POLI 302 Fall 2017

POLI 302 – International Security (3 credits)
Fall 2017

Instructor: Dr. Mark Paradis
Office: H 1213 SGW Email: mark.paradis@concordia.ca
Office Hours: MW 2:30-3:30

Class: Mondays and Wednesdays from 4:15PM – 5:30PM in MB 3.430 SGW

This course examines the causes of insecurity in the international system, including interstate
war, intrastate war, terrorism, environmental change, and human insecurity; and the prospects for
peace. The course begins with an examination of theories of interstate war. These theories are
organized as system-level theories, dyadic theories, domestic-level theories, and individual level
theories. We then examine theories of international security that move beyond interstate war. We
will discuss feminist theories of security; civil wars and ethnic conflicts; terrorism;
environmental security; and human security. Finally, we conclude the course by examining the
impact of technology on international security. In particular, we will discuss the spread of
nuclear weapons and the impact of new technologies on international security. The course is
focused on developing the analytical skills required to understand and explain world events.


Readings and Lectures: We cover a lot of material in this course. Therefore, it is crucial that
students attend lectures and keep up with their readings. In order to help you keep up, attendance
is required. Students will only be permitted two (2) unexcused absences. While this is a large
class, we will integrate some discussions into the class. Participation in these discussions can
contribute to the attendance grade.

Midterm Exam: There will be one, in-class, closed-book midterm exam. It will cover all topics
covered prior to the exam. The midterm will comprise identification questions, short answer
questions, and essay questions.

Final Exam: The final exam will be held during the final exam period. It will have a similar
format to the midterm exam. The final exam will cover material from the entire course, but with
a larger emphasis placed on material covered after the midterm.

Paper: Students will write a 12-15 page (excluding references) term paper. Students are advised
to clear their topic with me. For the papers, students may 1) conduct a case study or comparative
case study using one of the theories presented in the course; 2) conduct a critical review of the
literature, or 3) use IR theory to advance policy recommendations in an issue area of current
importance. Papers must be double-spaced, and use a 12-point Times New Roman font, with 1-
inch margins. If a paper exceeds 15 pages, I will not read beyond the 15th page.

POLI 302 Fall 2017


Midterm (October 11): 25%
Participation: 10%
Paper (12-15 pages, due November 20): 30%
Final Exam: 35%


There will be no make-up exams, except under extraordinary circumstances. Papers are due at
the start of class on November 20. They must also be turned in by email. Email submissions are
your insurance policy. They prove that you turned in your paper on time. If I can’t find your
paper, I’ll be able to recover it from my inbox. Papers that are not turned in on time will be
penalized 2.5% per day. Late papers will not receive any comments and will not be accepted
more than a week late. If you are having any problems in handling the course load, please speak
to me ASAP. There are more solutions available if you approach me in advance.


If you believe that your grade on an assignment does not reflect the quality of your work, it is
your right to request a re-grade. However, you must follow these steps:

1. You must wait 7 days before requesting a re-grade.
2. You must submit a written statement detailing why you believe your grade should be
changed. You should point to specific areas of your exam/paper that you believe were graded
unfairly AND explain why.
3. I will then re-grade your ENTIRE assignment. I reserve the right to RAISE or LOWER your
4. After the re-grade, if you still believe that your grade is unfair, you must then follow the
Department’s procedures for re-grades.


The Department has zero tolerance for plagiarism.

1. What is plagiarism? The University defines plagiarism as “the presentation of the work of
another person, in whatever form, as one’s own or without proper acknowledgment.” (Concordia
Undergraduate Calendar 2017–2018, page 55-56). Plagiarism is an academic offence governed
by the Code of Conduct (Academic).
To find out more about how to avoid plagiarism,
see http://www.concordia.ca/students/academic-integrity/plagiarism.html.

