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The Legal Bases of the Teaching Profession____________________________________________________

Understanding the legal bases of the teaching profession will help teachers and
student teachers in knowing their duties, asserting their rights, and in guiding them how to
act as professionals.

Article XIV of 1987


Consitution
R.A. 7836 and R.A.
R.A. 4670 9293

Legal Bases of
the Teaching
Profession
Batas Pambansa 232 R.A. 10533

Code of Ethics for


Professional Teachers
Article XIV of the 1987 Republic of the Philippines Constitution
To fully appreciate the legal bases of professionalizing teaching in the Philippines, it is
important to examine the constitutional basis of Philippine education. Article XIV of the
1987 Constitution provides the general framework for education in the country. It shows
how the state recognizes the importance of education, science and technology, cultural
development, and sports and wellness in the life of the state and of the people. Article XIV
embodies the utopian and economic goal of education of the Philippines.
Section 1 presents the enduring commitment of the Philippines to provide quality
education to all its citizens. A commitment to build a nation with functionally
literate, educated, and productive citizens. It is a statement that shows how the
country values the education and development of its citizens.
Section 2 discusses the commitment of the state to provide access to quality
education for all levels from preschool to tertiary. It elucidates the function of the
state to develop an education system that focuses on formal education, non-formal
education, alternative learning system, and indigenous learning system. To support
this provision, Section 2 states that the state will provide financial assistance and
efficient student-support system to deserving students.
Section 3 provides a framework for enduring values, knowledge, and skills that
need to be emphasized in all the contents of the curriculum.
Section 4 provides guidelines in the establishment and management of educational
institutions in the country. it emphasizes that all educational institutions other than
those established by religious groups and mission boards, shall be owned solely by
citizens of the Philippines or in the case of corporations and associations, at least
majority of the shares (60%) should be owned by Filipino citizens.
Section 5 reiterates the need to consider regional and sectoral needs and conditions
in planning and in the development of educational policies. It enshrines the spirit of
academic freedom for tertiary education, the right of citizens to choose their
profession or field of study, the right of teachers and school personnel to
professional advancement, and putting highest budgetary support to education.
Section 6 to Section 9 focus on the development and promotion of Filipino as the
national language and as a medium of instruction. These sections also recognize the
importance of other local and foreign languages.
Section 10 to Section 13 focus on the importance and promotion of science and
technology in the Philippines. It reiterates the importance of developing a culture of
science and innovation among the Filipino people.
Section 14 to Section 18 discuss the development and promotion of Filipino
culture that includes various cultural practices, traditions, beliefs, and indigenous
knowledge of the different cultural groups and regions in the country.
Section 19 R.A. 4670 provides the framework for promoting and developing sports
programs for the wellbeing of the Filipino people.

Batas Pambansa
Batas Pambansa 232, otherwise known as the Education Act of 1982 was signed into
law by President Ferdinand E. Marcos. Sections 10, 11, and 16 of this law are helpful in
understanding the rights and duties of teachers.
Section 10. Rights of all School Personnel. In addition to other rights provided for by
law, all school personnel shall enjoy the following rights:
1. The right to free expression of opinion and suggestions, and to effective channels of
communication with appropriate academic and administrative bodies of the school
or institution.
2. The right to be provided with free legal service by the appropriate government office
in the case of public school personnel, and through the school authorities concerned
in the case of private school personnel, when charged in an administrative, civil,
and/or criminal proceedings by parties other than the school or regulatory
authorities concerned for actions committed directly in the lawful discharge of
professional duties and/or in defense of school policies.
3. The right to establish, join and maintain labor organizations and/or professional
and self-regulating organizations of their choice to promote their welfare and defend
their interests.
4. The right to be free from involuntary contributions except those imposed by their
own organizations.

Section 11. Special Rights and/or Privileges of Teaching and Academic Staff. Further
to the rights mentioned in the preceding Section, every member of the teaching or
academic staff shall enjoy the following rights and/or privileges:

1. The right to be free from compulsory assignments not related to their duties as
defined in their appointments or employment contracts, unless compensated
therefore, comfortably to the existing law.
2. The right to intellectual property consistent with applicable laws.
3. Teachers shall deemed persons in authority when in the discharge of lawful duties
and responsibilities, and shall, therefore, be accorded due respect and protection.
4. Teachers shall be accorded the opportunity to choose alternative career lines either
in school administrations, in classroom teaching, or others, for purposes of career
advancement.
Section 16. Teachers Obligations. Every teacher shall:

1. Perform his duties to the school by discharging his responsibilities in


accordance with the philosophy, goals, and objectives of the school.
2. Be accountable for the efficient and effective attainment of specified learning
objectives in pursuance of national development goals within the limits of
available school resources.
3. Render regular reports on performance of each students and to the latter and
the latters parents and guardians with specific suggestions for improvement.
4. Assume the responsibility to maintain and sustain his professional growth
and advancement and maintain professionalism in his behavior at all times.
5. Refrain from making deductions in students scholastic rating for acts that
are clearly not manifestations of poor scholarship.
6. Participate as an agent of constructive social, economic, moral; intellectual,
cultural and political change in his school and the community within the
context of national policies.