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Routing Protocols in Wireless-Mobile

Ad Hoc Network - A Review


Liza Abdul Latiff I, Norsheila Fisal?

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universifi Teknologi Malaysia


Email: ' liia@mtmkl.utm.my,' sheila~suris.ee,utm,my

Abstract - This paper presents a review of current to conserve energy at nodes, mobility pattern of nodes
routing protocols used in mobile ad hoc network are some issues considered. Most of the work done by
(MANET). Routing is a challenging issue in ad hoc researchers in research institutes and universities are
network since uodes are mobile and the topology of on the routing algonthm.
the networks,is ever changing. Besides, all nodes
need to communicate via wireless infrastructure. ILCharacteristics and Challenges
Routing metrics used such as shortest path, link
quality, power conservation and position location The characteristics and challenges of ad hoc and
(PL) will reduce route discovery time and also sensor network can be divided into four main areas
message update cost. such as:
i. Topology. Since nodes are free to move,
I. Introduction network topology of ad hoc network are
ever changing. Nodes are also routers
therefore, efficient routing protocol must be
Mobile ad hoc network or MANET has evolved
since the 80s with the formation of the IETF (Internet considered so that packets reach their
destination in the shortest time and with no
Engineering Task Force) MANET working group.
errors.
Subsequently, a.chaner was published in [I] with the
objective of developing a solution framework for ii. Bandwidth. Comparing wireless links to
wired infrastructure, usable bandwidth in ad
routing in ad hoc network.
hoc network are much lower. This is due to
An ad hoc network is a collection of mobile
mulitpath fading, noise and interference
devices that can dynamically move and can reorganize
inherent in wireless transmission. Methods
themselves and communicate over wireless links.
These mobile devices are also autonomous nodes, to improve and increase the available
which serve as routers that forward packets onto the bandwidth needs to be considered.
next link. There is no centralized or central server that iii. Power. Nodes in an ad hoc network rely on
battery for their source of energy. Energy
organizes routing of these packets. Packets are
forwarded in a peer-to-peer mode via multihop path to saving methods must he taken into account
to sustain stability and longetivity of nodes.
their respective destinations. Routing to the
iv. Security. Ad hoc network are exposed to
destination is established at the nodes, which needs to
eavesdroppings and spoofing. But because
he determined before or after the reception of packets.
of the decentralised nature . o f ad hoc
An ad hoc network consists of mobile platforms
known as nodes, 'which are free to move around network, node failure is a localised to the
affected node only and minimal effect to the
arbitrarily. These nodes, which are very small, may be
located in buildings, trucks, and cars or maybe on a whole network.
battlefield. Each node is equipped with a wireless
IILRoutiug and design objectives
antenna that receives and transmits in an isotropic
manner, directed or steer able or a combination of all
Routing is a process of identifying a path from a
three. Nodes are stand-alone devices and operate using
batteries. From a global point of view, an ad hoc source to a destination before or after a request for
transmission. Routing protocol selected must be
network is network with no infrastlucture, easily set
up in minimal time. reachable and loop free. If a node failure occurs, a
cache of backup routing will be required.
Due to the mobility of nodes in MANET,
Routes chosen are the shortest path between
topology of these networks change unpredictably and
routing in one of the main issues. Even though nodes source and destination via fewer .intermediate nodes.
can self-organized themselves to form a network, Computing of routes are decentralized and done at
much research work has been done to come up with every node and separated from the higher levels of
OS1 since network topology changes dynamically. To
the most suitable routing protocol for a certain
implementation..Efkicient routing of packets, methods reduce monitoring and updating overhead, route

