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# Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Lecture-05
Flexural Analysis and Design of
Two-way Slab System
(Part-I: Two Way Slabs Supported on Stiff
Beams Or Walls)

## NWFP UET Peshawar

drqaisarali@nwfpuet.edu.pk

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 1

Topics

Beams or Walls

## Steps in Moment Coefficient Method

Design Example 1

Design Example 2

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Behavior

## Two-way Slab System (Long span/short span < 2)

25 25 25 25

20

20

20

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Behavior

## Two-way Bending of Two-way slab

One-way Two-way

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Behavior

## Two-way Bending of Two-way slab

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Behavior

## Short direction moments in two-way slab

Short
Direction

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Behavior

## Long direction moments in two-way slab

Long
Direction

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Behavior

## More Demand (Moment) in short direction due to size of slab

central Strip = (5/384)wl4/EI

As these imaginary strips are part of monolithic slab, the deflection at any
point, of the two orthogonal slab strips must be same:

a = b

(5/384)wala4/EI = (5/384)wblb4/EI

## Thus, larger share of load (Demand) is taken by the shorter direction.

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Moment Coefficient
Method
The Moment Coefficient Method included for the first
time in 1963 ACI Code is applicable to two-way slabs
supported on four sides of each slab panel by walls,
steel beams relatively deep, stiff, edge beams (h =
3hf).

## Although, not included in 1977 and later versions of

ACI code, its continued use is permissible under the
ACI 318-08 code provision (13.5.1). Visit ACI 13.5.1.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 9

## Moment Coefficient Method

Ma,neg

Moments: la
Mb,neg Mb,pos Ma,pos Mb,neg
Ma, neg = Ca, negwula2

## Mb, neg = Cb, negwulb2 lb Ma,neg

Ma, pos, (dl + ll) = M a, pos, dl + M a, pos, ll = Ca, pos, dl wu, dl la2 + Ca, pos, ll wu, ll la2

Mb, pos, (dl + ll) = Mb, pos, dl + Mb, pos, ll = Cb, pos, dl wu, dl lb2 + Cb, pos, ll wu, ll lb2

## la, lb = length of clear spans in short and long directions respectively.

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## Moment Coefficient Method

Cases
Depending on the support conditions, several cases are possible:
4 spans @ 25-0

3 spans @ 20-0
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## Moment Coefficient Method

Cases
Depending on the support conditions, several cases are possible:
4 spans @ 25-0
3 spans @ 20-0

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## Moment Coefficient Method

Cases
Depending on the support conditions, several cases are possible:
4 spans @ 25-0

3 spans @ 20-0
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 13

## Moment Coefficient Method

Cases
Depending on the support conditions, several cases are possible:
4 spans @ 25-0
3 spans @ 20-0

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## Moment Coefficient Method

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## Moment Coefficient Method

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Moment Coefficient Method

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## Moment Coefficient Method

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Moment Coefficient Method

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## Moment Coefficient Method

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## Moment Coefficient Method

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## Calculate loads on slab (force / area)

Calculate m = la/ lb

## Apply reinforcement requirements (smax = 2hf, ACI 13.3.2)

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Design Example 1

SDL

4 thick mud.

## Live Load = 40 psf

wu = 0.211 ksf

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Design Example 1

## ACI Approximate analysis not applicable to one-way and two-

way mixed systems

Case 6 Case 6

One way

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Design Example 1

12

## wu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL = 0.211 ksf 16 Case 6

m = la/lb = 0.75 Ma,pos Ma,neg
Mb,pos
Ca,neg = 0.088; Cb,neg = 0;

## Ma,neg = Ca,negwula2 = 2.67 k-ft (32.04 k-in) ; Mb,neg = 0 ft-k

Ma,pos = 1.53 ft-k (18.36 in-k) ; Mb,pos = 0.712 ft-k = 8.544 in-k

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 25

Slab (Two-way)

## Table: Two-way slab of room, 12 16

ACI
SAP
moment Percentage
Results
Coefficient Difference
Ma,pos 1.53 MA =1. 51 2
Ma,neg 2.67 MB = 2.5 -6

