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ENS CONSTANTINE

ENGLISH COURSES

Writing and Grammar

Semester 1 + 2

WRITING AND GRAMMAR

The parts of speech....01

Nouns02

Pronouns.. 11

The English Paragraph.20

The expository Paragraph....24

The Narrative Paragraph.26

The descriptive paragraph ..28

Simple tenses...31

Complex tenses...33

Modal auxiliaries.....47

Exercises..55

Indirect Speech.60
SEMESTER 1
Lesson One

The Parts of Speech

Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the verb,
the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and
the interjection.
Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used. In
fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next.
The next few examples show how a word's part of speech can change from one
sentence to the next.
Books are made of ink, paper, and glue.
In this sentence, "books" is a noun, the subject of the sentence.
Deborah waits patiently while Bridget books the tickets.
Here "books" is a verb, and its subject is "Bridget."
We walk down the street.
In this sentence, "walk" is a verb, and its subject is the pronoun "we".
The mail carrier stood on the walk.
In this example, "walk" is a noun, which is part of a prepositional phrase
describing where the mail carrier stood.
The town decided to build a new jail.
Here "jail" is a noun, which is the object of the infinitive phrase "to build."
The sheriff told us that if we did not leave town immediately he would jail
us.
Here "jail" is part of the compound verb "would jail."
They heard high pitched cries in the middle of the night.
In this sentence, "cries" is a noun acting as the direct object of the verb "heard."
The baby cries all night long and all day long.
But here "cries" is a verb that describes the actions of the subject of the
sentence, the baby.

Word categories
NOUN
PRONOUN
VERB
ADJECTIVE
ADVERB
PREPOSITION
CONJUNCTION
INTERJECTION
1.1. An overview of nouns
A noun: any word which names a person, place, thing, idea, animal, quality, or
action.
1. Count Nouns: anything which can be counted; singular and plural
Example: car - cars
2. Mass Nouns: entities which cannot be counted; they have no plural
form.
Example: money
3. Collective Nouns: groups of people or things; sing. and plural.
Example: herd - herds
4. Possessive Nouns: express ownership by adding an apostrophe.
Examples: (singular.) Kelly's anger (plural.) birds' feathers

1.2. An overview of pronouns


A pronoun: a word which takes the place of a noun (called "the antecedent")
1. Personal: they refer to person/people speaking, spoken to or spoken
about.
Examples: I, me, you, he, him, she, her, it, we, us, they .
2. Possessive: they function independently; they show possession.
Examples: my, mine, your, yours, our, ours, his, her, hers .
3. Indefinite: they have no specific antecedents.
Examples: another, both, everything, nothing
4. Reflexive: they show that the subject performs actions to/for itself
Examples: myself, yourself, itself, ourselves, themselves
5. Intensive: they refer back to a noun/pronoun to add emphasis to it
Examples: (same forms as reflexive pronouns)
6. Reciprocal: they show a mutual action or relationship
Examples : each other, one another
7. Interrogative: they are used to ask a question
Examples: who, which, what
8. Relative: they are used to introduce a relative clause
Examples: who, which, that
9. Demonstrative: they substitute for specific nouns
Examples: this, that, these, those
1.3. An overview of verbs
A verb: expresses action or state of being
1. Transitive: it is an action verb; it passes action on to a direct object
Example: We bought a car.
2. Intransitive: it does not indicate a transfer of action; it does not
require a direct object
Example: The eagle soared.
3. Linking: it joins the subject with a word that renames/describes it
Example: The sky is blue.
4. Main: it indicates the primary activity
5. Auxiliary: "helps" the main verb
6. Modal: indicates ability, obligation, permission, possibility
Examples: can, may, must, should, could, might, ought, would
7. Finite: it describes a definite and limited action or condition
8. Non-finite/Verbal: shows an unfinished action or condition
o Infinitives: to + verb; act as nouns, adjectives, adverbs
o Participles: past or present; always act as adjectives
o Gerunds: present participle form; act as nouns

1.4. An overview of adjectives


An adjective: modifies nouns and pronouns
1. Descriptive: it names a quality of the noun
o Attributive: Eg. The brown cow.
o Predicate: Eg. It was a brown cow.
2. Limiting: it limits a noun
o Definite/Indefinite Articles: Eg. the, a, an
o Possessive: Eg. his, her, its, their
o Demonstrative: Eg. this, that, these, those
o Indefinite: Eg. several, few, less, many, more
o Interrogative: Eg. what, which, whose
o Cardinal: Eg. one, two, four
o Ordinal: Eg. third, fourth, fiftieth
o Nouns: Eg. the milk cow
o Proper: Eg. the German cow
1.5. An overview of adverbs
An adverb: modifies verbs, adjectives, adverbs, sentences
Examples: sang loudly, ran swiftly

1.6. An overview of prepositions


A preposition: links a noun or a pronoun (the object of the preposition) with
some other word or expression.
Examples: about, below, in, over, until

1.7. An overview of conjunctions


A conjunction : links sentence elements, ie. words, phrases, clauses
1. Coordinating : it joins sentence parts of equal grammatical status
Examples: and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet
2. Correlative: they are coordinating conjunctions that work in pairs;
they join words, phrases, clauses, sentences.
Examples: both...and, either...or, neither...nor
3. Subordinating: they connect clauses of unequal status
Examples: after, because, that, though

1.8. An overview of interjections


An interjection is an unusual kind of word, because it often stands alone.
Interjections are words which express emotion or surprise, and they are usually
followed by exclamation marks.
Examples: Ouch!, Hello!, Hurray!, Oh no!, Ha! yuk, ouch, eh .

Exercise:
Identify the part of speech of the underlined word in each of the following
sentences:
1. The clown chased a dog around the ring and then fell flat on her face.
2. The geese indolently waddled across the intersection.
3. Yikes! I'm late for class.
4. Bruno's shabby thesaurus tumbled out of the book bag when the bus
suddenly pulled out into traffic.
5. Mr. Frederick angrily stamped out the fire that the local hooligans had
started on his verandah.
6. Later that summer, she asked herself, "What was I thinking of?"
7. She thought that the twenty zucchini plants would not be enough so she
planted another ten.
8. Although she gave hundreds of zucchini away, the enormous mound left
over frightened her.
9. Everywhere she went, she talked about the prolific veggies.
10. The manager confidently made his presentation to the board of directors.
11. Frankenstein is the name of the scientist, not the monster.
12. Her greatest fear is that the world will end before she finds a comfortable
pair of panty-hose.
13. That suitcase is hers.
14. Everyone in the room cheered when the announcement was made.
15. The sun was shining as we set out for our first winter camping trip.
16. Small children often insist that they can do it by themselves.
17. Dust covered every surface in the locked bedroom.
18. The census taker knocked loudly on all the doors but nobody was home.
19. They wondered if there truly was honour among thieves.
20. Exciting new products and effective marketing strategies will guarantee the
company's success.
2. Word functions
Words can perform the following functions:

2.1. Subject and Predicate


Every complete sentence contains two parts: a subject and a predicate. The
subject is what (or whom) the sentence is about, while the predicate tells something
about the subject. In the following sentences, the predicate is enclosed in braces ({ }),
while the subject is highlighted.
Judy {runs}.
Judy and her dog {run on the beach every morning}.
To determine the subject of a sentence, first isolate the verb and then make a
question by placing "who?" or "what?" before it -- the answer is the subject.
The audience littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn.
The verb in the above sentence is "littered." Who or what littered? The audience
did. "The audience" is the subject of the sentence. The predicate (which always
includes the verb) goes on to relate something about the subject: what about the
audience? It "littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn."

Unusual Sentences

Imperative sentences (sentences that give a command or an order) differ from


conventional sentences in that their subject, which is always "you," is understood
rather than expressed.
Stand on your head. ("You" is understood before "stand.")
Be careful with sentences that begin with "there" plus a form of the verb "to
be." In such sentences, "there" is not the subject; it merely signals that the true subject
will soon follow.
There were three stray kittens cowering under our porch steps this morning.
If you ask who? or what? before the verb ("were cowering"), the answer is
"three stray kittens," the correct subject.

2.2. Objects
A verb may be followed by an object that completes the verb's meaning. Two
kinds of objects follow verbs: direct objects and indirect objects. To determine if a
verb has a direct object, isolate the verb and make it into a question by placing
"whom?" or "what?" after it. The answer, if there is one, is the direct object:
Direct Object
The advertising executive drove a flashy red Porsche.
Direct Object
Her secret admirer gave her a bouquet of flowers.
The second sentence above also contains an indirect object. An indirect object
(which, like a direct object, is always a noun or pronoun) is, in a sense, the recipient
of the direct object. To determine if a verb has an indirect object, isolate the verb and
ask to whom?, to what?, for whom?, or for what? after it. The answer is the indirect
object.
Not all verbs are followed by objects. Consider the verbs in the following
sentences:
The guest speaker rose from her chair to protest.
After work, Randy usually jogs around the canal.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Verbs that take objects are known as transitive verbs. Verbs not followed by
objects are called intransitive verbs.
Some verbs can be either transitive verbs or intransitive verbs, depending on the
context:
Direct Object
I hope the Senators win the next game.
No Direct Object
Did we win?

2.3. Complements

Subject Complements

In addition to the transitive verb and the intransitive verb, there is a third kind of
verb called a linking verb. The word (or phrase) which follows a linking verb is called
not an object, but a subject complement.
The most common linking verb is "be." Other linking verbs are "become,"
"seem," "appear," "feel," "grow," "look," "smell," "taste," and "sound," among others.
Note that some of these are sometimes linking verbs, sometimes transitive verbs, or
sometimes intransitive verbs, depending on how you use them:
Linking verb with subject complement
He was a radiologist before he became a full-time yoga instructor.
Linking verb with subject complement
Your homemade chili smells delicious.
Transitive verb with direct object
I can't smell anything with this terrible cold.
Intransitive verb with no object
The interior of the beautiful new Buick smells strongly of fish.
Note that a subject complement can be either a noun ("radiologist", "instructor")
or an adjective ("delicious").
Object Complements

An object complement is similar to a subject complement, except that


(obviously) it modifies an object rather than a subject. Consider this example of a
subject complement:
The driver seems tired.
In this case, as explained above, the adjective "tired" modifies the noun
"driver," which is the subject of the sentence.
Sometimes, however, the noun will be the object, as in the following example:
I consider the driver tired.
In this case, the noun "driver" is the direct object of the verb "consider," but the
adjective "tired" is still acting as its complement.
In general, verbs which have to do with perceiving, judging, or changing
something can cause their direct objects to take an object complement:
Paint it black.
The judge ruled her out of order.
I saw the Prime Minister sleeping.
In every case, you could reconstruct the last part of the sentence into a sentence of
its own using a subject complement: "it is black," "she is out of order," "the Prime
Minister is sleeping."

2.4. Apposition
When two words, clauses, or phrases stand close together and share the same
part of the sentence, they are in apposition and are called appositives.
In fact, an appositive is very much like a subject complement, only without the
linking verb:
subject complement
My brother is a research associate.
appositive
My brother the research associate works at a large polling firm.
subject complement
Jean became a magistrate.
appositive
I have never met Jean the magistrate.

2.5. An Adjective
An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or
quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it
modifies.
2.6. An Adverb
An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a
clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers
questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much".
While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix, most of
them must be identified by untangling the grammatical relationships within the
sentence or clause as a whole. Unlike an adjective, an adverb can be found in various
places within the sentence.

