforcement.
14. The simplified approach to the design of slabs, using Table 3.13 can be used in most
practical situations. Such an approach is given for the design of continuous beams as
well, in Table 3.6. The coefficients in this latter table are higher than those for slabs,
because the slab coefficients are based on the less stringent single load case of all
spans loaded, with support moments redistributed downwards by 20%.
41
EXAMPLE 14  ONE WAY SLAB
Introductory Notes
1. This example has more unknowns than the previous one. It describes a "real"
situation, where design assumptions will have to be made. The imposed load and load
from finishes and parapet wall have to be assumed and a decision taken regarding the
end fixity of the slab.
...' The imposed load could be taken as 1.5 kN/m 2, since it is a domestic building. The
finishes (on both top surface and soffit) can be assumed to be a uniformly distributed
load of 1 kN/m2 .
3. The parapet wall which is constructed on the slab perpendicular to its span will give
a degree of fixity to the slab. However, the most conservative approach is to idealize
this slab as a one way simply supported slab. Any fiXing moments caused by the
above partial fixity can be accomodated by taking 50% of the mid span steel into the
top face of the slab at the support.
4. The parapet wall parallel to the span will have to be carried by the slab. It can be
assumed that the wall is 1.0 m high and 120 mm thick and that the density of the
(brick) wall is 23 kN/m2 The load from this wall will be distributed only over a
limited width of the slab (Clause 3.5.2.2).
42
Reference Calculatiom Output
I..oadin& (for 1 m wide strip)
43
Reference Calculations Output
Note 10 The rest of the steel could be taken into the support support steel
and bent back into the span as top steel to extend a TlO @ 375 mm
distance from support face of (0.15)1 = (0.15)(3625)
3.12.10.3.2 = =
= 544 mm { > (45)cf> (45)(10) 450 mm}, say
0.55 m
M/bd2 = 0.93
Note 11 f1 = (5/8)(460)(325/419) = 223 N/mm 2
Table 3.11 Hence, F 1 = 1. 71 (for tension steel)
Table 3.10 Allowable span/depth = (20)(1. 71) = 34.2
Actual span/depth = 3625/125 = 29 < 34.2;
hence O.K. Deflection O.K.
Secondacy reinforcement
lOOA/ Ac = 0.13
A, = (0.13)(1000)(160) I (100) = 208 mm2/m secondary steel
3.12.11.2. 7 Use TlO@ 375 mm (i.e. max. spacing allowed  3d) T10@375 mm
(As = 209 mm2/m)
Note 12 Note: It can be shown that the spacing of the under parapets
reinforcement in the edge strips of 1.21 m should be TIO@ 175 mm
TlO @ 175 mm at midspan (and hence TlO @ 350 (span)
mm at supports). T10@350
110075 (support)
~
t I 1
1100187.5 o.
o~
44
Notes on Calculations
5~ In order to use Clause 3.4.1.2 tofind the effective span, the clear distance between
supports is taken as a first approximation of the span.
6. For a lightly loaded oneway simply supported slabs, a span/depth ratio of around
2628 may be assumed. This should be reduced to around 24 for a heavily loaded
slab.
7. In this instance, we have taken a value for h, such that slab thicknesses are assumed
to vary in steps of 10 mm. To use steps of 25 mm (corresponding to 1 inch) would
be too conservative for slabs. Hence either 10 mm steps or 12.5 mm steps
(corresponding to 0.5 inches) should be adopted.
8. The edge areas of the slab, i.e. the 1.21 m strips carrying the parapet loads, will be
more heavily reinforced than the rest of the slab. However, only the central part of
the slab is actually designed in this example.
9. There may be other alternatives to increasing the midspan steel, bat this approach
makes the detailing for curtailment very simple and also helps to satisfy the deflection
check, which is very critical in slabs. This approach also facilitates the detailing of
steel for support restraint, as shown in the figure. One possible alternative is to use
smaller diameter bars, but bars smaller than I 0 mm, if used as main steel, will not
be very stiff and may deflect significantly during concreting, thus losing their cover.
10. As shown in the figure, this is a very neat method of providing top steel at partially
restrained ends of slabs and beams.
11. Since we have provided more steel than required at midspan (see Note 9), advantage
should be taken of this by generally calculating the service stress, which will be lower
than (5/8)fy and lead to a greater allowable span/depth ratio.
12. It may be convenient to reinforee the entire slab with TlO @ 175 mm at mid span and
TIO@ 350 mm at support, since the central part of the slab already has TlO@ 187.5
mm and TIO@ 375 mm at span and support respectively. The small penalty in cost
will probably be worth the simpler detailing arrangement.
Concluding Notes
13. It is important to keep in mind curtailment, bar spacing rules and minimum 'steel
requirements while designing the reinforcement, because these detailing considerations
may lead to the design being altered, as was the case here.
45
EXAMPLE 15  TWO WAY SLAB
A two way spanning slab which has several bays in each direction .ha$ a panel size of S m
x 6 m. The imposed load on the slab is 3 kN/m2 The loading from finisbea and light
partitions can each be taken as 1 kN/m2 Design a typical interior panel, using fcu == 25
N/mm2 , fy = 460 N/mm2 and density of reinforced concrete == 24 .kN/m3.
Introductory Notes
1. The short span length and loading for this example have been made identical to those
in Example 13 for a oneway spanning slab. Hence, results can be compared.
2. It will be assumed that the comers of this slab are prevented from lifting and that
adequate provision is made for torsion.
Bendine moments
46
Reference Calculations Output
Table 3.15 Short way, edge =(0.042)(12.8)(5) 2 = 13.44 kNm/m
Short way, span =(0.0~)(12.8)(5) 2 = 10.24 kNm/m
Long way, edge =(0.032)(12.8)(5)2 = 10.24 kNm/m
Long way, span =(0.02~)(12.8)(5) 2 = 7.68 kNm/m
Design of reinforcement /
I
47
Reference Calculations Output
F.d&e strips:
3.5.3.5 100A/Ac = 0.13
A, = (0.13)(150)(1000) I (100) = 195 mm 2/m
Use TIO @ 375 mm (governed by max. spacing rule
in short way direction) Edge strip
Note 7 Use only in short way cts. edge; at other locations, T10@375 mm
use middle strip steel for edge steel. (only for short
way, cts. edge)
..   __, ._.._ 
    1+."
_...._...__
I i
l1~~~~2:T
0
Fig. 3.25
~ < 1800 >
16t 10@32511 ~
I I 15Tl0@350B
,
600
,,_
E<
 ~
~ ....
0
~
0
... 
E<
,_
I

I.() tt:> I.() I.()
r N M r

M @ @ M
 
<Sil 0 0 @
0 0
E<
N

E<
(1)
E<
00 E<
N
48
Notes on Calculations
3. A trial value for span/depth ratio of 40 is reasonable for a lightly loaded, continuous
square 2way slab; a ratio of 38 would be appropriate for heavily loaded slabs. This
will of course reduce with the ratio of long to short span, ~hing the value for 1
way slabS when the latter ratio becomes 2. The span/depth ratio is calculated with
respect to the shorter span, as it is this that controls d~flection.
4. It should be noted that the slab thickness required for a twoway slab is less than that
required for a oneway slab of similar span and loading  cf. 175 mm required for the
slab in Example 13.
5. In arranging the reinforcement in the slab, the short way reinforcement should be
placed outermost, in order to have the greatest effective depth, since the shorter span
controls deflection and since the bending moments and shear forces are greater in the
short way direction as well.
6. Two way spanning slabs are, in general, very lightly reinforced, so that curtailing is
often not possible because of the minimum steel requirement or the maximum spacing
requirement, or both.
7 .. Since the main steel requirements are also fairly small, for practical detailing it may
be it may be convenient to use the same reinforcement as the middle strip for the
edge strips, except in the case of the short way continuous edge.
Concluding Notes
8. Where an edge .or comer panel is concerned, in addition to the main and edge
steel, the requirements of torsional steel reinforcement have to be met at the top and
bottom of the slab according to Clause 3.5.3.5; in many cases, the main and edge
steel provided would meet those requirements.
9. Although the loads on a beam supporting a twoway slab will be either triangular or
trapezoidal, the code gives coefficients for an equivalent uniformly distributed load
over three quarters of its span.
10. In the calculation of moment coefficients from Table 3.15, if there are significantly
differing coefficients on either side of a common edge, the code suggests a method
of moment distribution to rectify the situation, in Clause 3.5.3.6.
49
EXAMPLE 16  FLAT SLAB
A flat slab, which bas several bays in each direction, has a panel si7.e qf 5 m x 6 m. The
design imposed on the slab is 3 k:N/m2 Tbe loading from finishes and light partitions can
each be considered to be 1 k:N/m2. Design a typical interior panel, using feu = 25 N/mm2 ,
fy = 460 N/mm2 and density of reinforced concrete = 24 kN/m3 It may be ass'1med that
the columns supporting the slab are braced.
Introductory Notes
2. As the columns are braced, and as the slab has several bays in each direction, the
simplified method of analysis described in Clause 3.7:2.7 and Table 3.19 will be
employed.
3. It will be assumed that the slab is without drops, and the maximum value of effective
diameter will be employed for column. beads.
Reference Calculations
Slab thickness
50
Reference Calculations Output
Table 3.19 Bending moments
Note 7 Long way:
l = 6.0  (2/3)(1.25) = 5.17 m
Span moment= (0.071)(448)(5.17) = 164 kNm
Fig. 3.12 Col. strip (2.5 m) = (0.55)(164) = 90.2 kNm .