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Slab (Two-way)

## Table: Two-way slab of room, 12 16

ACI
SAP
Moment Percentage
Results
Coefficient Difference
Mb,pos 0.712 MC = 0.75 5
Mb,neg - MD = 0.02 -

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 27

## Table: Verandah 9 wide (Slab Short Direction Moment)

Percentage
ACI 318-99 SAP Results
Difference
1.628 (at A) -4
1.688
M (kip-in/in) 0.648 (at B) - 62

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## House Design (beam and column in verandah), SAP2000

comparison
Table: Beam and Column Analysis Comparison
(1) Beam moments.
Percentage
ACI 318-99 SAP Results
Difference
- 0 -
M,ext support (k-in)
M,mid span (k-in) 192.24 159 -17
235.08 269 13
M,int. support (k-in)

## (2) Column axial force and moments.

Percentage
ACI 318-99 SAP Results
Difference
M (k-in) - 109 -
17.08 22 22
Axial force (kip)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 29

Design Example 2

## A 100 60, 3-storey commercial building is to be designed.

The grids of column plan are fixed by the architect.

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Design Example 2

panels

4 spans @ 25-0

## Panel I Panel III Panel III Panel I

3 spans @ 20-0
Panel II Panel IV Panel IV Panel II

## Panel I Panel III Panel III Panel I

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 31

Design Example 2

## A 100 60, 3-storey commercial building: Sizes and Loads.

Sizes:

Slab thickness = 7

Columns = 14 14

Beams = 14 20

## L.L = 144 psf ; wu = 0.336 ksf

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## Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method

Case = 4
m = la/lb = 0.8 4 spans @ 25-0
Panel I
Ca,neg = 0.071 Ma,neg
Mb,neg Mb,pos Mb,neg
Cb,neg = 0.029
Ma,pos
Ca,posLL = 0.048

3 spans @ 20-0
Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ma,neg
Ca,posDL = 0.039
Cb,posDL = 0.016

## Ma,neg = 9.5 k-ft

Ma,pos = 6.1 k-ft
Mb,neg = 6.1 k-ft
Mb,pos = 3.9 k-ft
For slab supported on Spandrals, Mneg,ext = 1/3Mpos
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 33

## Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method

Case = 9
m = la/lb = 0.8 4 spans @ 25-0
Panel II
Ca,neg = 0.075
Cb,neg = 0.017
Ca,posLL = 0.042
3 spans @ 20-0

Ma,neg
Cb,posLL = 0.017
Ca,posDL = 0.029 Mb,neg Mb,pos Mb,neg
Cb,posDL = 0.010 Ma,pos

## Ma,neg = 10.1 k-ft Ma,neg

Ma,pos = 5.1 k-ft
Mb,neg = 3.6 k-ft
Mb,pos = 3.1 k-ft

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method

Case = 8
m = la/lb = 0.8 4 spans @ 25-0
Ma,neg
Panel III
Ca,neg = 0.055 Mb,neg Mb,pos Mb,neg
Cb,neg = 0.041
Ma,pos
Ca,posLL = 0.044

3 spans @ 20-0
Cb,posLL = 0.019 Ma,neg
Ca,posDL = 0.032
Cb,posDL = 0.015

## Ma,neg = 7.4 k-ft

Ma,pos = 5.4 k-ft
Mb,neg = 8.6 k-ft
Mb,pos = 3.7 k-ft

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 35

## Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method

Case = 2
m = la/lb = 0.8 4 spans @ 25-0
Panel IV
Ca,neg = 0.065
Cb,neg = 0.027
Ca,posLL = 0.041
3 spans @ 20-0

Ma,neg
Cb,posLL = 0.017
Ca,posDL = 0.026 Mb,neg Mb,pos Mb,neg
Cb,posDL = 0.011 Ma,pos

