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Expert Systems with Applications 37 (2010) 949958

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Expert Systems with Applications


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/eswa

Fault diagnosis for internal combustion engines using intake manifold pressure
and articial neural network
Jian-Da Wu a,*, Cheng-Kai Huang a, Yo-Wei Chang b, Yao-Jung Shiao b
a
Graduate Institute of Vehicle Engineering, National Changhua University of Education, 1 Jin-De Rd., Changhua City, Changhua 500, Taiwan, ROC
b
Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan, ROC

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Keywords: This paper describes an internal combustion engine fault diagnosis system using the manifold pressure of
Intake manifold pressure the intake system. The manifold pressure of the engine intake system always demonstrates the engine
Discrete wavelet transform condition and affects the volumetric efciency, fuel consumption and performance of internal combus-
Articial neural network tion engines. Manifold pressure is well known to be detrimental to engine system stability and perfor-
Fault diagnosis
mance and it must be considered during regular maintenance. Conventional engine diagnostic
technology using manifold pressure in intake system already exists through analyzing the differences
between signals and depends on the experience of the technician. Obviously, the conventional detection
is not a precise approach for manifold pressure detection when the engine in operation condition. In the
present study, a system consisted of manifold pressure signal feature extraction using discrete wavelet
transform (DWT) and fault recognition using the neural network technique is proposed. To verify the
effect of the proposed system for identication, both the radial basis function network (RBFN) and gen-
eralized regression neural network (GRNN) are used and compared in this study. The experimental
results indicated the proposed system using manifold pressure signal as data input is effective for engine
fault diagnosis in the experimental engine platform.
2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction stability and performance of vehicles has been the subject of much
attention. Before, the fault diagnosis system often used sound
Owing to the great improvement in microprocessor and electri- emission or vibration signals analysis in the timefrequency do-
cal control technology in recent years, most road vehicle engines main, but this method was affected by background noise (Wang
are controlled by an engine management system (EMS) with vari- & McFadden, 1996). Actually, the recognition rate of the diagnosis
ous sensory systems (Nwagboso, 1993). Most of the sensors are system would be decreased by the background noise. The conven-
used for monitoring and controlling power plant and transmission. tional method of identifying engine faults was through observing
One of the most important parameters is the intake manifold abso- the intake manifold pressure using an experienced technician
lute pressure which can sense engine speed and control the fuel when the engine was in an operating condition. Obviously, the tra-
mixture. Apart from the manifold absolute pressure, the air mass ditional technique is not a precise approach for engine fault detec-
ow into the engine manifold can be sensed using a hot-wire ow tion, because some fault conditions could be similar to one
meter. The signals of sensors provide input information to the EMS. another. Some faults might be errors as judged by the technicians
It then adjusts the airfuel mixture based on feedback from the subjective opinion.
oxygen sensor (Crouse & Anglin, 1993). Unfortunately, both the in- For signal feature extraction in recent years, many useful tech-
take manifold pressure and air mass ow often uctuate when air- niques for signal analysis have been proposed, such as fast Fourier
leakage in the intake manifold obviously occurs, and the engine transform (FFT) (Corinthios, 1971), short time Fourier transform
volumetric efciency will be decreased. Engine performance and (STFT) (Portnoff, 1980) and wavelet transform (WT). Nonetheless,
fuel consumption will also be effected. In the above interpretation, the different analysis techniques did not adapt the signal of intake
there is a relation with intake manifold pressure and various kinds manifold pressure. The FFT was just analyzed, and inspection of the
of engine operating conditions. signal amplitude difference in frequency domain could not deter-
Due to the progress in technology, vehicles have gradually be- mine instantaneous variation. The STFT provides a xed-size win-
come a popular form of transportation in peoples daily life. The dow in the timefrequency domain. The wavelet transform
technique was used for both time and frequency resolutions and
* Corresponding author.
it could have an auto adjusted scale to adapt to the signal. The
E-mail address: jdwu@cc.ncue.edu.tw (J.-D. Wu). wavelet transform could be divided into continuous wavelet

