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Phase Diagram

Depending upon the


For one component present in system For two
component system component system
[Water system]

Component which react to Components which are


form compounds completely miscible but do
not react (Eutectic mixture)
[Pb-Ag system]

System having System having


congruent melting point Incongruent melting
[Zn Mg system] point [Na-K System]
 

4 PHASE RULE FOR ONE-COMPONENT SYSTEMS


   

 
     
        
 
   
  

 

   
 
     

 



  

      
        

  


           



[1] Water System


   
  
 

  

  

   

      
 
    

 





 

 
 
      
     

        


      
  

   


    
 
 

C
Critical point
B
218 atm

Fus
Water

ion
Vapour
Pressure (atm)

curv
Ice pressure
curve

e
1.0 atm E D

O Water
Triple vapour
4.58
mm A point
Metastable
curve A
F. P B. P
0 0.0098 100 374
Sublimation
curve Temperature C

 

 
  
   
 
    
 
 OB   vapour pressure curve of water  
   
  
 
      
    

 water  vapour  
  

  D,  

 
 

              
  OB
    
 
 

    
               
 critical point.
  
 
 
C    P 
F CP
 
  univariant system.    



    

  It is known as sublimation curve of ice      


  
  
 
 
ice  vapour  
  
  
 
OA   
  

 

Area Phase exits Component


 AOC  
 COB  
 BOA    


C   P 

 
  
F CP

 bivariant system.   


  
  
   
 

   
     
    
 

   


       
  
       
  
     
        
 
 

   
    
     

   
  

 


     
   

   two-component system. 

 
    

 
F CP

 
     
 
  
 

 
   
  


   (P),   T(C).
 
   
 
    
      
        
        
  
      
            
     


  
     



  
 
 

   

       


                  
            
        condensed system.          
  T C    
F  CP        
                   


X B
961 C

Y
Melt (Pb-Ag solution)
Temperature C

A X Solid Ag
327 C + Melt of Pb + Ag

Y
Solid Pb
+ melt of Eutectic point
Pb + Ag C
303 C
E F
Solid Pb
+ Solid Ag + Eutectic
Eutectic

G H
Pb = 100% D 97.4% Pb Ag = 100%
Ag = 0% 2.6% Ag Pb = 0%

 

 
            
   

 AC (Freezing point curve of lead): AC    
      
A.       AC. 
         
          
   AC.
 P  
C 
 Comprehensive Engineering Chemistry

    


  
 
   


  
    






 
 

  
  
 



  
 



    

 



      
 
 
  

 
   








   

Curve/ area/ Name of Phases in No. of Degree of


point the system equilibrium phase (P) freedom (F)

     



     



  
 

  


  

 

   



     

Desilverisation of Argentiferrous Lead (Pattinsons Process)


  

 

    
    


  
  
       

 
 


  
 

 
 


 
     



  


 
 

 

 
   

  
    
      
       
    

 
     

  

    
   
  
       
  
     
  

(B) Systems having Congruent Melting Point


     
  
 


    
    
 

              
 
      
    
 
    
       
   
  

        
     
      

   
    

 

 
       
       

   
    
         

 


 
  
 
 
 
    

    


   
 
   
 
 
  
 
 

A
650C

Melt

D liquid congruent
590C
melting point Mg + liquid melt
MgZn2
+ liquid
melt
419C B
Zn + Eutectic points
Temperature

liquid
melt
380C F G
C
I
H 345C
E

Zn + MgZn2 Mg + Mg Zn2

Mg = 0% Zn = 79% Mg = 61% Zn = 0%
Zn = 100% MgZn2 = 21% MgZn2 = 39% Mg = 100%

   


    
Phase Rule 


      
  

 






  
 
     
    
           
 

    
   
   

 
 
   
   
 

 

 


  
  
     
    
 

            


   

Curve/ area/ point Phases in equilibrium No. of Degree of the


phase(P) freedom (F)


      


  

      


   

      

  

     

 

    


     

 
 

  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
  
 
 
   
 
   
 
    
 
    
 

  
   

 
    
 
  
        
      
  
     
 
       
  

 
 

 


   



    
 
 
  
  
 

  


  


 
  

 
  
 
    
   
        
              
           
  
  
  

     


 
 
 
 
  
    
   
 

B
Na2K(s) 97.8C
Na(s)
Melt X1
Melt Na solid
Temperature C

+
X1 Melt
X
E
A D H
63.8 Y I
70C 1 Incongurant
X m.pt.
Solid Na2K Solid Na
Y
+ liquid melt + solid Na2K
Solid
K + liquid melt
F Eutectic point
G
C 12C
Na2K(s) Solid K + Solid Na2K
Melt
K(s) K
J L
K = 100% Na = 100%
Composition
Na = 0% K = 0%

    

 



   

    
    

  

 
   
        


   
 
  
              
     

      
 
 
    

  

      
  
 

  
   
   
 

 

  


   
Phase Rule 

   


  

    
     
 
  

   


   

   

    
    
        

 
         

 
                   
  


 
      
 

 
         
 


     


   

   

    
  


       


  

Curve/ area/ point Phases in equilibrium No. of Degree of the


phase(P) freedom (F)


     


 

    


 

    



   


     


 

  


 
 
   
 
 
  
 
  
 
    
 
    
 

 
 
    
  

 

   
  
  
              
                
     
              
  
     
  
      
 
   
    
   
    
     
   
  


   
     
     
    
      
  
 

   


     
  

     
  
 
   

  
       
      
                 
  

 

QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION

[A] Short Answer Type Questions