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AC 2008-1952: BASSWOOD BRIDGES

Harvey Abramowitz, Purdue University Calumet


HARVEY ABRAMOWITZ
Harvey Abramowitz received a BS in Materials Science, and MS and EngScD degrees in
Extractive Metallurgy/Mineral Engineering, all from Columbia University. After graduating, he
was a Research Engineer for Inland Steel, where he worked on metal recovery from waste
streams. He is currently Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Purdue University Calumet. Prof.
Abramowitz teaches courses in materials science and engineering, solid waste management,
introduction to engineering design, and the freshman experience.

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American Society for Engineering Education, 2008


Basswood Bridges

Abstract

The Elementary Engineering Design course for freshmen students at Purdue University
Calumet consists of two components: one ME and one EE. Due to the two part structure and in
order to expose the students to the faculty, it is also team taught. The course counts as two
credits, with the format one hour lecture and three hours lab. The basswood bridge is the major
project of the ME half and counts for one quarter of the total course grade. The object, as is
usual with bridge projects, is to design, build and test a truss bridge having a high strength to
weight ratio. The design process includes statics analysis in combination with the tensile and
compressive properties of the basswood. The details of the project from initial design to final
testing are provided.

Background

At Purdue University Calumet (PUC), freshmen engineering students have been required to take
the course Elementary Engineering Design (ENGR190) for over three decades. The goals of
the course are:

1. To acquaint students with the design process and the creative


challenge inherent in design engineering through the medium of
individual design and construction projects.
2. To provide insight into what design engineers do.

The course is a two credit course that consists of a one hour lecture and a three hour laboratory.
Every semester the course is given. The Fall semester, which is the first semester for a typical
freshman entering college directly from high school, will have two to three sections. Each
section can handle 25 students, so for the Fall a maximum of 75 students can take the course.
For the Spring semester, the course is scheduled for late afternoon or evening to accommodate
students who work full time. One to two sections are usually on the schedule, so up to 50
students can fulfill the requirement in the Spring.

For many years, the laboratory projects were strictly mechanical in nature: a basswood bridge
and a mousetrap spring driven car. Since the projects were in a single discipline, the course was
taught by a single instructor for both the lectures and laboratories, with additional instructors
added to laboratory sections as needed. Around ten years ago, it was decided to split the course
in two, with half being oriented to mechanical engineering and the other half to electrical
engineering. This made sense since the Department of Engineering offered majors in
mechanical, electrical and computer engineering, and student surveys indicated a desire for an
electrical component in the course. In recent years, the single Department has been divided into
a Department of Mechanical Engineering and a Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering. Therefore, it was decided to team teach the course using instructors from the
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different disciplines. The first time this was tried, five instructors were used with each teaching
for 3 weeks. The three from ME had expertise in structures, heat transfer and fluid flow, and
materials. Those from EE/CompE specialized in circuit design and electronic digital systems.
Each professor gave lectures and designed accompanying laboratory exercises. The use of five
instructors meant frequent changes in personnel and teaching methods. These changes were too
many for the students and the feedback asked for fewer instructors. Based on student surveys, a
professor from ME and one from EE were chosen to further develop the course.

Learning Objectives

Once the team teaching concept was established, specific learning objectives were set so that the
goals could be met. By the end of the course, each student should be able to:
1. Solve simple statics problems.
2. Analyze forces on trusses.
3. Design a basswood bridge, using statics analysis and material properties, that will have a
high strength to weight ratio.
4. Show that the design process is iterative in nature.
5. Write a technical laboratory report.
6. Determine simple types of equations that can represent a set of data, using x-y, semilog
and log-log plots.
7. Use EXCEL for analyzing data. Make x-y, semilog and log-log plots.
8. Solve simple DC circuits for voltage, current and power. This will include the use of
Ohms Law, series and parallel reduction, passive sign convention and Kirchoffs
voltage and current laws.
9. Simulate simple DC circuits in PSpice.
10. Design timer circuits based on the LM555 timer.
11. Construct Truth Tables necessary for small scale design problems.
12. Implement logic functions with AND OR and NOT gates.
13. Perform longhand binary arithmetic operations including addition, subtraction using
complements, and multiplication.

Topics Covered

In order for the learning objectives to be met, the following are the lecture and laboratory topics
covered:

Week Lecture Topics Laboratory Topic


1. Introduction/Statics Statics Problem Set
2. Truss Calculations Bridge Problem Set
3. Bridge Design I Sample Truss Design
4. Bridge Design II Bridge Design Check-in
5. Determination of Tin M.P. Tin M.P. or Viscosity of Glycerin1
Experiment
Truss Completion Check-in
6. Data Analysis I Bridge Completion Check-in/
Bridge Testing
7. Data Analysis II Data Analysis/Bridge Critique Due
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8. Electrical Introduction Mechanical Exam


9. DC Circuits 1 DC circuit lab, Pspice simulation
10. RC circuits, 555 Timer, BCD counter 555 clock and 7447 BCD counter
11. Digital Logic 1 Counter with 7 segment display
12. Digital Logic 2 Gate implementation of adder circuit
13. System level engineering design Case study of 2 engineering
design processes
14. Review for Electrical final No Lab

Grading Policy

The final grade is based on an average of the electrical and mechanical engineering halves.