Table 3.20 Mid. strip (2.5 m) = (0.45)(164) = 73.8 kNm
Support moment = (0.055)(448)(5.17) = 127 kNm
COL strip (2.5 m) = (0.75)(127) = 95 kNm
Mid. strip.(2.5 m) = (0.25)(127) = 32 kNm
Short way:
1 = 5.0  (2/3)(1.25) = 4.17 m
Span moment = (0.071)(448)(4.17) = 133 kNm
Fig. 3.12 Col. strip (2.5 m) = (0.55)(133) = 73 kNm
Mid. strip (3.5 m) = (0.45)(133) = 60 kNm
Support moment = (0.055)(448)(4.17) = 103 kNm
Col. strip (2.5 m) = (0. 75)(103) = 77 kNm
Mid. strip (3.5 m) = (0.25)(103) = 26 kNm
Desiin of reinforcement
Long way. an:
(Check for deflection)
Total ~ moment = 164 kNm
Mlbd2 = (164 xla6) I (5000)(187.5) 2 = 0.93
2
Note 8 If As,reqd = As_{Jrov f1 = 288 N/mm
Table 3.11 and F 1 = 1. 41 for tension steel)
3.7.8 Allowable span/depth = (26)(1.41)(0.9) = 33.0
Actual span/depth = (6000)/(187.5) = 32
< 33.0; hence O.K. Deflection O.K.
51
 ..
Reference Calculations Output
Lone way. sumiort: Long way ,sup
(Column strip  2.5 m wide) (Col. strip)
M/bd2 = 1.08, IOOA/bd = 0.29, A1 = I359 mm 2 I2 TIO@ I04
3.7.3.1 Use 18 TlO (As = 1414 mm 2)  12 TlO centred on 6 TlO@ 208
column @ I04 mm; 6 TIO @ 208 mm.
52
Reference Calculations Output
Vt= 448 kN
3.7.6.Z Veff = (1.15)Vt = (1.15)(448) = 515.2 kN
vmax = (515.2 xl<>3) I (4.4 xlcP)(l82.5)
= 0.64 N/mm2 < (0.8)(25)05 = 4 N/mm2;
Load on 1st crit. perimeter = (448/30)(302. 716)
= 407 kN
3.7.7.4 v = (407 x1<>3)(1.15) I (6.59 xle>3)(182.5)
= 0.39 N/mm2
Note 12 (100AJbd)avg=(l/2)(100/182.5){(14l4+ 1257)/2500}
= 0.29
Table 3.9 vc =
0.51 N/mm2 > 0.39 N/mm2 Shear r/f
not required.
( 1250 )( 2500 )( 1250)( 125~
55~'"
I
I
I
  'I ::.
I I
~I l ~ !IS)J ; ! '3Tl0i269T
' ~   T:   ~"' ~
ex
    _'  
.1+1+11r
~: 3T 10@208T
~ I  I I 15Tl0@167B
I I   ! '. U 10Tl0@125T
~ : _:_ _ _ _,.._', 3Tl0@208T
;,.., __ .J.lf. ___ :..L  ""1J
en E< E< ~ E< E<
t 00 00 t ~00
 t 0 ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~;, <><>
E::: 8 8 8 ~ ~
~ E< E< E< E< E<
 en C'">t NC'")
Notes on Calculations
4. The trial span/depth ratio should be around 0.9 times that used for continuous
oneway slabs (See Example 13, Note 3); hence a value of around 32 is reasonable.
The deflection is governed by the longer span, unlike in twoway slabs; therefore the
slab thicknesses will be greater for flat slabs than for twoway slabs of similar
dimensions and loading.
5. Compare .this much greater overall depth with that of 150 mm obtained for the two
53
way alab in Example 15; of course, there is the considerable advantage here of not
requiring beams. The slab thickness has been chosen in steps of 12.5 mm
(corresponding to 112 inch). The greater effective depth should be used for the long
way span  i.e. the long way reinforcement should be on the outside  because
deflection is governed by the longer span and the moments in the long way direction
are greater than those in the short way direction; this too is the opposite of two way
slab action. The average value of effective depth is used for punching shear checks.
6. It is more convenient to determine the loading on an entire panel for flat slabs, as
opposed to that on a strip of unit width.
7. The flat slab has to be analysed in two mutually perpendicular directions, with the
total load being taken in each direction. This is bec.ause there are no peripheral beams
around the slab, the flatslab acting as both slab and beam.
8. The deflection check is done early here, even before the steel is designed. This is a
conservative approach, but has the advantage that it can detect early any changes that
may be required in slab thickness. If this check is made after the steel has been
designed, the average of column and middle strip steel can be taken for the A8 values.
9. The reinforcement in a flat slab is generally specified in terms of the number of bars
in a given strip. As such, the spacing may not be in preferred dimensions.
10. Curtailment, in this and other instances will not be carried out in this example. In
!llOSt cases, the minimum steel requirement will preclude such curtailment, although
the maximum spacing requirement can easily be satisfied.
11. Note that the effective depth in the short way direction is 177 .S mm (as opposed to
187.5 mm) and that the width of the middle strip is 3.5 m (as opposed to 2.5 m).
12. Just as the average effective depth is used for punching shear calculations, the
1OOA/bd value should also be avmiged. This is because the square shear perimeters
cross both the long way and short way steel.
Concluding Notes
13. Unlike in the twoway slab, where the middle strips carry most of the moment and
are hence more heavily reinforced, in the flat slab, it is the column strips that carry
most of the moment and are more heavily reinforced.
14. Where the simplified method used here is not applicable, a frame analysis will have
to be carried out according to Clause 3.7.2.
15. Edge and comer columns of flat slabs will have column strips considerably narrower
than those in interior panels (see Clause 3.7.4.2). Furthermore, the enhancement
factors for shear due to moment transfer will be greater at these columns (see Clause
3.7.6.3).
54
EXAMPLE 17  RIBBFD SLAB
A ribbed slab which has several continuous spans of 5 m is to carry an imposed load of 3
kN/m 2 as a oneway spanning slab. Taking the load from light partitions and finishes as 1
kN/m2 each, the density of reinforced concrete as 24 kN/m3, fcu = 25 N/mm 2 and fy = 460
N/mm 2 , design a typical interior panel. Note that a 1 hour fire resistance is required.
Introductory Notes
1. This example can be compared directly with Example 13, where the only difference
is that the slab is solid.
2. Although this slab is continuous, because of the difficulty of reinforcing the topping
over the supports, it will be treated as a series of simply supported slabs (see Clause
3.6.2).
55
Reference Calculations Output
Note 5 Loa<iin& (for 0.5 m strip)
56
Reference Calculations Output
Note 7 v = (13.4 x1<>3) I (187.5)(195) = 0.37 N/mm 2
lOOAJbd = (100~{314) I (187.5)(195) = 0.86
Table 3.9 Ve = 0.72 N/mm > O.J.fN/mm2; shear r/f not
3.6.4.7 hence shear r/f not required. required
Topsteeloversup,port
Notes on Calculatiom
3. This trial ratio is reasonable for simply supported oneway slabs  see Note 6 in
Example 14.
4. It should be noted that the effective thickness of this slab (reflecting the volume of
concrete that will be used) is much lower than the oneway solid slab of similar span
and loading in Example 13.
5. It is convenient to calculate the loading for a strip of width equal to a repeating cross
sectional unit.
6. Since support details are not given, the shear force is calculated at a distance "d"
from the centreline of support (and not from the face of the support  Clause
3.4.5.10). The approach here is conservative.
7. The average width of web below the flange is used for shear stress calculations.
Concluding Notes
8. Fire resistance considerations will, to a large extent, govern the choice of form of
ribbed slabs.
9. The design of these slabs is essentially the same as the design of flanged beams.
Generally the neutral axis will lie within the flange.
10. Although the code suggests a single layer mesh reinforcement for the topping, it does
not demand it (Clause 3.6.6.2). It will be quite difficult to place such a mesh in a 50
mm topping while maintaining the top and bottom cover requirements.
11. These ribbed slabs probably have a lower material cost than solid slabs, but their
construction costs would be greater, because of nonplanar form work requirements.
57
EXAMPLE 18  COLUMN CLASSIFICATION
A four storey building has columns on a grid 9f 5.0 m x 5.0 m, supporting beams of
dimension 525 mm x 300 mm in one direction only and a oneway ~ of l 75 mm thickness.
The roof also has a beamslab amngement identical to other floors. The oolumns are of
dimension 300 mm x 300 mm and the soffit to soffit height of floors is.3.S m; the height
from the top of the pad foundation (designed to resist moment) to the soffit of lbe first floor
beams is 5. 0 m. If the frame is braced, classify a typical int.ernal column for differmt storeys
as short or slender.
Introductory Notes
1. Columns are classified as unbraced or braced on the one hand (depending on whether
they take lateral loads or not) and .as slender or short on the other (depending on
whether they should be designed to carry additional moments due to deflection or
not).
2. The effective length of a column will depend on the degree of fixity at its ends .
,...
j
Reference Calc111atiom !
Output
Clear height between end restraints,
(for ground floor columns)
10 x = 5.0 m, loy = 5.0 + (0.5250.175) = 5.35 m
(for other floor columns) .
l0 x = 3.50.525 = 2.975 m,
101 = 3.50.175 = 3.325 m
I
58
Notes on Calculations
3. The values of fJ in Tables 3.21 and 3.22 have been obtained from the more rigorous
method for calculating effective column lengths in framed structures, given in
equations 3 to 6 in section 2.5 of Part 2 of the code. The ratios ac (i.e. sum of
column stiffnesses/ sum of beam stiffnesses) have been assumed to be 0.5, 1.5, 3.0,
and 7.0 for conditions 1, 2, 3 and 4 in Clause 3.8.1.6.2 (Part 1) respectively.