0957-4174/$ - see front matter 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2009.05.082
950 J.-D. Wu et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 37 (2010) 949958

transform (CWT) and DWT. In 2008, Sen et al. published a wavelet and multi-resolution representation. The wavelet transform is de-
analysis of cycle-to-cycle pressure variations in an internal com- ned as the inner product of a signal xt with the mother wavelet
bustion engine (Sen, Litak, Taccani, & Radu, 2008). The study is a wt:
useful example analyzing the pressure in internal combustion en- Z 1  
1 tb
gines with WT. Unfortunately, the CWT took a lot of time for the CWTa; b p xtw dt; 1
a 1 a
calculation part and the amount of data was huge (Wu & Chen,
2006). Therefore, the DWT was developed to improve on CWT. where a represents the scale parameter, b represents the time shift-
The original signal was decomposed into several resolutions by ing (or translation) parameter and w is the complex conjugate of w.
the DWT, so it was easy to examine the instantaneous variations The user can dilate or translate the mother wavelet using a and b.
of pressure in all frequency bands. The DWT technique is used in During CWT analysis, the wavelet is shifted smoothly over the full
feature extraction for the internal combustion engine fault diagno- domain of the analyzed signal. It thus calculates the wavelet coef-
sis system. Further, both the radial basis function network (RBFN) cient at every scale, generating a huge amount of data. Due to the
and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) are used for huge amount of data generated through CWT, training classiers
fault identication. In the following sections, the proposed meth- based on its coefcients at different scales can often become cum-
ods and performance of the fault identication are described. bersome. The DWT is separate from the CWT (Alsberg, Woodward,
& Kell, 1997; Seker & Ayaz, 2003). It adopts the dyadic scale and
2. Principles of signal processing and multi-resolution analysis translation to reduce computation time. The DWT can be dened as
Z !
2.1. Principle of wavelet transform
1 1
 t  2j k
DWTa; b p xtw dt; 2
2j 1 2j
Wavelet transform is a relatively novel technique of signal pro-
where a and b are replaced by 2j and 2j k. The wavelet technique has
cessing. Similar to a windowed Fourier transform, a wavelet trans-
particular advantages for characterizing signals at different location
form can measure the timefrequency variations in spectral
levels in time as well as frequency domains. The discrete wavelet
components. It provides a more exible timefrequency resolution
transform performs two functions (Graps, 1995) that can be shown
as high-pass and low-pass lters. The principle of discrete wavelet
D1 transform is shown in Fig. 1. The two-lters are called the wavelet
2 function ut and scaling function /t as follows:
D2 !
x(t) 2
t  2j k
A1
2
D3 uj;k t 2j=2 u j; k 2 I; 3
2 2j
A2 !
2
j=2 t  2j k
A3 /j;k t 2 / j; k 2 I: 4
2 2j
decomposition Here, the time shift k 1; 2; . . . ; N=2j and the level j 1; 2; . . . ; J. J is
reconstruction the maximum level of wavelet transform. Thus, the wavelet trans-
form of xt can be obtained by Eqs . (5) and (6),
Fig. 1. Decomposition and reconstruction of DWT. Z
Dj;k xtuj;k tdt; 5
Z
Table 1
Frequency distribution of approximations.
AJ;k xt/J;k tdt; 6

Level Frequency band (Hz) Samples fn 10 kHz where Dj;k and AJ;k are called the detailed and approximation/
Low-pass lters smooth coefcients respectively. Roughly speaking, AJ;k mainly rep-
1
1 05000 0  fn =2 resents the tardy variation of xt at the low-frequency band and Dj;k
2 02500 0  fn =22
3 01250 0  fn =23
represents the detailed part at the high-frequency band. DWT uses
4 0625 0  fn =24 the fact it is possible to resolve high frequency components within a
5 0312.5 0  fn =25 small time window, and only low frequency components need large
6 0156.25 0  fn =26 time windows. This because a low frequency component completes
7 078.12 0  fn =27
8 039.06 0  fn =28
9 019.53 0  fn =29

Table 2
x1 y1
Frequency distribution of details.