Material for the mechanical component (50% of Total) consists of:


Bridge Design 50%
Tin Melting Point or Viscosity of Glycerin 15%
Data Analysis Using EXCEL 15%
Exam 20%
Total 50%
Material for the electrical component (50% of Total) consists of:
Electrical Labs 25%
PSpice Simulations 5%
Electrical Homework 5%
Test over Electrical Material 15%
Total 50%

Basswood Bridge Project

The focus of this paper is to describe the bridge project from inception to final testing and
evaluation.

Basswood Bridge Project Description

A basswood bridge is to be designed, constructed, tested and critiqued. The design parameters
for the bridge are:

Design Parameters
(a) Truss type bridge consisting of two vertical parallel truss structures for the sides of the bridge
with necessary cross members and bracing to hold the sides in place.
(b) Top and bottom chords of the truss structures are to be parallel.
(c) Bridge is to span a 22 inch space between supports, so the length of the bridge should
be 24 inches.
(d) No bridge floor is required.
(e) A 3 inch x 3 inch block must be able to pass through the bridge with clearance.
(f) The load will be applied at the middle of the bridge using one or two or inch diameter
steel rods.
(g) Maximum design load for credit is 100 lb.
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(h) Best bridge is one with the highest Performance Value (PV) defined as L/W where L
is the test load (lb) and W is the weight of the bridge (gm).

Bridge Grade

The bridge project counts for of the grade for the mechanical engineering half. The project
grade is divided as follows:
%
Design Check In 10
Truss Check In 10
Bridge Check In 10
Bridge Testing 65
Bridge Critique 5
Total 100

Prerequisite Knowledge

The level of the course has been set to allow both those taking calculus and those taking pre-
calculus to succeed. Therefore, all the problem sets and designs can be calculated using
elementary algebra and similar triangles. Knowledge of trigonometry, while useful, is not a
requirement. By doing this, an attempt is made to encourage any student to major in
engineering.

Class Schedule

In the Topics Covered section the full semesters lectures and laboratories were given. While
there are only four lectures necessary to learn how to make the bridge, it takes a full seven weeks
to finish the bridge project. Additional time may be required, if the bridge needs to be retested.
In Week 3 an assignment to design a bridge is given. The check-in and review of the design
takes place in the laboratory session of Week 4. The next week (5) an experiment is done in lab.
While this is being done, a truss completion check-in is made. Only one truss is to be
constructed. The check-in prevents erroneous construction. In Week 6, the completed bridge is
checked-in and tested. The following week (7) the bridge critique is due. The critique will be
delayed if the bridge needs to be retested. Retesting can be done if the bridge fell apart due to
glue failure, or there was a bad piece of wood that broke long before it should have.

Lectures and Laboratories

Lecture and Problem Set 1

For the introductory lecture (Appendix A), the students do not need knowledge of vector algebra.
In recent years, many of the students have taken physics in high school and do have this
understanding. Concepts covered are: (1) Parallelogram law; (2) Equilibrant; (3) Components of
a vector or force; (4) Determination of tension or compression in a member; (5) Definition of a
truss; (6) Free body diagrams; and (7) Method of similar triangles. The use of similar triangles
alleviates the need for using trigonometry and allows students with a variety of mathematical
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levels to participate in the project. A number of examples are provided showing how to
determine the forces in members of simple trusses using free body diagrams. Details for Lecture
1 are found in Appendix A. Problem Set 1 (Appendix B) consists of 2 simple statics problems.
They are similar to the examples given at the end of Lecture 1.

Lecture and Problem Set 2

This lecture (Appendix C) is focused on understanding trusses and truss bridges. Three basic
types of bridges are introduced Pratt, Howe and Warren bridges. Bridges to be analyzed have
parallel top and bottom chords. Arch bridges are not allowed for the project. Examples using
free body diagrams to find the forces in the side trusses of each type of bridge are given.
Problem Set 2 (Appendix D) has three truss problems; one for each type of truss.

Lecture 3 Design a Basswood Bridge

Lecture 3 (Appendix E) gives the steps needed to design and build the side trusses of the bridge.
The procedure to follow is: (1) Assume a design load; (2) Choose a truss design; (3) Calculate
forces in the members; (4) Determine which size basswood sticks to use, based on the load on
the member and whether it is in tension or compression; (5) Calculate the weight of one truss; (6)
Determine cross member size; (7) Calculate weight of the bridge; (8) Increase load to maximize
PV; and (9) Calculate final design PV. If the final design PV is not 2 or above, the design or
design load needs to be changed.

