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A STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION INSIDE ROAD


TUNNELS

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International Symposium
on :
Utilization of underground space in urban areas
6-7 November 2006, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt

A STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION INSIDE ROAD TUNNELS


S. S. Koussa1, K. R. Beshay2, M. A. Hashish3
1. Professor emeritus, Mechanical Power Dept, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
2. Professor, Mechanical Power Dept, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
3. Manager of Tunnels Dept, Cairo governorate, Egypt.

Abstract
The use of vehicular road tunnels is an effective answer for many traffic problems in large urban
areas. These tunnels are designed to be safe and comfortable for human usage. The tunnels are
expected to have higher concentrations of air pollutants than open areas because of their relatively
enclosed space and intense pollutants sources.
The paper includes emissions simulation to assess the air pollution in the tunnel due to the road
traffic. The application to the southern tunnel of Al-Azhar vehicular road tunnels in Cairo city was
performed during summer 2002. A simulation method was developed to get the distribution of CO
and NO2 concentrations, in addition to the airflow parameters inside the vehicular road tunnel. The
initial and boundary conditions are essential input to the simulation. A tail pipe exhaust test was
performed addressed to road test. The results of this work were treated to estimate the local
composition of light duty vehicles in Cairo city according to European, ECE, Regulations. An
experimental program was developed guided by the UK protocol of air measurements to evaluate the
existing air quality under the influence of the tunnel ventilation system. This information is used by
the simulation system to predict the airflow velocities and rates which are needed to dilute the
predicted emissions concentrations.
1. Introduction:
Depending on pollutant type, concentration and exposure duration, the human individuals can suffer
from health effects. Therefore, many governments have the drive to put some legislations and
regulations to set the limits of the pollutants in the regional atmosphere. The vehicular road tunnels
are able to discharge the traffic from the congested city areas to better flow roads assisting to improve
the regional air quality. CO is the greatest concern from spark ignition engines and NO2 is the
predominant contaminant from compression ignition engines. The present paper contains an
application on Al-Azhar road tunnels in Cairo city which was opened in October 2001. The tunnels
are located in high-density traffic, plenty of crossroads and random building heights area which affect
hardly the ambient airflow characteristics. The airflow inside the tunnel is unidirectional flow
caused by meteorological (wind direction at inlet of the tunnel portal) and piston effect due to the
vehicles motion inside the tunnel which assist the natural ventilation system, in addition to a
multipart forced ventilation system. The mechanical components of ventilation system are together
forming A hybrid system, merging the longitudinal and full transverse ventilation systems. The
reviewed work was performed in order to assess the interior Air Quality of the tested tunnel and the
related development. The resultant data of that field study and the background information of the
meteorological situations and the tunnel characteristics are the inputs of the present simulation
system. The present study provides an assembly of data containing the experimental and the
predicted results in addition to the other data inputs of the simulated tunnel.
2. The test program:
The need of information about the gaseous contaminants, which are released into the air environment
by vehicles from combustion process, is important for any field evaluation. Emission monitoring is
more than just choosing the right equipments and methods. The monitoring considers many issues

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International Symposium
on :
Utilization of underground space in urban areas
6-7 November 2006, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt
such as the nature of the emissions, the possible limits, the legal requirements, the collecting and
processing of the related data in addition to quality assurance, calibration, accuracy, safety and the
management of site work. The monitoring guideline covers many aspects of management of an
emission-monitoring program and is based on the emission testing requirements that should be,
normally including a sampling protocol.
2.1 Test case:
The present simulation modeling segregates the tunnel into six zones (fig 2.1). The zones selection
depended on the tunnel road way characteristics, the vanes locations that influence the zone extension
by controlling the airflow specifications, the safety and power supply availability. The tunnel zero
metric point is arranged on the traffic and air flow direction, (x-axis), where airflow enters the zone/s
always from one side and leaves from the other in flow direction. The air samples was taken and
analyzed at the end of each zone to describe the flow air constituents accumulated over the zone
volume
Analyzers situation selections are located just before the end of each zone (fig 2.1). The metric
points of the selected locations are assumed to be the boundaries of the simulated zones. The tunnels
identification shows that there are two nearly parallel roadway tunnels each for one traffic flow
direction. Both tunnels have about 2200 meters covered length and the rest are open ramps and the
roadway gradient, (S %), varies from (0%m-1) at portals to (-4.5% m-1) at deeper locations.
2.2 The present test program:
The test runs timing was designed for four days successive tests for each point location. The time
runs per day were fourteen to seventeen; and each time run was of one-hour average. The test started
daily at 6.00 am until 23.00 and stopped when needed to maintain any analyzer (calibration or
servicing depending on its built-in alarm program. Therefore, each location takes up one week to
execute 62 to 68 succeeded time runs.