2. What are the consequences of getting caught? The Dean may impose the following sanctions
on students caught plagiarizing:
a. Reprimand the student; b. Direct that a piece of work be resubmitted; c. Direct that the
examination be taken anew; d. Enter a grade reduction for the piece of work in question

POLI 302 Fall 2017

or enter a grade of "0" for the piece of work in question; e. Enter a grade reduction in the
course or enter a failing grade for the course; f. Enter a failing grade and ineligibility for a
supplemental examination or any other evaluative exercise for the course; g. Impose the
obligation to take and pass courses of up to twenty-four (24) credits, as specified by the
Dean, in addition to the total number of credits required for the student’s program. If the
student is registered as an Independent student, the sanction will be imposed only if he or
she applies and is accepted into a program.

An Academic Hearing Panel may impose the following sanctions:
a. Any or all of the sanctions listed above; b. Impose a suspension for a period not to
exceed six (6) academic terms. Suspensions shall entail the withdrawal of all University
privileges, including the right to enter and be upon University premises; c. Expulsion
from the University. Expulsion entails the permanent termination of all University
privileges. (Undergraduate Calendar, page 56.)

Complete regulations can be found beginning on page 54 of the Undergraduate Calendar
or http://www.concordia.ca/academics/undergraduate/calendar/current/17-10.html.

3. See also The Political Science Department's "Resources on Avoiding Plagiarism" at:


Concordia University is working to create inclusive learning environments. Please notify me if
there are aspects of the instruction or design of this course that result in disability-related barriers
to your participation. You are also encouraged to contact the Access Centre for Students with
Disabilities (ACSD) as soon as possible so that this office can assist with the necessary


As a professor, one of my responsibilities is to help create a safe learning environment for my
students and for the campus as a whole. If you have experienced sexual harassment, sexual
violence or discrimination, Concordia’s Sexual Assault Resource Centre provides information
available resources: https://www.concordia.ca/students/sexual-assault.html.


I reserve the right to amend the schedule of meetings and assignments listed in this syllabus as
might become necessary based on events throughout the semester. Any changes to the syllabus
will be announced and students will receive an amended syllabus in writing. Copies of the most
up to date syllabus can be found on the course website on Moodle

POLI 302 Fall 2017



September 6 – Introduction

Baldwin, David A. 1997. The Concept of Security. Review of International Studies 23 (1): 5-26.

Huysmans, Jef. 1998. Security! What Do You Mean? From Concept to Thick Signifier.
European Journal of International Relations 4 (2): 226-255.


Walt, Stephen M. 1991. The Renaissance of Security Studies. International Studies Quarterly 35
(2): 211-239. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2600471

Levy, Jack S. 1998. The Causes of War and the Conditions of Peace. Annual Review of Political
Science 1: 139-165.

System-Level Theories

September 11 – Anarchy

Waltz, Kenneth N. 1988. The Origins of War in Neorealist Theory. Journal of Interdisciplinary
History 18 (4): 615-628. http://www.jstor.org/stable/204817

Milner, Helen. 1991. The Assumption of Anarchy in International Relations Theory: A Critique.
Review of International Studies 17 (1): 67-85. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20097244

Wendt, Alexander. 1992. Anarchy is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power
Politics. International Organization 46 (2): 391-425.


Mercer, Jonathan. 1995. Anarchy and Identity. International Organization 49 (2): 229-252.

POLI 302 Fall 2017

September 13 – Power

Barnett, Michael and Raymond Duvall. 2005. Power in International Politics. International
Organization 59 (1): 39-75. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3877878

Art, Robert. 1980. To What Ends Military Power? International Security 4 (4): 3-35.

September 18 – Realism: Introduction, Deterrence, and Spiral Model

Jervis, Robert. 1978. Cooperation under the Security Dilemma. World Politics 30 (2): 167-214.

Jervis, Robert. 1989. Rational Deterrence: Theory and Evidence. World Politics 41 (2): 183-207.

Glaser, Charles L. 1992. Political Consequences of Military Strategy: Expanding and Refining
Spiral and Deterrence Models. World Politics 44 (4): 497-538.