Exercise
Exercise 1: Divide each of the following sentences into its constituent parts of
speech and label each part:
1- Mary meticulously cleaned her room.
2- The girl is now a student at a large university.
3- His brother grew happier gradually.
4- It rained steadily all day.
5- He had given the girl an apple.
6- He gave me his phone number but I lost it.
7- They chose a dark brown paint.
8- They made him chairman every year.
9- The dancer moved gracefully.
10-The day was completely enjoyable.
6- A hot infusion of mint will stop your stomach-ache.
8- He gave me a handful of peanuts, a glass of tea and two cakes.
10- The mother looked at her children with pride.
Exercise 2: Look carefully at the word round and classify it in a accordance
with its use in the following sentences.
1- We meet him in any round table we do.
2- We went round by the bridge.
3- I was thinking, sitting round the fire.
4- He was speaking in rich round tones.
5- The sound went round and round.
Exercise 3: Lengthen the following sentences by adding different words
1- The elephant eats grass.
2- He lost his watch.
3- They write a letter.
4- They offered me a present.
5- We are human beings.
Lesson Two
Nouns

A noun tells us what someone or something is called. It can be the name of a


person (John), a job title (physician), the name of a thing (ring), of a place
(London), of a quality (patience), of an action (laughter/laughing). They are
names we give to people, things, places, etc. to identify them. Many nouns are
used after a determiner, e.g. a, the, this and often combine with other words to
form a noun phrase: e.g. the man, the man next door, that tall building. Nouns
and noun phrases answer the question who? and what? and may be:
-The subject of a verb
Our agent in Cairo sent a telex this morning.
- The direct object of a verb:
Frank sent an urgent telex from Cairo this morning.
- The indirect object of a verb:
Frank sent his boss a telex.
- The object of a preposition:
I read about it in the paper.
- The complement of be or a related verb like seem:
Jane is our guest.
- used 'in apposition':
Laura Myers, a BBC reporter, asked for an interview.
- used when we speak directly to somebody:
Caroline, shut that window, will you please?

Nouns can be classified into proper nouns and common nouns:


I Proper nouns:
A proper noun is used for a particular place, thing or idea which is unique. It is
generally spelt with a capital letter. Articles are not usually used in front of proper
nouns. Proper nouns include, for example:
- Personal names (with or without titles): Andrew, Andrew Smith, Mr. Andrew
Smith, President Kennedy.
- Forms of address: Mum, Dad, Auntie, Uncle Fred.
- Geographical names: Asia, India, Wisconsin.
- Place names: Madison Avenue, Regent Street.
- Months, days of the week, festivals and seasons: April, Monday, Easter,
Christmas. (Seasons are usually spelt with a small letter but sometimes with a capital:
spring or Spring.

II. Common nouns:


Any noun which is not the name of a particular person, place, thing or idea is a
common noun. We can use a/an, the or the zero article in front of common nouns.
Countable and uncountable nouns
The distinction between countable and uncountable nouns is fundamental in
English because only by distinguishing between the two can we understand when to
use singular or plural forms and when to use the definite, indefinite and zero articles:
a/an, the and , or the appropriate quantifier: a few, much, many, etc.
1- Countable nouns: they are sometimes known as unit or count nouns. If a
noun is countable:
- we can use a/an in front of it: a book, an envelope.
- it has a plural and can be used in the question How many?:
How many stamps/envelopes? Four stamps/envelopes.
- we can use numbers: one stamp, two stamps.
2- Uncountable nouns: they are sometimes known as mass or non-count nouns.
If a noun is uncountable:
we do not normally use a/an in front of it: sugar is expensive.
it does not normally have a plural and it can be used in the question How
much? How much meat /oil? - A lot of meat/ A little oil.
we cannot normally use a number (one, two) in front of it.
Sometimes a noun is used uncountably when we are talking about the whole
substance or idea, but countably when we are talking about:
Recognized containers for things. Compare:
I prefer tea to coffee. and Three teas (=cups of tea), please.
A type, brand of things. Compare:
There is cheese in the fridge. and There were dozens of
cheeses (= kinds of cheese) to choose from.
A particular example of a physical or concrete thing. Compare:
She has blond hair. and There is a hair In my soup.
Concrete and abstract nouns
Many countable nouns are concrete (having an individual physical existence),
for example:
Persons, animals, plants: a girl, a horse, a tree
Objects: a bottle, a desk, a typewriter.
Groups: an army, a crowd, a herd.
Units of measurement: a franc, a kilo, a metre.
Parts of a mass: a bit, a packet, a piece, a slice

Concrete uncountable nouns (sometimes having physical but not 'individual'


existence) include words like:
Material, liquid, gases: cotton, milk, air.
Grains and powder: barley, rice, dust, flour.
Activities: camping, drinking, eating, sailing.
Languages: Arabic, Italian, Japanese, Turkish.

A few countable nouns are abstract: e.g. a hope, an idea, a nuisance, a remark,
a situation. An abstract noun refers to an idea/ a concept which exists only in our
minds. A number of abstract nouns can be used only as countables: e.g. a denial, a
proposal, a scheme, a statement. Many uncountable nouns are abstract: e.g. anger,
equality, honesty.
Compound nouns
Many nouns in English are formed from two parts (classroom) or, less
commonly, three or more (son-in-law, stick-in-the-mud). Sometimes, compounds are
spelled with a hyphen, sometimes not. They are usually pronounced with the stress on
the first syllable, but there are exceptions.
Single-word compound nouns:
There are many words which we no longer think of as compounds at all, even
though they are clearly made up of two words:
a 'cupboard, a 'raincoat, a 'saucepan, the 'seaside, a 'typewriter
Nouns formed with adjective + noun:
a 'greenhouse, a 'heavyweight, 'longhand, a 'redhead
Nouns formed with gerund + noun:
'drinking water, a 'frying pan, a 'walking stick
Here, the meaning is 'something that is used for doing something': e.g. a frying
pan (= a pan that is used for frying)
Nouns formed with noun + gerund
'horse-riding, 'sight-seeing, 'sunbathing
Here, the meaning is 'the action of': horse-riding (= the action of riding a
horse).

Nouns formed with adverb particles


These compound nouns are combinations of verbs and adverb particles: e.g.
'breakdown, 'income, 'make-up.
Nouns formed with noun + noun
When two nouns are used together to form a compound noun, the first noun
(noun modifier) usually functions like an adjective and is nearly always in the
singular. This is the largest category of compound nouns.
A 'car key, a 'chair leg, a 'kitchen sink,
'London 'Airport, 'Moscow 'Stadium
Baker street, 'Canterbury 'Road
A 'Ford 'car, an 'IBM com'puter, 'Longman 'Books, 'Shell 'Oil

Plurals
The plural of a noun is usually made by adding 's' to the singular:
day, days dog, dogs house, houses
's' is pronounced /s/ after a p, k or f sound. Otherwise, it is pronounced /z/.
When 's' is placed after ce, ge, se or ze an extra syllable /iz/ is added to the
spoken word.

Other plural forms


- Nouns ending in o or ch, sh, ss or x form their plural by adding es:
tomato, tomatoes brush, brushes box, boxes
church, churches kiss, kisses
But words of foreign origin or abbreviated words ending in o add s only:
dynamo, dynamos kimono, kimonos piano, pianos
kilo, kilos photo, photos soprano, sopranos

-- Nouns ending in y following a consonant form their plural by dropping the y


and adding ies:
baby, babies country, countries fly, flies lady, ladies
Nouns ending in y following a vowel form their plural by adding s:
boy, boys day, days donkey, donkeys guy, guys

- Twelve nouns ending in f or fe drop the f or fe and add ves. These nouns are
calf, half, knife, leaf, life, loaf, self, sheaf, shelf, thief, wife, wolf:
loaf, loaves wife, wives wolf, wolves etc.
The nouns hoof, scarf, and warf take either s or ves in the plural:
hoofs or hooves scarfs or scarves wharfs or wharves

- A few nouns form their plurals by a vowel change:


Foot, feet louse, lice mouse, mice woman, women
Goose, geese man, men tooth, teeth
The plurals of child and ox are children and oxen

- Collective nouns, crew, family, team, government, staff firm committee etc.,
can take a singular or plural verb; singular if we consider the word to mean a single
group or unit:
Our team is the best
or plural if we take it to mean a number of individuals:
Our team are wearing their new shirts.

- Certain verbs are always plural and take a plural verb:


Clothes police
Garments consisting of two parts:
Breeches pants pyjamas trousers etc.
and tools and instruments consisting of two parts:
binoculars pliers scissors spectacles
glasses scales shears etc

- A number of words ending in ics, acoustics, athletics, ethics, hysterics,


mathematics, physics, politics etc., which are plural in form, normally take a plural
verb:
His mathematics are weak.
But names of sciences can sometimes be considered singular:
Mathematics is an exact science.

- Words plural in form but singular in meaning include news:


The news is good.
certain diseases:
measles, rickets, shingles
and certain games:
darts dominoes draughts bowls billiards

- Some words which retain their Greek or Latin forms make their plurals
according to the rules of Greek or Latin:
crisis, crises /'kraisis/, /'krais:z/ phenomenon, phenomena
erratum, errata radius, radii
memorandum, memoranda terminus, termini
oasis, oases

Plural of compound nouns


- Normally the last word is made plural:
Boy-friends break-ins travel-agents
But when man and woman are prefixed, both parts are made plural:
Men drivers women drivers
- The first word is made plural with compounds formed of verbs + er nouns +
adverbs:
Hangers-on lookers-on runners-up
and with compounds composed of noun + preposition + noun:
sisters-in-law wards of court

Nouns and the possessive case


- 's is used with singular nouns and plural nouns not ending in s:
a man's job the people's choice
men's work the crew's quarters
a woman's intuition the horse's mouth
the butcher's shop the bull's horns
a child's voice women's clothes
the children's room Russia's exports
- A simple apostrophe (') is used with plural nouns ending in s:
A girls' school the students' hostel
The eagles' nest the smiths' car
- Names ending in s can take 's or the apostrophe alone:
Mr. Jones's (or Mr. Jones' house) Yeats's (or Yeats' ) poems
- With compounds, the last word takes the 's:
My brother-in-law's guitar
Names consisting of several words are treated similarly:
Henry the Eighth's wives the Prince of Wales's helicopter

Use of the possessive case and of + noun


A. The possessive case is chiefly used for people, countries or animals as
shown above. It can also be used :
- Of ships and boats: the ship's bell, the yacht's mast
- Of planes, trains, cars and other vehicles, though here the of construction
is safer:
A glider's wings or the wings of a glider
The train's heating system or the heating system of the train
- In time expressions:
A week's holiday today's paper tomorrow's weather
In two years' time ten minutes' break two hours' delay
- With for + noun + sake: for heaven's sake, for goodness' sake.
B. of + noun is used for possession:
- When the possessed noun is followed by a phrase or a clause:
The boys ran about, obeying the direction of a man with a whistle.
I took the advice of a couple I met on the train and I hired a car.
- With inanimate 'possessors', except those listed in A above:
The walls of the town the roof of the church the keys of the car
However, it is often possible to replace noun X + of + noun Y by noun Y +
noun X in that order:
The town walls the church roof the car keys
The first noun becomes a sort of adjective and is not made plural:
The roofs of the church = the church roofs .
Unfortunately, noun + of + noun combinations cannot always be replaced in this
way and the student is advised to use of when in doubt.
Exercises
Exercise 1: Choose from the words bellow to complete each sentence. Decide if
the word should be countable or uncountable. If the word is countable, add a/an or
make it plural as appropriate:
Chicken dislike improvement language life
success

1- Mary used to keep.in her garden in her garden until they started to get
out.
2- A score of 40% may not be very good but it is certainly..on her last
mark.
3- After so many previous., it was inevitable that one of his films
would be unpopular.
4- is too short to, worry about keeping your house spotlessly clean.
5- I have had .of green vegetables ever since I was a child.
6- Our students study both .and literature in their English degree.

Exercise 2: Most of these sentences are wrong. Correct them when necessary:
1- The government need to impose taxes.
2- Susan is wearing a black jeans.
3- I need to buy a new pyjama.
4- An increase in taxes caused many crisis.
5- Where are you going to put your furniture?
6- Mathematics deal with calculating equations and matrix.
7- Has the police arrived yet?
8- It was a good suggestion.
9- There is sand in my shoes.

Exercise 3: If necessary, correct these sentences. If they are already correct, put
a .
1- Tony computers have been stolen.
2- When the teacher had called out the girls names, they all stepped forward.
3- We had to study Charles Dickens early novels at school.
4- I went to the newsagents to buy a paper.
5- There were hundreds of birds nests in the trees.
6- They are my mother-in-laws favourite sweets.
7- I took the books to Lewis house yesterday.
8- If they had been anyone elses paintings I wouldnt have gone to the
exhibition.
9- The worlds airlines are moving towards a total ban on smoking.
10- The readers letters page in the newspaper is full of complaints about the
article.
11- I met a cousin of the duke of Edinburgh last week.

Exercise 4: ( Compound nouns) What do you call.?