Additional information about past successful designs, materials allowed, material properties,
construction, and supplies and suppliers are also provided.

Based on this lecture, the student is to design a bridge and have the design checked during the
laboratory of week 4.

Lecture 4 Detailed Construction Information

The construction lecture (Appendix F) covers all remaining items on the bridge construction,
with recommendations based on what has previously worked. Content includes: (1) Plates for
stressed joints; (2) Plates where loading rods are placed; (3) Cutting plates, (4) Cross members;
(5) Glues and gluing; and (6) Assembly.

Testing of Bridges

Testing Apparatus

Old
A homemade testing apparatus (Figs.1-3) was used until a few years ago. It consisted of a
hydraulic bottle jack for one support, with the other being a wooden stand which was sat on a
bathroom scale. Steel rods were placed in the middle of the bridge bottom. The rods were
attached to a plate under it by hooks and chains or ropes. The jack was pumped up and that side
moved upwards, with a force pulling the bridge in the middle. The scale showed the force on
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one support. That number was doubled to find the total load on the bridge. The student
controlled the rate of loading. Since the student was in control, there were many hesitating,
anticipatory and exciting moments while testing. Unfortunately, the load was not always applied
evenly, and sometimes the results were less than expected.

Fig. 1 Old Test Apparatus Overall View Fig. 2 Old Test Apparatus Steel Rod
Attachment and Scale Used to Measure
Loading

Fig. 3 Old Test Apparatus Hydraulic Bottle Jack Used to Load Bridge

New
A 1000lb Q-Test tensile/compression machine was adapted for use in the bridge testing. The
bottom grip is removed and a support structure put in its place. This structure has a span of 22
inches to accommodate the 24 inch long bridge. The upper grip is replaced with a welded steel
U- shape. On the bottom of the U are openings for insertion of the steel rod(s). The machine is
then put into compression mode at a constant speed. The software controlling the machine is
Testworks 3 from MTS. The loading is much smoother than before and the bridge top stays
parallel to the ground. Since using this new method, the students are happier with the testing
procedure. More A grades have resulted than with the old tester. The new tester is shown in
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Figs.4 and 5. Adaptation of this machine is also being used for basswood bridge testing at
Baylor University.2
Fig. 4 New Test Apparatus Structure Fig. 5 New Test Apparatus - Support Structure
and U for Holding Steel Rods

Bridge Testing Grade

A PV value of 2 will receive a numerical grade of 100 or an A. For a PV of 1.75, the grade is a
B or 85. A C or 75 is gotten for a 1.50 value. The numerical grades for PVs from 0.19 and
above are listed in Appendix G. This grade constitutes 65% of the bridge project grade.

Bridge Critique

Once the student has finished testing the bridge, a bridge critique is required. The critique
consists of writing about the good and bad points of design, construction and performance;
stating what would be done differently if another bridge was to be built; and including the design
drawing and calculations. The critique (Appendix H) counts for 5% of the bridge project grade.
One thing that the students need to learn is that an engineer has to make it work. The proof of
the design is in the performance. So attention to the details in every aspect of the project is
required to achieve a high PV. If the bridge is not built squarely, for example, the PV will be
low.

Assessment of Bridge Project

To specifically assess the bridge project, two methods are being used. One is to survey the
students about fulfillment of the course objectives. As an example, the results of the Spring 2006
survey are listed in Table I. The course/learning objectives (1-4) for the bridge project, were
rated on a scale of 1-5, with 5 the highest. The scores ranged from 4.10-4.53, with an overall
average of 4.32, based on a survey population of 49 students.

The other method used is an Outcome Assessment Table. Such tables are prepared for all
courses in order to satisfy ABET requirements.3 For the ME half of the Design course the
Assessment Table (Table II) shows that the level of student achievement for the bridge project
ranges from 82-100%. Learning objectives 1, 2, 3 and 4 have been met. That is in
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contradistinction with objective 5, writing a technical laboratory report, which only registered
62% achievement. Thus the bridge project has been successful in helping to meet ABET progam

Table I Student Survey Spring 2006 - Meeting Course Objectives for ME Half

Instructor Survey
Sec. 1 Sec. 2 Total Total
Total number of Surveys 22 27 49 49

How well were the following objectives met?