Concluding Notes
4. Where edge columns are concerned, they will not have beams "on either side " as
specified in the provisions of Clause 3.8.1.6.2. In this case, an approximate value for
(3 can be interpolated, based on the actual ac value and the values used in Tables
3.21 and 3.22 (see Note 3 above); otherwise the method in Section 2.5 of Part 2 can
be adopted.
5. For a column to be considered short, both le/h and le/b have to be less than 15 (for
braced columns) and less than 10 (for unbraced columns), as specified in Clause
3.8.1.3. The ratio ac in section 2.5 of Part 2 or the value fJ in Clause 3.8.1.6 has to
be obtained for beams in one plane at a time.
Assuming that the density of reinforced concrete is 24 kN/m3, fcu == 25 N/mm 2, fy = 460
N/mm 2 , and that the imposed loads on the roof and the floors are 1.0 kN/m2 and 2.5
kN/m 2 respectively and that the allowance for partitions and finishes are 1.0 kN/m 2 each,
design the ground floor part of an internal column of the framed structure described in
Example 18. : _,. .
Introductory Notes
1. Since the ground floor part of an internal column has been found to be short, and
since the arrangement .of loads symmetrical, this design can be carried out according
to the provisions of Clause 3.8.4.3, using equation 38.
2. The major part of this exercise consists of a load evaluation, taking into account the
appropriate reduction factors for imposed loads specified in "BS 6399: Part 1 (1984):
Design loading for buildings: Code of practice for dead and imposed loads". The
partition loads are taken as imposed loads, since their positions are not fixed.
59
Reference Calculations Output
Column grid dimensions are S.O x 5.0 m.
Hence, area com:sponding to column""' (5)2 ""' 2S m2
DGMJ laads
From 4 slabs = (4)(24)(0.175)(25) = 420 kN
From beams=(4)(0.52S0.17S)(0.3){24)(5) =50.4 kN
From columns={(3)(2.975)+5}(0.3f(24) =30.1 kN
From finishes = (4)(1.0)(25) =lQQkH
Total dead load = 600.S kH G1c = 601 kN
,.
Imposed loads
From roof = (1.0)(25) = 25 kN .
From 3 floors = (3)(2.5)(25) = 187.5 kN
From partitions= (3)(1.0)(25) =~
Total imposed load = 281.~kH
Note 3 I.L. reduction due to floor area
= (0.05)(25/50)(287.5)(4) = 28. 75 kN
I.L. reduction due to 4tloors
= (0.3)(287 .5)  86.25 kN
Hence, imposed load = 287.5  86.25 == 201.25 kN

" = 201 kN
N = (1.4)(601) + (1.6)(201) = 1163 kN N = 1163 kN
Notes on .Calculations
3. The total imposed load can be reduced either on the basis of the area supported by
the column or the number of floors supported by the column. In this case, the
reduction allowed as a result of the latter is greater and is hence applied  see BS
6399: Part l (1984), referred to in Note 2 above.
4. The term Ac is the net area of concrete. A trial value of Awe can be obtained from
e.quation 38 assuming the gross area of concrete for A.: as a first approximation; this
60
area of Ase can then be deducted from the gross area to obtain Ac. The value of Ase
obtained from the formula should be less than the original trial value of~
5. In some cases, a negative value may be obtained for Ase; this indicates that nominal
steel will be sufficient. In any case, bar diameters under 12 mm are generally not
used for columns, because they will not be stiff enough for the erection of the
reinforcement cage.
Concluding Notes
6. This method of design is applicable for short braced columns, where moments. are
negligible, due to a symmetrical arrangement of loads. Even if this symmetry is only
approximate, provided the columns are short and braced, equation 39 can be used in
place of equation 38.
A short column of 300 mm x 400 mm cross section carries an ultimate axial load of 800 kN.
If an ultimate moment of 80 kNrn is applied
(a) about the major axis,
(b) about the minor axis,,
(c) about both axes
determine the column reinforcement required. Note that fcu = 25 N/mm 2 and fY d 460
N/mrn2 .
Introductory Notes
1. This column carries a substantial moment as well as an axial load. Hence, we shall
have to use the design charts, which will give us a symmetrically reinforced section.
61
Reference Calculations Output
N = 800 kN, M ='= 80 kNm
Nlbh = (800 xl<>3) I (400)(300) = 6.67
(for all cases)
(q) ~ beruiin
3.8.4.S' MKlh' = <80 x10~ t(4005o>
Note 3 My/b' = (80 xW6) I (30050)
hence M,/h < Mylb'
equation 41 ' M' = M + (P)(&'/h')~
N1t (b.h.~u) :::: (800 x1<>3) I (300)(400)(15} = 0.267
Table 3.24 hence P = 0.690
~ = 80 + (0.69)(250/300)(80) = 126 kN
Chart 23 Mlbh2 = (126 xl<>3) I (400)(300)2 = 3.5
(Part 3) 100~/bh = 1.7
Al'; = (1. 7)(300)(400) /(100) = 2040 mm 2 biaxial
Note4 Use 4 T25 + (2 T16 in each dir.) (Al';= 2366 mm2) 4 T25 + 4 Tl6
Note 5
Desi&n of links JiDb
3.12.7.1 . For major axis.~ding, use R6 {> (16/4) = 4 mm} major axis 
@ 175 mm { < (12)(16) = 192 mm}. R6@ 175 mm.
For minor axis bending, use R6 { > (20/4) = 5 mm} minor axis 
@ 225 mm { < (12)(20) = 240 mm}. R6@225 mm.
For biaxial bending, use R 8 { > (25/4) = 6.25 mm}' biaxial 
Note 6 @ 175 mm { < (12)(16) = 192 mm}. R8@ 175 mm.
62
Reference Calculations Output
Crack control
3.8.6 (0.2)fcuAc = (0.2)(25){(300)(400)  804} = 596 kN Crack width
Axial load = 800 kN > 596 kN. check not
Hence, no check is required. required.
Notes on Calculations
3. In this case too, the difference between hand h' and band b' is taken as 50 mm, by
a .similar argument as in Note 2 above,.
4. If the steel requirement for biaxial bending is greater than that which can be
provided as corner steel, the additional amount required has to be provided in each
of the . two mutually perpendicular directions, distributed along the faces of the
section. Other approaches, which are Jess conservative and more accurate, perhaps,
are given in "Allen, A.H., Reinforced concrete design to BS 8110 simply explained,
E. & F.N. Spon, London, 1988" and in "Rowe, R.E. et al., Handbook to British
Standard BS 8110: 1985  Structural use of concrete, Palladian, London, 1987".
5. Although smaller diameter bars (e.g. TlO) could have been used, the T16 bars.are
used, so that the link spacing would no~ be too small; furthermore, bars smaller than
T12 are not used as column reinforcement, as they would not be stiff enough during
erection.
6. Generally plain mild steel is used for links as it is easier to bend into shape.
Furthermore, where bars other than corner bars are used, multiple links may have to
be used if (i) there is more than one intermediate bar or (ii) the intermediate bar is
greater than 150 mm. ~way from a restrained bar (see Clause 3.12. 7.2)
7. Strictly speaking, howe~er, the shear stress should be found in order to check for the
limits on vmax
Concluding Notes
8. In general, sh.ear and crack control are not very critical for columns.
63
EXAMPLE 21  SLENDER COLUMN
A braced slender column of 300 mm x 400 mm cross section carries an ultimate axial load
of 800 kN. It is bent in double curvature about the major axis, carrying ultimate moments
of 80 kNm and 40 kNm at its ends. The effective length of the column corresponding to the
major axis is 7200 mm. Determine the column reinforcement if fcu = 25 N/mmi and fy =
460 N/mmi.
Introductory Notes
1. This example can be compared with Example 20, where the short column was of the
same dimensions and carried similar loads.
Qeign IDQm~nt~
3.8.3.2 M 1 = 40 kNm; Mi = +80 kNm
equation 36 Mi = (0.4)(40) + (0.6)(80) = 32 kNm
{ = (0.4)(80) = 32 kNm} Mi= 32 kNm
3.8.2.4 emin = (0.05)(400) = 20 mm
N.emin = (800)(0.020) = 16 kNm
equation 34 {38 = (1/2000)(1Jb')i= (l/2000)(1200/3QOf = 0.288
equation 32 ~ = (3 8 .K.h = (0.288)(1)(0.4) = 0.115
equation 35 Madd == N.~ = (800)(0.115) = 92 kNm Madd = 92
Hence, critical moment is Mi+ Madd = 32 + 92 = kNm
124 kNm. However, as K is reduced, if Mi + Madd
becomes < 80 kNm, Mi will become critical.
Design Qf reinforcement
TABLE 1 Assuming cover = 30 mm (moderate exposure
conditions and TABLE 1 values modified by Notes 5
& 6), link diameter of 8 mm and main bar size of 25
Chart 23 mm, d/h = (40050.5)/(400) = 0.87.
