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# bracing (single or double) for single story or high rise steel

## Among the common shapes used as tension members:

Round bar Flat bar Angle Double

## Channel Double Latticed W-section

channel channels (wide-flange)

## Cross-section of typical tension members.

e steel structures.

## S-section Built-up box

(American sections
Standard)
on members. T-1
The strength of a tension member is controlled by
of the following limiting states:
T
Net Gross
Area (A n ) Area (A g

F n =F y A g

F n =F u A e

## Where A e = effective net Area = UA

U = Reduction Coefficient.
C) Block Shear Failure through the end bolt:
olled by the lowest

T
)

n ):

T
T-2
A hole is drilled (or punched) by 1/16 inch greater then
the normal diameter of the fastener (rivet or
punching causes some damage to the edges
hole to the amount of 1/32 inch from each side.
Thus the equivalent hole diameter
bolt diameter 1 1
### ###
bolt dia. ###
inch.
###
nch greater then
vet or bolt). Hole
edges of the
ach side.

1
32

T-3
Example (T1):
What is the netn for the
as shown in the
?figure
Plate 1 4 (inches)
4
T
Solution: A
= 4(0.25)
Width = 1.0
to be sq in. for hole
deducted
A
=
7[W 0.25

or the tension member

## Standard Hole for a 3 -in. diam bolt.

4
T

34

0.78sq.in.
T-4
For a group of staggered holes along the tension
must determine the line that produces smallest
EFFECT OF STAGGERED HOLES ON NET AREA :-

A
Paths of failure T T
on netabove
In the sectiondiagram: B (a)
p = Pitch or spacing along bolt line
s = Stagger Between two adjacent bolt lines
(usually s = P/2)
In case (a) above : A n = (Gross width hole dia.)

## In case (b) above : A n = (Gross width hole dia.+

tension direction, one
mallest Net Area.

A
p p
T g T
p C Bs (b)

hole dia.) . t
hole dia.+ s 2 /4g) . t T-5