Course Objectives:
By the end of the course, each student should be able to: AVE AVE AVE AVE 1-4
4.32
1) Solve simple statics problems. 4.14 4.07 4.10
2) Analyze forces on trusses. 4.64 4.44 4.53
3) Design a bass wood bridge, using statics analysis 4.55 4.33 4.43
4) Show that the design process is iterative in nature. 4.23 4.19 4.21
5) Write a technical laboratory report. 3.82 3.74 3.78
6) Determine simple types of equations that can represnet 4.05 3.74 3.88
7) Using EXCEL for analyzing data. Make x-y, semilog and log-log plots 4.18 3.89 4.02

Rating Explanation
1= Strongly Disagree
2= Disagree
3= Undecided
4= Agree
5= Strongly Agree

outcomes a (an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering), c (an
ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs) and e (ability to
identify, formulate and solve engineering problems). It is perhaps the most successful, in terms
of student achievement, of all the ME half activities. It is also, from personal discussions with
students, the most fun and enjoyable of all the ME activities. Alumni, years later, will still talk
about their bridges.

Conclusions

The methodology for designing, constructing and testing a basswood bridge having a high
strength to weight ratio is provided. Students only need to know basic algebra to successfully
complete the project. An outcome assessment shows that the project contributes to fulfilling
ABET progam outcomes a, c and e. Student surveys also show that the learning objectives for
the project are being met.
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Bibliography

1. Abramowitz, H., Determination of Viscosity Using a Falling Sphere Viscometer, National


Educators Workshop New Update 2000 Standard Experiments in Engineering, Materials
Science, and Technology, Kettering, OH, Oct./Nov. 2000, pp.183-196.

2. Skurla, C., Thomas, B. and Bradley, W.L., Teaching Freshman Engineering Using Design Projects and
Laboratory Exercises to Increase Retention, Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineering
Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Salt Lake City, Utah, June 2004.

3. Houshangi, N., Curriculum Outcome Assessment and Implementation Challenges, Proceedings of ASEE 2006
Illinois-Indiana and North Central Joint Section Conference, Fort Wayne, Indiana, March 2006.

Appendices

Appendix A - Bridge Design Lecture 1


Appendix B Bridge Design Problem Set 1
Appendix C Bridge Design Lecture 2
Appendix D Bridge Design Problem Set 2
Appendix E Bridge Design Lecture 3
Appendix F Bridge Design Lecture 4
Appendix G Bridge Testing Grades
Appendix H Bridge Critique

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TABLE II OUTCOME ASSESSMENT TABLE
(See notes at end of table to explain abbreviations)
Course Number: ENGR190 Course Name: Elementary Engineering Design
Evaluator: Semester Assessed: Spring 2006
Outcome Expected Performance Criteria Course Learning Objective Assessment Tool Student Level
(ABET) Level of BE VERY SPECIFIC of
Contribution (eg. Problem 1 & 3 of Test 1, Quiz 2, or Achievement
(1, 2 or 3) Experiment 5) (in percent)
a 3 Use appropriate 1. Solve simple statics 1. Statics Problem Set. 100
mathematical tools to problems.
solve equations 2. Analyze forces on 2. Bridge Problem Set. 100
trusses. Sample Truss Design 92
6. Determine simple types Bridge Design Check-in 93
of equations that can 6. Data Analysis Problem Set 63
represent a set a data , using
x-y, semilog and log-log AVE:90
plots.
a 2 Use concepts from 3. Design a bass wood Bridge Design Check-in 93
science to solve bridge, using statics Truss Completion Check-in 85
engineering problems. analysis and material Bridge Completion Check-in 97
properties, that will have a Bridge Testing 82
high strength to weight
ratio. AVE:89
b 3 Conduct an experiment 5. Write a technical Tin melting point experiment 94
and compare experimental laboratory report. Tin melting point experiment report 62
with predicted or expected
results. AVE:78
b 3 Prepare reports that 5. Write a technical Tin melting point experiment report 62
present the data from an laboratory report.
experiment, interpret the
data/results, draw
conclusions, and make
recommendations.
c 3 Design components that 3. Design a bass wood Sample Truss Design 92
meet specifications and bridge, using statics Bridge Design Check-in 93
constraints. analysis and material Truss Completion Check-in 85

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properties, that will have a Bridge Completion Check-in 97
high strength to weight Bridge Testing 82
ratio.
4. Show that the design AVE:90
process is iterative in
nature.
d 3 Function as a team leader 5. Write a technical Tin melting point experiment 94
and/or team member in laboratory report. Tin melting point experiment report 62
laboratory and problem-
solving activities. AVE:78
e 3 Create sketches, figures, 1. Solve simple statics 1. Statics Problem Set. 100
flow-charts, and free-body problems.
diagrams. 2. Analyze forces on 2. Bridge Problem Set. 100
trusses. Sample Truss Design 92
3. Design a bass wood 3. Bridge Design Check-in 93
bridge, using statics
analysis and material AVE:96
properties, that will have a
high strength to weight
ratio.
e 2 Show understanding of the 6. Determine simple types Data Analysis Problem Set 63
applicable theories and of equations that can
principles by represent a set a data , using
demonstrating the use of x-y, semilog and log-log
relevant formulae and plots.
relationships.
g 3 Write documents that are 5. Write a technical Tin melting point experiment report 62
well organized, properly laboratory report.
formatted, and clear.
g 3 Convey technical 5. Write a technical Tin melting point experiment report 62
information through the laboratory report. Bridge Critique 60
use of data plots, graphs,
calculations, drawings, and AVE:61
equations.