The monitors were erected over a bench; the first level for NO2 instrument and the second level for
CO and their sampling intake arrangements were directed towered the road way where the air and
traffic flow. The measurements were organized into scan period ( -3 h) or cycle (-24h) that is the
time between two intermediate weightings. The results cumulated and averaged for the total
measuring time runs of each point location (five days average). Air pollution monitoring produces
considerable amounts of data, which is handled using statistical techniques and the collected data
indicates the concentration fluctuations and the measurements errors. the accuracy may be poor due
to losses in the sampling system, leaks in the sampling system and calibration errors.
3. Mathematical model
The air quality simulation computes the dispersed air pollutants emission concentrations inside the
tunnel. Moreover, the pollutants emissions are calculated as functions of space (location) and time.
The present simulation of air quality is derived from basic equations including momentum, mass
balance and thermodynamic relationships. The simulation requires boundary conditions. The present

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International Symposium
on :
Utilization of underground space in urban areas
6-7 November 2006, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt
case is assumed to be a quasi steady state condition "Philip Roth et al" (1994) [13]. The airflow is
assumed incompressible. In addition, the simulation considers the hydrodynamic effect between the
traffic flow characteristics and the tunnel configuration components, fig (2.1). The tunnel tube is
discretised along its symmetric axis in the direction of flow which assumed to be x-axis, to an array of
theoretical zones. These zones are bounded by the roadway gradient variations, as shown in fig (3.1).
Each zone contains a set of cells. The zone represents totally a control volume. This will achieve a
suitable accuracy depending on the finite volume size within the computational domain.

3.1 The momentum conservation


Based on the previous assumptions and employing the eddy viscosity concept, turbulence kinetic
energy, the equation for the simulation unidirectional flow conditions inside a tunnel is written for
steady state conditions as follow:
( ui /xj - (uiuj))/ xj - (ui uj)/ xj + 1/ P/xi = 0 (3.1)
Where:
(ui) is the mean value and represents the income wind speed inside the tunnel considered positive when
the wind blows in the same direction of the traffic flow.
() is representing the viscous diffusion of momentum (friction term).
(ui ,uj) are the flow velocity components.
The mixing takes place along the direction of flow and normal to the tunnel axis. The mixing
conditions are effective enough due to the induced effects of the vehicles motion, diffusion and
mechanical mixing contribution to complete mixing during convenient time interval. Therefore it is
assumed that the air pollutants mixed well with the tunnel air "Robert Bellasio (1997),[8].
The momentum flux (uiuj) is formed, due to the turbulence and due to the vehicles motion inside the
tunnel. The air flow part is assumed proportional to the initial property gradient by the turbulent
dispersion coefficient "J.Modic (1998),[9]. The part by vehicles is formed through the vehicles
motion as a turbulent effect that can be described by assuming that each vehicle is pushing a quantity
of air with a speed, which is proportional to the ratio of vehicle to tunnel cross sections (veh / T)
representing the piston effect term. Then equation, (3.1), can be simplified as follow:
- ( ui /xi) / xj + ( ui uveh)/ xj + (ui uj)/ xj +1/ P/xi = 0 (3.2)
Equation (3.2) can be analyzed as a special case where:
uveh is the mean vehicles speed (10120 km/hr), [28], limited by the tunnel authority to (50 60
km/hr). AT is the tunnel cross section area (m). veh is the vehicles average facing area, which is
divided to Acar and Atruck (m). = (veh / T).
is a convenient, empirical constant relating the air resistance to the vehicle motion.

