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Suresh Choudhary Mechanical, SSJCET/ Mumbai University, India.
Abstract- An Engineer is always focused towards challenges of bringing ideas and concepts to life. Therefore, Software and Computer Techniques must be constantly developed and implemented for Virtual and Economic Analysis. At the same time, we must take care that there is no compromise with the Accuracy of the Techniques used. In the Age of Speed, Automobiles have become an integral part of human routine. By designing Aerodynamically Sound Automobiles, overall efficiency of an Automobile can be increased, by reduction in the Drag Force (Losses) and too by the reduction in the Fuel Consumption, eventually developing an Environment-Friendly Vehicle. The Engineer is constantly conformed to the challenges of bringing ideas and design into reality. The Computational Fluid Dynamics is a step towards bringing numerous Hypothetical Concepts to reality, as the Analysis done gives better results compared to the Physical Analysis (Wind Tunnel Testing), without any costly setup and space requirement. In this Project, Modelling of Automobile (Car) was done using the Software-Solid works. The Lift and the Drag of the car were determined by the Analysis of Fluid (Air) Flow around it using Software-Ansys Fluent. After that, with modifications like Air Vents, Rear Spoiler, the Analysis was repeated. Based on the values of Lift Force and Coefficient of Drag (Cd), optimal solution was considered as the success of the Project. Keywords: CFD, Drag, Downforce, Lift, Solidworks, Ansys

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AND ENGINEERING TRENDS

Aerodynamics

Suresh Choudhary

Mechanical, SSJCET/ Mumbai University, India.

Abstract- An Engineer is always focused towards world for years, as to produce good results, huge power

challenges of bringing ideas and concepts to life. Therefore, inputs are required. Hence, an effective way known, to better

Software and Computer Techniques must be constantly the outputs without regulating the inputs is Aerodynamics

developed and implemented for Virtual and Economic II OBJECTIVE

Analysis. At the same time, we must take care that there is

This paper focuses on the CFD analysis of a car. The

no compromise with the Accuracy of the Techniques used. In

goal is to simulate the air flow around the vehicle and obtain

the Age of Speed, Automobiles have become an integral

an accurate value of its drag and lift coefficient. The next step

part of human routine. By designing Aerodynamically

would be to make modifications to the vehicle geometry which

Sound Automobiles, overall efficiency of an Automobile

could improve its lift and drag characteristics making the

can be increased, by reduction in the Drag Force (Losses)

vehicle handle better at cruise speeds and also improve its fuel

and too by the reduction in the Fuel Consumption,

efficiency. The major objectives are Getting optimal solution

eventually developing an Environment-Friendly Vehicle.

with maximum number of iterations, reducing the lift, working

The Engineer is constantly conformed to the challenges of

out with the coefficient of Presentation drag in a way that it

bringing ideas and design into reality. The Computational

facilitates stability and better handling of the car, developing

Fluid Dynamics is a step towards bringing numerous

pressure and velocity contours and gaining proficiency in the

Hypothetical Concepts to reality, as the Analysis done gives

modelling and analysis software.

better results compared to the Physical Analysis (Wind

Tunnel Testing), without any costly setup and space III THEORY

requirement. In this Project, Modelling of Automobile CFD or Computational fluid dynamics is a branch of

(Car) was done using the Software-Solid works. The Lift fluid mechanics that, with the help of computers, uses

and the Drag of the car were determined by the Analysis of numerical methods to solve and analyse problems involving

Fluid (Air) Flow around it using Software-Ansys Fluent. fluid flows. Computers are used to carry out calculations

After that, with modifications like Air Vents, Rear Spoiler, using an iterative procedure wherein the solution accuracy

the Analysis was repeated. Based on the values of Lift improves with every iteration. The underlying equations that

Force and Coefficient of Drag (Cd), optimal solution was are solved in CFD problems are the Navier-Stokes

considered as the success of the Project. equations. In the laminar regime, the flow of the fluid can be

Keywords: CFD, Drag, Downforce, Lift, Solidworks, Ansys completely predicted by solving the steady-state Navier-

I INTRODUCTION Stokes equations, which predict the velocity and the pressure

fields. As the flow begins its transition to turbulence, it is no

Speed is the need of todays world. The ironical

longer possible to assume that the flow is invariant with time.