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Notes for Outcome Assessment Table
Outcome One of the ABET outcomes
Level of Contribution 1 = Slightly, 2 = Moderately, 3 = substantially
Performance Criteria Performance Criteria for an outcome as given by ABET
Student Level of Achievement Average of the student scores for the specific assessment tool

Page 13.248.13
Appendix A - Bridge Design Lecture 1
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

1. Parallelogram Law

R
A

B
O
)))& )))& )))&
Forces OA and OB can be replaced by OR , their resultant.
PARALLELOGRAM LAW

2. Equilibrant

R
A

B
O

E
To put force system in equilibrium, add force equal and opposite
)))& )))&
to OR . OE is equilibrant.
Page 13.248.14
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1
)))&
3. Component(s) of force OR
R
A

B
O

In general, pick coordinate system can have 2 or more components.

3a. Special Case

Cartesian Coordinate System

More useful in machine and structural design, since many members are
vertical or horizontal.
R

Vertical
Component
)))))&
OR V

O
Horizontal Component
)))))&
OR H

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ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

4. Tension and Compression in Members

Forces acting on rope


Rope has tension
force (stress) in it Rope is in tension

Weight

Stool in a coffee shop


has compression Forces acting
force (stress) in it on member

Member is in
compression

Page 13.248.16
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

4a. Further explanation of Tension/Compression


Newtons 3rd Law
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction

&
F1 =M1g
M1
Force of M2 on M1
M2

Member in Tension

Member in Compression

Since there are equal and opposite reactions occurring, the members will
Exert forces on the connecting pins (joints) that will be equal and opposite

Comrpression
(C)

Tension
(T)
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ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Demonstrations: Tension Use rubber bands


Stretch rubber band between thumbs
What do your thumbs (pins or joints) feel?
Compression Use springs
Compress spring between thumb and forefinger
What do your fingers (pins or joints) feel?

5. Truss Structures
To solve for forces in a typical joint of a truss structure [(define truss) show
bridges from past semester] draw a free body diagram(FBD).

For example, below is the free body diagram for joint O. Joint O is in
equilibrium, which means that it is not moving.

FBD for joint O

O
o
B
45

D
)))& )))&
What are forces OB and OD ?
)))&
Given: (1) OA is 10 lbf or 10#
(2) the hypotenuse of a 45-45-90 right triangleis
2 = 1.4141 1.4

45o
2
1

45o
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1
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1
)))& )))&
The FBD is solved as follows, so that forces OB and OD can be
determined:

Step 1
Draw vertical (y direction) and horizontal (x direction) components for the
slant member (OD) as shown.

FBD for joint O

O
o
B
45
V
D
H

Label the components drawn. In this case


)))&V and H.
V stands for the vertical component of OD , and
)))&
H stands for the horizontal component of OD .

Step 2
The sum of the forces in any direction must equal zero for equilibrium to
exist.
Solve for V by setting the sum of the forces in the y direction to zero.
Fy = 0&
&

+10# + V = 0
)))& &
OA + V = 0
&
V = -10# (-) = negative y direction
&
If the direction of V is known , then:
+10# - V = 0 V known to act in negative
V = 10# y direction
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ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Step 3
&
Solve for H by setting the sum of the forces in the x direction to zero.

&
Fx = 0
& )))&
H + OB = 0
&
can a value for H be found?
& )))&
No, there are two unknowns ( H & OB ) and only 1 equation

Step 4
&
Use geometry and trigonometry to solve for H .
Each side of a 45-45-90 right triangle has the same magnitude.
(See diagram in point 5)
&
So by proportion, method of similar triangles, H can be found
& &
H 1 H 1
& = ; = .
V 1 10 1
H = 10
&
H = 10# magnitude of H
& &
Since V=-10# , H is acting to the left, or negative x direction
&
Thus H = -10#

Step
)))& 5
OD can now be found, using the similar triangle method
)))& )))&
OD 1.4 OD 1.4
& = ; =
H 1 10 1
)))&
OD = 14 # Direction is SW, as shown on diagram
Alternatively:
)))& )))&
OD 1.4 OD 1.4
& = ; =
V 1 10 1
)))&
OD = 14 #
since both sides of the triangle are equal

Step 6)))&
Find OB
We can now go back to Step 3

&
Fx = 0
Page 13.248.20

& )))&
H + OB = 0
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1
)))&
-10# + OB = 0
)))&
OB = 10# positive x direction, or to the right

6. Other Triangles
Other triangles that will be used,

5
3

13
5

12

3 1.73

since they will make solutions a little simpler


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ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

7. Method of Similar Triangles


Most solutions can be found using the method of similar triangles.
Trigonometry can also be used.