(Part 3) N/bh = (800 x103) I (300)(400) = 6.67
M/bhi =;= (124 x106) I (300)(400)i = 2.58
K = 0.9
64
Reference Calculations Output
~d = (0.9)(92) = 83 kNm
M = 32 + 83 = 115 kNm (> 80 kNm)
Chart 23 Mlbh 2 = (115 xlo'i) I (300)(400) 2 = 2 .. 40
(Part 3) K = 0.85
~d ~ (0.85)(92) = 78 kNm
M = 32 + 78 = 110 kNm
Note 3 .M/bh2 = 2.29; K = 0.85 (again). K = 0.85
Chart 23 Hence, lOOAllC/bh = 0.8
(Part 3) Ase = (0.8)(300)(400) I (100) = 960 mm2 main steel 
Use 4 T20 <Ase = 1256 mm2)
3.12.7.1
{Links>
Use R 6 {> (20/4) = 5mm}@ 225 mm
{ < (12)(20) = 240 mm}
:=&
R6@225 mm
Notes on Calculations
2. When major axis bending takes place, if either the 4fh value is greater than 20 or the
h/b value is not less than 3, in order to account for the deflection due to .>Slenderness
about the minor axis, the column has to be designed as biaXially Dent, with zero
initial moments about the minor axis (see Clauses 3.8.3.4 and 3.8.3.5).
Concluding Notes
4. .The reinforcement required for this column is the same as for minor axis bending of
the short column in Example 20.
65
~LE 22  PAD FOOTING
Design a square pad footing for a 300 mm x 300 mm internal column, which carries an
ultimate load of 1100 kN (service load of 760 k:N), if the allowable bearing pressure of the
soil is 150 kN/m2. Use feu = 25 N/mm2, fy = 460 N/mm2 (deformed type 2) and density
of reinforced concrete = 24 kN/m3
Introductory Notes
1. Square pad footings are the most common foundation type for columns of framed
structures. Pad footings are essentially inverted cantilever flat slab elements.
.,
Reference Calculatiom Output
12imensions g{ base
Note 3
Note4
Service load = 760 kN
Expected total load == (1.08)(760) = 821 kN
\
Required area for base = (821) I (150) = S.47 m2
Try a base of 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 0.4 m
Weight of base = (2.4)2(0.4)(24) = SS kN
Actual total load == 760 + S5 = 815 kN
Bearing pressure = (815) I (2.4)2 = 141 kN/m2
< lSO kN/m2; hence O.K.
Notes Preliminary check on effective depth:
d > 10(N)0 ~ = 10(1100)05 == 332 mm; footing siz.e
hence overall depth of 400 mm is O.K. !:Z.4m x 2.4 m
~
I>esiim for bendin&
\
Note 6 Ultimate bearing pressure = (1100) I (2.4/
= 191 kN/m
~riticalbending moment (at face of column) =
(191)(2.4){(2.40.3)/2}2(1/2) = 253 kNm M = 253 kNm
TABLE 1 Assume a cover of 40 mm, for moderate exposure
Note 7 conditions. If bar siz.e of 16 mm is assumed, dmin = dmin = 336 mm
400401616/2 = 336 mm and dav 2 = 344 mm. <Ian= 344 mm
66
Reference Calallations Output
Chart 2 2
M/bd = (253 x1<>6) I (2400)(336)i = 0.93
(Part 3) lOOAJbd = 0.25
A1 = (0.25)(2400)(336) I (100) = 2016 mm2
m
Check for punchin& shear
Notes on Calculations
3. Soil bearing pressures are given in terms of service IOads. Hence, service loads have
to be used to determine the footing area. Service loads can be approximately obtained
from ultimate loads by dividing the latter by 1.45 in reinforced concrete structures.
67
In order to estimate ultimate loads from service loads however, it is safer to factor
the latter by 1.5.
:4. The weight of the footing itself cannot be known until it is si7.ed. An allowance of
8 % of the column load is generally satisfactory for obtaining a first estimate of
footing weight, which should subsequently be calculated accurately. Another approach
is to first estimate a depth (in this case 0.4 m) and reduce the allow~le bearing
pressure by the corresponding weight per unit area (i.e. 0.4 x 24 = 9.6 ~/m2),
before finding the footing area.
7. If the values of TABLE 1 are modified by Note 5, a cover of 35 mm will suffice for
moderate exposure conditions. However, the cover is increased by a further 5 mm,
in case the footing comes into contact with _any contaminated ground water. The
minimum value of "d" should be used in the design for flexure and vertical line
shear, while the average value of "d" can be used in checking for punching shear.
8. If the distance between the column face and the end of the footing is smaller than the
anchorage length, the bars will have to be bent. up near the e.nd. of the footing;
otherwise, they can be straight.
9. In most cases, punching shear is more critical than vertical line shear. Furthermore,
if a distance "d" is not available from the critical perimeter to the e.nd of the footing,
the value of vc should correspond to lOOA/bvd < = 0.15 in Table 3.9.
Concluding Notes
10. I.f the footing carries a bending moment in addition to the axial load, the maximum
and minimum pressures under the footing will be given by (l/BL}(N 6M/L), with
symbols having usual meanings. The maximum pressure should be kept below the
allowable bearing pressure.
11. If the difference between maximum and minimum pressures is small (say upto 20%
of the maximum pressure) it may be convenient to design for bending and vertical
shear by assuming that the pressure distribution is uniform and equal to the maximum
pressure.
12. Where the design for punching shear is concerned, the average pressure can be taken
for calculations, but a factor of 1.15 applied to the shear force, according to the
provisions of Clause 3.7.6.2.
68
EXAMPLE 23 COMBINED FOOTING
Let us assume that an external columns is flush with the property line and that the footings
for the external and first internal columns have to be combined, as shown. While the internal
column carries an ultimate axial load of 1100 kN, the external column carries an ultimate
moment of 60 k:Nm in addition to an ultimate axial load of 600 kN. The allowable bearing
pressure of the soil is 150 kN/m2 Use fcu = 25 N/mm 2 and fy = 460 N/mm2
o.:w~
1~. " 4.7m
\1 0 kN
60 kNn C ~D E
B
Introductory Notes
1. The situation described above is often found in crowded urban areas where buildings
are constructed on very small plots of land.
2. It is difficult to provide an isolated pad footing for the external column, because of
eccentric loading on the footing. Hence, it can be combined with the first internal
column footing as shown above.
Dimensions of footin&
69
Reference CalcuJatlons Outppt
Note 5 If we assume a thickness of 0.8 m for the base, the
allowable bearing pressure is
150  (0.8)(24)  131 kN/m2
Width of base required = (759+414) I (6.8)(131) footing size
= 1.32 m 6.8 m.x 2.0 m
Note 6 Use base of 6.8 Ill x 2.0 m x 0.8 m x0.8 m
Analysis of footing
~~ ~T
tie ~~:. =~
Note 7
A
w 250 kN/m/ x~
Max. moment at C = (250)(1.65>2 I 2 = 340 kNm
To find max~ moment in AC,
Mx = (250)x2/2 + llOO(x1.65)
= (125)x2 + (l lOO)x  1815
putting dMx/dx = (250}x + 1100 = 0,
we have x = 4.4 m
Mmax = (125)(4.4)2 + (1100)(4.4)  1815
= 605 kNm
Max. shear force at C = 1100  (250)(1.65)
= 688 kN
Shear force at A = 600 kN
<Section AC)
Chart 2 M/bd2 = (605 xt06) I (2000)(747.5) 2 = 0.54
(Part 3) lOOAJbd = 0.15 .
A, = (0.15)(2000)(747 .5) I (100) = 2243 mm2 longitudinal top
Use 5 T25 (As = 2455 mm2)  on top surface; steel  51'25
these can be curtailed if required.
70
Reference Calculations Output
r 4.7m
5T25 \.
5
I '..!.T2Q@3QQ .................
.J
'5T25
~
I.
6.&n
Check for vertical line shear
71
Reference Calculations Output
Check for punbin& shear
Notes on Calculatfons
3. Where service loads are not specified or known, they can be estimated by dividing
ultimate loads by 1.45 for.reinforced concrete structures. When converting service
to ultimateloads, it is safer to multiply the former by 1.5.
4. If the footing dimensions are given, as opposed to being designed, the pressure
distribution under the base may riot be uniform.
5. This base thickness is fairly high, and is governed primarily by shear considerations.
If the distance between columns is large, bending moment considerations will also
require a. fairly deep base.
6. This fairly large width has been chosen to reduce the pressure under the footing and
satisfy the shear criteria. Although increasing the depth is generally more efficient
than increasing the width, having a large depth may also cause excessive build up of
h5t of hydration temperatures, leading to thermal cracking.
7. Assuming the column loads to be point loads is conservative. In reality, the load will
be spread over a finite area
and the resulting bending moments and shear forces at
the column faces will~' somewhat ~mailer than those obtained from this analysis.
8. The argument used to choose the cover is the same as that in Note 7 of Example 22.
Concludina Notes
9. If the perimeter or section at which shear should be checked falls outside the footing,
the .footing can be considered safe for shear.
10. The analysis of the above footing has been performed assuming that both footing and
subgrade are rigid. If elastic foundation assumptions had been used, the soil pressure
near the columns (i.e. loaded areas) would increase, but the midspan bending moment
would decrease.
72
EXAMPLE 24  PILE CAP.
A twopile group of pile diameter 500 mm and spacing 1250 mm centres supports a 450 mm
square column carrying an ultimate load of 2500 kN. Design the file cap, using concrete of
grade 25 and type 2 deformed reinforcement of fy = 460 N/mm .
Introductory Notes
1. The minimum centretocentre distance for piles is twice the least width of piles for
end bearing piles and thrice the least width of piles for friction piles.
2. A pile cap can be considered as a deep beam, and the most appropriate way to
analyse forces is to consider truss action in the pile cap.
61
Truss action
main steel
3.11.4.2 Banding is not required, as pile spacing < (3)4' 7 T25
Note 5 =
spacing of r/f (1000803225) I 6 = 144 mm
Anchoraee
73
Reference Calculations Output
Stress in r/f = (0.87)(460)(3016/3437)= 351 N/mm2
When turning bars upwards, assume that bend starts
at edge of pile.