## Ma,neg = 8.7 k-ft Ma,neg

Ma,pos = 4.9 k-ft
Mb,neg = 5.7 k-ft
Mb,pos = 3.2 k-ft

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Slab Analysis Summary

4 spans @ 25-0

9.5 7.4
3.9 3.7
6.1 6.1 6.1 8.6 5.4 8.6

3 spans @ 20-0
9.5 7.4
10.1 8.7

3.2 3.2
3.6 3.6 5.7 5.7
5.1 4.9
10.1 8.7

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 37

## Slab Reinforcement Detail

4 spans @ 25-0

C C
A A
B B C B C
3 spans @ 20-0

C C
A= #4 @ 12
A A B = #4 @ 6
A B B
B B C = #4 @ 4
C C

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## Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1

Load On Beams from coefficient tables 4 spans @ 25-0
B2
Table: Load on beam in panel I, using
Coefficients Panel I

3 spans @ 20-0
(wu = 0.336 ksf) B1
Width
slab due to
Bea B1
Length panel Wa Wb slab,
m
(ft) support Wwubs
ed by (k/ft)
beam B2
B1 25 10 0.71 - 2.39
B2 25 10 0.71 - 2.39
B4 B3 B3 B3 B4
B3 20 12.5 - 0.29 1.22
B4 20 12.5 - 0.29 1.22

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 39

## Load On Beams from coefficient tables 4 spans @ 25-0

B2
Table: Load on beam in panel I, using
Coefficients Panel I
3 spans @ 20-0

## (wu = 0.336 ksf) B1

Width
slab due to
Bea B1
Length panel Wa Wb slab,
m
(ft) support Wwubs
ed by (k/ft)
beam B2
B1 25 10 0.71 - 2.39
B2 25 10 0.71 - 2.39
B4 B3 B3 B3 B4
B3 20 12.5 - 0.29 1.22
B4 20 12.5 - 0.29 1.22

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1

Load On Beams from coefficient tables 4 spans @ 25-0
B2

3 spans @ 20-0
Table: Load on beam in panel I, using
Coefficients B1
(wu = 0.336 ksf)
Width Panel II
slab due to
Bea
Length panel Wa Wb slab,
m
(ft) support Wwubs
ed by (k/ft) B2
beam
B1 25 10 0.83 - 2.78
B4 B3 B3 B3 B4
B3 20 12.5 - 0.17 0.714
B4 20 12.5 - 0.17 0.714

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 41

B2
3 spans @ 20-0

## Table: Load on beam in panel I, using

Coefficients B1
(wu = 0.336 ksf)
Width Panel II
slab due to
Bea
Length panel Wa Wb slab,
m
(ft) support Wwubs
ed by (k/ft) B2
beam
B1 25 10 0.83 - 2.78
B4 B3 B3 B3 B4
B3 20 12.5 - 0.17 0.714
B4 20 12.5 - 0.17 0.714

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## Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1

Load On Beams from coefficient tables 4 spans @ 25-0
B2

Panel III

3 spans @ 20-0
Table: Load on beam in panel I, using
B1
Coefficients
(wu = 0.336 ksf)
Width
slab due to
Bea
Length panel Wa Wb slab,
m
(ft) support Wwubs
B2
ed by (k/ft)
beam
B1 25 10 0.55 - 1.84 B4 B3 B3 B3 B4
B3 20 12.5 - 0.45 1.89

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 43

B2

Panel III
3 spans @ 20-0

## Table: Load on beam in panel I, using

B1
Coefficients
(wu = 0.336 ksf)
Width
slab due to
Bea
Length panel Wa Wb slab,
m
(ft) support Wwubs
B2
ed by (k/ft)
beam
B1 25 10 0.55 - 1.84 B4 B3 B3 B3 B4
B3 20 12.5 - 0.45 1.89

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## Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1

Load On Beams from coefficient tables 4 spans @ 25-0
B2

## Table: Load on beam in panel I, using

3 spans @ 20-0
Coefficients
(wu = 0.336 ksf) B1
Width
slab due to B1
Bea
Length panel Wa Wb slab,
m
(ft) support Wwubs
ed by (k/ft)
B2
beam
B1 25 10 0.71 - 2.39
B3 20 12.5 - 0.29 1.22 B4 B3 B3 B3 B4

