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C++ Jargon

C++ contains a standard library that provide input or output (IO)

IOSTREAM LIBRARY
istream = input stream
o cin = standard input
o reads data
o G4cin >> xx >> yy;
ostream = output stream
o cout = standard output
o writes the output
o G4cout << text << G4endl;
Stream is a sequence of characters read from or written to an IO device
#include filename = takes the content of the filename and copies it into source
code
o contains declarations/library that the code needs to work
o usually used to include C header files so that you can use C functions
o eg. #include<stdio.h> is required to use the C function printf
o EXAMPLE: #include G4VUserDetectorConstruction.hh is like a class where
functions can be derived.

CLASS
Specification/blueprint/set of instructions of how to provide a service
Think of class as an object. For example, a camera. A camera takes pictures and
stores them. Like a camera, a class stores something and does something.
It is a code template or an outline for creating objects, providing initial values for
state and implementations of behavior.
You are an object of the class 'Human'.
You have functions such as speak, breath etc.
You have data members such as arms, legs, eyes etc.

It derives from the base class 'Mammal', which is an abstract base class which means
there can be no actual instances of it. You cannot get a mammal, it has to be a type of
mammal etc.

HEADER FILES
File containing declarations and macro definitions to be shared between several
source files
Supply definitions and declarations needed to invoke system calls and libraries

MACRO
Fragment of a code that has been given a name
#define
like a function you can call in the main() code
does not need repetitive appearance in the main code
ARGUMENT
value passed to a function
refers to the actual value passed to the variable (or parameter)
f(x) = x f(2) =2 x=parameter 2=argument

function name()
call operator that causes the function to be invoked
arguments to the function may be passed inside the parentheses

++/-- operator
increment operator
adds 1 to the operand
++1 is equal to i=i+1
--1 is equal to i=i-1

+= operator
adds the right hand operand to the left and stores the result in the left operand
a += b is equal to a = a+b

== operator
tests whether the left is equal to the right

!= operator
tests whether the left is not equal to the right

#ifdef
#endif
checks if the header files have been defined already

int main(int argc, char** argcv)


inside the parentheses are parameters needed to pass arguments to main
lets the user specify a set of options to guide the operation of the program
important when you are not ignoring command line arguments
parameters in main represent command line parameters provided to the program
when it was started

argc
argument count
gives the number of passed arguments when your program is executed

argv
argument vector
gives the values of the arguments passed when your program is executed
an array of C-strings
1st element is usually the name of the program
Example:

Gcc mysort.c o mysort


Mysort 2 8 9 1 4 5

Argc = 7
Argv[] = {mysort, 2, 8, 9, 1, 4, 5}

Pointer
compound type that points to another type
used for indirect access to other objects
holds the address of another object

Example:

Int ival =42;


*p = &ival;

p hold the address of ival


p is a pointer to ival
2nd statement defines p as a pointer to int and initializes p to point to the int object
named ival