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International Symposium
on :
Utilization of underground space in urban areas
6-7 November 2006, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt
Introducing the vehicles count (Mveh,) this is the sum of passenger cars (Mcar) and trucks (Mtruck)
counts and is represented by the country vehicular fleet composition: Mvehicles = Mcar + Mtruck
The wall friction factors assumed to be (D) for laminar flow and (xi) for wall shear stress and (Dh) is
the hydraulic diameter. The resultant equation of a unidirectional flow inside a vehicular road tunnel
is formed as follow:
ui,j = u (Lxi , Dh, AT, D, xi, P, , , Mvehicles, Lvehicles, uvehicles, H, s). (3.3)
The simulated inlet flow rate Qinlet is the product of the entered wind speed ui,j and the tunnel inlet
portal area AT ; Qinlet = uij .AT
3.2 The mass conservation
The passing vehicles emit the pollutants with concentration Ci,j which disperse in the tunnel air.
Since the mass transfer takes place by convection progression, it is convenient to define its rate;
(C/t) which is proportional to the difference between the mass concentration at initial (income) case
and that at the outlet boundary case. Thus, the mass balance formulation for each cell " M.
Jacobson (1996), [10], e.g. for zone i,j ( fig 3.1) can be represented as follow:

C/ t + Cuij /x = ( kx C/x ) /x + Sc + P (3.4)

Where;
C is the average species concentration of the pollutant formed in the zone Zi,j
Sc is the source of pollutants ( g / m s ), S = S (x, t).
P is the sink term ( g / m s ), P= P (x, t).
Kx is the dispersion coefficient of C (m/s).
Vi,j is the zone volume occupied by air ( Lxi. AT) m3.
Ec is the emission rate of each contaminant C (g /m.s) produced by vehicles count Mveh
(vehicles/hour), through traveling inside the tunnel Lxi (km) with vehicles average velocity uveh
(km/hr). Emissions factors are fa ,fh. Ec; can be calculated from the data related to the regional
fleet composition.
Ci-1,j is the inlet (income) pollutant concentration, Ccalculated (mg/ m) originally emitted by the passing
vehicles Mveh before applying ventilation control .
Ci,j is the zone formed concentration, Cmeasured (mg/m) measured under the effect of the ventilation
system (mg/ m).
QAirDemand (m/s) is the needed air flow rate to dilute the emitted air pollutant concentration
Ci,j-1 (mg/ m) to acceptable level.

The total flow rate is called the Air Demand (QAirDemand = Qinletair + Qgeneratedair). For each case, there is
a particular demand for every concentration of a pollutant. In practice, it is not possible to calculate
the demand for all the air contaminants, but it is usual to evaluate the dilution requirements for the

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International Symposium
on :
Utilization of underground space in urban areas
6-7 November 2006, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt
most harmful pollutants. For Al Azhar road tunnel, the detection of such distribution is essential task
of the present simulation.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