Harvey, Frank. 1998. Rigor Mortis or Rigor, More Tests: Necessity, Sufficiency and Deterrence
Logic. International Studies Quarterly 42 (4): 675-707. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2600898

September 20 – Balance of Power

Walt, Stephen M. 1985. Alliance Formation and the Balance of World Power. International
Security 9 (4): 3-43. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2538540

Schweller, Randall L. 1997. New Realist Research on Alliances: Refining, Not Refuting, Watlz’s
Balancing Proposition. American Political Science Review 91 (4): 927-930.

Waltz, Kenneth N. 2000. Structural Realism after the Cold War. International Security 25 (1): 5-
41. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2626772


Levy, Jack S. and William R. Thompson. 2005. Hegemonic Threats and Great Power Balancing
in Europe, 1495-1999. Security Studies 14 (1): 1–33.

POLI 302 Fall 2017

Leeds, Brett Ashley. 2003. Do Alliances Deter Aggression? The Influence of Military Alliances
on the Initiation of Militarized Interstate Disputes. American Journal of Political Science 47 (3):
427-439. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3186107

Christensen, Thomas J. and Jack Snyder. 1990. Chain Gangs and Passed Bucks: Predicting
Alliance Patterns in Multipolarity. International Organization 44 (2): 137-168.

September 25 – Hegemonic Theories

Snidal, Duncan. 1985. The Limits of Hegemonic Stability Theory. International Organization 39
(4): 579-614. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2706716

DiCicco, Jonathan M. and Jack S. Levy. 2003. The Power Transition Research Program: A
Lakatosian Analysis. In Progress in International Relations Theory: Appraising the Field. Colin
Elman and Miriam Fendius Elman, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 109-157. http://fas-

Modelski, George. 1996. Evolutionary Paradigm for Global Politics. International Studies
Quarterly 40 (3): 321-342. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2600714

Dyad-Level Theories

September 27 – Rationalist Theories

Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce. 1988. The Contribution of Expected Utility Theory to the Study of
International Conflict. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 18 (4): 629-652.

Fearon, James D. 1995. Rationalist Explanations for War. International Organization 49 (3):
379-414. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2706903

Powell, Robert. 2006. War as a Commitment Problem. International Organization 60 (1): 169-
203. http://slantchev.ucsd.edu/courses/ps143a/readings/powell%20-


Reiter, Dan. 2003. Exploring the Bargaining Model of War. Perspectives on Politics 1 (1): 27-
43. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3687811

October 2 – Rivalries and Territory

Senese, Paul D. and John A. Vasquez. 2005. Assessing the Steps to War. British Journal of
Political Science 35 (4): 607-633. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4092414

POLI 302 Fall 2017

Colaresi, Michael and William R. Thompson. 2002. Strategic Rivalries, Protracted Conflict, and
Crisis Escalation. Journal of Peace Research 39 (3): 263-287.

Hassner, Ron E. 2003. “To Halve and to Hold”: Conflicts over Sacred Space and the Problem of
Indivisibility. Security Studies 12 (4): 1-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09636410390447617

October 4 – MIDTERM

No readings


No readings

October 11 – Economic Security

Keohane, Robert O. and Joseph S. Nye. 1987. Power and Interdependence Revisited.
International Organization 41 (4): 725-753.

Cha, Victor D. 2000. Globalization and the Study of International Security. Journal of Peace
Research 37 (3): 391-403. http://archives.cerium.ca/IMG/pdf/Cha_2000_.pdf

Buzan, Barry. 1984. Economic Structure and International Security: the Limits of the Liberal
Case. International Organization 38 (4): 597-624. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2706625


Lipson, Charles. 1984. International Cooperation in Economic and Security Affairs. World
Politics 37 (1): 1-23. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2010304

Domestic-Level Theories

October 16 – Introduction; Democratization; Diversionary Theory

Levy, Jack S. 1988. Domestic Politics and War. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 63 (4): 653-
673. http://www.jstor.org/stable/204819

Mansfield, Edward D. and Jack Snyder. 1995. Democratization and the Danger of War.
International Security 20 (1): 5-38. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2539213

Levy, Jack S. 1989. The Diversionary Theory of War: A Critique. In Manus I. Midlarsky, ed.
Handbook of War Studies. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 260-288.