saying that, Distance must be measured in minutes, rather

In this case, it is necessary to solve the problem in the time

than in miles is turning out to be a reality in the current

domain. As the Reynolds number increases, the flow field

world of pace. The ambitious construction of the Autobahns

exhibits small eddies, and the timescales of the oscillations

in Germany which began in 1920s and which was carried

become so short that it is computationally unfeasible to solve

forward by the Nazi Supremo - Adolph Hitler, encouraged

the Navier-Stokes equations, so in such flow regime,

the people in that region to shift from using the conventional

Reynolds Average Navier Stokes Formulation is used to

carts to mechanically powered vehicles. Gradually the trend

cope up with the issue.

spread around the world and reached our country, which

A. RANS Equation

resulted in the construction of Flyovers, Expressways, Sea

The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations

Links, etc. which connected the vastly spread India. But

(also known as RANS equations) are equations used to

along with the availability of good infrastructure, the

predict the fluid flow using a time averaged formulation.

Automobile Manufactures started feeling the need to develop

The primary concept applied is Reynolds decomposition

faster vehicles, which they have managed to do well in the

which involves decomposing an instantaneous quantity into

past two decades. But, challenges never end. Lower

its time averaged and fluctuating quantities. The time

efficiencies of the vehicles have troubled the Automobile

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

AND ENGINEERING TRENDS

averaged nature of its equations makes it an attractive B. Creating Fluid Enclosure

choice while simulating turbulent flows. Considering certain In order to simulate the air flow around the vehicle, a

approximations based on the knowledge of properties of fluid volume needs to be created which will encompass the

turbulent flows, these equations can be used to give time vehicle. This was done by creating an enclosure around the

averaged solutions to the Navier Stokes equations. vehicle and subtracting the vehicle body. This enclosure acts as

B. Non-equilibrium wall function (NWF) the air domain. To reduce the overall computational cost

For high Reynolds number flows, such as in external and time, the vehicle was considered symmetric laterally. The

flow around vehicles, resolving the near wall region down size of the enclosure was taken to be 3 car lengths each; ahead

to the wall is not practical. To overcome this, wall functions of the car, above the car and beside the car whereas 5 car

are used. NWF takes into account the effects of local variation lengths spacing was left between the car rear and the end of the

in the thickness of the viscous sub layer, when computing enclosure.

the turbulent kinetic energy budget in wall adjacent cells. C. M e s h Generation

Besides this, NWF is also sensitized to adverse pressure While generating the mesh, sizing functions were

gradients which are common in flow around vehicles. used wherever necessary in order to obtain accurate lift/drag

Compared to traditional wall functions, NWF provide more parameters. Two bodies of refinements were added to properly

realistic predictions of the behaviour of the turbulent boundary capture the flow in the region closest to the vehicle and also

layers, including flow separation, and they do so without a capture the flow in the wake. Since boundary layer separation

significant increase in either CPU time or dynamic memory. has a significant effect on drag, five layers of inflation were

C. Aerodynamic Devices Rear Spoiler added to the vehicle surface to properly resolve the boundary

A spoiler is an automotive aerodynamic device whose layer. The total number of elements obtained was 4.835

intended design function is to 'spoil' unfavourable air million. Figure 2 shows the Mesh Generation.

movement across a body of a vehicle in motion, usually

described as turbulence or drag. Spoilers are often fitted to race

and high-performance sports cars, although they have become

common on passenger vehicles as well. Some spoilers are

added to cars primarily for styling purposes and have some

Aerodynamic benefit. The term "Spoiler" is often mistakenly

used interchangeably with "Rear Wing". An automotive wing

is a device whose intended design is to generate downforce as

air passes around it, not simply disrupt existing airflow

patterns. As such, rather than decreasing drag, automotive

wings actually increase drag.

IV PRE PROCESSING

A. Vehicle Geometry M o d el

For modelling the geometry, 3D modelling

software Solid works was used. The modelling process

involved importing the vehicle blueprints into Solid works

with the help of which, 3D curves were projected. These

curves then acted as boundaries to generate surfaces. The final

surface model was converted into a solid part (refer Figure. 1)

before importing it to Ansys.

D. Boundary Condition

The enclosure inlet plane was named velocity-inlet.