8. Directions of Force Components


Vertical and horizontal components of a slant member do the same thing as
the slant member, so directions of arrow heads are consistent. For instance,
arrow heads are up and to the right for both the slant member and its
components.

slant member

tail
components

Arrow heads for components are always head, or tip, to tail; leading
around the corner such as:

or

Arrow heads are never:

or
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Note: Drawing components using dashed or dotted lines avoids much


confusion. A different thickness line or a different color also can be used.
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

9. Example 1

Solve for force in OB and determine the maximum weight that can be held.

A
Maximum force
1400# (tension)

45o
O

Weight

Solution

Step 1
Draw Free Body Diagram of joint O.
Remember that the triangle below is the applicable triangle.

45o
2 1.4
1

45o

1 Page 13.248.23
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

1400#

weight (w)

The arrows are drawn for member OA and the weight due to the problem
statement. OA is in tension, which means that it is pulling joint O.

Step 2
Add components for all slant members.
Here only OA is a slant member.
)))))&
A OA H = 1000#

1400#
)))))&
OA V = 1000#

O
B

weight (w)

)))& )))))& )))))&


Since the arrowhead was drawn on OA , the arrowheads for OA V and OA H
can be drawn.
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ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Step 3
Sum up forces in x or y direction or determine value for slant member or
Components using ration of sides of triangle. In this case, components are
each 1000#. Label component values see previous diagram.

Step 4
Solve for weight

&
F y = 0
)))))&
OA V + w = 0
1000 + w = 0
w = -1000# (-) sign means negative y direction
w = 1000#

Step 5 )))&
Solve for OB

&
F =0
x
)))))& )))&
OA H + OB = 0
)))&
-1000 + OB = 0
)))&
OB = 1000# Direction: positive x, or right
The force in OB is 1000# to the right, which means it is pushing on O.
So its in compression.
)))))&
A OA H = 1000#

1400#
)))))&
OA V = 1000#

O
B = 1000#

weight (w) = 1000#

Note: Not necessary to show T or C on FBD. Arrow heads indicate this.


Page 13.248.25

If arrow away from joint, member is in T. If arrow toward joint, member


is in C.
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Step 6
Finished problem should have notation as shown (no arrowheads)

1400# T

45o
O

B 1000# C T

Weight
1000#

Page 13.248.26
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

10. Example 2
Find the magnitude of the forces in members OA and OB. Also determine
If the member is in tension or compression.

A 3
5

w = 60#

Step 1
Draw Free Body Diagram at Joint O. This time you may leave out the # signs.

A 3
5

60

By inspection, the arrow heads can be drawn, since the force from w is in
the negative y direction.
Page 13.248.27
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Step 2
Draw components for slant member.
)))&
OA H 80

4
A 5 3
)))))&
OA V 60
100
80 B

60

Step 3
By inspection, solve for forces.
or: )))))&
)))))&
OA V = 60
solve for OA V ;
)))&)))& 4 ))
OA H = 60 = 80
solve for OA H ;
3
)))& 5 5
solve for OA; OA = 60 = 80 = 100 (NW direction)
3 4
summing forces horizontally,

&
Fx = 0
)))& ))&
OB = 80

Page 13.248.28
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Step 4
Completed solution

100T
B

O
80T
T

w = 60

Page 13.248.29
Appendix B Bridge Design Problem Set 1

ENGR 190 BRIDGE PROJECT PROBLEM SET #1

NAME______________________________ DATE____________

1. Find tension force in AB and compression in AC

2. If force in AB is 1560 lbs T, find W. Also forces in BC, BE, and CD. Note
whether tension or compression.

Page 13.248.30
3. Determine forces in members AB, AC, BC, BD, CD, CE, DE, DF, EF and EG.
Note whether tension or compression.

Page 13.248.31
Appendix C Bridge Design Lecture 2

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

1. Trusses
A truss structure is one in which any loads are applied at joints only and are
Comprised of one or more triangles such as:

Force

or

Force
2. Truss Bridges
Bridge will be composed of the two identical vertical sides plus necessary
crosspieces, etc., to hold it all together.

Page 13.248.32
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

3. Side Trusses
Typical side trusses:

Not authorized design:

Each joint on arch requires 2 simultaneous equations to solve for forces


In members.

Page 13.248.33
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

4. Pratt Bridge Example


Find forces in the members and indicate whether the member is in
tension or compression. There is a force of 1600 lb acting on joint G.

3
B D F
4 5

A
C E G

800 1600# 800


(given)

Solution

Step 1
Apply forces in upward (positive y) direction of 800# to joints A and Al
(mirror image joint). The supports each carry half the force that is being
applied downward at the middle joint.

