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LITERATURE REVIEW

1. Weisman Charles A (1996),A Book on Treatise Arrest &Imprisonment. Author has enumerated
that history has taught us that deprivation of liberty is more often arbitrary than unlawful. He is very
critical about misuse Executive power derived by them.
2. Shavel Steven et al (2000),Book titled as Economic Analysis of Law Business at Harvard School
of Cambridge, This paper discusses economic analysis concerned with effect of Legal rules and
evaluation of the desirability of effect of the legal rules. This survey approach as it applies to basic of
law such as accident, property, contract and criminal law as well as litigation process.
3. Conway TM et al(2002),The author along with co-authors have written an Article on Rights and
Livelihoods: Exploring policity Dimensions.Herein this article the author has written made an
attempt to analyse the Livelihood approaches which has considerable potential for improving the
focus of programmes and policies and the overall strategic coherence of interventions that a
government or donor uses to promote poverty reduction. However, operational staff often find the
conceptual frameworks on which they are based somewhat complex .Approaches to development
informed by a human rights framework also have much to offer who does and who does not have
power He discusses about international Human Right Frame work.

4. KiranE. Ravi et.al (2004),The Research paper is about Prospective Study on Road Traffic
Accidents .In this article the author analyses increasing Road Traffic Accidents with certain facts
and figures. Road Traffic Accidents(RTA) and Road Traffic Injuries (RTI) consequent to it are on
the rise and are a matter of concern as far as the loss of life and limb of a RTA victim and as well as
the psycho-socio-economic consequences of the event aftermath, on the RTA victim and his family.
Every day as many as 140,000 people are injured on the worlds roads. More than 3000 people die
and some 15,000 are disabled for life.

5. Rao P.Hari (2005),TheAuthor has written a book on Commentary on Railway Act,1989 along
with judicial cases decided in the matter.Has commented that in the case of untoward incident under
section 124A of Railway 1989, compensation payable to Rail Passenger not withstanding anything
contained in any other law, be liable to pay compensation to such extent as may be prescribed and to
that extent only for loss occasioned by the death or injury to, a passenger as a result of such untoward
incident.
6. Kual Archna (2005),The Author has enumerated her view in the Article Fatal Road Traffic
Accidents, Study of distribution and Nature and Type of Injury. The article discusses about Road
Traffic Accident which is on the increase in India and analysis is based on distribution system
various type of injury Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are increasing reported that traffic is the most
important cause of severe injuries
7. National Rights Human Commission (2007), It has published a book on Human Rights Manual
For District Magistrate and it enumerates various aspects about Human Rights Violations in India
and draws the attention of State its duty towards Article 21 & Directive principles.
8. Kumar Amit and Sinha P.K (2008),The Article is about Human Error Control In Railwaysthe
Authors writes about human error in management of Rail system in India. With the advancement of
civilization and as a result of globalization of business, travel and transport sector are still in a period
of major growth. The challenge is to manage this growth with a commensurate increase in safety. As
a response to this, railways are expanding throughout the world. Many workers are required for
system design, operation, and maintenance of the railways. Most of rail accidents are attributed to
human error. In engineering, an error is a difference between desired and actual performance of a
system or object/man. One type of error is human error, which includes cognitive bias. Human errors
are predictable, and thus can be prevented by changing the design of a system. Psychologists use
their knowledge of human perception, response time, and cognition to predict and prevent possible
errors.
9. Barry Jesia G and Harrison James E (2008)Authors have written about Series of Injury Due To
Transport Accidents Involving Railway Train, Australia,2001-02 to 2005-06,Injury Research
Statistics.In this article the Authors have nicely analysed and compared the train accidents,
hospitalisation stay,etc. It gets in to more detailing of statistics. The risk of serious injury, based on
distance travelled, is10.6 times greater for passengers travelling by car compared with
passengerstravelling by rail. The mean length of stay in hospital for a transport accident involving a
railway train was 8.4 days, which was longer than the mean length of stay for allExternal causes of
injury and poisoning (4.1 days).
10. Stokes Rachael et al prepared for United Nations Publications (2008),The Article about United
Nations Publications on Human Rights. It has published a hand book on Prisoners File
Management Author has commented about international treaties and non-treaty human rights
standards. Non treaty standards are not legally binding and stresses certain rights of citizens are
considered so important that they are nonderogable, meaning they must be fully respected and
implemented at all times.They include right to life,in-human etc.
11. Kocsis Anita H. (2010), This author has written book about Intellectual Standards on Pre-trial
Detention Procedure. The increasing tendency of misuse of Executive power,overreliance on
detention continues to be major threat to Human Right .It also discusses about overcrowding in the
prison and on the same ratio it is to be considered applicable to overcrowding in Mumbai Su-Urban
local train.