Stress at start of bend = (351)(878250)/(878)
= 251 N/mm 2
74
Reference Calculations Output
Distribution steel
Notes on Calculations
3. The criterion used is that the effective depth is equal to at least half the distance
between pile centres. When using truss theory, this will result in a compressive strut
of 45 minimum inclination. The cover value has been chosen as per Note 7 of
Example 22.
4. If the width of the column is accounted for, the value of tensile force will be a little
less. This is given some treatment in "Allen, A.H., Reinforced concrete design to BS
8110 simply explained, E. & F.N. Spon, London, 1988".
6. We start the bend closer to the edge of the pile cap than assumed in the bend radius
calculation  this is to achieve as great a length for anchorage as possible within the
geometry of the pile cap.
7. This provision is also given by Allen, referred to in Note 4 above. The main steel
required (as opposed to provided) can be used in the calculation.
Concludiq Notes
8. It can be shown that less steel is required if Beam Theory is used. Furthermore, the
anchorage requirement beyond the centre line of pile is much less. However, Truss
Theory probably describes more accurately the actual behaviour of the pile cap.
9. If the spacing of piles exeeds 3 times the pile diameter, an additional check for
punching shear has to be made, and the pile cap has to be considered as being
"banded" for the distribution of tension steel and check for vertical line shear.
75
EXAMPLE 25 STAIRCASE
A staircase has to span between two beams, which are 3.0 m apart in plan. The difference
between the two levels is 2.0 m. Assuming that the staircase is sheltered and that it is
subject to crowd loading, design the staircase, using fcu = 25 N/mm2 , fy = 460 N/mm 2
(deformed type 2) or 250 N/mm 2 (plain) and density of reinforced concrete = 24 kN/m3 .
Assume top finishes (on tread only) as 0.5 kN/m 2 and the soffit plaster as 0.25 kN/m 2
IJ;ttroductory Notes
1. Staircases are essentially inclined slabs. The major difference in design approach
is that the loading has to be obtained as the loading in plan.
2. In this particular example, the layout of the staircase has to be designed as well.
Waist thicklless
76
Reference Calculations Output
Factor for overlap = T/G = 275/250 = 1.1
Waist = (0.1~)(1)(24)(1.2) == 3.46 kN/m
Steps == (112)(0.167)(1)(24)(1.1) == 2.20 kN/m
Top finishes = (0.5)(1)(1.1) == 0.55 kN/m
Soffit plaster == (0.25)(1)(1.20) == Q,JQ kN/m
Total dead load = Q,51 kN/m
Note 6 Imposed load = (5.0)(1) = 5.0 k:N/m design udl =
Design load= (1.4)(6.Sl) + (1.6)(5.0) = 17.1 kN/m 17.1 kN/m
Mfbd2 = 1.75
f5 = (5/8)(460)(451/452) = 287 N/mm 2
Table 3.11 Hence, F 1 = 1.15 (for tension reinforcement)
3.10.2.2 Allowable span/depth = (26)(1.15)(1.15) = 34.4
Actual span/depth = (3000)/(94) = 31.9 < 34.4;
hence deflection O.K. Deflection O.K.
77
Reference Calculations Output
Distribution steel
R8@175 (4)
k o.~
Note 11
Tl2@250 (I)
Tl2@250
3.<ln
fc
Notes on Calculations
3. In general the rise should vary from a minimum of 150 mm for public stairways to
a maximum of 175 mm for private stairways. The going should vary from 300 mm
for public stairways to 250 mm for private stairways. (2R + 0) should be kept as
close as possible to 600 mm. A nosing can be provided so that the tread is greater
than the .going, thus making for greater user comfort.
4. Although the value used in Example 13 for a continuous one way slab was 34, a ratio
of 30 is used here, because the loading is much heavier  the waist carries the load
of the steps, in addition to its own weight on an incline, and also a high imposed
load. The above ratio is increased by 15% because of the stiffness contributed by
the stairs.
5. The waist and softit plaster have thicknesses that are measured perpendicular to the
+
incline. Hence their load in plan will be greater by a factor of (Rl 0 2) 05 I O. The
steps and tread finishes have 25 mm overlaps for each 250 mm length in plan,
because of the provision of a nosing. Hence their load will have to be factored by
T/O. This factor can be ignored for the imposed load, because it can be argued that
the entire tread will not be available for standing.
78
6. The imposed load corresponding to crowd loading is 5.0 kN/m2  see "BS 6399: Part
1 (1984): Design loading for buildings: Code of practice for dead and imposed
loads".
7. For a staircase having continuity, we can assume that both the span and support
moments are approximately F.1110.
8. Staircases are generally heavily loaded (see Note 4 above), unlike horizontal slabs.
Hence, the check for minimum steel is not very critical.
9. Taking Shear Force as (0.6)F is conservative for staircases such as this. In any case,
as for most slabs, staircases will not require shear reinforcement.
10; Mild steel reinforcement is often used for distribution bars, as in this case, since the
use of high yield reinforcement may result in more steel than that specified by the
minimum steel requirement, in order to meet the maximum bar spacing rule.
11. When detailing reinforcement, care should be taken not to bend tension steel in a
way that an inside comer can get pulled out. Hence bar type (2) should be continued
from the bottom face of the lower slab to the top face of the waist. Bar types (2) and
(3) can be taken horiwntal distances of (0.3)1 (see Clause 3.12.10.3) into the waist
from the faces of the beams. Bar types (1), (2) and (3) can be continued into the
lower and upper slabs as slab reinforcement, if required. Bar type (4) shows how the
upper slab reinforcement can be taken into the beam support.
Concluding Notes
12. If the supporting beam for the flight of stairs is at the ends of the landings, the entire
system of staircase and two landings can be taken as spanning between the supporting
beams (see figure below). In this case, the slab system could be considered as simply
supported if there is no continuity beyond the landings. The loading on the landing
and staircase section would be different in a case such as this.
span
I<
79
EXAMPLE 26 STAIRCASE
A typical plan area of a stair well is shown in the figure, where the landings span in a
direction perpendicular to the flight and span of the stairs. The dimensions of a single stair
are as follows: rise =175 mm; going =250 mm; tread = 275 mm. The top finishes (on
tread only) are equivalent to a distributed load of 0.5 k:N/m2 and the soffit plaster one of
0.25 kN/m2. The imposed load can be taken as 3 kN/m 2 Using fcu =
25 N/mm2 , fy = 460
2 2
N/mm (deformed type 2) or 250 N/mm (plain) and density of reinforced concrete 24 =
kN/m3 , design the staircase component of the system.
* * ."
l .2m
2.Em '
,~
l.2m
'"
Introductory Notes
1. In this example of a staircase, the landings span perpendicular to the stairs and
support the staircase, unlike in the case described in Note 12 of Example 25, where
the landings also span in the direction of the staircase.
2. In analysing the above system, the staircase is assumed to be supported along two
edges within the landings. Continuity over the supports can be assumed for the
purpose of span/depth ratio calculations.
80
Reference CaJcuJations Output
Note 4 Assume a trial span/depth ratio of 32, for a
continuous 1way spanning slain:ase.
Effective depth = (3500)/(32) = lO'J mm
Assuming a cover of 20 mm (mild exposure
conditions and concrete protected by 10 mm 1:3 ct:
sand rendering), and bar diameter of 12 mm, we can h = 140 mm
choose h= 140 mm and d= 1402012/2 = 114 mm d = 114 mm
81
Raermve ~ Output
Check for deflection
Mlbd2 = 1.43;
f 5 = (5/8)(460)(534/565) = 2n N/mm2
Table 3.11 H~, F 1 = 1.29 (for tension reinforceament)
Allowable span/depth = (26)(1.29) == 33.5
Actual spanldeptb = (3500)1{114) = 30.7
< 33.5; hence O.K. Deflection 0. K.
Distribution reinforcement
Table 3.27 lOOAJAc = 0.24 (mild steel)
A, = (0.24)(140)(1000) I (100) = 336 mrn2/m distribution steel
Use R8 @ 150 mm CA. = 335 mm2/m) R8@ 150 mm
Notes OD Calculations
3. The support line for the staircase is at the centre of the smaller landing but only
0.9 m into the wider landing, because 1.8 m js the maximum distance.over which the
load can be aimuned to be spread.
4. This ratio is a little gieater than that assumed for the previous example (Example 25),
because theimposed load here is somewhat lower.
5. These factors and their use are deScribed in Note 5 of Example 25.
Concluding Notes
8. Shear can also be checlred for, as in Example 25, the maximum sllear force being the
greater of RA and Re  i.e. 19.5 kN.
9. When designing the landings, in addition to their own dead and imposed loads, the
loads from the stain:ase i.e. RA and R8 will be uniformly spread over the entire
smaller landing and over 1.8 m of the larges landing, respectively.
10. Where staircase flights surrounding open wells int.ersect at right angles, the loads
from the common landing can be shared between the two perpendicular spans.
82
t EXAMPLE 27  PLAIN CONCRETE WALL
The lateral loads in the short way direction on a four storey building are taken by two end
concrete shear walls of Jength 15 m and height 14 m. The servi<;e wind load on one shear
wall is 180 kN. Check whether a plain concrete wall of grade 25 concrete and 175 mm
thickness is sufficient for the wall panel between foundation and 1st floo~ slab (clear height
=
of wall 4.0 m) if it carries the following terVice loads, in addition to the wind load: self
weight = 18 kN/m; dead load from 1st floor. slab = 12 lcN/m; dead load from above 1st
floor slab == 80 kN/m; imposed load from 1st floor slab = 7.5 lcN/m; imposed load from
above 1st floor slab == 19 kN/m.
