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ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TIRUCHIRAPALLI - 621213.

DEPARTMENT: CIVIL SEMESTER: 07

SUBJECT CODE /NAME: CE 2401/DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE AND BRICK

MASONDRY STRUCTURES

YEAR: IV

Application of virtual work method to square, rectangular, circular and triangular slabs.

PART - A (2 marks)

1. List the assumptions made in yield line analysis of slabs. (May/Jun-2013)

(Nov/Dec-2011) (May/Jun-2012)

The reinforcing bars are fully yielded across the yield lines at failure.

The yield lines divide the slab into various segments who in turn behave

classically.

The entire deformation take place only in the yield lines and the individual

segments of the slab are plane segments in the collapse condition.

The bending and twisting moments have the maximum values and are uniformly

distributed along the yield lines.

The yield lines are straight at in intersection of individual inclined segments.

2. Define yield line theory. (May/Jun-2013)

The yield line theory is largely based upon the yield lines that develop in any reinforced

concrete slab (rectangular, circular, square or any other geometrical shape in plan) before its

final collapse. This stage reaches under loads approaching collapse load or ultimate load that

the slab can carry.

The collapse loads, movements and shears can be calculated from the crack pattern

developed in slab, under idealized support conditions and only uniformly distributed loads.

Yield lines end at the supporting edges of the slab

Yield lines are straight

A yield line or yield line produced passes through the intersection of the axes of rotation

of adjacent slab

Axes of rotation generally lie along lines of supports and pass over any columns.

The failure of reinforced concrete slabs of different shapes such as square, rectangular,

circular with different types of edge conditions is preceded by a characteristic pattern of cracks,

which are generally referred to as yield lines.

5. State the principle of virtual work. (Nov/Dec-2013)

If a deformable structure in equilibrium under the action of a system of external forces is

subjected to a virtual deformation compatible with its condition of support, the work done by

these forces on the displacements associated with the virtual deformation is equal to the work

done by the internal stresses on the strains associated with this deformation.

If the reinforcement in the two directions is not the same, it is said to be orthotropically

reinforced slab.

The ultimate moment of resistance in an isotropically reinforced slab, in any direction, is

the same.

8. Draw the typical yield line pattern for different slabs. (Nov/Dec-2012) (Nov/Dec-2013)

9. What are the two methods of determining the ultimate load capacity of reinforced

concrete slabs?

Virtual work method

Equilibrium method

In one way slab, the direction of yield line is perpendicular to the direction of steel.

In two way slab, the direction of yield line is not perpendicular to the direction of steel.

In the yield line method, the computation of ultimate load is based on the pattern of yield

lines that are developed in the slabs under conditions approaching collapse.

This method was innovated by Ingerslav (1923) and was greatly extended and advanced by

Johanssen.

A yield line is defined as a line in the plane of the slab across which reinforcing bars

have yielded and about which excessive deformation under constant limit moment continues to

yield leading to failure.

If the conditions of statics i.e.,H=0,V=0 and M=0 alone are not sufficient to find either

external reactions or internal forces in a structure, the structure is called a statically

indeterminate structure.

The external load is removed and the unit load is applied at the point, where the

deflection or rotation is to found.

17. What is the absolute maximum bending moment due to a moving udl longer than the

span of a simply supported beam?

When a simply supported beam is subjected to a moving udl longer than the span, the

absolute maximum bending moment occurs when the whole span is loaded .Mmax max = wl / 8

18. State the location of maximum shear force in a simple beam with any kind of loading.

In a simple beam with any kind of load, the maximum positive shear force occurs at the

left hand support and maximum negative shear force occurs at right hand support.

Due to a given system of rolling loads the maximum shear force for every section of the

girder can be worked out by placing the loads in appropriate positions. When these are plotted

for all the sections of the girder, the diagram that we obtain is the maximum shear force

diagram. This diagram yields the design shear for each

20. What do you understand by the term reversal of stresses?

In certain long trusses the web members can develop either tension or compression

depending upon the position of live loads. This tendency to change the nature of stresses is

called reversal of stresses.

Moment at the hinged ends of a simple beam is zero.

Similitude means similarity between two objects namely the model and the prototype with

regard to their physical characteristics:

Geometric similitude is similarity of form

Kinematic similitude is similarity of motion Dynamic and/or mechanical similitude is

similarity of masses

A beam strengthened by providing ties and struts is known as Trussed Beams.

PART-B (16 MARKS)

1. Using virtual work method, obtain the expression for ultimate moment an

isotropically reinforced square slab simply supported and subjected to a uniformly

distributed load. (AUC May/Jun-2012)

2. Using virtual work method, obtain the expression for ultimate moment an isotropically

reinforced square slab fixed on all edges and subjected to a uniformly distributed load.

(AUC Nov/Dec-2013) (AUC May/Jun-2012)

3. Using virtual work method, obtain the expression for ultimate moment an isotropically

reinforced triangular slab simply supported on adjacent edges and subjected to a

uniformly distributed load. (AUC Nov/Dec-2012)

4. Using virtual work method, obtain the expression for ultimate moment an

orthotropically reinforced rectangular slab simply supported and subjected to a

uniformly distributed load.

CE2401 Design of reinforced concrete and brick masonry structures Page 9

5. Using virtual work method, obtain the expression for ultimate moment an

orthotropically reinforced rectangular slab simply supported and subjected to a

uniformly distributed load.

6. Design a simply supported square slab of 4.5m side length to support a service live

load of 4kN/m2.adopt M20 grade concrete and Fe415 steel. Assume load factor according

to IS: 456-2000. (AUC Nov/Dec-2011)

CE2401 Design of reinforced concrete and brick masonry structures Page 12

7. Design a rectangular slab 5m by 4m in size and simply supported at the edges to

support a service load (live) of 4kN/m2.assume co efficient of orthotropy as 0.7.adopt M20

concrete and Fe415 steel bars. (AUC May/Jun-2013, 2012) (AUC Nov/Dec-2013, 2011)

8. A hexagonal slab of side length 4m is simply supported at the edges and it is

isotropically reinforced with 12mm diameter bars at 150mm centers both ways, at an

average effective depth of 120mm.the overall depth of the slab is 150mm.calculate the

ultimate load capacity of the slab and also the safe permissible live load if M20 grade

concrete and Fe415 bars.

9. A right angle triangular slab is simply supported at the adjacent edges AB and BC. the

side AB=4M and BC=3m and CA=5m.the slab is isotropically reinforced with 10mm

diameter bars at 100mm centers both ways at an average effective depth of 120mm.the

overall depth of the slab is 150mm.if M20 concrete and Fe415 steel bars are used,

estimate the permissible service live load on the slab.

10. Design a circular slab of diameter 4m which is simply supported at the edges. Adopt

service live load as 4kN/m2 and M20 grade concrete with Fe415 steel bars. Assume load

factor according to IS: 456-2000. (AUC May/Jun-2013) (AUC Nov/Dec-2012)

CE2401 Design of reinforced concrete and brick masonry structures Page 17

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