12. Louw Clarence Kipobota Sarah (2010), The Author has written about Tanzania Human Rights
Report 2009 which contains information obtained through primary and secondary research. Legal
Human Rights Centre is a nongovernmental organisation and it discusses the steps taken to uphold
the Human Rights in line with UDHR. The article discusses various steps initiated in collaboration
and suggestion made to the Government for better governance.
13. Kagrah and Ekram S(2012),The Author has written aboutTrain Conditions on Mumbai Sub-
Urban(Central Railway) through Pervasive Computing.Author mentions about how Mumbai
Suburban train punctuality and efficiency can be increased leading to customer satisfaction. The kind
of gadget is being used in Kalyan. The Mumbai (CR) Suburban train system, operating approx. 1470
trains & handling approx.35 Lakh passengers daily, is a high density, high turnaround complex
network which demands extremely fast & efficient train control system. The manual control is slow,
tedious, and stressful and doesnt involve holistic operational management. It is inadequate to handle
the commuters ever increasing demand of more trains/timely information the train movement data is
stored in dedicated servers at the stations, which are connected to a centralized UNIX server through
WLAN Cloud, which commands the train movement
14. Mehta Kunal (2013),The Article is about Law relating to .In his article author has critically
analysed for bringing legislation for award of the fixed compensations as in case of rail or airways. A
person dyeing in rail accident cannot get beyond Rs. 4 lakh but a person dyeing in road accident can
get Rs.4 crore. The payment of compensation based on the vehicle is not reasonable and a structural
basis compensation formula without reference to income or age may be brought in so that each and
everybody can get compensation of their life irrespective of his poverty or richness. A Scheme
should be formulated with the State Police Authorities and the Insurance Companies by which the
Insurance Company must know immediately after happening of accident and can make necessary
investigations. Insurance Company comes in picture when the claim petition is filed and by that time
the evidence can be created to convert the non-accident into accident and also on quantum. The
intention of legislation is to provide just compensation and not exorbitant compensation.
15. R.M. Kamble (2013), The Article is on Impact of Globalisation on Human Rights &
Environmental protection .The author discusses about globalisation and its impact on Human
Rights. The author also discusses abut about development and simultaneously protecting natural
resource. While human rights have been increasingly protected by governments and international
bodies like the United Nations, grave threats to and gross violations of human rights are also on the
rise.
16. Zuhairi Mahdi.Al Ahmed Salih (2013),The Article is about Automatic Railway Gate and
Crossing Control based Sensors & Microcontrolleron International Journal of Computer.The author
provides some solutions to minimise Rail Traffic accidents and discusses that this isdangerous than
other transportation accidents in terms of severity and death rate etc. Therefore more efforts are
necessary for improving safety. There are many railways crossing which are unmanned due to lock
of manpower needed to fulfil the demands. Hence many accidents occur at such crossing since there
is no one to take care of the functioning of the railway gate when a train approaches the crossing.
The main objective of this paper is to manage the control system of railway gate using
microcontroller.
17. Jani Neepa (2013),The Author analyses The Article 21of Constitution of India and Right to
Livelihood. Author emphasises the right to life and it is based all human beings are born equal with
dignity. In any organized society, right to live as a human being is not ensured by meeting only the
animal needs of man. It is secured only when he is assured of all facilities to develop himself and is
freed from restrictions which inhibit his growth. All human rights are designed to achieve this object.
Right to live guaranteed in any civilized society implies the right to food, water, decent environment,
education, medical care and shelter. The word life as employed by Article21 takes in its sweep not
only the concept of mere physical existence by also all finer values of life including the right to work
and right to livelihood. This right is a fundamental right guaranteed to all persons residing in India,
citizens and non-citizens alike. right to life including right to livelihood and work as guaranteed by
Article 21 is not reduced to a mere paper platitude but is kept alive, vibrant and pulsating so that the
country can effectively proceed towards the avowed goal of establishment of an egalitarian society as
envisaged by the founding fathers while enacting the Constitution of India along with its Preamble.
18. Kamthan Manika (2013),The Article is about topic Rape Compensation: An economic analysis of
the Criminal Law of Rape in India Article discusses about criminal justice system and the role of
State. Criminal law is the backbone of any civilized nation. It aims to maintain law and order in the
society. The criminal law specifies various wrongs as crimes and penalises them. By and large the
criminal law works on the principle of deterrence and thus it punishes the wrongdoers to set an
example for others. However, with the span of time, the criminal law has also engulfed the idea of
reformative justice apart from the retributive justice. It aims to reform the wrongdoers by subjecting
them to various rehabilitative programmes. Criminal law differs from various other laws because
other laws deal with private wrongs, but the offences under the criminal law are regarded as the
public offences and thus need harsher punishments. Crimes are wrongs against the State and thus,
the State is the prosecutor in criminal law.