Level Frequency band (Hz) Samples fn 10 kHz


High-pass lters
1 500010,000 fn =21  fn xm yk
2 25005000 fn =22  fn =21
3 12502500 fn =23  fn =22
4 6251250 fn =24  fn =23 d jk
5 312.5625 fn =25  fn =24
6 156.25312.5 fn =26  fn =25 aj
7 78.12156.25 fn =27  fn =26
8 39.0678.12 fn =28  fn =27 Input layer Hidden layer Output layer
9 19.5339.06 fn =29  fn =28
Fig. 2. Architecture of radial basis function neural network.
J.-D. Wu et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 37 (2010) 949958 951

a cycle in a large interval and a high frequency component com- 2.2. Multi-resolution analysis
pletes a cycle in a much shorter interval. Therefore, slow varying
components can only be identied over long intervals, but fast vary- Multi-resolution analysis was rst developed by Mallat. The
ing components can be identied over short intervals. mathematical model of MRA (Mallat, 1989; Yang & Leu, 2008)
can be dened as follows:

intake manifold pressure


Input -50
mormal
one injector fault
two injectors fault
-55
Initialization
Initialization intake air-leak
intake plugged

-60

Kpa
Feed
Feed forward Gain -65
forward Gainneuron
neuron
-70

Check
Checkconvergence
convergencecondition
condition -75

-80
Result 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
rpm
Fig. 3. Flow chart of the radial basis function neural network training procedure.
Fig. 6. Intake manifold pressure with various conditions.

n Di 2
exp - 2 2
=1 i
x1

x2
y( x)

xp1

xp n Di 2
yexp - 2 2
=1 i

Input layer Pattern layer Summation layer Output layer


Fig. 4. Architecture of generalized regression neural network.

Fig. 5. Experimental setup of engine fault diagnosis system.


952 J.-D. Wu et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 37 (2010) 949958

V j1 W j  V j W j  W j1      W jk  V jk ; 7 approximation sub-signal AJ t, which represent the components


of xt at different resolutions, calculated as follows:
X
where V j is the approximate version which decomposed the signal Dj t dj;k uj;k t j; k 2 I; 8
with the original signal at scale j; W j is the detailed version showing k
X
the transient appearance of the original signal at scale j;  is a sum- AJ t AJ;k /J;k t J; k 2 I: 9
mation of two decomposed signals and k is the number of the k
decomposition level. The multi-resolution analysis can be applied h i
to decompose the signal xt into various scales of the orthogonal The Dj t contents an approximate frequency band of fS =2j1  fS =2j
signal section. They are the detailed sub-signal Dj t and the and the AJ t contents an approximate frequency band of

normal
-3
D1 D6
a 0.01 5
x 10

0 0
-0.01 -5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3 -3
x 10 D2 x 10 D7
5 5
0 0
-5 -5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D3 D8
Magnitude

0.01 0.02
0 0
-0.01 -0.02
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D4 D9
0.01 0.05
0 0
-0.01 -0.05
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D5 A9
0.02 0.9
0 0.85
-0.02 0.8
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

Sample number

one injector fault


-3 -3
b x 10 D1 x 10 D6
5 2
0 0
-5 -2
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3
x 10 D2 D7
5 0.01
0 0
-5 -0.01
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D3 D8
Magnitude

0.01 0.02
0 0
-0.01 -0.02
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D4 D9
0.01 0.1
0 0
-0.01 -0.1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D5 A9
0.02 1.2
0 1.1
-0.02 1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Sample number