1- A Shelf for books. A book shelf
2- A train which carries goods.
3- A test to detect drugs.
4- A case for putting pencils in.
5- A film lasting two hours.
6- The pages of a book that list the contents.
7- An expert in robotics.
8- A shop which sells toys.
9- An assay which is four pages long.
10- An issue of human rights.

Exercise 5: When Luis cant remember the exact name of something in


English he describes it instead. Do you know what he is describing in the following
sections? The answers are compound nouns made from the following words: (an
example is given)
Bargain friend ground hunters language mother
package pedestrian pen precinct sign staff tongue
tour

1-John works for an airline. He doesnt fly, but hes one of the people who
work in the airport building. Ground staff.
2- He works in town in that area where there are shops, but no cars or buses are
allowed to go.
3- During the sales in the shops, there are a lot of people looking to buy things
at low prices
4- It is someone I often exchange letters with, but I have never met.
5- Were going on a holiday arranged by a travel company. It includes
accommodation, flights, and so on.
6- Portuguese is the first language I learned when I was a baby.
7- My friend cant talk. He uses hand and body movements to show what he
means.
Lesson Three

Pronouns

A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he,"

"which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less
repetitive.
Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal
pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite
pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.
Form of personal/reflexive pronouns and possessives:

Personal Possessives Reflexive


pronouns Adjectives Pronouns
Subject Pronouns
Object
I Me My Mine Myself
You you Your Yours Yourself
He Him His His Himself
Singular She Her Her Hers Herself
It It Its - Itself
one one (one's) - oneself

We Us Our Ours Ourselves


Plural You You Your Yours Yourselves
they them their theirs Themselves
1. Personal Pronouns

A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to
indicate person, number, gender, and case.

a. Subjective Personal Pronouns

A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the


subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are "I," "you," "she," "he,"
"it," "we," "you," "they."
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a subjective
personal pronoun and acts as the subject of the sentence:
I was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom of the green knapsack.
You are surely the strangest child I have ever met.
He stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.
When she was a young woman, she earned her living as a coal miner.
After many years, they returned to their homeland.
We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m.
It is on the counter.
Are you the delegates from Malagawatch?

b. Objective Personal Pronouns

An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an


object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. The objective
personal pronouns are: "me," "you," "her," "him," "it," "us," "you," and "them."
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is an objective
personal pronoun:
Seamus stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.
The objective personal pronoun "her" is the direct object of the verb "forced"
and the objective personal pronoun "him" is the object of the preposition "with."
After reading the pamphlet, Judy threw it into the garbage can.
The pronoun "it" is the direct object of the verb "threw".
The agitated assistant stood up and faced the angry delegates and said, "Our
leader will address you in five minutes."
In this sentence, the pronoun "you" is the direct object of the verb "address."
Deborah and Roberta will meet us at the newest caf in the market.
Here the objective personal pronoun "us" is the direct object of the compound
verb "will meet."
Give the list to me.
Here the objective personal pronoun "me" is the object of the preposition "to".
I'm not sure that my contact will talk to you.
Similarly in this example, the objective personal pronoun "you" is the object of
the preposition "to".
Christopher was surprised to see her at the drag races.
Here the objective personal pronoun "her" is the object of the infinitive phrase
"to see."

2. Possessive Personal Pronouns

A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of


possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive
personal pronouns are "mine," "yours," "hers," "his," "its," "ours," and "theirs." Note
that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like "my,"
"her," and "their."
In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a possessive
personal pronoun:
The smallest gift is mine.
Here the possessive pronoun "mine" functions as a subject complement.
This is yours.
Here too the possessive pronoun "yours" functions as a subject complement.
His is on the kitchen counter.
In this example, the possessive pronoun "his" acts as the subject of the sentence.
Theirs will be delivered tomorrow.
In this sentence, the possessive pronoun "theirs" is the subject of the sentence.
Ours is the green one on the corner.
Here too the possessive pronoun "ours" function as the subject of the sentence.

3. Demonstrative Pronouns

A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. "This"


and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while "that" and
"those" refer to things that are farther away in space or time.
The demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and "those." "This" and
"that" are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are
used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative pronouns
are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently.
It is also important to note that "that" can also be used as a relative pronoun.
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative
pronoun:
This must not continue.
Here "this" is used as the subject of the compound verb "must not continue."
This is puny; that is the tree I want.
In this example "this" is used as subject and refers to something close to the
speaker. The demonstrative pronoun "that" is also a subject but refers to something
farther away from the speaker.
Three customers wanted these.
Here "these" is the direct object of the verb "wanted".

4. Interrogative Pronouns

An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns


are "who," "whom," "which," "what" and the compounds formed with the suffix
"ever" ("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and "whatever"). Note that either
"which" or "what" can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that "who,"
"whom," or "which" can also be used as a relative pronoun.
You will find "who," "whom," and occasionally "which" used to refer to people,
and "which" and "what" used to refer to things and to animals.
"Who" acts as the subject of a verb, while "whom" acts as the object of a verb,
preposition, or a verbal.
The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative
pronoun:
Which wants to see the dentist first?
"Which" is the subject of the sentence.
Who wrote the novel Rockbound?
Similarly "who" is the subject of the sentence.
Whom do you think we should invite?
In this sentence, "whom" is the object of the verb "invite."
To whom do you wish to speak?
Here the interrogative pronoun "whom " is the object of the preposition "to."
Who will meet the delegates at the train station?
In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun "who" is the subject of the compound
verb "will meet".
To whom did you give the paper?
In this example the interrogative pronoun "whom" is the object of the
preposition "to."
What did she say?
Here the interrogative pronoun "what" is the direct object of the verb "say."

5. Relative Pronouns

You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another
phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." The
compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative pronouns.
You can use the relative pronouns "who" and "whoever" to refer to the subject
of a clause or sentence, and "whom" and "whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb,
a verbal or a preposition.
In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun.
You may invite whomever you like to the party.
The relative pronoun "whomever" is the direct object of the compound verb "may
invite".
The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected.
In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb "wins" and
introduces the subordinate clause "who wins the greatest popular vote". This
subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying "candidate."
In a time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to be the
most efficient to arrive an hour earlier than usual.
In this sentence "whom" is the direct object of the verb "believes" and
introduces the subordinate clause "whom she believes to be the most efficient". This
subordinate clause modifies the noun "workers."
Whoever broke the window will have to replace it.
Here "whoever" functions as the subject of the verb "broke".
The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage
closet.
In this example "which" acts as the subject of the compound verb "was left" and
introduces the subordinate clause "which was left in the corridor." The subordinate
clause acts as an adjective modifying the noun "crate."
I will read whichever manuscript arrives first.
Here "whichever" modifies the noun "manuscript" and introduces the
subordinate clause "whichever manuscript arrives first." The subordinate clause
functions as the direct object of the compound verb "will read."

6. Indefinite Pronouns

An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not


specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or
some.
The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody,"
"anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many,"
"nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone." Note that
some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.
The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns:
Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up.
Here "many" acts as the subject of the compound verb "were invited".
The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor.
In this example ,"everything" acts as a subject of the compound verb "was
thrown."
We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's shelter garage
sale.
In this sentence, "everything" is the direct object of the verb "donated."
Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found
none.
Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object: "none" is the direct
object of "found."
Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws.
In this example, "everyone" is the indirect object of the verb "give" -- the direct
object is the noun phrase "a copy of the amended bylaws."
Give a registration package to each.
Here "each" is the object of the preposition "to."

7. Reflexive Pronouns

You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or
sentence.
The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself,"
"ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note each of these can also act as an
intensive pronoun.
Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a reflexive
pronoun:
Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day.
The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do
more important work.
After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my
office building.
Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself.
Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it
ourselves.

8. Intensive Pronouns

An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive


pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.
The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns:
I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister.
The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes.
They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final
exam at the same time.
Exercise
Exercise1: Insert interrogative pronouns in the appropriate spaces:
1-..is that man over there?
2- ..umbrella is this? Yours or John's?
3- ...did you meet at the party?
4- did you have to drink?
5- of your brothers works in this factory?
6- do you prefer, swimming or skiing?

Exercise2: Complete the sentences using reflexive pronouns:


1- They could not go into their house; they had locked. out.
2- It is not her fault. She really should not blame .
3- What a stupid fool I am! I could kill .
4- He lives by .
5- You .heard the explosion very clearly.
6- Could you fetch my bags, please? Fetch them

Exercise 3: Combine the following sentences using the appropriate relative


pronoun:
1- The astronauts are expected to land on the moon very soon. They are
reported to be very cheerful.
2- The Thames is now clean enough to swim in. It was polluted for over a 100
years.
3- Sally Smiles has resigned. Her cosmetics company has been in the news
recently.
4- That person is the manager. I complained to him.
5- These are the cats. I gave milk to these cats.
6- The agency is bankrupt. We bought our tickets from it.
7- The Tower of London is now a tourist attraction. Many people lost their lives
in the Tower of London.

Exercise 4: Complete the following sentences using reciprocal pronouns:


1- How long have Betty and Mary known .?
2- They often give .presents.
3- Those two are always copying .s homework.
4- Our children always play by stealing toys.
5- Karen an Dave are deeply in love with

Exersice5: Answer the following questions using reflexive pronouns:


1-Who told Jane was getting married?
2- Who cut your hair for you?
3- Does Mr. Jones have a secretary to type his letters?
4- Do you want me to post that letter for you?
5- Can you clean the windows for him?

Exercise 6: Complete the sentences with an indefinite pronoun:


1- Does .mind if I smoke?
2- Would you like to drink?
3- Do live near John?
4- There is.at the door. Can you go and see who it is?
5- We slept in the park because we did not have .to stay. We didn't
know ..we could stay with and we didn't havemoney for a hotel.
6- Mary is very secretive. She never tells,
7- I don't mind what you tell him. Tell him ..you like.
8- It does not matter what time you phone, you can phone at
WRITING AND GRAMMAR

SEMESTER 2
PART A

A Brief Introduction to the English Paragraph

I-Definition:
A paragraph is a distinct unit of thought usually a group of related sentences-
in a written or printed composition. A paragraph expresses or develops a topic. It is
usually part of an extended piece of writing, although in some situations you may
need only one paragraph to fulfill your purpose.
There are two kinds of paragraphs:
- Topical paragraphs: they develop a topic or an idea.
- Special paragraphs: they introduce or conclude a piece of writing or
provide a transition between major parts.

Note: In this chapter ,our concern is the topical paragraph. Essay writing is part of the
second year written expression syllabus.

II- The form of the paragraph:


The form of the paragraph is easy to recognize: the first line is indented. The
content of a unified paragraph deals with one central idea; every sentence contributes
to this idea. Moreover, each sentence fits into a logical pattern of organization and is
therefore carefully related to other sentences in the paragraph.

III- The requirements of topical paragraphs:


An effective topical paragraph must meet four requirements:
1- It must discuss one topic only: its statements and illustrations must display a
unity of subject matter, often expressed in a topic sentence.
2- It must say all that your readers need to know about the topic: it must be
complete enough to do what it is intended to do.
3- The sentences within the paragraph must exhibit an order that the readers can
recognize and follow.
4- The sentences within the paragraph must display coherence: they allow
readers to move easily from one sentence to the next without feeling that there
are gaps in the sequence of your ideas.

Example of a unified, coherent , adequately developed paragraph.


(Observe the clear statement of the controlling idea in the first sentence, the
development of that idea in the sentences which follow, the orderly arrangement of
the supporting facts, and the close relationship of the sentences to the central idea and
to one another)

As a matter of fact, the educated man use at least three languages. With
his family and his close friends, on the ordinary unimportant occasions of daily life,
he speaks much of the time, a monosyllabic sort of shorthand. On more important
occasions and when dealing with stranger sin his official or business relations he has
more formal speech, more complete, less allusive, politely qualified, wisely reserved.
In addition, he has some
acquaintance with the literary speech of his language. He understands this when he
reads it, and often enjoys it, but he hesitates to use it. In times of emotional stress hot
fragments of it may come out of him like lava, and in times of feigned emotions, as
when giving a commencement address, cold, greasy gobbets of it will ooze forth.

Bergen Evans.
The English Paragraph.