19. Parakh Sheetal M (2013),The Article is on Liability and the author analyses liability in various
sense .In strict compensation could be merely compensation but in absolute it depends on the
capacity or Magnitude of the enterprise. In strict liability occurs when accident happens within the
premises butin absolute- premises extended symbolically. In strict liability impose with an exception
but in absolute, there is no exception, enterprise is absolutely liable.
20. REDRESS(2013),Is an article on Torture in Asia :The Law and Practice. The study presents key
findings of the regional expert meeting in relation to pattern of torture in Asia and common
challenges experienced .It has specially highlighted in country like India the Human Right respect is
in not in practice and Judiciary too failed in this mission.
21. Saleh et al (2014),The Article is on Legal Protection for the Victim of Error in persona under the
Criminal Justice Process. The author makes an attempt to research on legal protection for the victim
of error in persona under the criminal justice system. The approach for the purpose research was
used is legal sociological approach with empirical normative types. The character of research are
descriptive and qualitative.
22. Prnka Jiri, etal (2014),The Article on The issue of Truck Braking ,their accidental rate and
economic losses incurred in Traffic Accidents in the CZCH Republic. The article is based on the
truck accidents and critically reviews the important criterion for evaluation in the area of accident
rate is the amount of economic losses incurred in traffic accidents. Such losses depend on many
factors, including the extent of injury or the extent of material damage. The economic losses caused
by traffic accidents are calculated annually in the Czech Republic.
23. Fareeduddin Khaja andReddy Anj (2014),The Article is written on Evolution of Urban
Transportation Planning with Reference to Hyderabad Metro Railthe articles gives detailed urban
planning of Urban Metro Corridor through GIS system and there by commuters can travel
smoothly. Authors have made an attempt has been made to use geographical information system
(GIS) to study one of the three high density corridors of Hyderabad Metro Rail. All the issues related
to planning, construction and implementation along with its impact on traffic and environment were
addressed. GIS techniques/ maps were used to analyse the study area including location of metro
stations and also the effects on surrounding environment, heritage andreligious structures etc.
Environmental Impact study report was prepared using GIS with reference to land acquisition, loss
of green cover, effects on environment during and after construction viz. air quality, noise, vibrations
etc. and measures for its mitigation were also suggested. Contour maps were used to know the
drainage conditions and it was found that slope is towards Musi River. A detailed report on positive
and negative impacts of metro rail was also analysed.
24. Anil M.D. et al (2014),Authors have discussed in their research Article about Advanced Railway
Accident Prevention System Using Sensor Networks.Authors write about increased Rail traffic
density across the world and in such circumstances how to control. This has resulted in the increase
in number of accidents involving trains. In this paper, the proposed system includes several features
which prevent train accidents. It includes automatic speed controlling in curves, collision detection,
fire detection, detaching of couch automatically when fire is detected in it, automatic railway gate
control and track continuity. This system makes use of IR sensors, fire sensor, zig Bee and other
embedded systems or prevent accidents.
25. Ramesh S. et al (2014),The Author has written Automatic Tack Inspection in Railway Network
.In this article, the author stresses the reliability on safety parameters in Indian Rail System there by
causing Rail accidents. The Author has compared the safety parameters along with international
standards and recommended certain measures to minimise Rail Accidents. The main problem about
a railway analysis is detection of cracks in the structure. If these deficiencies are not controlled at
early stages they might lead to a number of derailments resulting in a heavy loss of life and property.
This project proposes a cost effective solution to the problem of railway track crack detection
utilizing RF control assembly which tracks the exact location of faulty track which then mended
immediately so that many lives will be saved.
26. Amedorme Shurry K and Nsoh Stanisalus N. (2014),The Article is about Analyzing the cases of
Road Traffic Accidents Kumas Metro Polis.In this article, the Authors analyses random sampling
by observation, interview, questionaries etc.The study analysed the causes of road traffic accidents
in the Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana. Random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 137
drivers of commercial vehicles in the metropolis. Descriptive statistics and percentages were used to
analyse and interpret the data. The findings showed that reckless driving; bad nature of roads and
unfavourable weather conditions accounted for the major causes of road traffic accidents in the
metropolis.
27. Salako K J et al (2014),The Article is on Analysis for modelling and detecting seasonality for
Modelling and Detecting seasonality pattern of Auto Crash cases recorded at Federal Road Safety
Commission. OSOGBOIn this article Authors analyse Motor accident is a major cause of mortality
and disability in Nigeria, which explains the reason for the establishment of Federal Road Safety
Commission in 1988 to address the carnage and maiming on the highways and roads. The tool used
is Time Series statistical tools to build model, and examine seasonality pattern of the number of
cases of motor accident recorded at the Federal Road Safety Commission.. It was finally concluded
that the formation of Commission Federal Road Safety Commission has been performing to
expectation in the manner it discharges her duties by adjuring from the results of the analyses.
