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# Unsteady Airfoil in 2-D Supersonic flow:

The supersonic flow regime is the simplest as the fluid ahead of the body remains
undisturbed and that behind the body does not influence the pressure distribution
on the body.

## Take a body moving with velocity, U , through a fluid where M U a 1.

At any point in the fluid disturbed by the passage of the body, disturbances will
propagate to the right with velocity, a and to the left, a with respect to the
fluid. The corresponding propagation velocities as seen with respect to the body
or airfoil will be

U a and U a where U a

Note these are both positive, hence the fluid ahead of the airfoil is never disturbed;
also, disturbance behind the airfoil never reach the body.

All the unsteady aerodynamic theories are developed with the assumption that the
airfoil is executing a steady harmonic motion with some frequency .

harmonic motion). For a simple harmonic motion,

## x,z, t x,z eit

z a x,z, t z a x,z eit
w a x,z, t w a x,z eit
p x,z, t p x,z eit
and
it
e w a eit wa
z z

## The body boundary condition is

z z
z a U a w a
z 0 t x
sin ce our area of int erest is only airfoil
The linearized potential flow equations are exactly same for the subsonic and
supersonic flows,
2
2 '1
U ' 0
a 2 t x

2
1
2x,z ' U ' 0
a 2 t x

2
2 2
1
U 0
x 2 z2 a 2 t x

## The linearized potential flow equation for supersonic flow becomes,

2 1 2
2 2
2
2U U 0
x 2 z2 a 2 t 2 t x x 2

2 1 2
2 2 2
2
2U U 0
x 2 z2 a 2 t 2 tx x 2

2 2 1 2
2U 2 U 2 2
0
2 2 2 2 2 tx 2 2
x z a t a a x

2 2 1 2
2M 2 2
2
M 0
x 2 z2 a 2 t 2 a tx x 2

2
M 1
2

x 2 z2 a 2 t 2

2
2M 2
a tx
1 2
0

For an airfoil with simple harmonic motion, the linearized potential equation
becomes

x, z, t x, z eit

M 1 x2 z2 a2 t2 2aM i
2 2 2 2 2
x
0

Since , x , etc., are zero for x 0 . This suggest the possibility of using a
Laplace Transform with respect to x, i.e.,

p, z L e px dx
0

W p, z L w a w a e px dx
0
Taking transform of z w a gives

d
W
dz z 0

## Laplace Transform for first-order derivative:

L f ' t sF s f 0 , where F s L f t

## Laplace Transform for second-order derivative:

L f " t s2L f t sf 0 f ' 0

L p p 0 p
x

2 2
L 2 p p 0 0 p2
x x

## Taking the Laplace Transform of the entire unsteady equation, gives

d 2
2
2
dz
Where

2
2

2M
M 1 p
2
ip 2
a
2
a

By taking M 2 1 as common, we get

2

M 1 p
2 2

iM
2
2

a M 1
2

2
a
M2 1

## The equation is in the quadratic form.

The solution to d 2 dz 2 2 is

Aez Bez

z Aez

z Bez

z z
z a U a w a
z 0 t x

## Taking transform of z w a gives

d
W
dz z 0

For the upper surface z Bez , from the above transform

d
Bez B z 0 W
dz z 0

W
B

d
Aez A z 0 W
dz z 0

W
A

## Hence the solution becomes,

W z
z,p e for z 0

W z
e for z 0

Since we are not interested in finding the solution at every point on flow field or
at every point of z, the solution on the airfoil at z = 0 plane becomes,

W z W
z,p e for z 0
z 0
W z W
e for z 0
z 0

## Let F s and G s denote the Laplace transforms of f t and g t , respectively.

L f t g t F s G s
Laplace of two functions will give the product of Laplace transform of each
individual function.