Fig. 7. Approximate and detailed coefcients which decomposition to nine levels by DWT with various faults in idle: (a) normal, (b) one injector fault, (c) two injectors fault,
(d) intake air-leak and (e) intake plugged.
J.-D. Wu et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 37 (2010) 949958 953

h i
0  fS =2J1 , here fS is the sampling frequency. The original signal xt 3. Principles of articial neural network models
can be recovered in terms of these sub-signals with different scales:
X 3.1. Radial basis function network
xt AJ Dj ; 10
j6J
The RBFN (Pulido, Ruisanchez, & Rius, 1999; Stubbings &
where AJ t and Dj t express the approximation and the detailed Hunter, 1999) is a feed-forward neural network, which is com-
signal of the Jth level. Suppose the sample rate is 10 kHz, the signal prised of three different layers: one input layer, one hidden layer
in the frequency domain is analyzed by 2n down-sampling. Tables 1 and one output layer. The network architecture is shown in
and 2 show the frequency distribution of the details and Fig. 2. Here, the RBFN has m input signals composing an input
approximations. vector that are sent to a hidden layer composed of RBFN neural

two injectors fault


-3
D1 x 10 D6
c 0.01 5
0 0
-0.01 -5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3 -3
x 10 D2 x 10 D7
5 5
0 0
-5 -5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D3 D8
Magnitude

0.01 0.02
0 0
-0.01 -0.02
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D4 D9
0.05 0.05
0 0
-0.05 -0.05
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D5 A9
0.02 1
0 0.95
-0.02 0.9
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Sample number

intake air-leak
-3 -3
x 10 D1 x 10 D6
d 5 5
0 0
-5 -5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3
x 10 D2 D7
5 0.01
0 0
-5 -0.01
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D3 D8
0.02 0.02
0 0
-0.02 -0.02
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D4 D9
0.02 0.1
0 0
-0.02 -0.1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D5 A9
0.02 2.3
0 2.2
-0.02 2.1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Sample number

Fig. 7 (continued)
954 J.-D. Wu et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 37 (2010) 949958

units. The third layer is the output layer, and the transfer functions hidden layer and the feed-forward stage is repeated until the con-
of the neurons are the linear units. The transformation from the in- vergence conditions are contained.
puts space to the hidden space is non-linear. Connections between
the input and the hidden layers have unit weights. The hidden 3.2. Generalized regression neural network
layer of the RBFN has several forms of nonzero activation func-
tions. The node calculates the Euclidean distance between the cen- In the common articial neural networks, the back-propagation
ter and the network input vector and then passes the result to the neural network is the most basic type and the most representation
radial basis function. The basis function for the jth hidden node is neural network. BPNN has many aws such as: existence of a local
often dened by a Gaussian exponential function shown as minimum, improper learning rate and requiring a large number of
follows: iterations to achieve convergence. The GRNN speed is very quick
! because it does not require an iterative training for converging to
v 2j a wanted solution. The GRNN was rst proposed by Specht (Specht,
aj av j exp  ; 11
2r2j 1991). Fig. 4 show the block diagram of the GRNN architecture. It is
one-passing learning algorithm, which can be used for estimating
where rj is the width of the jth neuron, v j is presented by the
continuous variables such as some transient content in intake
Euclidean norm of the distance between the input vector and the
manifold pressure signals. By denition, the regression of a depen-
neuron center calculated as follows:
dent variable y on an independent variable x computes the most
v
u r probable value for y, given x and a training set. The f x; y repre-
uX
v j x kx  cj k t xi  cj;i 2 ; i 1; 2; . . . ; r; 12 sents the known joint continuous probability density function of
i1 a vector random variable, x, and a scalar random variable x. The
conditional mean of y given X is given by
where cj is a center of the jth RBFN unit. And the output value is de- R1
ned as yf X; ydy
EyjX R1
1 14
X
s 1
f X; ydy
yk djk aj ; 13
j1
When the density f x; y is unknown, it must usually be estimated
from the sample of observations of x and y. The probability estima-
where yk , the kth element of the y, is the output of the kth node in tor f X; Y is based on sample values X i and Y i of the random vari-
the output layer, djk is the weight from the jth hidden layer neuron ables x and y, where n is the number of sample observations and
to the kth output layer neuron, and aj is the output of the jth node p is the dimension of the vector variable x:
in the hidden layer.
^f X; Y 1 1
The output layer simply consists of linear summation units with
a linear activation function. In the training process, the output tar- 2pp1=2 rp 1 n
" # " #
get of the hidden node associated with the cluster is 1 for most Xn
X  X i T X  X i Y  Y i 2
samples. For the other samples, this target is 0. The ow chart  exp  exp  ; 15
i1
2r2 2r 2
of the RBFN training procedure is shown in Fig. 3. The RBFN could
automatically determine the number of neurons in the hidden where r is the smoothing parameter, the scalar function D2i dened
layer during the procedure. If the result does not contain the con- as
vergence conditions, the network system will add a neuron to the