Introductory Notes
1. Given that even plain concrete walls require horizontal and vertical reinforcement
(Clause 3.9.4.19), and if this ttinforeement will be .distributed on two faces (which
is advisable, since crack control reinforcement should be as close to the surface as
possible), then it is very difficult to construct a wall under 175 mm. This is
because cover requirements will be 20 mm on the inside (mild exposure) and 30 mm
on the outside (moderate exposure}  see TABLE 1, including Notes 5 and 6  and
because the bar diameter for vertical steel should be at least 12 mm, in order to
ensure sufficient stiffness .for the rant"orcement cage prior to concreting.
2. Guidance on calculating wind loads is given in "CP3: Ch. V: Part 2 (1972): Basic
data for the design of buildings: Loading: Wind loads", and the method is shown in
Example 31.
3. It is assumed that stability for the structure as a whole has been satisfied. The
overturning moment due to wind, factored by 1.4 should be less than the resisting
moment due to dead load, factored by 1.0 (see Table 2.1)
83
I Ii l
Reference Cak:idatioDS ~
Ttillt\le1'C eccentricity
L<>adine
Assuming wind acts at mid height of wall, wind
moment = (180)(1412) = lUJO kNm.
Hence, wind loading OD wall = (6)(12ti0)/(1Sf
= 33.6kN/m
Hence, ultimate loads per unit length of wall are:
Table 2.1 Combination l,
f1 = (l.4)(18+ 12+80) + (l.6)(7.5+ 19)(0. 7)
= 184 kN/m
Combination 2,
=
f2 (l.4)(110) + (l.4)(33.6) = 201 kN/m or
f2 = (1.0)(110)  (1.4)(33.6) == 63 kN/m
Combination 3, llw,'8X =
=
f3 (1.2){110 + (26.5)(0.7) + 33.6} =195 kN/m 401 kN/m
Note:  no tension arises. 1lw,DWI
.
63 kN/m
=
equation 43 Now, 1lw <= (0.3){h  (2)exl~u
= (0.3){175  (2)(8.75)}(25) = 1182 kN/m
equation 44 and Ow < = (0.3){h  (l.2)Cx  (2)eJfcu
=(0.3){175  (1.2)(8. 75)  (2)(28)}(25)= 813 kN/m
Note7 These are satisfied, since llw,max = 201 kN/m 11w is 0.K.
84
Reference Calculations Output
4 ,. Minimum reinforcement
  Notes on Calculations
5. Since the end conditions in the given wall are "midway between those specified in
Clause 3.9.4.3., the effective length factor is also midway between the factors given.
6. The imposed load here is factored by 0.8, ac.cording to BS 6399: Part 1 (1984):
Design loading for buildings: Dead and imposed loads, since loads from 3 floors are
involved. Later on, when checking the llw value for the wall .panel, a factor of 0. 7 is
used, since loads from 4 floors are involved.
7. Equations 43 and 44 for braCed walls correspond to the top (maximum initial
eccentricity) and midway (maximum eccentricity due to deflection) sections.
However f1w is calculated at the bottom of the wall,. taking into account the self
weight of the wall and maximum moment due to wind. This is slightly inconsistent
but conservative. A similar approach is used in column design.
Concluding Notes
9. The wall reinforcement should also be checked for satisfying tie reinforcements. This
is dealt with in Example 33.
85
EXAMPLE l8  CORBEL
Design a corbel that will carry a vertical load of 350 kN into a 300 mm x 300 mm column,
assuming the line of action of the load to be 150 mm from the face of the column. Take ~u
= 30 N/mm2 and fy = 460 N/mm2 (defouned type 2).
Introductory Notes
2. Compatibility of strains between the strutandtie system of the truss must be ensured
at the root of the corbel (Clause 5.2.7.2.1 (b)).
T~;c I
~
'1 250
125 T~
0.9x
~ 0.45f
cu
86
Reference Calculations Output
5.2.7.1 Now llvfd == (150)/(345) == 0.43 < 1
Also, depth at outer edge of bearing area > 375/2
mm; hence, definition of corbel is satisfied.
Main reinforcement
Sbear reinforeeroent
v == (350 xt<>3) I (300)(345) == 3.38 N/mm2
lOOAJbd == 0.58
Table 3.9 Ve == (0.546)(30/25)0.3J(2d/8y) = (0.58)(2/0.43)
3.4.5.8 == 2.69 N/mm2 < 3.38 N/mm 2
Table 3.8 Provide Asv > = bvSv(vvJ I (0.87)f v
As)Sy > == (300)(3.382.69) I (0.871(460) = 0.517
Use lOT@ 300 mm. Since this has to be provided
over (213)(375) = 250 mm, 2 bars will suffice.
5.2.7.2.3 Min. requirement is 603/2 = 302 mm2
Use 2 TlO links@ 175 mm links
(A1 = 314 mm2 > 302 mm2; hence O.K.) 2 TlO
87
Reference
Belldine main reinforcement
2Tl0fU75( 250
Notes OD Calculations
3. Varying the depth from a full depth at the root to 2/3 of the depth at the end ensures
that one of the conditions for a corbel in Clause 5.2.7.1 is automatically met  i.e.
that the depth at the outer edge of bearing is greater than half the depth at the root.
Furthermore, it facilitates the placing of horizontal she.at links in the upper twothirds
of the effective depth of corbel as specified in Clause 5.2.7.2.3.
4. Using Figure 2.2, the strain at yield is (0.87)(460) I (200 xl<>3) = 2.0 x103 for steel
of fy = 460 N/mm 2 , since the Young's Modulus specified is 200 kN/mm2 .
5. Although these limits on lOOA/bd, where dis the effective depth at th~ root of the
corbel, are not given in BS 8110, they are specified in Rowe, R.E. et al., Handbook
to British Standard BS 8110: 1985 : Structural use of concrete, Palladian, London,
1987".
88
6. Although the code allows the bend to start at the edge of the bearing plate itself, the
allowance of a cover distance from the outer edge of the bearing plate will ensure the
spreading of load from the bearing plate to the level of tie steel before the bend
commences.
Concluding Notes
89
EXAMPLE 29  DFSIGN FOR TORSION
A cantilever slab of clear span 2.0 m functions as a hood over a porch. Its thickness varies
from 200 mm at the support to 100 mm at the free end, while it carries finishes amounting
to 0.5 kN/m2 and an imposed load of0.5 kN/m 2 It is supported by a beam 600 mm x 300
mm, which spans 4.0 m between columns, which are considered to provide full bending and
torsional restraint Design the beam for bending and torsion, assuming fcu = 30 N/mm 2 , fy
= 460 N/mm2 (deformed type 2), fyv = 250 N/mm 2 and density of reinforced concrete =
24 kN/m3
Introductory Notes
1. It is instructive to clas&fy torsion into two types. Compatibility torsion, which may
arise in statically indeterminate situations, is generally not significant; torsional
moments will be shed back into the elements carrying bending moments (at right
angles to the element carrying torsion), because torsional stiffnesses are lower than
bending stiffnesses. Any torsional cracking will be controlled by shear links.
However, equilibrium torsion in statically determinate situations, where torsional
resistance is required for static equilibrium, will have significant magnitudes, and has
to be designed for. The example above is such a case (see Clause 2.4.1, Part 2).
2. Assuming that the columns provide full bending restraint implies that they have
infinite stiffness. In practice, of course this will not be the case and the deformation
of the columns will reduce the beam fixed end moments. However. full torsional
restraint has to be provided by the columns, in order to preserve static equilibrium,
where equilibrium torsion is invol'\led.
]$00
~ ILf
0
~
2000
,
~
I..oadin2 on beam
HOOd = {(0.2+0.l)/2}(2.0)(24) = 7.2 kN/m
Finishes = (0.5)(2.3) = 1.15 kN/m
Self weight = (0.6)(0.3)(24) = 4,32 kN/m
Total dead load = 12,67 kN/m
Imposed load = (0.5)(2.3) = 1.15 kN/m bending udl =
Design load={(l.4)(12. 7)+(1.6)(1.15)} = 19.6 kN/m 19.6 k:N/m
90
Reference CalculaUons Output
Torsional loadin&
27 .8~33 . l.2nl .
~ ,
~ 27.8
91
Reference CaJcuJatioos Output
equation 2 Max. value of vt = (2)T I ~) ~  huuz/3)
2
Proyision of reinforcement
Table 2.4 Since v < vc for the entire beam, the area where vt
(Part 2) < = vt,min bas to be provided with nominal shear r/f
and the area where vt > vt.min with designed torsion
r/f.
92
Reference Calculations Output
Total st.eel requirement at top and bottom levels =
(67.5)(3) + 234 = 436.5 mm 2
Use 2Y16 + YlO at top and bottom levels (A, =
481 mm2) and 2 Y 10 at intennediate level (A 5 = 157
mm 2)
This arrangement will satisfy
Table 3.30 (a) max. spacing for tension r/f < = 160 mm top & bottom
2.4.9 (b) max. spacing for torsional r/f < = 300 mm 2Y.16+Yl0
(Part 2) (c) torsional r/f provided in 4 comers middle 2Y10
Notes OD Calculations
3. The torsional moment variation in beams, whether for a distributed moment such as
this or for a point moment, is geometrically identical to the shear force variation
corresponding to distributed or point loads respectively.
Concluding Notes
5. The links provided for torsion have to be of the closed type as specified in Clause
2.4.8 (Part 2), whereas even open links are permissible for shear links.