I- Definition of the paragraph:


A paragraph consists of several related sentences that develop one unit of
thought. A paragraph may stand alone as a brief work, but usually it functions
as part of a longer piece of writing.
A paragraph typically begins with a topic sentence, creating in the
readers mind an expectation of what is to come. If the paragraph is well
constructed, it fulfills the readers expectation by being unified (all of its
sentences focus on the same idea), coherent (the thought proceeds logically from
sentence to sentence), and fully developed (it contains enough information to
convey the idea in a reasonably thorough manner). The end of a paragraph
signals completion of the unit of thought and prepares the reader to shift, at least
slightly, for the beginning of the next paragraph.

II- Indentation:
The first line of a Paragraph should be indented. To indent is to leave a
blank space at the beginning of the first line. Indentation shows to the reader
that you are starting a new paragraph . Indentation shows to the reader that you
are starting a new paragraph. Paragraphs should be indented uniformly- one
inch in a hand written manuscript, five spaces in a typewritten one.

III- The topic sentence.


A topic sentence announces the content of a paragraph to the reader. It is
usually brief and to the point, and it often comes at the beginning of the
paragraph.
An effective topic sentence has three characteristics: it includes a subject and a
controlling idea; it is limited; and it lends itself to development. The subject
identifies the topic of the paragraph and the controlling idea identifies what
aspects of the topic will be discussed.
Example: Hong Kong has a fascinating mixture of European and Asiatic
traditions.
This sentence placed at the beginning of a paragraph would tell the reader that
Hong Kong is the topic and that the writer plans to discuss the European and
Asiatic traditions of the city, not its economy, population, or style of government.
(The subject and controlling idea of a topic sentence must be limited enough to
be discussed fully within a single paragraph).

Examples:
General: The works of James Agee often include information from several
information from several academic disciplines.
Limited: James Agees Let Us Now Praise Famous Men includes content drawn
from history, sociology, and philosophy.
General: Sometimes concerts can be dangerous.
Limited: Concert promoters could reduce the number and severity of spectator
injuries by following a few simple rule of crowd control.
General: Bolivia is an interesting country.
Limited: Bolivia has some spectacular mountains.

Sometimes the controlling idea of a topic sentence is limited by one or two


sentences that follow it.
A topic sentence must lend itself to development. The controlling idea has to be
one that can be amplified or illustrated. If the controlling idea is strictly factual,
it allows no development.
Example:
Factual: Northwestern is a university in Illinois.
Revised: Northwestern, a university in Illinois, is noted for its outstanding
drama faculty.

Position of the topic sentence in the paragraph:


Although placing a topic sentence at the beginning of a paragraph is
sound practice, writes sometimes place it in another part of the paragraph or, if
the controlling idea can be clearly understood from the discussion within the
paragraph, they leave it entirely. When a writer places a topic sentence at the
end of a paragraph, it often serves as a climax to the details that come before it.

Descriptive It was Murdstone who has arrived, and a gloomy- looking


Details lady she was; dark like her brother, whom she greatly resembled
in face and voice; and with very heavy eyebrows, nearly meeting
over her large nose, as if , being disabled by the wrongs of her sex
from wearing whiskers, she had carried them to that account. She
brought with her two uncompromising hard black boxes, with jer
initials on the lids in hard brass nails. When she paid the
coachman she took her money out of a hard steel purse, and she
kept the purse in a very jail f a bag which hung upon her arm by a
heavy
Topic chain, and shut up like a bite . I had never, at that time, seen such a
Sentence metallic lady altogether as Miss Murdstone was.
Charles Dickens, David Copperfield
When a writer leaves out a topic sentence, the discussion must be so clear
that
the controlling idea of the paragraph is strongly implied. In the following
paragraph the implied topic sentence might be stated as An independent
trucker has a difficult time making a living.

An independent trucker working full time can earn close to


20.000 dollars gross compared with the 30.000 dollars or more that a union
trucker makes. A union trucker works a 10-hour shift and thats it, whereas the
independent trucker is always pushing himself. And even though there are strict
laws prohibiting a trucker from driving more than 10 hours a day, with four
hours on and four hours off, no independent trucker adheres to that- because if
he did, hed never get the load delivered on time. With the economy as shaky as
it is the competition for loads is fierce and, at times, vicious. There are only so
many loads, and truckers will bid on them, the lowest bid getting the load.
Roberta Ostroff, Big Red and Sweet Drifter

Often when a writer begins with a topic sentence, he or she will close with a
Clincher ,a sentence that restates the controlling idea in different words,
Summarizes the discussion or gives the writers response to the material, which
may be ironic or humorous.
As sources of ideas, professors simply cannot compete with books. Book can
be found to fit almost every need, temper or interest. Book can be read when
you are in the mood; they do not have to be taken in periodic doses. Books are
both more personal and more impersonal than professors. Books have an inner
confidence which individuals seldom show; they rarely have to be on the
defensive. Books can afford to be bold and courageous and exploratory; they do
not have to be so careful of boards of trustees, colleagues, and community
opinion. Books are infinitely diverse; they run the gamut of human activity.
Books can be found to express every point of view; if you want a different point
of view, you can read a different book. (incidentally, this is the closest
approximation to objectivity you are likely to get in humanistic and social
studies) even your professor is at his best when he writes books and articles; the
teaching performance rarely equals the written effort.
William G Carleton, Take Your College in Stride.
Exercises

Exercise 01: The following topic sentences are either too general or too factual.
Revise each to make it an effective topic sentence.
1- Many Americans try different diets from time to time.
2- Going to university is expensive.
3- Everyone believes that travel is educational.
4- Supermarkets usually have consumer complaint department.
5- Hollywood films have both good and bad features.

Exercise 02: Using one of the topic sentences you revised in exercise 01, develop a
complete paragraph.
The expository Paragraph developed by examples

The model paragraph:


A man to remember
Perhaps the most vital person I have ever met is an Italian professor of
philosophy who teaches at the university of Pisa.
Although I last met this man eight years ago, I have not forgotten his special qualities.
First of all, I was impressed by his devotion to teaching. Because his lectures were
always well prepared and clearly delivered, students swarmed into his classroom.
His followers appreciated the fact that he believed in what he taught and that he was
intellectually stimulating. Furthermore, he could be counted on to explain his ideas in
an imaginative way, introducing such aids to understanding as paintings, recordings,
pieces of sculpture, and guest lecturers. Once he even sang a song in class to illustrate
a point. Second, I admired the fact that he would confer with students outside the
classroom or talk with them on the telephone. Drinking coffee in the snack bar, he
would challenge a student to a game of chess. At other times, he would join groups to
discuss subjects.
Many young people visited him in his office for academic advice; others came to his
home for social evenings. Finally, I was attracted by his lively wit. He believed that
no class hour is a success unless the students and the professor share several shuckles
and at least one loud laugh. Through his sense of humour, he made learning more
enjoyable and more lasting.
If it is true that life makes a wise man smile and a foolish man cry, than my friend is
truly a wise man. Probably, the best example of his wit is this bit of wisdom with
which he once ended a lecture: It is as dangerous for man to model himself upon his
invention, the machine, as it would be for god to model himself upon his invention.

In the text there are three main divisions:


Devotion to teaching
Friendliness
Wit

Transitions
First of all- second- Finally- furthermore- once- sometimes- at other times
Parallel structure:
Eg1: He would confer
He would challenge
He would join
Eg2: He believed that .
Though his sense of humour.., he made learning more.
Note that a combination of transitions & parallel structure is advisable.
Too many transitions can make the paragraph appear overloaded.
Too many parallel structure makes a paragraph monotonous.

Practice: develop an exposition paragraph by examples on one of the following


topics. Use the necessary transitions.

1/ social problems in your country


2/ discuss how learning a foreign language can change a person
The Narrative Paragraph

The narrative paragraph tells a story, just like a narrator in a play. The
purpose of a narrative paragraph is to tell a story about something that
happened. A narrative paragraph must have a topic sentence, details about the
event, and time order.
Example:
Cathay Williams was a former slave from independent Missouri, who
searched for a job after the civil war was over. She tried out for a cooking job in
the Union Army. But she found out she did not like cooking food for the soldiers.
She decided to become a seamstress for the army instead. But she soon found out
she did not like sewing uniforms for the soldiers, either. Cathay decided to join
the Buffalo Soldiers. But no women were allowed at that time to fight in the U.S.
Army. So Cathay changed her name to William Cathay and enlisted in the U.S.
Army. She loved her job as a soldier and was the only woman ever to be a
buffalo soldier.
The narrative paragraph describes an event or tells a story, usually in a
chronological order. For example, you can write a narrative paragraph detailing
what you did on your first day of school.
The narrative paragraph is often used to describe our routines.
Frequency adverbs (often, sometimes, usually) are used to say how often
something happens.
Example:
Every Saturday morning I get up at eight oclock. I immediately cook
breakfast and my daughter and my wife and I usually have breakfast together. I
usually go shopping. My daughter and wife usually go to the park to have some
fun with the other children in our neighborhood. After I do the shopping, I come
home and my wife and I clean the house. My wife then cooks lunch while my
daughter plays in her room and then we eat together. After lunch, we sometimes
go shopping. If we dont go shopping, we often go to the countryside for a nice
walk. We often get home quite late and have a small dinner. We usually watch a
film on TV and then go to bed at about eleven oclock.
Narrative paragraphs are often used to describe what a person does over
a period of time. Words like later are used to connect what happens.
Example:
Yesterday evening I got from work at 6 oclock. My wife had prepared
dinner which we ate immediately. After I had cleaned up the kitchen, we
watched TV for about an hour. Then we got ready to go out with some friends.
Our friends arrived at about 9 oclock and we chatted for a while. Later we
decided to visit a jazz club and listen to some music. We really enjoyed ourselves
and stayed late. We finally left at one oclock in the morning.
Exercise:
Choose a subject and develop a unified, coherent narrative paragraph. State a
clear topic sentence and use the necessary connectors.
THE DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH.
SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT.

The word spatial comes from the simpler word space. To a writer, spatial
development means listing the things to be written about in the order in which they
appear in space. If a writer follows a spatial development, details are arranged
according to their location and their relationship to each other.
Spatial development is especially suited to subject matter dealing with places or areas.
Such a development would work well if you were describing a limited interior such as
a classroom or the inside of a submarine. A description might be developed spatially
by following the order in which an observers eye would travel around the room-
from left to right, or from right to left. Spatial development would also be effective if
you were writing about a very broad area, such as the continent of Latin America or
the solar system.

Spatial transitions: Above, across from, adjacent to, also, up, under, before, below,
beyond, further, next to, close to, near to, down, around, here, in the distance, nearby,
on the left, on the right, opposite, on top of, beneath

The model paragraph:


The Room I Live In.
A mans home is his castle is an old English saying, and Be it ever so
humble, there is no place like home is the last line of a traditional American song.
Certainly the room a person lives in has a special meaning for him. Because my
bedroom- study is panelled in a warm brown oak, the room seems as inviting as an
English pub. Although the wood panelling gives the room a subdued tone, it is quite
bright. If you enter during the day, you will see light streaming in from two large
windows on the far adjoining walls. Both windows can be covered from ceiling to
floor with pleated white curtains. Under the Window at the left stands a broad desk.
On it are a type writer, a line of books and a brass lamp. A double bed is placed
against the window wall opposite the door. The bed, which has a headboard and
curved legs in the French provincial style , is covered with a blue and printed cotton
bedspread . A tape recorder sits on a table beside the bed. On the third wall, to the
right of the entrance to the room , are two large closets with sliding wood- panelled;
on the fourth, containing the entrance door, shelves have been hung. The bottom three
shelves are stacked with books. Set on top of this bookcase are three rows of open
display shelves, ten inches deep. Because I have travelled and shopped around the
world, my favourite souvenirs come from Italy and the orient. On the lower shelf
stands a clear glass wine decanter, carved with my initials. Beside it are a small prayer
wheel from Tibet and six small figures which represent Siamese musicians. They are
seated around drums or playing wind instruments. On the second row of open shelves
rests a miniature globe stand holding a world in the style of the Italian Renaissance. A
ceramic statue of a Japanese fisherman repairing his net is nearby. Displayed along
the top shelf are still more personal treasures: a Greek vase; a carved wooden statue of
an African drummer, and a mosaic tray from Damascus , inlaid with camel bone and
mother of pearl. Collecting beautiful objects is one of my favourite pastimes. And
because of the memories it holds, and the comfort it provides, my room is a constant
source of pleasure. Here I can read books, listen to music , and relive the adventures
of the past through the familiar objects around me. No real castle could offer more.