Page 13.248.34
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

Step 2
Draw a Free Body Diagram for each joint and solve for the force in each
member.

Joint A Joint C

600 B
0 B
800
1000

600 600
A C A E
600 C

800

Joint B Joint E

B 1200
600 B D
600 1000
800 0 800 800 800

1000 600

A C 1800 E C 600 E 1200 G

Joint D Joint F

D F D|
B 1200 1800 F D
1200 1200
600
0
800 800
1000
G
E G
Page 13.248.35
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

Step 3
Write solution on diagram of truss indicating tension or compression

3
D F
B
4 5 1200C 1800C
1000T 1000T
1000C 0
0 800C

A
600T 600T 1200 G
C E T
800 1600# 800
(given)

Page 13.248.36
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

5. Howe Bridge Example

Find forces in the members and indicate whether the member is in


tension or compression. There is a force of 1000 lb acting on joint G.

1
1.4 B D F

45o
A
C E G

500# 1000# 500#


(given)

Solution

Step 1
Apply forces in upward (positive y) direction of 500# to joints A and Al
(mirror image joint). The supports each carry half the force that is being
applied downward at the middle joint.

Page 13.248.37
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

Step 2
Draw a Free Body Diagram for each joint and solve for the force in each
member.

Joint A Joint B

B
500 500 500
B D

500 700 500 700


500
A
C A
500 C

500

Joint C Joint D

D
B D 500 1000
B F
500 700 700
500 500
500 500
500
A E C
C 1000 500 E

Joint E Joint G

D F F

500 700 500 1000


500
1500 1500
E E|
C 1000 E 1500 G G

1000
Page 13.248.38
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

Step 3
Write solution on diagram of truss indicating tension or compression

1
1.4 B 500C D 1000C F

700C 700C 700C


500T 500T 1000T
45o
A
500T C 1000T E 1500T G

500# 1000# 500#


(given)

Page 13.248.39
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

6. Warren Bridge Example

Find forces in the members and indicate whether the member is in


tension or compression. There is a force of 1000 lb acting on joint G.

1
B D
1.73
2
A
C E

690 1380# 690


(given)
Solution

Step 1
Apply forces in upward (positive y) direction of 690# to joints A and Al
(mirror image joint). The supports each carry half the force that is being
applied downward at the middle joint.

Page 13.248.40
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

Step 2
Draw a Free Body Diagram for each joint and solve for the force in each
member.

Joint A Joint B

B
400 800
B D
400
800
690 690 690
800 800

400
A C A C

690

Joint C Joint E

B 400 400 D D

690 690 1380

800 1200 1200


800 C E|
E
400
A
C 1200
1380

Page 13.248.41
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

Step 3
Write solution on diagram of truss indicating tension or compression

1
B 800C D
1.73
2 800C 800C 1380T
800T
A
400T C 1200T E

690 1380# 690


(given)

Page 13.248.42
Appendix D Bridge Design Problem Set 2

ENGR 190 BRIDGE PROJECT PROBLEM SET #2

NAME______________________________ DATE____________

1. All angle member 45 degrees. Find forces in all members on left half of
truss and in FG. List solutions on truss members. Note if Tension or
Compression.

Page 13.248.43
2. All panels are 3,4,5 proportion. Find forces in all members on left half of
truss and in FG. List solutions on truss members and state whether Tension
or Compression.

Page 13.248.44
3. Length of each member is 16 feet. Determine the forces in all members
between joints that are labeled. Indicate whether Tension or Compression.

Page 13.248.45
Appendix E Bridge Design Lecture 3

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

Design a Basswood Bridge

Design Parameters
(a) Truss type bridge consisting of two vertical parallel truss structures for
the sides of the bridge with necessary cross members and bracing to
hold the sides in place.
(b) Top and bottom chords of the truss structures are to be parallel.
(c) Bridge is to span a 22 inch space between supports, so the length of the
bridge should be 24 inches.
(d) No bridge floor is required.
(e) A 3 inch x 3 inch block must be able to pass through the bridge with
clearance.
(f) The load will be applied at the middle of the bridge using 1 or 2
or inch diameter steel rods.
(g) Maximum design load for credit is 100 lb.
(h) Best bridge is one with the highest Performance Value (PV) defined as
L/W where L is the test load (lb) and W is the weight of the bridge (gm)

1. Assume a Design Load


for example - 36#

2. Choose a Truss Design


see truss chosen below
Steps 1 and 2 can be reversed

4
B 12C D
3
5
15C
15C 9T 18T
12T 24T
A
6 C 6 E 6 6

9# 18# 9#
total load
Page 13.248.46
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

3. Calculate Forces in Members


Draw FBDs for joints A,B,C,D and E

Joint A Joint B

12 12 B 12 D
B
9 9
15 9
15
A C A
12 C
9

Joint D
Joint C

B B|
B 12 D 12 D 12
9 9
12 12
15 9 9
15 15
12 24
A E
C E

Joint E

18
24 24
C E C|
Page 13.248.47
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