Air coming through the in l et was given a velocity of

150 km/h which equates to 41.67 m/s. The road and the

vehicle body were both made walls. The surrounding

enclosure surfaces, being imaginary surfaces, were all named

symmetry planes having a no slip condition. The outlet was

Figure 1 Top: Actual Model View

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named a pressure-outlet with its pressure set constant and A. P o s t Professor A n s y s C FX

equal to atmospheric pressure. The velocity, pressure, turbulence kinetic e n e r g y

V SOLVER a n d Y-plus contours are shown below (refer Figure. 3, 4, 5, 6).

Analysis: Air velocity at inlet: 150 km/h or 41.67 m/s.

Reference area to determine drag and lift coefficients Frontal

Area: 1.17425 m2. The final solution was obtained by

performing the iterations in three stages. With each

progressive stage, the solver accuracy was raised by

employing higher order equations. In the first stage, first order

equations were used to prevent the solution from diverging.

The Pseudo Transient Scheme was selected to speed up

convergence. Once sufficient convergence was achieved, the

equation order was raised. The iterations were carried up to the

point where the change in the value of drag coefficient was

found negligible.

VI SOLVER RESULTS Figure 3 Velocity contour.

A final drag coefficient of 0.3569 was obtained. The

analysis of the aerodynamic effects of the radiator and a rough

underbody was out of the scope of this study. These two

factors, though, tend to have a significant drag penalty and are

known to contribute between 15-20% of the total drag. Adding

their drag penalty to the obtained value gives a Cd value

ranging between 0.4198 0.4461. The official drag

coefficient for the car is 0.42. The results of the analysis were

thus deemed accurate.

Stage I II III

Residuals

Convergence Residuals Residuals 10e - 4 &

Criteria 10e 4 10e - 4 Stable

value of Cd Figure 4 Pressure contour on vehicle.

Iteration number 95 296 600

Order of

Momentum,

Turbulence

K.E. and First Order Second Order Second Order

Turbulence

Dissipation

Eq.

Pseudo

Scheme - -

Transient

Relaxation Factors - 0.25 0.4

Figure 5 Turbulence Pressure contour.

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AND ENGINEERING TRENDS

Table II Comparison between Values of Cd and Cl before and

after addition of Diffuser

Diffuser

angle

Cd Cl Cd Cl

A. Addition of Diffuser

The results obtained can be summarized as follows:

Addition of a diffuser showed an increase in drag

and a corresponding decrease in lift in all three cases. The

reduction in lift was maximum in the 15 deg. diffuser

model which also had the maximum drag penalty. The

least drag coefficient after the original model was observed

in the 8 deg. diffuser model.

The comparison between the turbulence kinetic

energy before and after the addition of diffuser is shown in

Figure 8. The streamlines (refer Figure. 9) show an increase

in the upward deflection of the air in the vehicle wake

after the addition of a diffuser.

In order to improve the drag/downforce

characteristics of the vehicle, the geometry was modified

and a diffuser was added at the rear. The goal was to

reduce the wake area created behind the car and to redirect

the air upwards to reduce the lift coefficient. When

considering diffuser characteristics, the variable having the

most prominent effect on the air flow is the angle made by

the diffuser to the horizontal. Three simulations were carried

out, varying the diffuser angle in each case. The diffuser

angles analysed were 8 deg, 10 deg and 15 deg. The vehicle

geometry after addition of a diffuser is shown in the Figure.

7.

B. S o l v e r R e s u l t s w i t h D i f f u s e r Figure 8 Velocity Streamline Flow before spoiler

The iterations in all the three diffuser cases were VIII TRANSIENT FLOW ANALYSIS

carried out following the same three stage procedure as Transient flow is the flow, wherein, the flow velocity

carried out in the first simulation. The drag and lift and pressure are changing with time. When changes occur

coefficients obtained from the diffuser variations are to fluid systems such as during starting or stopping, in such a

tabulated below. situation transient flow conditions exists. Otherwise the system

Note that the difference in coefficients is with is in steady state. Often, transient flow conditions persist as

respect to the original model.