Activities:
1- Identify the topic sentence.
2- Underline the spatial transitions in this paragraph.
3- How are the details arranged.
4- Below is a topic sentence for a spatial paragraph, followed by supporting
detail to develop the paragraph. On a sheet of paper, sketch out a map of a
college campus, locating each building where you think it belongs in relation
to other buildings . Then write out a paragraph beginning with the topic
sentence below. Add spatial transitions to introduce each of the eight buildings
according to their order of location.

Topic sentence: On Marias first visit to the college campus, she saw many buildings.

Supporting detail:
1- The administration building.
1- The library.
2- The classroom buildings
3- The faculty offices.
4- The student centre and cafeteria.
5- The bookstore.
6- The gymnasium and athletic fields.
7- The refectory room.
PART B
Grammar

SIMPLE TENSES

The Simple Present Tense :


It is usually used to describe repeated, habitual or characteristic actions. The adverbs
of frequency will help by signaling the need for the simple present, but sometimes
those adverbs are not present, even though their meaning is there.
Examples:
A band usually marches by playing a popular tune.
Each night, the lonely old lady feeds the ducks.
Each night he practices in front of the television.
Cigarette smoke has an offensive odor.
Some verbs, sometimes called stative verbs, are almost always used in the simple
present form when they are not describing the past.These verbs describe states of
being, not actions.These verbs relate sensory perceptions, conditions, judgments,
conclusions, emotional states, or states of being.
Examples:
David wants to be a sports announcer.
There appears to be a good deal of excitement here.
The crowd loves its team.
His proposal sounds intriguing.
I see the roses in the garden.
You seem to be upset.
I think that we ought to consider changing our position.
This exercise is really easy.
A few verbs are used in the simple present tense though they describe future actions.
Fortunately not many verbs are in this group. These verbs generally describe acts of
arriving and departing, and beginning and ending.
Examples:
The game begins in ten minutes.
The plane leaves for Bermuda in the morning.
The ship departs for Manila in two hours.
The train arrives tomorrow morning.
Note: These types of verbs can also be used in the present progressive to convey
future actions.
The preceding three uses are the most common however, there are some less common
uses of the simple present to be aware of.
a- The simple present can be used to describe the steps in demonstrations,
such as a scientific experiment.
Example: We first put the solution in the flask, and then we place the flask
in an area where it will get lots of light. When the solution is settled, we
add two more ounces of soda.
b- The simple present is often used in commentaries on radio and television
to describe what is taking place. In this case, the simple present often
conveys a rapid sequence of events and provides a sense of drama/
Example: The referee tosses up the ball. Jones tips it to his teammate, who
races down the court.
c- The simple present is often used in announcements and in newspaper
headlines.
Example: Flood destroys ten homes in the canyon.

The simple past tense:


The simple past tense in regular verbs is formed by adding ed to the infinitive.
Example: to work worked
Verbs ending in e add d only.
Example: to love loved
There are no inflections. The same form is used for al persons.
Example: I worked you worked he worked.
The negative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with did not and the infinitive
without to.
Example: I did not work you did not work
The interrogative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with did + subject +
infinitive
Example: Did you work?

Contractions:
Did not is normally contracted in the negative and negative interrogative
Example: I didnt work Didnt you work?
Irregular verbs:
These vary considerably in their simple past form:
Examples: to speak spoke
To eat ate
To see saw
To leave left
The simple past form of each irregular verb must therefore be learnt, but once this is
done there is no other difficulty, as irregular verbs, like regular verbs have no
inflections in the past tense
The simple past is the tense normally use for the relation of past events.
It is used for actions completed in the past at a definite time. It is therefore used:
For a past action when the time is given.
Example: I met him yesterday.
When the time is asked about:
Example: When did you meet him?
When the action clearly took place at a definite time even though this time is not
mentioned:
Example: The train was ten minutes late.
Sometimes the time becomes definite as a result of a question and answer in the
present perfect:
Example: Where have you been? Ive been to the opera. Did you enjoy it?
The simple past tense is used for an action whose time is not given but which
occupied a period of time now terminated, or occurred in a period of time now
terminated
Examples: He worked in the bank for four years
She lived in Rome for a long time
My grandmother once saw Queen Victoria.
Did you ever hear Madonna sing?
The simple past tense is also used for a past habit:
Example: He always carried an umbrella.
He never drank wine.
The simple past is used in conditional sentences of type 2.
Example: If I met the queen, I would be very excited.

The simple future


The future tense is will/ shall + infinitive, but it is not used nearly as often as students
naturally expect. In fact, it is only one of a number ways of expressing the future. The
future is used to express the speakers opinions, assumptions, speculations about the
future. These may be introduced by verbs such as think, know, hope, know, believe,
doubt, suppose, assume, expect, be afraid, feel sure, wonder..
The future tense can be used for future habitual actions which we assume will take
place:
Example: Spring will come again.
The future tense is used with clauses of condition, time and sometimes purpose
Example: If I drop this glass it will break
Verbs of the senses, of emotion, thinking, possessingnormally xpress the future by
the future tense
Example: Hell be here at six.
The future tense is used chiefly in newspapers and news broadcasts, for formal
announcements of future plans:
Example: The president will open the new heliport tomorrow.
COMPLEX TENSES

The present progressive tense:


The present progressive is used to describe a single action that is in progress at a
specific moment, usually the moment of speaking or writing.
Examples:
Samson is studying the lesson right now.
The people are cheering wildly.
The present progressive may also be used to describe an action in progress over a long
period of time, even though the action may not be taking place at the moment of
speaking or writing. This action, however, is perceived as temporary.
Examples:
David is attending the University of California. (he may be on vacation at the
moment of speaking but he is still a registered student there).
He is taking his first course in broadcasting this semester. (again he may not
be in class right now, but he is enrolled in it).
She is writing her first novel . (the pen may not be in her hand at this precise
moment, but the activity is going on during the present time span and will end
at some time in the future).
The present progressive can be used to express a future action, especially when that
action is in the near future. Usually you need adverbials of time to clarify that the
present progressive is indicating future time.

Examples:
Next week he is giving his first demonstration.
Miss La Belle is appearing at the Orange Grove Theater tomorrow night.
The ship is arriving this afternoon at three oclock.
We are taking the exam later this afternoon/

The present progressive can also express the beginning, progression, or end of an
action in the present time.
Examples:
It is beginning to get hot.
It is starting to rain again.
My writing is getting worse.
I am becoming a little irritated with you.
The movie is just beginning.

Note: The verb be is used in the progressive since it describes a general state of
being. There are instances , however when you do use the verb be in the
progressive.
Example:
My child is being obnoxious right now. Please excuse him;
In this instance, the progressive is used because the meaning is my child is acting
obnoxiously right now. The child is not generally obnoxious.

2- The present perfect:


Form: Subject + have, has + past participle.
Uses:
-We use the present perfect simple when an action in the past has a result now.
Example: Tom is looking for his key. He cant find it.
He has lost his key. (He lost it and still hasnt got it).
- We often use the present perfect simple to give new information or to announce a
recent happening.
Example: The road is closed. There has been an accident.
- We can use the present perfect simple with just, already, yet, recently, so far, since
- We use the present perfect simple when we mention that it is the the first time
something has happened
Examples: Bob is having a driving lesson. He is very nervous and unsure, because it
is his first lesson.
- Its the first time he has driven a car.
- He has never driven a car before.

3- The Present perfect continuous:


Form: Subject+ have, has + been + stem + ing
Example: It has been raining.
Uses:
- We use the present perfect continuous for an activity that has recently stopped or
just stopped. There is a connection with now.
Example: You are out of breath. Have you been running?
Paul is very tired. He has been working very hard.
- We use the present perfect continuous with how long, for and since when the
action is still happening or has just stopped.
Example: It is raining now. It began raining two hours ago and is still raining. How
long has it been raining? It has been raining for 2 hours.
- We can use the present perfect continuous for an action repeated over a period of
time.
Example: John is a very good tennis player. He has been playing since he was eight.

4- Past continuous:
Form: Subject + was, were + stem + ing.
Example: This time last year, I was living in Brazil.
Uses:
- We use the past continuous to say that somebody was in the middle of doing
something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this
time but had not finished.
Example: Yesterday Karen and Jim played tennis, they began at 10 oclock and
finished at 11.30. So at 10.30, they were playing tennis.
- We often use the past simple and the past continuous together to say that something
happened in the middle of something else.
Example: Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the dinner.
- While I was working in the garden, I hurt my finger.

5- The past perfect:


Form: Subject+ had+ past participle.
Example: John had gone to London.
Use:
We use the past perfect if we want to talk about things that happened before the
starting point of the story.
Example: Sarah went to a party last week. Paul went to the party too but they didnt
see each other. Paul went home at 10.30 and Sarah arrived at 11 oclock.
When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul wasnt there. He had gone home.

6- Past perfect continuous:


Form: Subject+ had + been+ stem + ing.
Example: Yesterday morning I got up and looked out of the window. The sun was
shining but the ground was very wet. It had been raining.
Use: You can say that something had been happening for a period of time before
something else happened.
Example: Ken gave up smoking two years ago.
He had been smoking for 30 years.
7- The future perfect:
Form: Subject+ will+ have+ past participle.
Example: Tomorrow at 09.30, the match will have finished.
Use: We use the future perfect to say that something will already be complete.
Example: Sally always leaves for work at 08.30 in the morning. So, she wont be at
home at 09 oclock. Shell have gone to work.
8- The future continuous:
Form: Subject+ will+ be + stem+ ing.
Example: After 3 years, I will be teaching English.
Uses:
- We use the future continuous when we will be in the middle of doing something.
Example: The football match begins at 07.30 and ends at 09.15. So during this time
for example at 08.30, Kevin will be watching the match.
- We also use the future continuous to talk about complete actions in the future
Example: If you see Sally, can you ask her to phone me?
- Sure, Ill be seeing her this evening. So, Ill tell her then.
- We can use the future continuous to ask about somebodys plans, especially if we
want him to do something.
Example: Will you be passing the post office when you are out?

Exercises:
Exercise 01: Complete the sentences with one of the following verbs in the correct
form:
Look, make, have, work, learn, try, see.
1-You hard today? Yes? I have a lot to do.
2-Would you like something to eat? No thanks, I ..justlunch.
3- Maria English for two years.
4- You . A lot of noise. Could you be quieter? I .to concentrate.
5- Is Ann coming to the cinema with us? No, she alreadythe film.
6- Hello Tom, I for you all morning. Where have you been?
Exercise 02: Read the situation and write sentences from the words:
1- I invited Rachel to the party, but she couldnt come. (she arrange to do something
else)
2- You went to the cinema last night. You arrived at the cinema late. (the film already
begin)
3- I was very tires when I arrived at home. (I work hard all day).
4- I havent seen Alan for ages when (I last see him) (he try to find a job).
5- There was nobody in the room, but there was a small cigarette. (somebody smoke
in the room).
6- We were in a very difficult position (we not know what to do).

Exercise 03: Put the verbs into the correct form: will be doing or will have done.
1- Dont phone me between 7 and 8 we (have) dinner then.
2- Phone me after 8 oclock (we finish) by then.
3- Tomorrow afternoon we are going to play tennis from 3 oclock until 4.30, so at 4
oclock (we play) tennis.
4- Do you think (you still do) the same job in ten years time?
56 If you need to contact me (I stay) at the Hilton hotel until Friday.
Modal auxiliaries
General characteristics of modal auxiliaries
Verbs like can and may are called modal auxiliaries, though we often refer to them
simply as modals. We frequently use modals when we are concerned with our
relationship with someone else. We may, for example, ask for permission to do
something; grant permission to someone; give or receive advice; make or respond to
requests and offers, etc. We can express different levels of politeness by the forms we
choose and the way we say things.

Modals sharing the same grammatical characteristics are:


Can - could
May - might
Will - would
Shall - should
Must -
Ought to -
Verbs which share some of the grammatical characteristics of modals are:
need, dare, used to.
By comparison, need to and dare to are full verbs.
Modals have two major functions which can be defined as primary and secondary.