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 45

B2

## Table: Load on beam in panel I, using

3 spans @ 20-0

Coefficients
(wu = 0.336 ksf) B1
Width
slab due to B1
Bea
Length panel Wa Wb slab,
m
(ft) support Wwubs
ed by (k/ft)
beam B2
B1 25 10 0.71 - 2.39
B3 20 12.5 - 0.29 1.22
B4 B3 B3 B3 B4

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1

## Load On Beams 4 spans @ 25-0

B2
2.39 k/ft 1.84 k/ft

## 2.39 k/ft 1.84 k/ft

3 spans @ 20-0
B1
2.77 k/ft 2.39 k/ft

## 2.77 k/ft 2.39 k/ft

B1

B2

B4 B3 B3 B3 B4
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 47

## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1

## Load On Beams 4 spans @ 25-0

B2
2.62 k/ft 2.07 k/ft

## 1.45 k/ft 3.34 k/ft

including self
3 spans @ 20-0

weight of B1
5.39 k/ft 4.46 k/ft
beams 0.23
kip/ft 0.94 k/ft 2.16 k/ft

B1

B2

B4 B3 B3 B3 B4
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Analysis of Beams

(From Tributary area) 4 spans @ 25-0
B2

3 spans @ 20-0
Table: Load on beams (wu = 0.336 ksf) B1
Span Tributary due to Self Total
Beam length, l area, At slab, Weight load
B1
(ft) (ft2) wuAt/l (k/ft) (k/ft)
(k/ft)
B1 25 300 4.03 0.23 4.26
B2 25 150 2.02 0.23 2.25 B2
B3 20 200 3.36 0.23 3.59
B4 20 100 1.68 0.23 1.91 B4 B3 B3 B3 B4

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 49

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Analysis of Beams

After loads are calculated on beams from either of the two methods
mentioned in the previous slides, analysis of beam(s) can be done
using ACI moment coefficients.

## In this class however, we have analyzed beams for the loads

calculated on the basis of tributary area.

The students can analyze beams for loads calculated on the basis of
load coefficient tables as previously discussed.

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Analysis of Beams
wu

## Integral with Simple

support support
ln ln ln

Positive
1/14 1/16 1/11 Moment
x w l 2
u n
Spandrel
support 1/24 1/10* 1/11 1/11 1/10* 0 Negative
Moment
Column
1/16 *1/9 (2 spans) x wuln2
support

## * 1/12 (for all spans with ln < 10 ft)

Note: For simply supported slab, M = wul2/8, where l = span length (ACI 8.7).

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 51

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Analysis of Beams

Analysis of Beams
Interior Beam B1

4 spans @ 25-0
B2
3 spans @ 20-0

B1

B1

B2

B4 B3 B3 B3 B4

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Analysis of Beams

Analysis of Beams
Exterior Beam B2

4 spans @ 25-0
B2

B1 3 spans @ 20-0

B1

B2

B4 B3 B3 B3 B4

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 53

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Analysis of Beams

Analysis of Beams
Interior Beam B3

4 spans @ 25-0
B2
3 spans @ 20-0

B1

B1

B2

B4 B3 B3 B3 B4

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Analysis of Beams

Analysis of Beams
Exterior Beam B4

4 spans @ 25-0
B2

3 spans @ 20-0
B1

B1

B2

B4 B3 B3 B3 B4

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 55

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Analysis of Columns

Analysis of Column
Axial Load (C1) = Internal Shears from Beam B1 and B3= 2 58 +2 39 = 194 kip

Axial Load (C2) = External Shear from Beam B1 and Internal shear from B4

= 51 + 2 21= 93 kip

Axial Load (C3) = External Shear from Beam B3 and Internal shear from B2

## Axial Load (C4) = External Shears from Beam B2 and B4 = 27 + 18 = 45 kip

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Analysis of Columns

4 spans @ 25-0

B2
C4 C3 C3 C3 C4

B1

3 spans @ 20-0
C2 C1 C1 C1 C2

B1
C2 C1 C1 C1 C2

C4 C3 C3 C3 C4
B2

B4 B3 B3 B3 B4

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 57

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Analysis of Columns
4 spans @ 25-0