4.1Presentation of the estimated vehicles fleet composition
The traffic information is a source of data, which is required for the air quality simulation inside a
road tunnel, being a part of the local traffic roadways. The span of the traffic in Cairo city center is
covering the simulated tunnel. The estimated fleet composition for the light duty vehicles in Cairo
city that are permitted to pass through the tunnel is an essential component of the study task. An
analysis was performed to evaluate and then handling the data of on road test. EEA (2000),[17], to
estimate a local fleet composition.
The local vehicles composition provides practical information about local categories and
consequently the related emissions standard rates through the methodology by "Eggleston et al"
(1991) and the ECE regulations and codes, [15]. Figure (4.1) and table (4.1) indicate the resulting
percentages of each category.
4.1.1 Discussions
The presented fleet was performed via two ways. One is based on the previous work
" Pierson et al"(1996),[4] and is compatible with EEA Corinair codes (1985). The second was
evaluated according to the Egyptian law of environment (4/1994) and its executive regulations:
(Article 37). This law defines that : " for vehicles currently in service ( year average models are
before 1995 ): the maximum limits of CO emissions 7% by volume at (600 to 900 rpm) and the
exhaust smoke 65% by volume at minimum engine acceleration. For vehicles were licensed
beginning 1995: the maximum limits of CO emissions 4.5% by volume at (600 to 900 rpm) and the
exhaust smoke 50% by volume at maximum engine acceleration".
Table (4.1) the composition of petrol and diesel fueled vehicles:
passenger Cars % of LD Diesel trucks%
ECE Regulation TOTAL FLEET
total fleet of total fleet
Pre ECE 2.16% 0.02% 2.18%
ECE 15 01 4.48% 0.06% 4.54%
ECE 15 02 15.56% 1.50% 17.06%
ECE 15 03 15.11% 2.22% 17.33%
ECE 15 04 47.08% 11.81% 58.91%
TOTAL COMPOSITION 84.39% 15.61% 100%

0.0218 0.0454

0.1706
Pre ECE

ECE 15 0 1

ECE 15 0 2

ECE 15 0 3

ECE 15 0 4

0.5891
0.1733

FIG ( 4.1) TOTALCOMPOSITION OF LIGHT VEHICLES FLEET OF CAIRO 2001

The current evaluations based on CO emission limits separates the following two types of vehicles as
associated sorts of the basic fleet categories:

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International Symposium
on :
Utilization of underground space in urban areas
6-7 November 2006, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt
1. Allowable vehicles that emit contaminants percentage equal or less than the (Article 37)
allowable limits.
2. Not allowable vehicles that emit contaminants more than those limits.
Table (4.2) and figure (4.2) illustrate an addition of attribute for the evaluation of the issued emissions
by the sampled vehicles. These emissions values are compared with the legislations limits will get
the following descriptions:
1. Normal emitter that emits less than the legislations values.
2. Higher emitter that emits over the legislations values.
Table (4.2): evaluation of the present fleet vehicles types to law 4/1994.
Not Normal
VEHICLE TYPE Composition Allowable Higher Emitter
Allowable Emitter
Passenger Cars 84.39% 27.10% 72.90% 57.90% 42.10%
LD Diesel trucks 15.61% 67.00% 33.00% 28.60% 71.40%
TOTAL
100% 47.05 % 52.95 % 43.25 % 56.75 %
AVERAGES

120.00%

100.00%

80.00%

passenger cars
60.00%
LD diesel trucks

40.00% TOTAL/AVERAGE

20.00%

0.00%
composition allowable not allowable Higher emitter normal emitter

FIG (4.2) EVALUATION OF CAIRO FLEET COMPOSITION (LDV)

It can be concluded that much of Cairo vehicles may have low technical conditions, less control fittings of
exhaust emission and not adequate control driving modes. Accordingly, we cannot prove that the
average vehicles category of Cairo traffic can match the requirements of ECE R 15 04. The special
aspects of each society, even in the common cases, determine the differences in categories percentages.

4.2 CO measurements:
The field measurements of carbon monoxide emissions performed for each zone of the tunnel are
given in figure (4.3).

70
CO:average
measuredof zone 1:
60 (ppm)
CO:average
measured of
50
zone2(ppm)
CO: average
COppm

40 measured of zone
3(ppm)

30 CO:Average
measuredof zone 4
(ppm)
20
CO:average
measured of zone 5
10 (ppm)
CO: average
measured of zone 6
0 (ppm)
7:00 9:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:00 19:00 21:00 23:00
TIME RUN

FIG (4.3) The averaged measured CO concentrations resume

This describes the dispersion behavior in the tunnel interior over the daytime runs, as well as, the
average distribution of the pollutants from zone to another inside the tested tunnel, even under the big
influence of the generated airflow.