Primary function of modal auxiliaries:


In their primary function modal verbs closely reflect the meaning given first in most
dictionaries, so that:
Can / could relate mainly to ability: I can lift 25 kg / I can type.
May / might relate mainly to permission: you may leave early.
Will / would relate mainly to prediction: It will rain soon.
Shall after I / we relates mainly to prediction: Can we find our way home? - I am
sure we shall.
Should / ought to relate mainly to escapable obligation or duty: You should do
(or ought to do) as you are told.
Must relates mainly to inescapable obligation: You must be quiet.
Neednt relates to absence of obligation: You neednt wait.
Secondary function of modal auxiliaries:
In their secondary function, nine of the modal auxiliaries (not shall) can be used to
express the degree of certainty/uncertainty a speaker feels about a possibility. They
can be arranged on a scale from the greatest uncertainty (might) to the greatest
certainty (must). The order between might and must is not fixed absolutely. It varies
according to situation. For example one arrangement might be:
might very uncertain
may
could
can be right
you should have been right
ought to
would
will
must almost certain
you are right certain

1. Use of can, could and (be) able to to express ability


We use can to say that something is possible or that somebody has the ability to do
something. We use can + infinitive (can do / can see etc).:
We can see the lake from our bed window.
Can you speak any foreign languages?
I can come and see you tomorrow if you like.
The negative is cant (= cannot):
Im afraid I cant come to the party on Friday.

(Be) able to is possible instead of can, but can is more usual.


Are you able to speak any foreign languages?
But can has only two forms, can (present) and could (past). So sometimes it is
necessary to use (be) able to. Compare:
I cant sleep.
but I havent been able to sleep recently. (can has no present perfect)
Tom can come tomorrow.
but Tom might be able to come tomorrow. (can has no infinitive)

Could and was able to


Sometimes could is the past of can. We use could especially with: see, hear, taste,
feel, remember, understand.
When we went into the house, we could smell burning.
She spoke in a very low voice, but I could understand what she said.
We also use could to say that somebody had the general ability or permission to do
something:
My grandfather could speak five languages.
We were completely free. We could do what we wanted. (= we were allowed
to do)
We use could for general ability. But if we are talking about what happened in a
particular situation, we use was/were able to or managed to (not could):
The fire spread through he fire quickly but everybody was able to escape.
or. Everybody managed to escape. (but not could escape)
They didnt want to come with us at first but we managed to persuade them.
or we were able to persuade them. (but not could persuade)
Compare:
Jack was an excellent player. He could beat anybody. ( = he had the general
ability to beat anybody)
but
Jack and Alf had a game of tennis yesterday. Alf played very well but in the
end Jack managed to beat him. or was able to beat him. ( = he managed
to beat him in this particular game.
The negative couldnt (could not) is possible in all situations:
My grandfather couldnt swim.
We tired hard but we couldnt persuade them to come with us.
Alf played well but he couldnt beat Jack.

2. Use of Can/could to express capability/possibility:


Can + be + adjective or noun has the effect of is sometimes or is often and refers
to capability or possibility. It can be replaced by be capable of + -ing, but not by
am/is/are able to:
It can be quite cold in Cairo in January. (= It is sometimes - or often quite
cold)
He can be very naughty. (or a very naughty boy)
Could has the same effect in the past:
It could be quite cold in Cairo in January when I lived there. ( = it was
sometimes or often quite cold)
He could be very naughty when he was a little boy.
Could can also have a future reference in this kind of context.
It could be quite cold when you get to Cairo.

3. Uses of modals to express permission and prohibition


Asking for permission /responding: can/could/may/might
Requests for permission can be graded from a blunt request to an extremely hesitant
one. Requests for permission can refer to the present or the future. The basic forms
are:
Can
Could I borrow your umbrella, (please)?
May
Might

Can is the commonest and most informal


Can I borrow your umbrella, (please)?
Could is more hesitant and polite than can. We often use it when we are not sure
permission will be granted:
Could I borrow your umbrella, (please)?
May is more formal, polite and respectful than can and could.:
May I borrow your umbrella, (please)?
Might is the most hesitant, polite and respectful and is rather less common than the
other three:
Might I borrow your umbrella, (please)?
Permission to ask an indiscrete question may be requested with the formulas if I may
ask and (more polite) if I might ask.
How much did you pay for this house if I may/might ask?

Asking for permission with cant and couldnt


Cant and couldnt are often used in place of can and could when we are pressing
for an affirmative answer:
Cant / couldnt I stay out till midnight (please)?
Granting and refusing permission
Permission can be granted or refused as follows:
You Can (not) (not could) Watch TV as
May (not) (not might) long as you like

You may/may not carry the authority of the speaker and is the equivalent of I
(personally) give you permission. You can/cannot is more general and does not
necessarily imply personal permission.
Granting /refusing permission is not confined to first and second persons:
Johnny/Frankie Can/cant Stay up late
May/may not/mustnt

This can be extended to:


- rule making e.g. for games: Each player may choose five cards.
- other contexts: Candidates may not attempt more than three questions.
Permission may also be denied with shant (in British English only)
If you dont behave yourself, you shant go out/be allowed out.
If he doesnt behave himself, he shant go out/be allowed out.

4. Uses of modals to express certainty and possibility


If we are certain of our facts, we can make statements with be or any full verb:
Jane is (or works) at home. (a certain fact)
If we are referring to possibility, we can use combinations of may, might or could +
verb:
Jane may/ might/ could be (or work) at home. (a possibility)
We use may or might to say that something is a possibility. Usually you can use may
or might, so you can say:
It may be true. or It might be true. ( = perhaps it is true)
She might know. or She may know.
The negative forms are may not and might not (or mightnt):
It might not be true. (perhaps it is not true)
Im not sure whether I can lend you any money. I may not have enough. (=
perhaps I dont have enough)

For the past we use may have (done) or might have (done):
A: I wonder why Kay didnt answer the phone.
B: She may have been asleep. ( = perhaps she was asleep)
A: I cant find my bag anywhere.
B: You might have left it in the shop. ( perhaps you left it in the shop)
A: I was surprised that Sarah wasnt at the meeting.
B: She might not have known about it. ( = perhaps she didnt know)
A: I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mod yesterday.
B: He may not have been feeling well. ( = perhaps ha wasnt feeling well).

Sometimes could has a similar meaning to may and might:


The phone is ringing. It could be Tim. ( = it may / might be Tim)
You could have left your bag in the shop. ( = you may / might have left it)
But couldnt (negative) is different from may not and might not. Compare:
She was too far away, she couldnt have seen you. (= it is not possible that
she saw you)
A: I wonder why she didnt say hello.
B: She might not have seen you. (perhaps she didnt see you; perhaps she
did)

We also use may and might to talk about possible actions or happenings in the future:
I havent decided yet where to spend my holidays. I may go to Ireland. (= I
will go to Ireland)
Take an umbrella with you when you go out. It might rain later. ( = perhaps it
will rain)
The bus doesnt always come on time. We might have to wait a few minutes.
(= perhaps we will have to wait)

We may draw a distinction between the expression of possibility in this way (which
allows for speculation and guessing) and deduction based on evidence. Deduction,
often expressed with must be and cant be, suggests near-certainty:
Janes light is on. She must be at home. She cant be out.
For the past we use must have (done) and cant have (done). Study this example:
George is outside his friends house. He has rung the door bell three times but nobody
has answered. They must have gone out. (otherwise they would have answered).
The phone rang but I didnt hear it. I must have been asleep.
Ive lost one of my gloves. I must have dropped it somewhere.
Jane walked past me without speaking. She cant have seen me.
Tom walked straight into a wall. Ha cant have been looking where he was
walking
Study the structure:
must been (asleep / at work etc.)
I/you/he (etc.) cant have been doing / working etc.)
done / gone / known / had etc.

5. The use of modals to express advisability, duty/obligation and necessity


Study these examples:

Present advisability Past advisability not acted upon


I should stop smoking I should have stopped smoking
I ought to stop smoking I ought to have stopped smoking
I would better stop smoking (I was advised to stop but I ignored the
(I still smoke) advice)

Present inescapable obligation Past inescapable obligation


I must stop smoking I had to stop smoking
(I am obliged to stop smoking and I shall: (I was obliged to stop smoking and I did:
it is my duty) it was my duty)

Advisability necessity: a scale of choice:


We can use modals and other verbs to express advisability on a scale which reflects a
degree of choice. This scale may vary according to the subjective point of view of the
speaker.
Advisability should: Generally means in my opinion, it is advisable to or it
is (your)
duty.
ought to: can be slightly stronger than should in that it is
sometimes used to refer to regulations or duties
imposed from the outside: You ought to vote (= it is
your public duty). Should is more likely in questions
and negatives.
had better: is stronger than should and ought to. It is used to
recommend future action on a particular occasion, not
in general. It carries a hint of threat, warning or
urgency.
am/is/are to: can be used for instructions: You are to report for duty
at 7.
need (to): ( = it is necessary)
have to: is an alternative to must.
have got to: like have to , but more informal.
necessity must: like have to and have got to, suggests inescapable
obligation. In the speakers opinion there is no choice
at all.

The use of must , have to and have got to


We use must and have to to say that it is necessary to do something. Sometimes it
doesnt matter which you use because as far as meaning is concerned these three
forms are interchangeable:
Oh, its later than I thought. I must go. or I have to go. or Ive got to go.

But there is a difference between must and have to /have got to and sometimes this
is important:

Must is personal. We use must when we Have to/have got to is impersonal. We


give our personal feelings. use have to/have got to for facts, not for
You must do something = I (the our personal feelings.
speaker) say it is necessary: You have to/Ive got to do something
Shes a really nice person. You must because of a rule or the situation:
meet her. (= I say this is necessary) You cant turn right here. You have
I havent phoned Ann for ages. I to/have got to turn left. (because of
must phone her tonight. the traffic system)
My eyesight isnt very good. I have to
wear/have got to glasses for reading.
George cant come with us this
evening. He has to/has got to work.
Compare: I have to get/Ive got to up early
I must get up early tomorrow. There tomorrow. I going away and my
are a lot of things I want to do. train leaves at 7.30.

Need as a modal:
Need has only some of the characteristics of modal verbs in that it occurs in:
Questions: Need you go? Need you leave so soon? (= surely not/ I hope not)
Negatives: You neednt go.
In Yes/No question a negative answer is expected. Yes/No question with need? Can
be answered with must or neednt:
Need I type this letter again? Yes, you must. /No, you neednt.
Need + have + past participle behaves in the same way:
Need you have told him about my plans?
You neednt have told him about my plans.
Yes/No question with Need have ? can be answered: Yes, I had to. (no choice)
No, I neednt have. (I had a choice)

6. The use of modals to express lack of necessity, inadvisability, prohibition


Examples of modal forms to express lack of necessity, inadvisability and
prohibition:

Present lack of necessity Past lack of necessity


You neednt go there You neednt have gone there
Or: You dont need to go there. (= you went there unnecessarily.
You dont have to go there. You didnt have to go there.
You havent got to go there. Or: You didnt need to go there.
(= There was no necessity to go there,
whether you did go or not.)

Present inadvisability Past inadvisability, not acted upon


You shouldnt start smoking. You shouldnt have started smoking.
You ought not to start smoking You oughtnt have started smoking. (
but you ignored this advice)

Present prohibition Failure to observe a prohibition


You cant park here. You shouldnt have parked here.
You mustnt park here. You ought not to have parked here.

Lack of necessity can be expressed by neednt, dont have to and the more informal
havent got to (where got is often stressed)
You neednt do something = it is not necessary that you do it, you dont need to do
it:
You can come with me if you like but you neednt come if you dont want to.
( =it is not necessary for you to come)
Weve got plenty of time. We neednt hurry.
Neednt and dont need to are similar to dont have to.
Weve got plenty of time. We dont have to hurry.