intake plugged
-3 -3
x 10 D1 x 10 D6
e 5 2
0 0
-5 -2
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3
x 10 D2 D7
5 0.01
0 0
-5 -0.01
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D3 D8
Magnitude

0.02 0.05
0 0
-0.02 -0.05
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D4 D9
0.05 0.1
0 0
-0.05 -0.1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D5 A9
0.02 1.6
0 1.55
-0.02 1.5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Sample number

Fig. 7 (continued)
J.-D. Wu et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 37 (2010) 949958 955

normal
-3
D1 x 10 D6
a 0.01 5
0 0
-0.01 -5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3 -3
x 10 D2 x 10 D7
5 5
0 0
-5 -5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3 -3
x 10 D3 x 10 D8
Magnitude

2 5
0 0
-2 -5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3 -3
x 10 D4 x 10 D9
2 1
0 0
-2 -1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3
x 10 D5 A9
1 0.9
0 0.89
-1 0.88
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Sample number

one injector fault


-3 -3
x 10 D1 x 10 D6
b 5 2
0 0
-5 -2
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3
x 10 D2 D7
5 0.01
0 0
-5 -0.01
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D3 D8
0.01 0.02
Magnitude

0 0
-0.01 -0.02
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3
D4 x 10 D9
0.01 5
0 0
-0.01 -5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3
x 10 D5 A9
5 1.1
0 1.09
-5 1.08
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Sample number

Fig. 8. Approximate and detailed coefcients which decomposition to nine levels by DWT with various faults in 3000 rpm: (a) normal, (b) one injector fault, (c) two injectors
fault, (d) intake air-leak and (e) intake plugged.

D2i X  X i T X  X i ; 16 the estimated density to assume non-Gaussian shapes, but with the
hazard wild points may have a signicant effect on the estimate.
and performing the indicated integration yields
Pn  
D2
i 4. Experimental study and classication of intake manifold
i1 Y
exp  2ri 2
^
YX   : 17 pressure signals
Pn D2i
i1 exp  2r2
4.1. Experimental work
When the smoothing parameter r is large, the estimated density is
forced to be smooth and the limit becomes a multivariate Gaussian In the experimental investigation, the intake manifold pressure
with covariance r2 I. On the other hand, a smaller value of r allows signals of engine were recorded and analyzed to prove the
956 J.-D. Wu et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 37 (2010) 949958

two injectors fault


-3 -3
x 10 D1 x 10 D6
c 2 2
0 0
-2 -2
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3 -3
x 10 D2 x 10 D7
2 5
0 0
-2 -5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3
x 10 D3 D8
Magnitude

2 0.01
0 0
-2 -0.01
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3 -3
x 10 D4 x 10 D9
2 1
0 0
-2 -1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-4
x 10 D5 A9
5 0.88
0 0.86
-5 0.84
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Sample number

intake air-leak
-3 -3
x 10 D1 x 10 D6
d 5 5
0 0
-5 -5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D2 D7
0.02 0.1
0 0
-0.02 -0.1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D3 D8
Magnitude

0.1 0.1
0 0
-0.1 -0.1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D4 D9
0.02 0.01
0 0
-0.02 -0.01
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D5 A9
0.02 1.2
0 1.1
-0.02 1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Sample number