POLI 302 Fall 2017


October 18 – Democratic Peace

Oneal, John R. and Bruce M. Russett. 1999. The Kantian Peace: The Pacific Benefits of
Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations, 1885-1992. World Politics 52 (1):
1-37. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25054099

Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, James D. Morrow, Randolph M. Siverson, and Alastair Smith. 1999.
An Institutional Explanation of the Democratic Peace. American Political Science Review 93 (4):
791-807. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2586113

Doyle, Michael W. Three Pillars of the Liberal Peace. American Political Science Review 99 (3):
463-466. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30038953


Tomz, Michael R. and Jessica P. Weeks. 2013. Public Opinion and the Democratic Peace.
American Political Science Review 107 (4): 849-865.
October 23 – Organizational and Bureaucratic Politics

Allison, Graham T. 1969. Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis. American Political
Science Review 63 (3): 689-718.

Barnett, Michael N. and Martha Finnemore. 1999. The Politics, Power, and Pathologies of
International Organizations. International Organization 53 (4): 699-732.

October 25 – Public Opinion

Baum, Matthew A. and Philip B. K. Potter. 2008. The Relationship Between Mass Media, Public
Opinion, and Foreign Policy: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis. Annual Review of Political
Science 11: 39-65.

Kertzer, Joshua D. and Ryan Brutger. 2016. Decomposing Audience Costs: Bringing the
Audience Back into Audience Cost Theory. American Journal of Political Science 60 (1): 234-
249. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ajps.12201/full

POLI 302 Fall 2017

Rathbun, Brian C., Joshua D. Kertzer, Jason Reifler, Paul Goren, and Thomas J. Scotto. 2016.
Taking Foreign Policy Personally: Personal Values and Foreign Policy Attitudes. International
Studies Quarterly 60: 124-137.

Individual-Level Theories

October 30 – Introduction

Jervis, Robert. 1968. Hypotheses on Misperception. World Politics 20 (3): 454-479.

Kertzer, Joshua D. and Dustin Tingley. 2018. Political Psychology in International Relations:
Beyond the Paradigms. Annual Review of Political Science 21: 1-23.

Levy, Jack S. 2013. Psychology and Foreign Policy Decision-Making. In Leonie Huddy, David
O. Sears, and Jack S. Levy, eds. Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology, 2nd ed. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.


Rathbun, Brian C., Joshua D. Kertzer, and Mark Paradis. 2017. Homo Diplomaticus: Mixed-
Method Evidence of Variation in Strategic Rationality. International Organization 71 (S1): S33-
S60. https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-

November 1 – Leaders

Byman, Daniel L. and Kenneth M. Pollack. 2001. Let Us Now Praise Great Men: Bringing the
Statesmen Back In. International Security, 25: 107-146. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3092135

Saunders, Elizabeth. 2017. No Substitute for Experience: Presidents, Advisers, and Information
in Group Decision Making. International Organization 71 (S1): S219-S247.

Renshon, Jonathan. 2015. Losing Face and Sinking Costs: Experimental Evidence on the
Judgment of Political and Military Leaders. International Organization 69 (3): 659-695.

POLI 302 Fall 2017

November 6 – Emotions

Mercer, Jonathan. 2005. Rationality and Psychology in International Politics. International
Organization 59 (1): 77-106. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3877879

McDermott, Rose. 2004. The Feeling of Rationality: The Meaning of Neuroscientific Advances
for Political Science. Perspectives on Politics 2 (4): 691-706.

Renshon, Jonathan, Julia J. Lee, and Dustin Tingley. 2017. Emotions and the Micro-Foundations
of Commitment Problems. International Organization 71 (S1): S189-S218.

Expanding Security

November 8 – Feminist Theory

Sjoberg, Laura. 2009. Introduction to Security Studies: Feminist Contributions. Security Studies
18 (2): 183-213.

