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object

o Styling

Fuel Consumption

o More fuel is consumed to counter aerodynamic forces than any other factor

o Better air flow management reduces fuel consumption and pollution

Styling

o Aerodynamically efficient body surfaces may interfere with the styling intent

o Turbulent airflow can deposit dirt on windows and automobiles body (e.g.,

rear window)

Control and Handling

o Aerodynamic forces

Aerodynamic Factors

Streamlines

Velocity Distribution

Laminar Flow

Turbulent Flow

Viscosity

Reynolds Number

Boundary Layer

Pitot Tube

Pressure Coefficient

Streamlines

Curves associated with a pictorial representation of air flow

Velocity Distribution

The nature of the fluid flow

Laminar Flow

Fluid motion that is "well organized"

Turbulent Flow

Fluid motion that is not "well organized"

Viscosity

The fluids resistance to motion

Where, F= fluid viscosity force, = coefficient of viscosity, V = fluid

velocity, h= separation distance, and A= contact area

Example

What is the force required to pull the upper plate at 5 m/s, if the plate area is

2 m2, and the fluid between the surfaces is water with the separation distance

of 0.04 m (waters coef. of viscosity is 1.0x10 -3 Ns/m2)

Example

Using the previous diagram and dimensions,

How fast will the upper plate move, if the fluid is SAE 30 motor oil with the

coef. of viscosity of 4.0x10-3 Ns/m2 and an applied force of 2 N

Reynolds Number

Quantifies the product of speed times size

A dimensionless number

length of the object

Compensates for scale differences

Example

Different flows can be considered the same if they have similar Re values

fluids and or velocities

Boundary Layer

The thin layer of rapid tangential velocity change close to an objects surface

Relative velocity

Example

o At 60 mph, the boundary layer is about an inch close to the rear of a

vehicle

A too sudden a change in thickness (transition) can cause flow separation,

Additional drag (skin friction)

Skin Friction

Cf, skin friction coefficient

Non-dimensional

Indicates the level of friction between the vehicles skin and the air

= Friction resistance

Example

What is the friction resistance ( ) of a plate moving at 30 m/s, with coef. of

friction of 0.002 through air with a density of 1.22 Kg/m 3?

= 1.098 N/m2

Dynamic Pressure

for turbulent boundary conditions

Bernoullis Principle

Height of the fluid decreases with drop in pressure

Fluid Velocity is greater at the neck, V1 > V

Fluid pressure drops as fluid velocity increases

Fluid pressure is inversely proportional to fluid velocity

Bernoullis Equation

where, V = velocity, p = local static pressure, and = density, for any point

on a streamline

Usually used to compare and calculate pressure and velocity at two different

points

Example

What is the pressure difference on the surface of a vehicles grill (V grill=0), if

the vehicle travels at 30 m/s. Air density is 1.22 Kg/m 3

Pitot Tube

Bernoullis equation allows measuring any fluid velocity by measuring its

pressure

Pressure Coefficient

Non-dimensional

Vehicle Aerodynamic Factors

Aerodynamic Forces

Laminar Separation

Pressure Distribution

Wake

Tires

General Improvements

Unconventional Features

Aerodynamic Forces

Lift force

Drag force

Side force

Effects of aerodynamic forces are profound

Force coefficients

Example

o What is a vehicles drag force, with a frontal area of 1.5 m2, CD of 0.4, and

traveling at 30 m/s

o Increases load on tires without increasing the vehicles weight (up to 10% of

vehicles weight)

Example of down force

Example

Underbody improvements

o Aerodynamic properties

o Reduce drag

Laminar Separation

Laminar Separation

Laminar Bubble

Laminar bubble area is sensitive and can easily separate, resulting in excess

drag

causing severe discrepancies in flow visualization and analysis

The rear end shape is the most critical factor in lowering the drag coefficient

Flow separation above the rear window can cause annoying dirt deposits on

the glass

Tripping of Boundary Layer

Introduction of aerodynamic disturbances

o Fins

o Vortex generators

Pressure Distribution

Helps the placement of inlets and outlets

Example of inlet

Radiator inlet configurations

Wake

The disturbed air flow left behind the vehicle

Increases drag

Tires

Tires influence a vehicles aerodynamic properties

o Frontal area

o Rotation of tires

Effects of tire rotation

Effect of all-wheel-steering

Drag can be reduced by making glass and trim as flush with the body as

possible

Elimination of rain gutter improves the vehicle aerodynamics

General Improvements

1- Front spoiler

4- Aerodynamic mirrors

Unconventional Features

Large rear fins promote lateral stability in the 1966 Peugeot CD

1969 Chaparral 2J used auxiliary fans to create suction under the car

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