B2
C4 C3 C3 C3 C4

B1
3 spans @ 20-0

C2 C1 C1 C1 C2

B1
C2 C1 C1 C1 C2
Analysis of Column
C4 C3 C3 C3 C4
B2
Moments
Column C4: B4 B3 B3 B3 B4

## Column C4 (MN-S) = Exterior Moment from B4 = 80 ft-kip

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## Slab (Long direction moments)

SAP Moment Coefficients
4 spans @ 25-0

## 2.0 6.1 3.9 8.6 3.7 8.6

3 spans @ 20-0
1.0 3.1 3.6 5.7 3.2 5.7

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 59

## Slab (short direction moments)

SAP Moment Coefficients
4 spans @ 25-0

2.0 1.8

6.1 5.4
9.5 7.4
3 spans @ 20-0

10.1 8.7
5.1 4.9
10.1 8.7

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Interior Beam (B1) Shear Force Diagram

Coefficient method
SAP

58
51.75 39.7
40.11

58 58
43.6 39.5

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 61

## Exterior Beam (B2) Shear Force Diagram

Coefficient method
SAP

31
27 21.68
22.8

31 31
24.34 21.5

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## Interior Beam (B3) Shear Force Diagram

Coefficient method
SAP

39
33.79 34.39
33.78

39 39
37.85 34.39

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 63

## Exterior Beam (B4) Shear Force Diagram

Coefficient method
SAP

21
18 26.6
22

21 21
28.5 26.6

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## Interior Beam (B1) Bending Moment Diagram

Coefficient method
SAP

173 151
127 99

151
153 219 219
242
201 201
219

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 65

## Exterior Beam (B2) Bending Moment Diagram

Coefficient method
SAP

91 80
75 56

80
88 116 116
128
110 110
124

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Interior Beam (B3) Bending Moment Diagram

Coefficient method
SAP

91 80
96 69

80
100 115 115
128
140 140
149

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 67

## Exterior Beam (B4) Bending Moment Diagram

Coefficient method
SAP

48 42
51 36

42
53 62 62
68
72 72
80

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Moment Coefficient Method: Example 2

Similarly, slab analysis results of 25 20 structure.
4 spans @ 25-0
Slab thickness = 6

## Panel I Panel III Panel III Panel I SDL = 40 psf

LL = 60 psf

3 spans @ 20-0
fc =3 ksi
fy = 40 ksi
Panel II Panel IV Panel IV Panel II
wu = 0.234 ksf

## Panel I Panel III Panel III Panel I

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 69

## Moment Coefficient Method: Example 2

Slab analysis summary
4 spans @ 25-0

6.6 5.1
2.6 2.4
4.2 4.0 4.2 6.0 3.5 6.0
3 spans @ 20-0

6.6 5.1
7 6.1
1.9 2.0
2.5 2.5 3.9 3.0 3.9
3.2
7 6.1

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 70

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Moment Coefficient Method: Example 3

Similarly, slab analysis results of 20 15 structure.
4 spans @ 20-0
Slab thickness = 6

## Panel I Panel III Panel III Panel I SDL = 40 psf

LL = 60 psf

3 spans @ 15-0
fc =3 ksi
fy = 40 ksi
Panel II Panel IV Panel IV Panel II
wu = 0.234 ksf

## Panel I Panel III Panel III Panel I

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 71

## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 3
Slab analysis summary
4 spans @ 25-0

4 3.2
1.3 1.3
2.2 2.5 2.2 3.4 2.2 3.4
3 spans @ 20-0

4 3.2
4.1 3.6
0.9 1.0
1.3 1.3 2.1 1.8 2.1
2.0
4.1 3.6

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 72

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

References

ACI 318

## Design of Concrete Structures 13th Ed. by Nilson, Darwin and

Dolan.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 73

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

The End

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 405 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Spring 2012 74

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