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computation must involve few, nodes only and not IV. Metrics used in current routing protocol
nodes that have no traffic. Furthermore, few nodes . .
-
involvement means less energy usage or none at all at
other nodes.
The issue.of routing in mobile ad hoc network is
different from other wireless network and is very
Since ad hoc network are self-organized, . difficult due to mobility and no network infrastructure.
broadcasting to all nodes must be avoided because it We are faced with two conflicting issues: one is to
will create flooding at the nodes. Alternative routes optimize routes which means we need frequent
should also be identified to act as backup if a node . topology updates and on the other hand, frequent
failure occurs. updates requires high message overhead.
One of the major challenges in designing a The most common metric used to determine
routing protocol for ad hoc network is to determine a optimal path is minimum number of hops or
trade off between information reachability and route intermediates nodes as in DSDV, AODV, DSR,
updating cost because network topology changes with T O M , W R P Figure 1 shows how DSR is
time as the node moves to a new location. implemented and the route selected is via node 2 and 7
The various routing protocol proposed so far can for source 1 to destination 8, which has the minimum
. be classified into two main broad categories: proactive number of hops.
and reactive protocols. Proactive protocols are routing Link quality is also a metric that is used.in SSR
algorithm that will periodically and continuously and ABR. Routes are selected based on the signal
update routes in the network so that when a packet strength between nodes and stability of the connection.
need totbe transmitted, routes to the destination are This will ensure nodes chosen will he. less prone to
already known and can he forwarded straight away. .. failure and hence a high probability of reaching
Destination-Sequenced Distance ' Vector routing destination. .
(DSDV) [2], Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP) [IO] I In ZRP, nodes updates are localized to a certain
are examples of proactive protocol. On the other hand, zone radius only. Nodes will be updated proactively so
reactive protocols are routing algorithms that will that transmission to neighboring nodes will he fast
initiate route computation only on demand. Examples where else nodes outside this zone will be updated on
of these reactive protocols are ad hoc on-demand need to hasis or on-demand.
distance vector (AODV) [4], Dynamic Source Routing
(DSR) [Y], temporally ordered routing algorithm
(TORA) 151, Signal Stability-based Routing (SSR)
[I21 and Associativity-Based Routing (ABR) [I I].
Proactive schemes posed a negligible delay since
route .discovery to destinations have to be done
periodically and before a request is made. On the
contrary, reactive protocols need time to determine . ' MO? "&
routes, which are not available at that time. Proactive
schemes, which have minimal delay, uses the whole
Fig. 1 DSR with minimum number of hops
network capacity to update routes and in some cases
the routes determined may not he used at all!
: Node distance is also used as a metric that will
neverth the less, in both schemes; a flood of route ,affect the frequency of node updates as in DREAM.
. queries need to bepsent to all nodes and this leads to
Nodes update overhead is reduced because nodes will
message collisions and channel contention, This is send updates only when it moves from its original
known as broadcast storm problem [ 6 ] . Due to this location.
long delay and requirement for traffic control, pure . Another type of metrics that is based of available
reactive routing may he sufficient for real-time power is proposed by [24].and shows a reduction in
. communication 131. cost of routing packets via the shortest-hop routing by
From these scenarios, what ad hoc network needs 5-30%. This new metric will ensure the mean time to
is a hybrid protocol: a hybrid of proactive and reactive node failure is increased significantly with no increase
scheme. Hybrid protocol initiates route discovery in packet delays.
procedure on-demand but at limited updating cost. An The routing protocols mentioned above are based
example of this is the Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) on flat routing where nodes are on the same level and
1
. proposed .by [7] and further improved as in 181. maintains a routing table with enmes for all nodes and
Besides ZRP, we have Fisheye Sate Routing 1131, hence for the whole network. This approach is suitable
Landmark Routing (LANMAR) [I41 and location- for small networks and for scalable networks with
i
aided routing (LAR) 1151 and Distance Routing Affect large number of nodes, a hierarchical style routing is
Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM) [IY]. These
proposed as in FSR, LANMAR and LAR. Besides
protocols use landmarks, location and distance of hiorarchical routing, routing based on location
''
nodes to reduce updating costs. inlormation of nodes and direction of mobility from
the nodes' current location will assist in new route
computations .and hence reduce packet delay and
packet loss as in 1171, [16], and [18].