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International Symposium
on :
Utilization of underground space in urban areas
6-7 November 2006, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt
This means that these zones are over ventilated zones because of their lower pollutants concentrations
than the global accepted limit of CO, which is 35 ppm in vehicular tunnels, [6].

200
CO : average
180 calculated of zone 1:
(ppm)
160 CO : average
calculated of zone 2:
140
r

(ppm)
mveh/h

CO : average
120
calculated of zone 3:
(ppm)
100
CO : average
Opp

80 calculated of zone 4:
(ppm)
C

60 CO : average
calculated of zone 5:
40 (ppm)
CO : average
20 calculated of zone 6
(ppm)
0
AVERAGE
7:00 9:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:00 19:00 21:00 23:00 VAHICLS/HOUR
TIME RUN

FIG(4.4) THE SIMULATION AVERAGED RESULTS OF CO CONCENTRATIONS

4.3 CO simulation
The simulation gives the original emission values that were minimized by the ventilation function, fig
(4.4). The natural airflow in the first and the second zones is sufficient for controlling the simulated
operation conditions. The predicted values in all tunnel zones with the averaged vehicle counts show
that the developments of CO concentration values follow the vehicle counts variations.
4.4 NO2 measurements
Fig (4.5) shows that the increased Nitrogen dioxide is a product of the hasty driving of vehicles and
the running of diesel engine vehicles. This explains the differences in relation between CO and NO2
emissions with the vehicle counts variations.

250
NO2: average
measured of zone
1(ppb)
200
N02 average
measured of zone
2 ppb
2ppb

150 NO2: average


measured of zone
3 (ppb)
NO

100 NO2: average


measured of zone
4(ppb)

50 NO2: average
measured of zone
5(ppb)

0 NO2: average
measured of zone
7:00 9:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:00 19:00 21:00 23:00
6(ppb)
TIME RUN

FIG( 4.5) The averaged measured NO2 concentrations

4.5 NO2 simulation


The predicted values of NO2 concentrations of the emitted values of the pollutant by the passing
vehicles inside the simulated tunnel are shown in figure (4.6).

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International Symposium
on :
Utilization of underground space in urban areas
6-7 November 2006, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt
700
NO2:average
calculated of zone 1:
600 (ppb)

NO2:average
500 calculated of zone 2:
(ppb)
NO2ppb

400 NO2:average
calculated of zone 3:
(ppb)
300
NO2:average
calculated of zone4:
200 (ppb)

NO2:average
100
calculated of zone 5:
(ppb)
0
NO2:average
7:00 9:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:00 19:00 21:00 23:00 calculated of zone 6:
TIME RUN (ppb)

FIG(4.6) THE SIMULATION RESULTS OF NO2 AVERAGED


CONCENTRATIONS

4.6. Airflows
The airflow is classified to inlet flow, which is caused by the meteorological situations and the
vehicles motion into the tunnel, and the dilution demand. The generated airflow assists to build the
demand of air.

8 U Inlet Air
m/s:1800
7

6
U Air Demand
m/s :1800
/s

5
Um

4
U Inlet Air
3 m/s:600

U Air Demand
1 m/s :600

1(40m) 2/640m 3(1370m) 4(1670m) 5(1890m) 6(2260m)


TUNNEL ZONES (Lx m)