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AND ENGINEERING TRENDS

oscillating pressure and velocity waves for some time after the With these settings, the transient flow solution for a

initial event that caused it. flow duration of 4 seconds would be obtained after a total of

In the laminar regime, we can assume that the velocity 10000 iterations. The advancing of the time step occurs

field does not vary with time, and get an accurate prediction either when Max Iterations / Time Step is reached or

of the flow behaviour. As the flow begins to transition to convergence criteria is satisfied. Time steps are converged

turbulence, it is no longer possible to assume that the flow sequentially until the total number of time steps is reached.

is invariant with time. Such problems can be solved by C. Solver Results

transient flow analysis which solves it by considering a time From the transient ana l ysi s, a fi na l drag

based domain. It will solve the problem in different time steps coeffi ci ent of 0.3649 was obtained. The value of drag

with variation of flow. coefficient obtained in the steady state analysis was 0.3588.

From the steady state result obtained, we see that the Thus, the steady state and transient state analysis solutions

8 degree diffuser attached underbody shows the least drag were in close agreement which confirmed the accuracy of the

coefficient. A transient flow analysis was therefore performed solution.

on that model to check the accuracy of the results. VIII CONCLUSION

A. Mesh Generation

CFD analysis was successfully carried out on

The model with 8 degree diffuser is imported to

Ansys fluent and a fluid enclosure was created around it the production vehicle. The results of the simulation (drag

coefficient) were found to be in close agreement with the

similar to that of the steady state analysis done above. Sizing

officially provided values. Once the validity of the simulation

functions were used wherever necessary in order to obtain

was achieved, the next step was to make modifications in the

accurate lift/drag parameters. One body of refinement was

geometry of the original model which could positively affect

added to properly capture the flow in the region closest to

performance characteristics (lift and drag). A diffuser was

the vehicle and also capture the flow in the wake. The total

added to the rear end of the vehicle and further simulations

number of elements were set to 1.977 million to decrease the

were performed.

computational time.

The addition of an 8 deg. diffuser helped reduce the

B. Solver

lift considerably (34% reduction in Cl) while only slightly

Boundary condition and named selection were same

increasing the drag coefficient (0.5% increase in Cd).

as that of steady state analysis. For this analysis, a

Increasing the diffuser angle to 10 deg. and then 15 deg. led

pressure based transient state solver was used. The

to a greater reduction in lift. However, the corresponding drag

solution methods, equations used along with the input data

penalties were also higher. The results obtained by

are listed below:

performing the steady state analysis were then confirmed by

Realizable k- epsi l on m odel with n on -

performing a transient simulation, both providing a similar

equilibrium wall functions.

value of Cd.

Air velocity at inlet: 100 m/s.

The addition of a spoiler to the original model at

Reference area to determine drag and lift coefficients

an angle of 8 degrees showed a definite improvement in the

Frontal Area: 1.17425 m2. vehicle lift characteristics with a negligible drag penalty. Such

Second order implicit equations for Pressure, modifications could be carried out in the selected car to

Momentum, Turbulence K.E. and Turbulence Dissipation improve its handling capabilities at higher speeds thereby

Energy were used. Generally the PISO scheme may aid in improving the overall safety of the vehicle.

accelerating convergence for many unsteady flows thereby

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of Max Iterations per Time Step. The setting selected were: and optimization, IEEE 978-1-4799-3786-8.

Time step value: 0.04 second [4] Satheesh A., Computational drag analysis in the under-

Max iterations per time steps: 100 body for a sedan type car model, IEEE 978-1-4673-6149-1.

Number of time steps: 100

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

AND ENGINEERING TRENDS

[5] Ping Hu , Shanbin Lu, Numerical analysis of the

effect of ground clearance on a simplified car model, IEEE

978-1-4244-2692-8.

[6] Mechanical Engineering Faculty in Slavonski Brod, Josip

Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia, CFD Analysis

of concept car in order to improve Aerodynamics, 2011.

[7] Ahmed H. and Chacko S., Computational Optimization of

Vehicle Aerodynamics 23rd International DAAAM

Symposium, Volume 23, No.1, ISSN 2304-1382 ISBN 978-3-

901509-91-9.

[8] Akshay Parab, Ammar Sakarwala, Bhushan Paste,

Vaibhav Patil, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajiv

Gandhi Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India,

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14.5, November 2014.

[9] J. Sita Priyadarshini, A.V.S. Abhinav, B. Sharath

Chandra and R.S. Swathi, Use of Aerodynamic

Lift in Increasing the Fuel Effici ency of Hea vy

Vehicles, 2015.

[10] K e v i n M. Peddie, Luis F. Gonzalez, CFD Study on the

Diffuser of a Formula 3 Racecar School of Aerospace,

Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering University of

Sydney.

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