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Table 1 shows a compilation of various routing locations relative to a global coordinate system is used
schemes and their characteristics. From the table, in [20] based on RSSI where distance between
DSDV, AODV, TORA, DSR, which uses route transmitter and receiver are determined by the
discovery and a flat routing, are best used in fewer transmission power, received power and a good model
number of nodes so that broadcast problem will not of the wireless ch+nel.,Triangulation is done by using
materialized. On the other hand, for large number of the least-mean squares (LMS) approach with a
nodes, a hierarchical network with node location substantial . accuracy from range measurements
facility will reduceupdate costs as in ZRP, LANMAR, obtained from a large number (>3) of neighboring
and LAR. anchor nodes. From this, topology of the whole
network can be obtained hy topology,discovery where
using Assumption Based Coordinates (ABC) even
though with low accuracy. [20] also proposed global
positioning by engaging in cooperative ranging
approach. Even though convergence to global
positioning is time consuming and node .with high
mobility may be hard to locate, it is sufficient to be
used in sensor network, which have low mobility, and
long time discovery is acceptable.
[22] and [23] have done research on angle of
arrival (AoA) to locate nodes and proposed Ad Hoc
Positioning System (APS). AoA is a method to
estimate the direction from which a neighbor is
sending data. AoA can be implemented either as an
antenna array, or as a combination of radio and
ultrasound receivers. APS is a hybrid of distance
vector and beacon based positioning are usable for
navigational or tracking purposes only.
[21] made ay analysis of time-based position
location algorithm such as direct solution, iterative
least squares, Taylors series and Chans algorithm.
An algorithm using the decision feedback (DF)
method is proposed to improve the accuracy of the
previous calculated result. The metrics used are
A. Position Location (PL) in Wireless Network position location error, standard deviation and the
number of divergence and shows to be more superior
The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) that not using DF method.
have imposed a policy that wireless communication [17] proposed an algorithm to provide a seamless
licensees have to incorporate PL capability in their connection service by reacting before connectivity
systems in order to provide Enhanced-9 I1 (E-9 I I ) breaks. GPS position information is used to estimate
.service since October I , 2001. This regulation has expirationtime of the link between two adjacent
pushed researchers to incorporate this facility at the mobiles because nodes exhibit, some degree of
nodes with or without Global Positioning System regularity in the mobility pattern. For example, a car
(GPS). travelling on a mad is likely to follow the path of the
Once a node location is known, the distance road and a tank travelling across a battlefield is likely
between them can be derived and hence the number of to maintain its heading and speed for some time before
hops to the destination can he computed. Ultimately, it changes them. The paper shows application of
PL will provide reliable and accurate position of mobility pattern to unicast protocol and to multicast
mobile nodes..Most routing prptacols refer to GPS as protocols. Simulation was done using Global Mobile
a global resource or reference. But this referencing to Simulation (GloMoSim) library, which is based on
GPS challenges the nature or characteristics of ad hoc Parsec (parallel discrete-event simulation capability)
network. Therefore, navigation of radiolocation with 50 nodes placed randomly in 1000 m X 1000 m
techniques is used to locate nodes without using GPS area. The metrics used are packet delivery ratio,
or if it is not available. number of control bytes transmitted per data byte
The two components of radiolocation are distance delivered and number of total packets transmitted per
measurements and triangulation. Distance or range data packet delivered. Simulation results indicate that
measurements are based on different physical mobility prediction does improved packet delivery to
attributes such as: received signal strength (RSSI), destinations and control packets are utilized more
angle of arrival (AoA), time of arrival (TOA), and efficiently. Mobility prediction is utilized to choose
time distance of arrival (TDOA). routes with high connectivity.
In order to locate a node accurately with respect
to a reference or anchor nodes, 3D triangulation is
used. Anchor node with a priori knowledge of their

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