28. M Kiruthigaet al (2014),The Article is onWireless Communication System for Railway Signal
Automation at Unmanned Level.Author discusses about the accidents at unmanned level crossings
and collision of trains running on same track are the major accidents in railways. Such accidents
cause heavy human causality and damage to train. Therefore, author has proposed to develop a fool
proof system to avoid such accidents. It proposes to develop automatic railway gate operation to
prevent accidents at unmanned gate and automatic closure of unmanned gate. The author also
describes about development to prevent collision of trains running on same track. Automatic closure
of unmanned gate reduces the time for which the gate is being kept closed and provides safety to the
road users by reducing the accidents.
29. Das Manash (2013),The author has written about Article on Industrial Accidents in Brick
Industry-A case Study in Karim GanjDistrict of Assamthe author compares the compensation term
with reference to Industrial Injury and payments under Workmans Compensation Act. The author
suggests reform in the existing labour law to ensure that workers who are working the Brick Industry
deserves to get just and equitable compensation.
30. Tyagi Shashank etal (2015),The Article is on Mumbai Local: Life or Life stealing,published by J
Indian Acad Forensic Med, Mumbai is financial and commercial capital of India. Mumbai wouldnt
have achieved this without the lifeline of the cityits local trains. Aim of author was to study and
find out most demographic profile manner and causes of death in railway deaths. Total number of 51
railway death cases was noted during study period. Most of the deaths belonging to younger age
group 21 to 30 yrs. (28%). Males (96.07%) preponderance was observed in our study. Maximum
numbers of railway accidents were seen during the evening hours between 1600 to 2000 hrs. The
majority of the victims were brought dead 27 (52%). Greatest number of deaths were accidental
(98%) in nature. Authors view is that the Railway accidents can be preventable by taking
appropriate measures such as attentive surveillance, ambulance availability at stations, safety
engineering and awareness among passengers.
31. KS Rashmi and TR Maruthi (2015),The Article is on Disaster Management In India Authors
analyse a detailed study disaster Management in India with special reference to transportation
system. India is one of the most disaster prone countries of the world. It has had some of the worlds
most severe droughts, famines, cyclones, earthquakes, chemical accidents, rail accidents, and road
accidents. India is also one of the most terrorist prone countries. Disaster is unlike anything else in
human experience. Its strikes quickly, it changes the lives of all that it touches and its effects are felt
long after the event and perhaps more important, its forces are largely outside the control of the
people whom it most affects.
32. Bhosale Amol Ankush (2015),The Article discusses about on the research paper Automotive
Railway Safety and Control using RF model.In this article authors emphasises about various control
measures such as in case emergency, fire in the bogie etc. Railway accidents are often taking place.
There are different reasons of railway accident. Railways being cheapest mode of transportation are
preferred over all other means. Rail Accidents are very big economic losses are to be faced. The
objective of the author is to avoid railway accidents. This model is designed with the help of
microcontroller to avoid accidents.
33. Pillai Binu B and Singh G.D (2015),The Article is on Scenario of Road Accidents in Kerala and
its ILL effects. The article analyses detailed study on Road accidents and its after effects lead to a
major economic, social and health problem. It highlights the costs experienced during and after the
accidents include hospital expenses, administrative and court expenses, wastage of time and also the
cost of intangible consequences like pain, grief and sufferings. This can be compared with Rail
accidents where in the cost involved and pain undergone by the victims. In Rail systems several
measures has been planned and implemented in our country to control the impact of injuries during
Rail accidents but the actual implementation is lacking.
34. Kirankumar P. and Shankara BS (2015),The Article is about PLC Based Automatic Fault
Detection of Railway And Accident Avoidance SystemAuthors analyse about train accidents and
majority of the people in our country prefer traveling in trains. The reason may be the comforts
available for longjourneys and relatively lesser travelling charges. Though the railways has
implemented many safety standards for the safe journey, he has suggested PLC methods which more
scientifically controlled, still one can witness some rail accidents and leading to the loss of many
precious lives and loss of property.
35. P Deepu, The Article is on Human Rights and Environmental Protection An Integrated
ApproachThis paper discusses on Human rights and environment are inter-related; inter connected,
mutually responsive and crucial issues. Both are concerned with development and promotion of
human welfare. It talks about environmental problem worldwide and is facing menace. While human
rights are necessary to promote development, material comfort and healthy environmental is also
equally important. Article establishes a natural link between environment, Development and human
Rights.