FIG (4.7) SIMULATION OF AIR FLOW VELOCITIES WHILE PASSING 600


AND 1800 VEHICLES /HOUR

Figure (4.7) show the simulation of these two types of airflow in their averaged quantities for each
tunnel zone. The simulation was done based on two main vehicles counts. One represented the
average low vehicles count (600 vehicles) and the second was the higher average vehicles count (1800
vehicles).
The inlet airflow velocity decreased due to less vehicles count and consequently the demand flow
decreased. The inlet flow increased and the demand flow doubled for the 1800 vehicles count. Fig
(4.8) shows the airflow rates; Qinletair m/s and Qairdemand m/s. Both flow rates started in the inlet portal
with narrow differences for all vehicle counts. The inlet flow increased up to the beginning of the
third zone. We can conclude that:
All the inlet airflow rates gradually decreased continuously because of wall function until the exit
portal.
The air demand increases in a continuous manner until the exit portal to dilute the accumulated
pollutants concentrations and to overcome the wall functions and the limited interior pressure
and temperature variations.
In the sixth zone, the air demand was slightly less than that of the fifth zone even in case of flow
traffic with big vehicle counts, due to increasing the piston effect in the exit portal zone.
The difference between QAirdemand and Qinletair represents the generated airflow; Qgenerated, i.e. the
minimum air quantity required to attain the simulated air quality.

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International Symposium
on :
Utilization of underground space in urban areas
6-7 November 2006, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt
400

350 Qu Inlet Air m3/s1800

300

250 Q AirDemand
m3/s:1800
Qm3/s

200

150 Qu Inlet Air m3/s:600

100
QAirDemand
50 m3/s:600

0
1(40m) 2/640m 3(1340m) 4(1670m) 5(1890m) 6(2240m)
Tunnel length Lxi meters

FIG (4.8 ) Simulation of dilution flow rates and inlet flow rates

4.7 The total averaged pollutants concentrations


The averages of measured and calculated concentrations values are represented in figures (4.9, 4.10).
The representation are allover the tunnel length and in each of the six zones. The figures prove the
increasing of emission rates with the tunnel length and vehicle flow cases.

200

180

160
CO: measured
140 (ppm)
COppm

120

100

80 CO:
caculatedl(ppm)
60

40

20

0
zone1/40m zone2/640m zone3/1370m zone4/1670m zone5/1890m zone6/2240m
TUNNEL ZONES/LENGTH

FIG (4.9) THE TOTAL AVERAGES OF CO CONCENTRATIONS

700

600

500

NO2: measured
pb

400
(ppb)
NO2p

300

NO2: calculated
200
(ppb)

100

0
zone1/40m zone4/1670m
TUNNEL ZONES (Lx m)

FIG (4.10) THE TOTAL AVERAGES OF NO2 CONCENTRATIONS

5. TOTAL PREDICTIONS

The results of the present simulation include the relations between the measured and predicted
concentrations, viz. The CO and NO2 emission ratios: COmeasured / COcalculated and NO2measured /
NO2calculated. The characteristic number of the dilution flow rates: Ncr = Qinletair / Qair demand and the
factor of dilution needs FQ = [1- (Qinletair/ QAirDemand )] = Qg/QAirDemand.

5.1The factors of airflow rates:

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International Symposium
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The ratios of Qinlet/QDemand and Qg/ QDemand form criteria numbers (Ncr) and FQ. Figure (5.1) shows
the total average of those numbers over each of the tunnel zones for all time runs.

180

160
Ncr%
140
cr%, FQ, Qm3/s

120
FQ %
100

80

60 Qgenerated
m3/s
N

40

20
Qu Inlet air
0
m3/s
1(40m) 2/640m 3(1370m) 4(1670m) 5(1890m) 6(2260m)

TUNNEL ZONES (Lx m)

FIG (5.1) TOTAL AVERAGES OF DILUTION FACTORS AND FLOW RATES

Ncr is nearly unity in entrance zone, where the natural airflow is sufficient. Then it dropped to 73.6%
in the second zone and to 61% in third zone. This confirms the necessity of partial mechanical
ventilation in these sections. Then, Ncr failed to 49.53% in the fourth zone and to 43.65% in the fifth
zone and continued to 39.7 % in the exit zone (before exit portal). This shows the big need of
generated airflow in the last three zones of the simulated tunnel (1370m 2300m). In last three
zones it cannot depend generally on the natural ventilation, which can put aside only less than 42%
(average of Ncr%) of the simulated ventilation. FQ is another ratio weighting the need of mechanical
ventilation to attain the simulated air quality conditions. It started by a need 2.25% in entrance zone,
increased to 26.41 % and 39.4 % in the second and third zones. Then, increased through the fourth,
fifth and sixth zones to more than 60.3%, of air requirements. These ratios confirm the need to admit
fresh air quantities into the simulated tunnel zones to attain the measured pollutants concentrations or
the existed air quality. These values are not valid for the congested traffic because of the traffic flow
is essential need in side the tunnels.
5.2 CO trend validation:
The predicted values provide the variation of pollutants concentrations inside the tunnel with time and
location. The ratio of the predicted to the measured CO concentrations( y) is correlated to the tunnel
length Lxi meters at any location xi,.
The equation of the CO trend line is:
y = 0.0692 x + 1.0266
The line represents the validation of CO between: (x = 0, y = 1.0266) and (x = Lxi , y = 2.618).
The equation indicates the increase of the predicted concentrations of CO than the measured values at
any location inside the simulated tunnel, fig (5.2).