Fig. 8 (continued)

proposed fault diagnosis system. The pressure signals were trans- system (NI-9215) with 10 kHz sampling frequency. The experi-
ited using pressure sensors and recorded using a data acquisition ment comprises ve engine fault conditions and ve engine rotat-
system. Afterward, we analyzed and classied the signals using ing speeds. The ve engine conditions are the normal engine
DWT and an articial neural network. In the signal analysis, the condition, one injector fault, two injectors fault, intake air-leak
signals can be decomposed into 9 levels by DWT, and can be used and intake plugged. The engine is run in an idle condition
to detect faults. The purpose of neural network is to nd the same (800 rpm), 1000 rpm, 1500 rpm, 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm.
engine fault condition under different operation conditions. The
experimental owchart of the engine fault diagnosis system is 4.2. Experimental results and fault classication
shown in Fig. 5. The equipment for the experiment included an
internal combustion engine (Ford L type, four-stroke, four cylin- In the time domain signal, it is very difcult to detect the tran-
ders, 1.6-L injection engine), pressure sensor and a data acquisition sient signal in the engine fault condition. The intake manifold pres-
J.-D. Wu et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 37 (2010) 949958 957

intake plugged
-3 -3
x 10 D1 x 10 D6
e 5 5
0 0
-5 -5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3
x 10 D2 D7
5 0.02
0 0
-5 -0.02
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
D3 D8
Magnitude

0.02 0.05
0 0
-0.02 -0.05
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3
D4 x 10 D9
0.02 5
0 0
-0.02 -5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
-3
x 10 D5 A9
5 1.72
0 1.7
-5 1.68
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Sample number

Fig. 8 (continued)

Table 3
Performance of fault recognition using RBF and GRNN in various faults and operation conditions.

RBF GRNN
Idle 1000 1500 2000 3000 Idle 1000 1500 2000 3000
Normal (%) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
One injector fault (%) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Two injectors fault (%) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 90
Intake air-leak (%) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Intake plugged (%) 100 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Averaged recognition rate (%) 99 99
Training time (s) 7.4 0.46

sures in the time domain of various fault conditions are summa- Correct classification samples
Recognition rate  100%: 18
rized in Fig. 6. Note the intake manifold pressure of the two injec- Total testing of samples
tor faults and normal condition are closed. In the proposed system,
As summarized in Table 3, all the evaluation results had over 95%
after recording pressure signal, they could be decomposed into
recognition rates in various engine operation conditions. The exper-
nine levels by the DWT analysis technique. The nine levels were
imental results show the DWT fault diagnosis system with GRNN
composed of nine high frequency bandwidths and one low fre-
and RBF can be effectively used in engine fault diagnosis of various
quency bandwidth. For example, Figs. 7 and 8 indicated the
faults through measuring the engine intake manifold pressure
approximate and detailed coefcients which decomposed into nine
signal.
levels by DWT with various faults in the engine operated at idle
and 3000 rpm conditions. Unfortunately, there is still no easy
way to point out faults from the persons viewpoint and it is not 5. Conclusion
easy to detect faults from the information. Therefore, the feature
vectors of engine faults are summarized as inputs of the neural A fault diagnosis system of the internal combustion engine
network and established as the database. However the selection based on the intake manifold pressure is proposed. The diagnosis
of the feature vector was adapted to the engine speed. For example, procedure consisted of feature extraction using discrete wavelet
for the feature vector of the idle condition 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, transform and classication using articial neural networks. The
the nine high frequency bandwidths and one low frequency band- approach improves the conventional aw of too much reliance
width were chosen. The feature vector of 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm on the experience of technicians. In this system, the features of in-
only chose the nine high level bandwidths. There are 200 data sets take manifold pressure signal at different resolution levels are ex-
for each fault condition. The 120 data sets are used for training and tracted by multi-resolution analysis without losing their original
80 data sets are used to test the recognition rate of the proposed properties. The experimental results indicated the proposed fault
network. The performance of the fault diagnosis system is evalu- diagnosis system with two different neural networks can be
ated by the recognition rate which is dened as effectively used in engine fault diagnosis. However, GRNN can
958 J.-D. Wu et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 37 (2010) 949958

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