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Unsteady Airfoil motion in supersonic flow

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The supersonic flow regime is the simplest as the fluid ahead of the body remains

undisturbed and that behind the body does not influence the pressure distribution

on the body.

At any point in the fluid disturbed by the passage of the body, disturbances will

propagate to the right with velocity, a and to the left, a with respect to the

fluid. The corresponding propagation velocities as seen with respect to the body

or airfoil will be

U a and U a where U a

Note these are both positive, hence the fluid ahead of the airfoil is never disturbed;

also, disturbance behind the airfoil never reach the body.

All the unsteady aerodynamic theories are developed with the assumption that the

airfoil is executing a steady harmonic motion with some frequency .

In this case, flow is steady but airfoil is executing unsteady motion (steady

harmonic motion). For a simple harmonic motion,

z a x,z, t z a x,z eit

w a x,z, t w a x,z eit

p x,z, t p x,z eit

and

it

e w a eit wa

z z

z z

z a U a w a

z 0 t x

sin ce our area of int erest is only airfoil

The linearized potential flow equations are exactly same for the subsonic and

supersonic flows,

2

2 '1

U ' 0

a 2 t x

2

1

2x,z ' U ' 0

a 2 t x

2

2 2

1

U 0

x 2 z2 a 2 t x

2 1 2

2 2

2

2U U 0

x 2 z2 a 2 t 2 t x x 2

2 1 2

2 2 2

2

2U U 0

x 2 z2 a 2 t 2 tx x 2

2 2 1 2

2U 2 U 2 2

0

2 2 2 2 2 tx 2 2

x z a t a a x

2 2 1 2

2M 2 2

2

M 0

x 2 z2 a 2 t 2 a tx x 2

2

M 1

2

x 2 z2 a 2 t 2

2

2M 2

a tx

1 2

0

For an airfoil with simple harmonic motion, the linearized potential equation

becomes

x, z, t x, z eit

M 1 x2 z2 a2 t2 2aM i

2 2 2 2 2

x

0

Unsteady Equation

Since , x , etc., are zero for x 0 . This suggest the possibility of using a

Laplace Transform with respect to x, i.e.,

p, z L e px dx

0

W p, z L w a w a e px dx

0

Taking transform of z w a gives

d

W

dz z 0

L f ' t sF s f 0 , where F s L f t

L f " t s2L f t sf 0 f ' 0

L p p 0 p

x

2 2

L 2 p p 0 0 p2

x x

d 2

2

2

dz

Where

2

2

2M

M 1 p

2

ip 2

a

2

a

By taking M 2 1 as common, we get

2

M 1 p

2 2

iM

2

2

a M 1

2

2

a

M2 1

The solution to d 2 dz 2 2 is

Aez Bez

z Aez

z Bez

z z

z a U a w a

z 0 t x

d

W

dz z 0

For the upper surface z Bez , from the above transform

d

Bez B z 0 W

dz z 0

W

B

d

Aez A z 0 W

dz z 0

W

A

W z

z,p e for z 0

W z

e for z 0

Since we are not interested in finding the solution at every point on flow field or

at every point of z, the solution on the airfoil at z = 0 plane becomes,

W z W

z,p e for z 0

z 0

W z W

e for z 0

z 0

L f t g t F s G s

Laplace of two functions will give the product of Laplace transform of each

individual function.

of f t and g t , and is denoted by h t f g t , and has the integral

representation

t

h t f t g t f g t d

0

f t L1 F s and g t = L1 G s

t

L 1

F s G s f g t d

0

1

z,p W

Invert the Laplace Transform, using the convolution theorem,

wa L1 1 d

x

x,0

0

We know that,

2

M 1 p

2 2

iM

2

2

a M 2

1

2

a M2 1

1 1 1

M2 1 2 2 1 2

iM

p

a M 2

1

a M 2

1

From Bateman (Tables of Integral Transforms)

1 1

L J 0 x where J 0 Bessel Function

p

2 2

F p e px f x dx

0

p a x

F p a e f x dx e px ax f x dx

0 0

F p a e px eax f x dx L e ax f x

0

L1 F p a eax f x

Where L1 F p f x

Thus,

iM

exp x

1 1

L

a M 1

2

x

J0

a M2 1

1 2

M2 1

iM

x

x,0 1

x

a M 2 1 J x d

wa e

M2 1 0

0 2

a M2 1

At any point of x.

In non-dimensional terms,

x 2kM 2 2b

; x ; 2 where k Reduced Frequency

2b 2b M 1 U

x

x ,0

2b

M2 1

wa

exp i x J0 M x d

0

p p p u U

t x z 0

We know that

eit

pu can also be written as pu peit because the pressure also subjected to steady

oscillation. So

U 1

pu i U ik

x z 0 b 2 x z 0

2 U 1

p p u pl ik

b 2 x z 0

1

L 2b p u pl dx

0

p u pl x

1

M 4b 2

x0 dx

0

X0

2b

Low Frequency Approximation:

Assume that is very small

0 : steady flow

2 M 2 1 p iM

a M 2 1

wa L1 1 d

x

x,0

0

iM

x

x,0

1

x

a M 2 1

wa e d

M 1 0

2

pu i U

x z 0

Substitute x,0 into the pressure expression, we get

pu i U

x z 0

iM

x

1 x

2

a M 1

i i

M2 1 0

w a e d

Second Term in the parentheses can be written by using fundamental theorem of

calculus,

iM

x

1

x

a

2

a M 1

x M 2 1

U U w e d

x

0

iMx

e

a M2 1 is independent of d. So take it out of int egration and differentiate it.

iMx iMx

e

2

a M 1

iM a M 2 1

e

x a M2 1

Using Fundamental Theorem of Calculus,

Suppose we have a function,

x

F x f t dt

a

x

dF d

f t dt f x

dt dx

a

iM iMx

x

wa e

2

a M 1

a M 2 1

x

d w a e

0

iM

x

i x

2

a M 1

M2 1 0

w a e d

iM iM

p u

iM 1 a M 2 1 x

a M 2 1

e w a e d

a M 2

1 M 1

2

0

U

iM x iM x

1

e

a M 2

1

w a e

a M 2

1

M 1

2 z 0

iM

x

x

pu w a e

2

a M 1

i M

d 2

2 w a x U

1

0

M 1

2 M 1 M 1

2

w a x U U

pu wa x

M 1

2

M2 1

Similarly,

w a x U U

pl wa x

M 1

2

M2 1

U

p pl p u 2 wa x

M 1

2

2

M 1 p

2 2

iM

2

2

a M 1

2

2

a

M2 1

2

2

M 1 p

2 2 iM 2p iM

2

2

a M 2 1

a M2 1 a 2 M2 1

2

2 2

M p p M 1

2 2

iM

2p M 2 1 iM

2

a M 2 1

a M 1

2

2

M 1

2

2

a M 1

2 2

2ipM 2

M p

2

2

2 2

a a

2

2 i

PM

a

i x

x

1

0 ,x w a e aM

d

0 M

Substitute the disturbed potential into the pressure expression, we get

pu i U

x

z 0

ix x i

i x e aM w a e aM d

i 1

x 1

pu i w a e aM d U

a M M

0

0 M wa x

M

x i x i x

x

1 i 1

i w a e aM

d M w a e aM

d

pu 0 M M 0 M

U wa x

M

pu a wa x

pl a wa x

The upper pressure and lower pressure from high frequency approx. are,

pu a w a x

Piston Theory

pl a w a x

za z

wa U a

t x z 0

Body Motion

By substituting the flow velocity into pressure expression, we can derive pressure

in terms of body motion (i.e. external force becomes the function of body motion)

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