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Beyond Bits Motor Control Edition

Switched Reluctance Motors


Control techniques using Freescale solutions

Switched Reluctance Figure 1: Two-Phase 4/2 Switched Reluctance (SR) Motor


Motor Features
Stator
A switched reluctance (SR) motor is a (4 Poles) Phase B
rotating electric machine where both
stator and rotor have salient poles. Phase A
The stator winding comprises a set
of coils, each of which is wound on
one pole. The rotor is created from
lamination in order to minimize the Rotor
(2 Poles)
eddy current losses.
SR motors differ in the number of
phases wound on the stator. Each
has a certain number of suitable Aligned Rotor Position Unaligned Rotor Position
combinations of stator and rotor poles.
Figure 1 illustrates a typical two-phase defined by the turn-on Qon and the the SR power stage defines
SR motor with a 4/2 (stator/rotor) pole turn-off Qoff angles. the freedom of control for an
configuration and a stepped gap. The individual phase.
When the voltage is applied to the
stepped gap is used to eliminate dead stator phase, the motor creates There are a number of control
zones, where motor torque is zero at a torque in the direction of increasing techniques for SR motors. They
symmetrical SR motor and it ensures inductance. When the phase is differ in the structure of the control
motor startup in the proper direction. energized in its minimum inductance algorithm and in position evaluation.
The motor is excited by a sequence position, the rotor moves to the Three basic techniques for controlling
of current pulses applied at each forthcoming position of maximal SR motors can be distinguished,
phase. The individual phases are inductance. The movement is defined according to the motor variables
consequently excited, forcing the by the magnetization characteristics that are being controlled:
motor to rotate. The current pulses of the motor. A typical current profile Angle control
need to be applied to the respective for a constant phase voltage is shown
Voltage control
phase at the exact rotor position in figure 2.
Current control
relative to the excited phase.
Control of SR Motor In angle control techniques, the
The inductance profile of SR motors
The SR motor is driven by voltage constant full voltage is applied in the
is triangular shaped, with maximum
strokes coupled with the given SR motor. The speed of the motor is
inductance when it is in an aligned
rotor position. The profile of the controlled by changing on/off angles.
position and minimum inductance
phase current together with the The speed controller processes the
when unaligned. Figure 2 illustrates
magnetization characteristics defines speed error (the difference between
the idealized triangular-like inductance
the generated torque and thus the the desired speed and the actual
profile of both phases of an SR
speed of the motor. Due to this fact, speed) and calculates the desired
motor with phase A highlighted. The
the motor requires electronic control on/off angles. This technique is not
individual phases A and B are shifted
for operation. Several power stage suitable for full speed range operation
electrically by 180 degrees relative
topologies are being implemented, since during low-speed operation the
to each other. When the respective
according to the number of motor maximal voltage amplitude generates
phase is powered, the interval is
phases and the desired control high current peaks in the motor
called the dwell angle: Qdwell. It is
algorithm. The particular structure of phases. This technique is used to run
Beyond Bits Motor Control Edition

switching of individual phases.


Figure 2: Ideal Phase Inductance and Current Profile
Also, the motor structure causes
noise and torque ripple. The greater
Stator Phase A
the number of poles, the smoother
Aligned Just in Touch Aligned
the torque ripple, but motor
construction and control electronics
become more expensive. Torque
Rotor
ripple can also be reduced by
iphA LA advanced control techniques such
LB as phase current profiling.

Freescale Enablement
The selection of suitable MCUs for
control of SR motors depends on
OFF selected algorithms and required
ON Dwell
Position /Time
speed range. In the case of sensor
application and low-speed range,
the SR motor over nominal speed. At current reaches desired amplitude, the 8-bit MCU with a PWM module
the nominal speed, the full voltage is the current controller keeps the phase is a sufficient option. The Freescale
applied on the motor phases and by current at the desired level. MC9S08MP16 MCU includes
properly adjusting on/off angles the a 6-channel PWM module with
As is apparent from the description,
motor can achieve operation over the commutation support, which is
the SR motor requires position
nominal speed. very important for applications with
feedback for motor phase
high-speed range where precise
In voltage control techniques, the commutation. In many cases, this
commutation is required. The
speed of the motor is defined by requirement is addressed by using
sensorless algorithms are too complex
the voltage applied to the motor position sensors, such as encoders
for 8-bit devices without additional
phases. The voltage applied to the and Hall sensors. The result is that the
external components. The Freescale
phase is directly controlled by a implementation of mechanical sensors
DSC family provides an optimal
speed controller. The speed controller increases costs and decreases system
solution. This family offers advanced
processes the speed error (the reliability. Traditionally, developers
PWM modules, very fast ADC with
difference between the desired speed of motion control products have
PWM to ADC synchronization and
and the actual speed) and generates attempted to lower system costs by
a powerful DSP core, such as an
the desired phase voltage. The reducing the number of sensors. A
MC56F8006 or MC56F8013. Both
desired voltage is generated by the variety of algorithms for sensorless
are the smallest representatives of
SR inverter using PWM modulation. control have been developed,
the DSC family and offer the best
During PWM modulation, the on/off most of which involve evaluation
performance/price ratio. Several other
times are constant. Once the applied of the variation of magnetic circuit
members of the Freescale DSC family
voltage has achieved its maximal parameters that are dependent on
are suitable for these applications.
value, the motor speed can be the rotor position.
increased over the nominal speed by Reference designs, application
changing on/off times. SR Motor Applications notes and software solutions for
The SR motor itself is a cost-effective SR motor control are available at
In the case of current control, there is
machine of simple construction. Since freescale.com/motorcontrol.
one more control loop: inner current
control loop employed in the control of high-speed operation is possible,
the SR motor. In this type of control, the motor is suitable for high-speed
the output of the speed controller applications, such as vacuum
defines the required current amplitude cleaners, fans and white goods. As
in the motor phase. Based on the discussed above, the disadvantage
required current amplitude, the new of the SR motor is the need for shaft-
on/off times are calculated. Once the position information for the proper
Beyond Bits Motor Control Edition

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Document Number: BBSWCHRLCTART REV 0