6. If the section carrymg torsion is a flanged beam, it has to be divided into component
(nonintersecting) rectangles, such that hmin3.hmax is maximized. This can generally
be achieved by making the widest rectangle as long as possible (see Clause 2.4.4.2 
Part 2). The torque is divided up amoung the rectangles in the ratios of their
Chmin3 .hmax) values and each rectangle designed for torsion. The torsional links should
be placed such that they do intersect.
93
EXAMPLE 30  FRAME ANALYSIS FOR VERTICAL WADS
A typical internal braced transverse frame for a multistorey office building is shown below.
The frames are located at 5 m centres and the length of the building is 40 m. The cross
sectional dimensions of members are as follows.
{i) Slab. thickness (roof and floors)  150 mm
(ii) Beams (roof and floors)  600 mm x 300 mm
(iii) Columns {for all floors)  300 mm x 300 mm
Obtain the design ultimate moments and shear forces from vertical loads for the beam ABC
at the first floor level.
Roof
2nd Floor
B
lst Floor
L The next 4 examples (including this one) deal with the entire structure, as opposed
to structural elements.
2. The loading for partitions and imposed loads is the minimum permissible under"as
6399: Part I (1984): Design loading on buildings: Dead and imposed loads~
3. In general, most frames are braced, the lateral load being taken by masonry infill or
lift/stair wells.
4. Since the frame is braced, it is possible to use either a beam level subframe analysis
or a continuous beam analysis. Since the latter overestimates moments considerably,
the former will be performed.
94
Reference Calculatlom Output
Stiffnesses
Distribution factors
Loading on beam
Load arrangements
3.2.1.2.2
95
Output
Arrangement 3 will be the mirror image, about B, of
Arrangement 2.
(Arrangement 2)
t
c~
/Wl
=4!1 r. +. /w2
~
MA t iMs2 t
RA ~l ~ Re
RA Ra1 Ra2 Re
Arrangement 1 143.2 219.3 219.3 143.2
%
Reference Calculations Output
Span moments
~x /w
0
Note 8
Free bending moment is given
by (w.l.x)/2 + (w.x2)/2 f ~
~Ml
Fixed end moment variation is
given by M 1 + (M2M 1)x/l 1 ':
Hence, the points of contraflexure anctthe points and
values of max. span moments can be obtained.
SJ2i1.D AB S~BC
Arran~ent l
Points of
contraflexure 0.21m, 4.52m 7.48m, 1l.79m Sl2ill mQmm~:
(from A)
Max. sagging 141 kNm at 141 kNm at Arrangement 1
moment 2.37 m 9.63 m 141 kNm
(both spans)
Arranr;emmt 2
Points ~f Arrangement 2
contraflexure 0.25m, 4.92m 8.45m, 1l.90m 165 kNm and
(from A) 35 kNm
Max. sagging 165 kNm at 35 kNm at
Note9 moment 2.58 m 10.18 m
257.3
165 141
Bending Moment Diagram (kNm)
156.1 219.3
219.3 143.2
97
Notes on Calculations
s. The distribution facton have accounted for the column stiffness, but the column
moments have been left out of the .calculations for convenMmce, as we are interested
only in' the beam m0n\ents. Since the rem0te ends of the columns are 8Ssumed to be
fixed, there will be no catty over moments. from them tO the beamc.Qlumn joints. The
sign convention adopted is that clockwise moments are positive and anticlockwise
moments negative.
6. In this symmetrical loading arrangement, the calculation is complete with just one
joint rele.ase.
7. The difference between the moments MBA and Mee arises out of the fact that the
columns take part of the moment arising out of asymmetrical loading.
8. The sign convention adopted in this part of the solution is that sagging moments are
negative and ho"ing moments posive.
9. 'This two~ frame is typical of most situations, where the maximum support
moments are obtairied when all spans are loaded with the maximum design ultimate
loads (1.4 gk + 1.6 qk) and the maximum span moments are obtained when that span
is loaded with the maximum design ultimate load (1.4 gk + 1.6<flt) while the adjacent
spans are loaded with the minimum design ultimate load (1.0 ~).
The diagrams. for Load Arrangement 3 have not been shown, for the sake of clarity,
since they will be mirror images of those for Load Arrangement 2 about B.
Concluding Notes
11. The beam moments could have. been obtained using a continuous beam analysis,
instead of a subframe analysis (Clause 3.2.1.2.4) as pointed out in Note 4. However,
column moments will then have to be estimated as indicated in Clause 3.2.1.2.5.
12. If there are 3 or more approximately equal bays in the frame and the characteristic
imposed load does not exceed the characteristic dead load, the beam moments and
shear forces can be obtained from Table 3.6 for a continuous beam analysis (see
Cla~ 3.4.3).
98
EXAMPLE 31  FRAME ANALYSIS FOR HORIZONTAL WADS
If the office building described in Bxample 30 was unbraced and located in a semiurban area
where the basic wind speed is 40 mis, determine the moments and shear forces induced in
a typical internal frame due to the wind load.
Introductory Notes
I. The wind forces have to be determined using"CP 3: Ch. V: Part 2 (1972): Basic data
for the design of buildings: Loading: Wind loads'.'
2. In carrying out the analysis, the entire structure is analysed, assuming that only the
wind load acts on it and that points of contraflexure are developed at the centres of
all beams and columns (Clause 3.2.1.3.2). A further assumption is made regarding
the distribution either of shear forces or of axial loads in columns (see Note 4 below).
Thus the analysis for the lateral loads is performed on a statically determinate
structure, as opposed to an indeterminate one as in the case of vertical load analysis.
Analysis
99
Reference Calculations . Output
.2. Points of contraflexure are assumed at the centres
of beams and columns.
Note 4 3. The vertical column stresses are proportional to
their distances from the centroid of the columns.
The forces at roof, 2nd floor and 1st floor levels are
(2/12.25)(45) = 7.35 kN (roof)
{(2+2)/12.25}(45) = 14.7 kN (2nd floor) and
{(2+2,S0)/12.25}(45) = 16.5 kN (1st floor)
6.<m 6.fut
k
Note 5
7.35+r .
. t"'='"
1.84.
lJ Roof
2.cm
1.84
1.225 1!225
'1225 1.225
1.84 3.67 _.,i) 1.84 +4
.J.. 1~
2.<m
, i4.'+_..____,
14. 1  .....
: 2nd Fl r
2.<m
o~ 11.03 t~lt'5,51
1' t
0 6.125
6.125 6.125
Note 6
5.51.+o
1' 11.03~)
5.51 ~tl2.<m
16.5 :+ ~_.+1 ls t Fl r
2.fln
0 "4: 9 .64 . 4~ ~ 19.28 1, 9,64
..i, ~ t ,
17.83 17.83
Note 7
Moments and shear forces in ABC
The moments in ABC can be found as those required
to balance the ~lumn moments.
Moment at A, B
and C is .~5 ..1
kNm
100
Reference Calculations Output
The shear forces in the spans are obtained by Shear force in
dividing the moment by half the span length. AB and BC is
Hence, shear force = (35.1)/(3.0) = 11.7 kN 11.7kN
Notes on Calculations
3. The S2 factor can be calculated separately for different parts of the stucture or for the
entire structure, using the total height of the structure. Since this is only a 3 storey
structure, it is simple and conservative to work with a single S2 value.
4. If the column sizes are uniform, the vertical forces will be proportional to the
distances of the columns from the centroid of the column group. An alternative
assumption to this is to consider that the horizontal shear forces in the columns are
proportional to the bay sizes.
5. The analysis is essentially a subframe analysis, but the entire frame has to analysed
step wise, from the top to bottom. At each step, the vertical column reactions are
obtained first, taking moments for the equilibrium of the entire sub structure, together
with the third assumption referred to in Note 4 above. The horizontal shear forces in
the columns can be found by taking moments about the points of contraflexure in the
beams, for the equilibrium of different parts of the substructure. The results obtained
from each substructure have to be used for analysing the next lower sub structure.
6. If the column bases are not designed to resist moments, the point of contraflexure on
lowest column should be moved down to the level of the base (as opposed to being
at column mid height).
7. In order to meet stability requirements, the lateral load at each level should be at least
1.5 % of the characteristic dead load at each level (Clause 3.1.4.2). Since the total
dead load ona beam (Example 30) is (23. 7)(12) = 284.4 kN and 1.5% of this is 4.3
kN ( < 7.35 kN), the above condition is met.
Concluding Notes
8. For unbraced frames having three or more approximately equal bays, the combined
effect of wind and vertical loads can be obtained by superposing the results .of an
analysis such as the one above with those of a subframe analysis such as the one in
Example 30, after factoring the loads appropriately (Clause 3.2. l.3.2).
9. For very slender structures, the overall stability of the structure against overturning
due to lateral wind loads should also be checked. The appropriate load combination
would be l.4 Wk (causing the overturning moment) and l.O Gk (providing the
restoring moment).
101
EXAMPLE 32  REDISTRIBUTION OF MOMENTS
Detennine the design ultimate moments for the beam ABC in Example 30, after carrying out
moment redistribution.
Introductory Notes
1. Although the design of reinforced concrete sections is carried out using the plastic
capacity of the section, the analysis of structures is still performed using elastic
methoos. The advantage to the designer arising out of the above plasticity is
incorporated in the analysis by moment redistribution.
