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relationship between plastic stress and strains

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You are on page 1of 11

Jayadeep U. B.

Dept. of Mechanical Engg., NIT Calicut.

Introduction

In this lecture, we consider various specific forms of stress-strain

relationships for elasto-plastic deformations not for specific

materials!

These relations should satisfy various general considerations

discussed in the last lecture.

Depending on the work hardening behavior, there are two

categories of material models:

Non-hardening (ideally plastic) materials

Hardening materials

Softening behavior is not shown by metallic materials.

Material models also differ on whether they consider the elastic

strains or not.

We consider materials obeying associated flow rule only.

2 ME6302 Metal Forming

Levy-Mises Relations

These are applicable to rigid perfectly plastic materials.

The relations were first suggested by Levy (1871), and

independently by von Mises (1913) later on.

d x d y d z d xy d yz d zx

= = = = = d ij = ij d

x y z xy yz zx

Since, the equations are simplified by ignoring elastic strains and

hardening, they give acceptable results only in problems with

large plastic strains, as commonly seen in many of the metal

forming problems.

It is clear that these equations cannot predict elastic recovery or

spring back, and hence should not be used if it is important.

3 ME6302 Metal Forming

Prandtle-Reuss Relations

Prandtle-Reuss relations are an improvement over the Levy-Mises

equations, by including the elastic strains.

Hence, they are more complicated, though still suitable for only

ideally (perfectly) plastic materials.

Originally proposed by Prandtle (1924) for plane strain, and

generalized by Reuss (1930) for 3D cases.

The additional effort required for using these equations is justified

in problems where predicting the elastic recovery is important.

d ij = d ijp + d ije = ij d + d ij 2

d ii =

(1 2 )

d ii

E

4 ME6302 Metal Forming

Effect of Plastic Strains on Yield Locus

Uniaxial tensile tests indicate that the yield point gets modified by

the plastic deformation the material has undergone

- The tensile yield stress corresponding to material at state P is y1.

0

y1

y

P e

Bauschinger effect says that for a uniaxial test, plastic strain

undergone in tension, reduces yield strength in compression and

5 vice versa.

Isotropic Hardening Hypothesis

2 Modified von Mises

R = y Yield Locus

for initial yielding

3 1

Modification in von Mises Yield

R1 = y1 Locus due to Plastic Deformation

Effect of plastic deformation is a uniform expansion in all

directions Isotropic Hardening means that yield strength in all

directions in stress space is same (but higher than the initial value).

6 Bauschinger effect is ignored.

An Anisotropic Hardening Hypothesis

Kinematic Hardening

2 y1 Modified von Mises Yield

R = y y Locus due to tensile plastic

strain 2 direction.

for initial yielding

3 1

Modification in von Mises Yield

R1 = y Locus due to Plastic Deformation

In Kinematic Hardening hypothesis proposed by Prager (1955),

effect of plastic deformation is to shift the yield locus in the

direction of plastic strain, without changing the size or shape of it.

7 Bauschinger effect is considered.

Hardening Hypotheses

Though it does not consider Bauschinger effect, isotropic hardening

hypothesis is very commonly used, since it leads to much simpler

equations, and the results are exact if the loading is proportional.

There are other more complicated hardening rules, like Chaboche model

(1989) combining both isotropic and kinematic hardening models.

To use any hardening rule for a general state of stress/strain, it is

required to define a parameter using which, the hardening effect can be

quantified (use in computations).

In Strain Hardening Hypothesis, the parameter, on which amount of

hardening depends, is assumed to be the accumulated plastic strain.

In Work Hardening Hypothesis, the parameter, on which amount of

hardening depends, is assumed to be the plastic part of the work per unit

volume done during deformation.

Both the strain and work hardening hypotheses leads to close results.

8

Specifically, if von Mises criterion is assumed, both leads to same results.

Equivalent Plastic Strain

Considering the equivalence of work hardening and strain hardening

hypotheses (assuming von Mises yield criterion), we can express the

isotropic hardening using equivalent stress and equivalent strain:

= eq = F ( d

p

) (

=F 2

3

d ijp d ijp )

Integration is to be performed over the strain path.

The integrand in the above equation is called equivalent plastic strain, and

formulated based on second invariant of deviatoric strain tensor and

equal to axial strain in case of uniaxial loading (H.W.: verify it for

yourself; please remember to use incompressibility of plastic strains).

The function F above should be obtained from the true stress (axial)

plastic strain relation determined using uniaxial tests.

Since yield surface gets modified on continued plastic deformation,

points outside the yield surface cannot occur.

9 ME6302 Metal Forming

Kinematic Hardening Formulation

Use of kinematic hardening hypothesis requires keeping track of

the plastic strain direction; hence the equivalent plastic strain

cannot be used.

Initial yield surface: f ( ij ) = k 2

Material becomes anisotropic as ij is not isotropic.

It depends on material behavior with plastic strains. For example,

assuming linear hardening, d ij = c d ijp

In this case it can be easily integrated to give: ij = c ij

p

( ij c p

ij )( ij c p

ij ) = 2 k 2

References

Chakrabarty, J., Theory of plasticity, Butterworth-Heinemann.

Hill, R., The mathematical theory of plasticity, Oxford University

Press.

Johnson,W. and Mellor, P.B., Plasticity for Mechanical Engineers,

van Nostrand Company Ltd.

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