3.5

3 y = 0.0692x + 1.0266
CO predictes/
easured

R2 = 0.5632 CO measured
2.5
COcalculated/COm

1.5
Linear (CO
predictes/ CO
1 measured )

0.5 Lxi m

0
0 5 10 15 20 25

FIG (5.2) CO Validation of the trend

- -
International Symposium
on :
Utilization of underground space in urban areas
6-7 November 2006, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt
5.3NO2 trend validation results and discussion:
The ratio of NO2calculated/ NO2 measured represented by( y ) axis was correlated to the tunnel length
Lxi at any location xi. The line equation is:
y = 0.0369 x + 1.2408

3.5

3 y = 0.0369x + 1.2408
easured

2
R = 0.1666
NO2
2.5 predicred/NO2
measured
2m

2
2calculated/NO

1.5
Linear (NO2
predicred/NO2
1
O

measured)
N

0.5
Lxi m
0
0 5 10 15 20 25
FIG (5.3) NO2 Validation of the trend

The line represents the trend validation of NO2 between (x =0, y = 1.2408) and (x = Lxi, y = 2.0895).
The equation indicates the increase of the predicted concentrations of NO2 than the measured values
at any tunnel location xij ,fig (5.3).
The validation of the trend of CO and NO2 concentrations demonstrates that at any location xij at
distance x meters from the (0.0) metric point of the simulated tunnel entrance portal, the ratio
(COcalculated/COmeasured ) > (NO2calculated/ NO2measured). This determines the ventilation system
control strategy which depends mainly on the CO concentration ratios.

6. CONCLUSIONS
1- Evaluation of the local composition of light duty vehicles { Cairo 2001} that may pass inside the
tunnel as a sample of Cairo Light Duty Vehicles composition, reveals that for the normal emitting
vehicles the average percentage is less than 59.65 % of the total traffic. This reflects the
uncontrolled driving modes and traffic flow conditions to the low technical conditions of
vehicles.
2- The air quality evaluation of the tunnel distinguishes three different cases for the tunnel zones.
The first case is for the first and second zones, where the air quality is sufficient because of the
sufficiency of the natural airflow to keep the pollutions levels near to the ambient. The second
case is for the third and fourth zones, where the air quality is well and acceptable under the full
influence of the existing ventilation system. These four zones represent the maximum suitable
vehicular tunnel length of the simulated cases. The third case is for the fifth and sixth zones
where the air quality has two modes and revealed that the first mode of the air quality while
passing vehicles counts are less than 1000 vehicle/hr, the existing ventilation system can bring the
air quality to acceptable condition. In the second mode while peak times, the passing vehicles
increased over 1500 vehicles/hr, the air qualities vary over the acceptable limits.
3- The equations of the trend validations correlate the emission ratios with tunnel length. The
validation of the trend of CO and NO2 indicates the continuous increase in both values of the
ratios as the tunnel length increases. This observation needs attention in any future strategy of
the road tunnels.
4 The performance evaluation of the existing ventilation system indicates that it can carry out up to
60.3 % of the total ventilation load of the simulate cases.

REFERENCES

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International Symposium
on :
Utilization of underground space in urban areas
6-7 November 2006, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt
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