AB BA BC CB
102
Reference Calculations Output
Arran&'m~nt 1
Points of
contraflexure 0.19m, 4.97m 7.03m, l 1.81m
(from A)
span moments:
Max. sagging 173 kNm at 173 kNm at
moment 2.58 m 9.42 m Arrangement 1
173 kNm (both
Arran&'m'nt 2 spans)
Points of
contraflexure 0.24m, 4.97m 8.57m, l 1.9lm Arrangei:nent 2
(from A) 168 kNm
(span AB)
Max. sagging 168 kNm at 33 kNm at 33 kNm
moment 2.60 m 10.24 m (span BC)
Notes on Calculations
4. In general, the x/d ratios in columns are larger than those required to permit plastic
hinge formation. Hence, column elastic moments should never~ redistributed.
5. The support moments in Arrangement 2 are made equal to 180.1 kNm  the value
obtained after 30% redistribution in Arrangement I. This requires a much lower
percentage of downward redistribution for the elastic moment .BA and an upward
redistribution for the elastic moment BC. Such upward redistribution may help to .
reduce span moments.
Concluding Notes
6. Compared with the elastic design moments in Example 30, the redistributed design
moments are such that the support moment at Bis considerably lower, while the span
moments are only slightly higher; hence the advantage in carrying out moment
redistribution  the total moment field is considerably reduced.
7. The points of contraflexure are generally closer to the supports for the redistributed
bending moment diagrams than for the elastic bending moment diagrams. In order to
prevent serviceability state cracking on the top surface, the restriction on the
redistributed moment envelope specified in Note 2 above has to be applied.
103
EXAMPLE 33  D~IGN FOR STABILITY
The figure shows the plan of a 6 storey framed structure, where the floor to ceiling height
of each storey is 3.5 m. The average dead and imposed loads per unit area of floor can be
taken as 5 kN/m 2 each. Design the stability ties for this structure with steel of fy = 460
N/mm 2
4 x s.cm = 2cm
Introductory Notes
3. In calculating the amount of reinforcement required, the steel can be assumed to act
at its characteris~c value  i.e. 'Ym = 1.0. Furthermore, reinforcement designed for
other purposes can be used as ties (Clause 3.12.3.2).
104
Reference Calculations Output
3.12.3.5 Peripheral ties
lr = 6.0 m
Force I unit width = {(5+5)/(7.5)}(6/5)(44)
= 70.4 kN/m { > (l.0)(44) = 44 kN/m}
Total force = (70.4)(20) = 1408 kN
Area of ties required = (1408 xlcP) I (460) transverse
. = 3061 mm 2 internal tie
If distributed in the 5 transverse beams, area
required per beam = (3061)/5 = 612 mm2
AI = 3061 mm 2
105
Reference Calculations Output
3.. 12.3.6. .CQlumn ti~
'
Note 5 Force = greater of (3/100)(225)(6) = 40.5 kN
and lesser of (2.0)(44) = 88 kN and
and {(3.5)/(2.5)}(44) = 61.6 kN
= 61.6 kN column ties
Area of tie required = (61.6 xlcP)/(4(i())= 134 mm2 As = 134 mm 2
Since this is less than the ties in the beams, part of
the latter can be taken into the columns.
Notes on Calculations
4. Although the beam reinforcement may be greater than these tie areas required, it must
be ensured that continuity of tie reinforcement is provided  this has to be borne in
mind when curtailing beam reinforcement.
5. The.J% load is taken for 6 storeys, since there will be five floor slabs and the roof
above the level of the first floor column tie; using the floor loading for the roof as
~11 is a conservative approximation.
Concluding Notes
6. If a structure has key elements (i.e. those that carry, say, over 70 m2 or over 15%
of floor area at a given level), they have to be designed to withstand a specified load
(Clause 2.6.2, Part 2). Furthermore, if it is not possible to tie the structure (e.g. in
load bearing masonry construction), bridging elements have to be designed, assuming
that each.vertical loadbearing element is lost in tum (Clause 2.6.3, Part 2).
7. The overall layout of the structure should also be designed to provide robustness and
key elements should preferably be avoided.
106
EXAMPLE 34  CRACK wmm CALCULATION
The figure shows a cross section of a simply supported beam of 7 m span, and supporting
dead and imposed loads of 20 kN/m each. Determine the crack widths (i) midway between
the bars, (ii) at the bottom comer and (iii) 250 mm below the neutral axis.
( 450 >
f cu = 25 N/mm2
0
3T25
0 ()
I690 Es = 200 kN/mm2
Introductory Notes
1. This crack width calculation can be performed when the bar spacing rules are not
satisfied, to see whether this more accurate method will satisfy the crack width
requirements in Clause 3.2.4 of Part 2. It can also be used to estimate the actual
crack width in a flexural element.
107
Reference Calculations Output
Calculation of strains
cm.in = 750690(2512)
= 47.5 mm
<icrl = {(60)2+ (82.5)2}0.S
 12.5 = 89.5 mm
3cr2 = {(60)2 + (60)2)}0.S
 12.5 = 72.4 inm
3cr3 = {(60)2 + (690221250) 2}05
12.5 = 214.5 mm
Crack widths
108
Reference Calculatiom . Output
Comparison with bar macine rul~
3.12.11.2.3 Spacing between bars = {450(2)(47.5)(3)(25)} I 2 max. spacing
Table 3.30 = 140 mm < 160 mm; satisfactory. O.K.
3.12.11.2.5 Comer distance = {(60)2 + (60) 2}0.s  12.S comer distance
Table 3.30 = 72.4 mm < (160/2) mm; satisfactory. O.K.
Notes on Calculations
4. The serviceability calculations are based on a triangular stress block for concrete in
the elastic state. There is no restriction on the x/d ratio, as in ultimate limit state
calculations.
S. The effective second moment of area is found by considering only the area of
concrete that is not cracked; the area of steel is converted to an equivalent area of
concrete using the effective modular ratio, ae.
6. The strain at the required level in the concrete is found by calculating the strain from
elastic theory (e 1), and reducing from this valuean allowance for tension stiffening
in the concrete; this is because in calculating le and E1 we assume that the concrete
has no tensile strength, whereas in fact it does.
Concluding Notes
7. All the calculated crack widths are below 0.3 mm and hence satisfactory (Clause
3.2.4, Part 2). This could have been expected, because the maximum spacing and
comer distance rules are satisfied as well. It is these empirical rules that are used in
everyday design, because of their convenience.
8. For beams of ovetall depth exceeding 750 mm, side reinforcement in the form of
small diameter bars at spacings not exceeding 250 mtn over two thirds of the beam
depth from the tension face must also be provided;~as per Clause 3.12.11.2.6.
109
EXAMPLE 35 DEFLECTION CALCULATION
The figure shows a cross section of a simply supported beam of 7 m span. H the dead and
imposed loads are both taken as 5 kN/m2 each, and if25 % of the imposed load is taken as
permanent, calculate the total long term deflection of the beam at midspan. The age of
loading can be taken as 28 days.
( 225 >
fcu = 25 N/mm2
375
o o
2T25
I
125
fy
Es=
= 460 N/mm2
200 kN/mm2
Introductory Notes
1. This deflection calculation can be performed when the span/depth ratio check fails,
to see whether this more accurate method will satisfy the deflection requirements in
Clause 3.2.1.1 of Part 2. It can also be used to estimate the actual deflection of a
flexural element.
2. Where domestic and office space is concerned, 25 % of the imposed load can be
considered permanent; where storage areas are concerned the above figure should be
increased to 75 %
3. The age of loading is when the fonnwork is removed, at which point much of the
dead load and some imposed construction loads will be acting on the concrete
elements.
110
Reference Calculations Output
Di.ti fw: serviceability calcylations
equation 17
(Part 2) Ee = 20 + (0.2)(25) = 25 kN/~~2 l\:=25 kN/mm2
7.3 Eff. section thickness= (2)(375)(225) I (2)(375 + 225)
(Part 2) = 141 mm
RH = 85 % (assumed for Sri Lanka)
Figure 7.1 Long term creep coefficient, </> = 1.8
(Part 2) Eeff = 25 I (1+1.8) = 8.93 kN/mm2
Figure 7.2 ecs = 120 xl06
(Part 2) p = 982 I (225)(325) = 0.0134
ae = E5 I Eeff = 200 I 8.93 = 22.4 ae = 22.4
Calculation of curvatures
1/r1P = M I EeffIe
= (36 xl06) I (8.93 xla3)(896 xlcf>)"
= 4.5 xl06 mm 1
equation 9 1/rcs =fcsae.Ss I le
(Part 2) = (120 xl06)(22.4)(150.2 x1<>3) I (896 xla6)
= 0.45 xl06 mm 1
111
..
.~ c.blatitm~, . : .Oul)wt
To find instantaneous / '
Ee = 25 kN/mm2 . ..
a e =200/25=8 . ,,.. ,;i.
Estimation of deflection
Table 3.1 K =0.104
(Part 2) a = K.12(1/r)
= (0.104)(7ooo>2<6.96 xlO~ = 35.5 mm a= 35.5 mm
3.2.1.l
(Part 2) ~ a/1 = 3S.5 I 1000 = 11197 all> 1/250
Note 7 > 1/250
Notes on Calculatiom
4. The serviceability calculations are based .on a triangular stress block for concrete in
the elastic state. There \s no
restriction on the x/d ratio, as in ultimate limit state
calculations.
6. The tension stiffening 4ffects in Moot and ~rm cancel out here.
7. The final long term d~tlection is greater than span/250. Hence, it may be visually
unacceptable. '
Concluding Note
8.
',c''j
This calculation ~ is tedious, and is generally adopted only .to explore the
possibility of using a:,~ or:.~ evenafter the span/depth check fails .
.,, " ''~,,N""',....,' "'::::!:..:..,....,,,
. .