Neednt have done: George had to go out. He thought it was going to rain so he took
the umbrella. But it didnt rain, so the umbrella was not necessary. So:
He neednt have taken the umbrella.
Compare neednt (do) and neednt have (done):
That shirt isnt dirty. You neednt wash it. (present lack of necessity)
Why did you wash that shirt? It wasnt dirty. You neednt have washed it.
(you washed it unnecessarily)
inadvisability prohibition: a scale of choice:
We can use modals and other verbs to express inadvisability and prohibition on a
scale which reflects a degree of choice. This scale may vary according to the
subjective point of view of the speaker.
Inadvisability shouldnt: Generally means in my opinion, it is inadvisable
to or it is
your duty not to.
oughtnt to: can be slightly stronger than shouldnt. It is
sometimes used to refer to regulations and duties
imposed from the outside: You oughtnt to park so
near the crossing. (= it is your public duty not to do
this).
had better not: is stronger than shouldnt and oughtnt to. It is
used to recommend future action on a particular
occasion, not in general. It carries a hint of threat,
warning or urgency. Youd better not overtake
here.
am/is/are not to: can be used for instructions: You are not to
park here.
cant is nearly as strong as mustnt to suggest something is
prohibited. You cant park here.
mustnt: conveys absolute prohibition. In the opinion of the
speaker, there is no choice at all. This opinion may
be subjective or may be supported by some outside
authority as in You must turn left. (e.g. there is a
road sign forbidding it) is an alternative to must.
prohibition

Dont have to and havent got to can never replace mustnt to convey prohibition .
Like neednt, they convey lack of necessity.
Mustnt conveys the strongest possible opinion of the speaker;
You really mustnt say things like that in front of your mother.
Julian mustnt hitchhike to Turkey on his own.

Prohibition reflecting external authority (in e.g. public notices , documents) is often
expressed as must not (in full):

Life belts must not be removed.


Candidates must not attempt more than four questions.
Inadvisability/prohibition can be expressed by: shouldnt/oughtnt to/ mustnt, etc
You shouldnt / oughtnt to / mustnt / cant be late for meetings (present)
You shouldnt / oughtnt to / mustnt / cant be / had better not be late
tomorrow. (future)
Shouldnt , oughtnt to , mustnt , cant be , had better not are used to refer to the
future although they do not have future forms.
Shouldnt have and oughtnt to have: Both these forms suggest a criticism of an
action:
You shouldnt have / oughtnt to have paid the plumber in advance.
or failure to observe a prohibition
You shouldnt have / oughtnt to have stopped on the motorway.

Exercises
Exercise 1: Complete the sentences using can or (be) able to. Use can if possible;
otherwise use (be) able to.
1. George has traveled a lot. He ..speak four languages.
2. I havent .sleep very well recently.
3. Sandra drive but she hasnt got a car.
4. I cant understand Martin. Ive never..understand him.
5. I used to stand on my head but I cant do it now.
6. I cant see you on Friday but I meet you on Saturday morning.
7. Ask Catherine about your problem. She might ..help you.

Exercise 2: Complete the sentences with can / cant / could / couldnt + one of these
verbs:
Come eat hear run sleep wait
1. Im afraid I .to your party next week.
2. When Tim was 16, he was a first runner.. He 100 metres in 11 seconds.
3. Are you in a hurry? No, Ive got plenty of time. I ..
4. I was feeling sick yesterday. I anything.
5. Can you speak up a bit? I .you very well.
6. You look tired. Yes, I ..last night

Exercise 3: Complete the sentences using could, couldnt or was / were able to.
1. My grandfather was a very clever man. He .speak five languages.
2. I looked everywhere for the book but I .find it.
3. They didnt want to come with us at first but we to persuade them.
4. Laura had hurt her leg and .walk very well.
5. Sue wasnt at home when I phoned but I .contact her at office.
6. I looked very carefully and I .see a figure in the distance.
7. I wanted to bye some tomatoes. The first shop I went to didnt have any but I
.get some in the next shop.
8. My grandmother loved music. She the piano very well.
9. A girl fell into the river but fortunately we.rescue her.
10. I had forgotten to bring my camera so I .take any photographs.
Exercise 4: Put in must or cant
1. Youve been traveling all day. You ..be very tired.
2. That restaurant ..be very good. Its always empty.
3. That restaurant ..be very good. Its always full of people.
4. Youre going o holiday next week. You ..be looking forward to it.
5. It rained everyday during their holiday, so they .have had a very
good time.
6. Congratulations on passing your exam. You.be very happy.
7. You got here very quickly. You.have walked very fast.
8. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often, so they .be short of
money.

Exercise 5: Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with
must have and cant have:
1. The phone rang but I didnt hear it. (I / asleep)
2. The jacket you bought is very good quality. (it / very expensive)
3. I havent seen the people next door for ages. (they / go away)
4. I cant find my umbrella. ( I / leave / it in the restaurant last night)
5. Don passed the exam without studying for it. (the exam / very difficult)
6. She knew everything about our plans. (she listen / to our conversation)
7. Fiona did the opposite of I asked her to do. (she / understand / what I said)
8. When I woke up this morning, the light was on. (I forgot / to turn it off)
9. The lights were red but the car didnt stop. (the driver / see / the red light)
10. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door. (the neighbours
/ have / a party)

Exercise 6: Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form:


1. Where is Bob? Im not sure. He might.lunch.
2. Who is that man with Ann? Im not sure . It might ..her
brother.
3. Who was the man we saw with Ann yesterday? Im not sure. It might
..her brother.
4. Why are those people waiting in the street? I dont know. They might
for a bus.
5. Shall I buy this book for Tim? Youd better not. He might already
..it.

Exercise 7: Complete the sentences using might not or couldnt. Example:


1. A: Do you think she saw you?
B: No, she was too far away.
She
2. A: I wonder why she didnt say hello. Perhaps she didnt see me.
B: Thats possible.
...
3. A: I wonder why Ann didnt come to the party. Perhaps she wasnt invited.
B: Yes, its possible.
She.
4. A: Tom loves parties. Im sure hed have come to the party if hed been invited.
B: I agree.
He...
5. A: I wonder how the fire started. Do you think it was an accident?
B: No, the police say
it
6. A: How did the fire start? I suppose it was an accident.
B: Well, the police arent sure. They say it
.

Exercise 8: Write sentences with may or might.


1. Where are you going for your holidays? (to Ireland ???)
I havent decided yet. I
....
2. What sort of car are you going to buy? (a Mercedes ???)
Im not sure yet. I

3. What are you doing this weekend, (go to London ???)


I havent decided yet.
..
4. Where are you going to hang that picture? (in the dining room ???)
I havent made up my mind yet.
. 5. When is Tom coming
to see us? (on Saturday ???)
I dont know yet.
.
6. What is Julia going to do when she leaves school. (go to university ???)
She hasnt decided yet.

Exercise 9: Complete these sentences with must or have to (in the correct form).
Sometimes it is possible to use either; sometimes only have to is possible:
1. Its later than I thought. I ..go now.
2. Jack left before the end of the meting. He ..go home early.
3. In Britain many children wear uniform when they go to
school.
4. When you came to London again, you .come and see me.
5. Last night Don became ill suddenly. We call a doctor.
6. You really..work harder if you want to pass the examination.
7. Im afraid I cant come tomorrow. I ..work late.
8. Im sorry I couldnt come yesterday. I work late.
9. Paul doesnt like his new job. Sometimes, he to work at
weekends.
10. Caroline may ..go away next week.
11. We couldnt repair the car ourselves. We..take it to a
garage.
12. Julia wears glasses. Shewear glasses since she was
very young.
Exercise 10: Read the situations and write sentences with should/shouldnt . Some
of these situations are past and some are present: (for example)
1. Im feeling sick. I ate too much. I shouldnt have eaten so much.
2. That man on the motorbike isnt wearing a helmet.
3. When we got to the restaurant, there were no free tables. We hadnt reserved one.
We

4. the notice says the shop is open everyday from 8.30. It is 9 oclock but the shop
isnt yet open.

5. The speed limit is 30 miles an hour, but Catherine is doing 50.
She..
6. I went to Paris. A friend of mine lives in Paris but I didnt go to see him wile I was
there. When I saw him later he said: You

7. I was driving behind another car. Suddenly the driver behind stopped without
warning and I drove into the back of his car. It wasnt my fault.
..
8. I walked into a wall. I wasnt looking were I was going.

Exercise11: Complete the sentences with must, mustnt or neednt .


1. We havent got much time. We ..hurry.
2. Weve got plenty of time. We hurry.
3. We have enough food at home so we ..go shopping today.
4. Jim gave a letter to post. I remember to post it.
5. Jim gave me a letter to post. I forget to post it.
6. There is plenty of time for you to make up your mind. You
..decide now.
7. You .wash those tomatoes. They have already been washed.
8. This is a valuable book. You.look after it carefully and you
..lose it.
9. What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big? Well, it
.be big- thats not important. But it
..have a nice garden thats essential.
Exercise 12: Read the sentences and make sentences with neednt have.
1. George went out. He took an umbrella because he thought it was going to rain. But
it didnt rain. He
..
2. Ann bought some eggs when she went shopping. When she got home, she found
that she already had plenty of eggs.
She..
3. A friend got angry at you and shouted at you. You think this was unnecessary.
Later you say to him/her: You

4. Brian had no money, so he sold his car. A few days alter he won some money in a
lottery.
He

5. When we went on holiday, we took the camera with us but we didnt use it in the
end
We
..
6. I thought I was going to miss my train so I rushed to the station. But the train was
late and in the end I had to wait 20 minutes. I
.

Exercise 13: Complete the sentences using can, be able to, cant, could,
couldnt.
1- George traveled a lot. He ..speak four languages.
2- I cant understand Martin. Ive never ..understand him.
3- I used to .stand on my head but I cant do it now.
4- You look tired. Yes, I .sleep last night.
5- I was feeling sick yesterday. I .eat anything.
6- Im afraid I come to your party next week.

Exercise 14: Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with
must have and cant have.
1- The phone rang but I didnt hear it. (I /asleep).
2- Jane walked past me without speaking (she / see/ me).
3- The jacket you bought is very good quality (it / very / expensive).
4- I cant find my umbrella. (I / leave/ it in my office/ yesterday).
5- Fionna did the opposite of what I asked her to do. (she/ understand/ what I said).

Exercise 15: Write these sentences in a different way using may or might.
1- Perhaps Margaret is in her office.
2- Perhaps she is busy.
3- Perhaps she is working.
4- Perhaps she wants to be alone.
5- Perhaps she was ill yesterday.
6- Perhaps she went home early.
7- Perhaps she was working yesterday.
Indirect Speech
Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech) doesnt use quotation
marks to enclose what the person said and it doesnt have to be word for word.
When reporting speech, the tense usually changes. This is because when we use
reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the
person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs usually have to be in the
past too.
Example: Direct: I am going to the cinema, he said.
Indirect: He said that he was going to the cinema.

Tense change: As a rule, when you report something someone has said you go back a
tense.

Direct Indirect
Present simple Past simple
Present continuous Past continuous
Present perfect simple Past perfect simple
Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous
Past simple Past perfect
Past perfect Past perfect (no change)
Past perfect continuous Past perfect continuous (no change)
Will Would
Can Could
Must Had to
Shall Should
May Might

Note: There is no change to : could, would, should, might, and ought to.
You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is
still true.
Example: My name has always been and will always be Lynne so:
Direct: My name is Lynne, she said.
Indirect: She said that her name was Lynne. Or: She said her name is Lynne.
- You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event.
Direct: Next weeks lesson is on reported speech, she said.
Indirect: She said next weeks lesson is on reported speech.

Time change:
If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in
with the time of reporting. We need to change words like here, yesterday if they
have different meanings at the time and place of reporting.
Example: Direct: Todays lesson is on presentations.
(+24 hours) Indirect: She said yesterdays lesson was on presentations.
Expressions of time if reported on a different day:

Direct Indirect
This That
Today yesterday
These Those
Now Then
A week ago A week before
Last week end The week end before
Here There
Next week The following week
Tomorrow The next day

In addition, if you report something said in a different place where you heard it, you
must change the place (here) to the place (there).

- Pronoun change:
In reported speech, the pronoun often changes.
Example: I teach English.
She said that she teaches English.

- Reporting verbs:
Said, told, and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech.
We use asked to report questions.
We use told with an object.
We usually use said without an object.
- Use of that in reported speech:
In reported speech, the word that is often used, However, that is optional.
In questions that is not used. We often use
Exercise: Write the following sentences in the reported speech.
1- He complained: The neighbours are noisy.
2- She thought: I bought some biscuits yesterday, but I cant find them in the
cupboard.
3- The teacher explained: The exam will be different this year.
4- The shop keeper assured me: The freezer will be delivered tomorrow.
5- The authorities warned us: The building is unsafe.
Conditionals
Conditional sentences have two parts: the if clause and the main clause.
Example: If it rains, I shall stay at home.
If it rains is the if clause, and I shall stay at home is the main clause.
There are three kinds of conditional sentences. Each kind contains a different pair of
tenses. With each type certain variations are possible.