Lobasz, Jennifer. 2009. Beyond Border Security: Feminist Approaches to Human Trafficking.
Security Studies 18 (2): 319-344.

Wilcox, Lauren. 2009. Gendering the Cult of the Offensive. Security Studies 18 (2): 214-240.

November 13 – Ethnic Conflict and Civil War

Collier, Paul. 2003. The Market for Civil War. Foreign Policy 136: 38-45.

Fearon, James D., and David D. Laitin. 2003. Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War. American
Political Science Review 97 (1): 75-90. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3118222

Bar-Tal, Daniel. 2007. Sociopsychological Foundations of Intractable Conflicts. American
Behavioral Scientist 50 (11): 1430–1453. http://www.tau.ac.il/~daniel/pdf/15.pdf

POLI 302 Fall 2017

November 15 – Terrorism: Understanding the Choice

Crenshaw, Martha. 1981. The Causes of Terrorism. Comparative Politics 13 (4): 379-399.

Pape, Robert. 2003. The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. American Political Science
Review 97 (3): 343-361.

Kydd, Andrew H. and Barbara F. Walter. 2006. The Strategies of Terrorism. International
Security 31 (1): 49-80. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4137539


Victoroff, Jeff. 2005. The Mind of the Terrorist: A Review and Critique of Psychological
Approaches. Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (1): 3-42. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30045097

November 20 – Terrorism: Combating Terrorism (Paper Due)

Posen, Barry R. 2001/2002. The Struggle Against Terrorism: Grand Strategy, Strategy, and
Tactics. International Security 26 (3): 39-55. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3092088

Cronin, Audrey Kurth. 2006. How al-Qaida Ends: The Decline and Demise of Terrorist Groups.
International Security 31 (1): 7-48. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4137538

Mueller, John. 2006. Is There Still a Terrorist Threat?: The Myth of the Omnipresent Enemy.
Foreign Affairs, 85 (5): 2-8. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20032065

November 22 – Environmental Security

Soroos, Marvin S. 1994. Global Change, Environmental Security, and the Prisoner’s Dilemma.
Journal of Peace Research 31 (3): 317-332. http://www.jstor.org/stable/425380

Homer-Dixon, Thomas and Marc A. Levy. 1995/1996. Environment and Security. International
Security 20 (3): 189-198. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2539143

Koblenz, Gregory D. 2010. Biosecurity Reconsidered: Calibrating Biological Threats and
Responses. International Security 34 (4): 96-132. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40784563

November 27 – Human Security

Axworthy, Lloyd. 2001. Human Security and Global Governance: Putting People First. Global
Governance 7 (1): 19-23. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27800284

POLI 302 Fall 2017

Paris, Roland. 2001. Human Security: Paradigm Shift or Hot Air? International Security 26 (2):
87-102. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3092123

Technologies of War

November 29 – Proliferation

Sagan, Scott D. The Perils of Proliferation: Organizational Theory, Deterrence Theory, and the
Spread of Nuclear Weapons. International Security 18 (4): 66-107.

Waltz, Kenneth N. 1990. Nuclear Myths and Political Realities. American Political Science
Review 84 (3): 731-745. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1962764

Sagan, Scott D. 1996/1997. Why Do States Build Nuclear Weapons? Three Models in Search of
a Bomb. International Security 21 (3): 54-86. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2539273


Betts, Richard K. 1977. Paranoids, Pygmies, Pariahs & Nonproliferation. Foreign Policy 26:
157-183. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1147904

December 5 – Technological Advances

Lieber, Keir A. 2000. Grasping the Technological Peace: The Offense-Defense Balance and
International Security. International Security 25 (1): 71-104. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2626774

Valeriano, Brandon and Ryan C. Maness. 2014. The Dynamics of Cyber Conflict between Rival
Antagonists, 2001-2011. Journal of Peace Research 51 (3): 347-360.

Carpenter, Charli. 2016. Rethinking the Political / -Science- / Fiction Nexus: Global Policy
Making and the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots. Perspectives on Politics 14 (1): 53-69.