## Then the product H s F s G s is the Laplace transform of the convolution

of f t and g t , and is denoted by h t f g t , and has the integral
representation
t
h t f t g t f g t d
0

f t L1 F s and g t = L1 G s

t
L 1
F s G s f g t d
0

## The solution is a product of two functions i.e.

1
z,p W

Invert the Laplace Transform, using the convolution theorem,

wa L1 1 d
x

x,0
0

We know that,

2

M 1 p
2 2

iM
2
2

a M 2
1
2
a M2 1

1 1 1

M2 1 2 2 1 2

iM
p

a M 2
1

a M 2
1

From Bateman (Tables of Integral Transforms)

1 1
L J 0 x where J 0 Bessel Function
p
2 2

## From Shifting Theorem, we know that

F p e px f x dx
0

p a x
F p a e f x dx e px ax f x dx
0 0

F p a e px eax f x dx L e ax f x
0

L1 F p a eax f x

Where L1 F p f x

Thus,

iM
exp x
1 1
L
a M 1

2

x

J0

a M2 1
1 2
M2 1

## The final solution will be

iM
x

x,0 1
x

a M 2 1 J x d
wa e
M2 1 0
0 2

a M2 1

At any point of x.
In non-dimensional terms,

x 2kM 2 2b
; x ; 2 where k Reduced Frequency
2b 2b M 1 U
x

x ,0
2b
M2 1
wa

exp i x J0 M x d
0

## One can now use Bernoullis equation to compute pressure

p p p u U
t x z 0

We know that

eit

pu can also be written as pu peit because the pressure also subjected to steady
oscillation. So

U 1
pu i U ik
x z 0 b 2 x z 0

2 U 1
p p u pl ik
b 2 x z 0

1

L 2b p u pl dx
0

p u pl x
1

M 4b 2
x0 dx
0

## Take Nose-up moment as positive.

X0

2b
Low Frequency Approximation:
Assume that is very small

2 M 2 1 p iM

a M 2 1

wa L1 1 d
x

x,0
0

iM
x

x,0
1
x

a M 2 1
wa e d
M 1 0
2

pu i U
x z 0

Substitute x,0 into the pressure expression, we get

pu i U
x z 0

## First term inside parentheses can be written as,

iM
x
1 x

2
a M 1
i i
M2 1 0
w a e d

Second Term in the parentheses can be written by using fundamental theorem of
calculus,
iM
x
1
x
a
2
a M 1
x M 2 1
U U w e d
x
0

iMx

e

a M2 1 is independent of d. So take it out of int egration and differentiate it.
iMx iMx

e
2

a M 1

iM a M 2 1

e
x a M2 1

Using Fundamental Theorem of Calculus,
Suppose we have a function,
x
F x f t dt
a

x
dF d
f t dt f x
dt dx

a

iM iMx

x
wa e
2
a M 1
a M 2 1
x
d w a e

0

iM
x
i x

2
a M 1

M2 1 0
w a e d

iM iM

p u
iM 1 a M 2 1 x

a M 2 1

e w a e d

a M 2
1 M 1
2
0
U
iM x iM x

1
e
a M 2
1
w a e

a M 2
1

M 1
2 z 0
iM
x
x
pu w a e
2
a M 1
i M
d 2
2 w a x U

1
0
M 1
2 M 1 M 1
2

w a x U U
pu wa x
M 1
2
M2 1
Similarly,

w a x U U
pl wa x
M 1
2
M2 1
U
p pl p u 2 wa x
M 1
2

2

M 1 p
2 2

iM
2
2

a M 1
2

2
a
M2 1

2
2

M 1 p
2 2 iM 2p iM

2
2

a M 2 1

a M2 1 a 2 M2 1

2
2 2
M p p M 1
2 2
iM

2p M 2 1 iM

2
a M 2 1

a M 1
2

2
M 1
2

2
a M 1
2 2

2ipM 2
M p
2
2
2 2
a a
2
2 i
PM
a

## Invert the Laplace Transform, we get

i x

x
1
0 ,x w a e aM
d
0 M

Substitute the disturbed potential into the pressure expression, we get

pu i U
x
z 0

ix x i

i x e aM w a e aM d
i 1
x 1
pu i w a e aM d U
a M M
0
0 M wa x

M

x i x i x
x
1 i 1
i w a e aM
d M w a e aM
d
pu 0 M M 0 M
U wa x

M

pu a wa x

## Similarly, lower pressure expression can be written as

pl a wa x

The upper pressure and lower pressure from high frequency approx. are,

pu a w a x
Piston Theory
pl a w a x

## Flow velocity on the airfoil can be expressed as,

za z
wa U a
t x z 0
Body Motion

By substituting the flow velocity into pressure expression, we can derive pressure
in terms of body motion (i.e. external force becomes the function of body motion)