Conditional sentences type 1: probable


The verb in the if clause is in the present; the verb in the main clause is in the future
tense. It does not matter which comes first.
Example: If he runs hell get there in time.
The cat will scratch you if you pull her tail.
This type of sentence implies that the action in the if clause is quite probable.
Note that the meaning here is present or future, but the verb in the if clause is in the
present, not a future tense.

Possible variations of the basic form:


1-Variations of the main clause:
Instead of if +present + future, we may have:
-If +present +may/ might (possibility)
Example: If the fog gets thicker, the plane may/ might be diverted (perhaps the plane
will be diverted).
-If + present + may (permission) or can (permission or ability)
Examples: If your documents are in order you may /can leave at once (permission)
If it stops snowing we can go out (permission or ability)
-If + present + must, should or any expression of command, request or advice.
Examples: If you want to lose weight, you must / should eat less bread.
If you want to lose weight you had better eat less bread
If you want to lose weight, eat less bread.
If you see Tom tomorrow, could you ask him to ring me?
-If + present + another present tense/
If + two present tenses is used to express automatic or habitual results.
Examples: If you heat ice it turns to water (will turn is also possible)
If there is a shortage of any product, prices of that product go up.
-When if is used to mean as/ since , a variety of tenses can be used in the main clause
Example: Bill: Ann hates London.
Tom : If she hates it why does she live there? She ought to move out/ why
has she just bought a flat there?
This is not, of course, a true conditional clause.

Variations of the if clause


Instead of if + present tense, we can have:
-If + present continuous, to indicate a present action or a future arrangement.
Examples: If you are waiting for a bus, youd better join the queue (present action)
If you are looking for Peter, youll find him upstairs (present action)
If you are staying for another night, Ill ask the manager to give you a
better room (future arrangement).
-If + present perfect:
Examples: If you have finished dinner, Ill ask the waiter for the bill.
If he has written the letter, Ill post it.
If they havent seen the museum, wed better go there today.

Conditional sentences type2:


The verb in the if clause is in the past tense; the verb in the main clause is in the
conditional tense.
Examples: If I had a map, I would lend it to you. (But I havent a map. The leaning
here is present).
If someone tried to blackmail me, I would tell the police The meaning here is future.

There is no difference in time between the first and second types of conditional
sentences. Type 2, like type1, refers to the present or future, and the past tense in the
if clause is not a true past but a subjunctive, which indicates unreality (as in the first
example above) or improbability (as in the second example above)
Type2 is used :
-When the supposition is contrary to known facts:
Examples: If I lived near my office Id be in time for work (but I dont live near my
office)
If I were you Id plant some trees round the house (but I am not you)
-When we dont expect the action in the if clause to take place.
Examples: If a burglar came into my room at night, Id throw something at him.(but I
dont expect a burglar to come in)
If I dyed my hair blue, everyone would laugh at me (but I dont intend to
dye it).
Some if clauses can have either of the above meanings:
Examples: If he left his bicycle outside, someone would steal it.
If he left the bicycle could imply but he doesnt (present meaning) or but he
doesnt intend to (future meaning). But the correct meaning is usually clear from the
text.
At one time ambiguity of this kind was avoided by using were + infinitive instead of
the past tense in type2
Examples: If a burglar were to come........
If I were to dye my hair...........
If he were to leave.....................

Sometimes rather confusingly, type2can be used as an alternative to type1for


perfectly possible plans and suggestions:
Examples: Will Mary be in time if she gets the ten oclock bus?
No, but shed be in time if she got the nine-thirty bus.
No, but shell be in time if she gets the nine-thirty bus.

Ann: Well never save that sum of money!!!!


Tom: If we saved 50p a week wed do it in ten months;
If we save 50p a week, well do it in ten months.
A suggestion in type2 is a little more polite than a suggestion in type 1. Just as would
you is a more polite request form than will you.

Possible variations of the basic form:


-Variations of the main clause:
-Might or could may be used instead of would
Examples: If you tried again you would succeed (certain result)
If you tried again you might succeed (possible result)
If I knew her number I could ring her up (ability)
If he had a permit he could get a job (ability or permission).
-The continuous conditional form may be used instead of the simple conditional
form:
Example: Tom: Peter is on holiday, he is touring Italy.
Ann: If I were on holiday, I would/ might be touring Italy too.
-If + past tense can be followed by another past tense when we compare if + two
present tenses. Note that the past tenses here have a past meaning.
Examples: If anyone interrupted him, he got angry (whenever anyone interrupted
him)
If there was a scarcity of anything, prices of that thing went up.
-When if is used to mean as or since, a variety of tenses is possible in the main
clause. If + past tense here has a past meaning. The sentence is not a true conditional.
Example: Ann: The pills made him dizzy. All the same he bought some more/has
bought some more/ is buying some more...
Tom: If they made him dizzy, why did he buy/ has he bought/ is he buying
more?
-Variations of the if clause:
Instead of if + simple past we can have:
-If + past continuous.
Example: Were going by air and I hate flying. If we were going by boat, Id feel
much happier.
-If + past perfect.
Example: If je had taken my advice, he would be a rich man now (this is a mixture of
type2 and type3

Conditional sentences type 3:


The verb in the if clause is in the past perfect tens; the verb in the main clause is in the
perfect conditional. The time is past and the condition cannot be fulfilled because the
action in the if clause didnt happen.
Examples: If I had known that you were coming I would have met you at the airport
(but I didnt know, so I didnt come).
If he had tried to leave the country he would have been stopped at the
frontier. (but he didnt try).

Possible variations of the basic form:


-Could or might may be used instead of would
Examples: If we had found him earlier we could have saved his life (ability)
If we had found him earlier we might have saved his life (possibility)
If our documents had been in order we could have left at once (ability or
permission)
-The continuous form of the perfect conditional may be used:
Example: At the time of the accident I was sitting in the back of the car, because
Toms little boy was sitting beside him in front. If Toms boy had not been there I
would have been sitting in front.
-We can use the past perfect continuous in the if clause:
Example: Luckily I was wearing a seat belt. If I hadnt been wearing one I would
have been seriously injured.
-A combination of types2 and 3 is possible:
Examples: The plane I intended to catch crashed and everyone was killed. If I had
caught that plane I would be dead now or I would have been killed (type 3).
If I had worked harder at school I would be sitting in a comfortable office
now; I wouldnt be sweeping the streets. (but I didnt work hard at school and now I
am sweeping the streets).
-Had can be placed first and the if omitted
Example: If you had obeyed orders this disaster would not have happened.
Had you obeyed orders this disaster would not have happened.
Special uses of will/ would and should in if clauses
Normally these auxiliaries are not used after if in conditional sentences. These are,
however, certain exceptions.
If you will/ would is often used in polite requests, would is the more polite form.
Examples: If you will/would wait a moment Ill see if Mr Jones is free (please wait)
I would be very grateful if you would make the arrangements for me.
If you will/ would + infinitive is often used alone when the request is one which
would normally be made in the circumstances. The speaker assumes that the other
person will comply as a matter of course.
Examples: If youd fill up this form.
(in a hotel) If youd just sign the register6
(in a shop) If youd put your address on the back of the cheque.
(in a classroom) If youd open your books.
If + will/ would can be used with all persons to indicate willingness:
Examples: If hell listen to me Ill be able to help him (If he is willing to listen)
If Tom would tell me what he wants for his dinner, Id cook it for him (the
speaker implies that he Tom is unwilling to tell her)
Wont used in this way can mean refuse:
Example: If he wont listen to me I cant help him (if he is unwilling to listen/ if he
refuses to listen)
Will can be used to express obstinate insistence
Example: if you will play the drums all night no wonder the neighbours complain (if
you insist on playing).
If you would like /care can be used instead of if + want/ wish and is more polite:
Example: If you would like to come Ill get a ticket for you.
If youd care to see the photographs Ill bring them round some evening.
If + should can be used in type1 to indicate that the action, though possible, is not
very likely. It is usually combined with the imperative and is chiefly used in written
instructions/
Example: If you should have any difficulty in getting spare time, please inform the
factory at once.
Should can be placed first and the if omitted:
Example: Should this machine fail, ring the bell and wait.
If + were can be used instead of if + was:
Examples: If she was/ were offered the job, shed take it. (either can be used)
If Peter was/ were to apply for the post, hed probably get it
If I was/ were you, I should wait a bit. (were is more usual)
Were I you, I should wait. (were is the only possible form)
Were to is more usual than was to. Were is better than was when the supposition is
contrary to fact. Were is the only possible form when the auxiliary is placed first.
Note that If I were you I should/ would ...... is a useful way of expressing advice.
Example: If I were you I would/ should /Id paint it green.
The if I were you is often omitted:
Example: Id paint it green.
In indirect speech such sentences are best reported by advise:
He said, If I were you Id tell the police.
He advised me to tell the police.

If replaced by unless, but for, otherwise, provided, suppose, or


inversion
Unless + affirmative verb = if + negative
Examples: Unless you start at once youll be late
If you dont start at once, youll be late
Unless you had a permit you couldnt get a job
If you hadnt a permit you couldnt get a job.

But for = if it were not for / if it hadnt been for


Examples: My father sends me an allowance. Bt for that I wouldnt be here.
The storm delayed us. But for the storm we would have been in time.

Otherwise = if this doesnt happen / didnt happen/ hadnt happened.


Examples: We must be back before midnight; otherwise well be locked out.
Her father pays her fees; otherwise she wouldnt be here
Provided (that) can replace if when there is a strong idea of limitation or restriction.
It is chiefly used with permission
Example: you can camp in my field provided you leave no mess.

Suppose / supposing...? = What if....?


Examples: Suppose the plane is late?
What if/ what will happen if the plane is late?
Suppose no one had been there?
What if no one had been there?
Suppose can also introduce suggestions
Example: Suppose you ask him? Why dont you ask him?

Inversion of subject and auxiliary with if omitted


If + subject + auxiliary can be replaced by auxiliary + subject:
Examples: If I were in his shoes = were I in his shoes
If there should be a delay = should there be a delay
If he had known in time = had he known in time.
If and in case:
In case is followed by a present or past tense or by should. It appears similar to if
and is often confused with it. But the two are completely different.
An in case clause gives a reason for the action in the main clause:
Example: Some cyclists carry repair outfits in case they have a puncture = Some
cyclists carry repair outfits because they may have / because it is possible they will
have a puncture.
An in case clause can be dropped without changing the meaning of the main clause.
In a conditional sentence , however, the action in the main clause depends on the
action in the if clause, and if the if clause is dropped, the meaning of the main clause
changes.
Compare: Bill: Ill come tomorrow in case Ann wants me
Tom: Ill come tomorrow if Ann wants me.
In the first case, perhaps Ann will want Bill, perhaps she wont. But Bill will come
anyway. His action doesnt depend on Anns. In case Ann wants me could be
omitted without changing the meaning of the main verb.
In the second case, a conditional sentence, Tom will only come if Ann asks him. His
action depends on hers. We cannot remove if Ann wants me without changing the
meaning of the main verb.
An in case clause is normally placed after the main clause, not before it.
Example: In case of accident, phone 999.

If only:
Only can be placed after if and indicates hope, a wish or regret according to the
tense used with it.
If only + present tense will express hope:
Example: If only he comes in time = We hope hell come in time.
If only + past/past perfect expresses regret
Example: If only he didnt drive so fast/ If only you hadnt said liar
If only + would can express regret about a present action as an alternative to if only
+ past tense
Example: If only he would drive more slowly.
Exercises:
Exercise 01: Put the verb into the correct form:
1- They would be rather offended if I (not/ go).
2- If you took more exercise, you (feel) better.
3- Im sure Amy will lend you the money. Id be very surprised if she (refuse).
4- A lot of people would be out of work if the factory (close down).
5- Im sure Sue (understand) if you had explained the situation to her.

Exercise 02: Use you own ideas to complete these sentences.


1- If you took more exercise,
2- Id feel angry if..
3- If I didnt go to work tomorrow,.
4- Would you go to the party if.
5- If you bought some new clothes
6- Would you mind if.