4. Determine which Size Sticks to Use


Indicate on the structure use information given

Member Force Length (inch) Size Max Load (lb) Weight (g)
AB 15C 6/4 x 5 = 7 1/2 3/16 25 (.24)(7.5) = 1.80
BC 9T 6/4 x 3 =4 1/2 3/32 20 (.06)(4.5) = 0.27
AC 12T 6 3/32 20 (.06)(6) = 0.36
BD 12C 6 5/32 22 (.17)(6) = 1.02
CE 24T 6 1/8 35 (.11)(6) = 0.66
DE 18T 4 1/2 3/32 20 (.06)(4) = 0.27
CD 15C 7 1/2 3/16 25 (.24)(7.5) = 1.80

Since only 1 member (DE) is loaded to near its capacity at the 36 lb design load, the load can be
increased. Try a load increase. To determine the increase, notice the ratios of maximum load
(lb) / Force.
AB = 25/15 = 1.67
BC = 20/9 = 2.22
AC = 20/12 = 1.67
BD = 22/12 = 1.83
CE = 35/24 = 1.46
DE = 20/18 = 1.11
CD = 25/15 = 1.67

Increasing the force/load by 1.11 (DE) will not maximize efficiency of loading. Go to 1.67 ratio
(AB, AC & CD). So load is now increased by the factor of 1.67.
18 x 1.67 = 30# On the diagram, forces on the right side of the structure are for a 60# load.
Members will now be more efficiently loaded.

B 12C 5/32-22 D 20C


15C
15C 9T 30T 25C
3/16-25
3/16-25 3/32-20 25C 15T
18T
12T 24T 3/32-20
A
3/32-20 C 1/8-35 E 40T 20T

9# 18# 30# 9#
total load
Page 13.248.48
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

5. Calculate the Weight of 1 Truss

For 36# total load, wt =


((1.80 + .27 + .36 + 1.02 + .66 + .27 + 1.80) x 2) - .27 = 12.09

For 60# total load

Member Force Length (inch) Size Max Load (lb) Weight (g)
AB 25C 6/4 x 5 = 7 1/2 3/16 25 (.24)(7.5) = 1.80
BC 15T 6/4 x 3 =4 1/2 3/32 20 (.06)(4.5) = 0.27
AC 20T 6 3/32 20 (.06)(6) = 0.36
BD 20C 6 5/32 22 (.17)(6) = 1.02
CE 40T 6 5/32 54 (.17)(6) = 1.02
DE 30T 4 1/2 1/8 35 (.11)(4) = 0.495
CD 25C 7 1/2 3/16 25 (.24)(7.5) = 1.80

For 60# total load, wt =


((1.80 + .27 + .36 + 1.02 + 1.02 + .495 + 1.80) x 2) - .495 = 13.035

Page 13.248.49
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

6. Determination of Cross Member Size


The following table and figures gives the size of cross members to choose
based on the type of cross member and the total design load.

Plates 1/32 thick for 50-100# design load


Can be 1/64 for less than 50#
D

0
0 0

These 2 zero force members can be omitted

600 About
5.19
600 600 tall

24
If you are doing this design, discuss cross
members with the instructor. B type cross
members may be too long and an X type
of bracing may be needed.
Page 13.248.50
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

Table E-I: Sizing of Cross and Zero Load Members

Design Load Range (lb)


0-45 46-69 70-100
Cross Member (A) 3/32 1/8 5/32
Diagonal Cross Member (B) 3/32 3/32 1/8
0 Force Member (C) 3/32 3/32 1/8
0 Force of Stressed (D) 1/8 1/8 5/32
Horizontal Member at Ends (E) 1/8 5/32 3/16

7. Calculate Weight of Bridge

For 36# total load


2 trusses = 12.09 x 2 = 24.18
From Table E-I

Type Member Size Length Weight # Members Total wt


(in) (g) (g)
cross member 3/32 4 (.06)(4)=0.24 1 0.240
A
Diagonal cross 3/32 7.2 (.06)(7.2)=0.432 2 0.864
member B
Stressed D 1/8 4.5 (.11)(4.5)=0.495 4 1.980
Horiz. Members 1/8 4 (.11)(4)=0.44 4 1.760
at ends E
Total 4.844
-original BC(x4)=(.27)(4) -1.080
Total Cross & End Member Weight=3.764

Total Bridge Weight = 24.18 + 3.764 + plates + glue


= 27.944 + plates + glue
plates + glue 15-20% of wood member wt
15% = 4.192
= 27.944 + 4.192
= 32.136 g

36
PV = = 1.12 low
32.136
Page 13.248.51
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

8. Increase Load to Maximize PV

For 60# total load


2 trusses = 13.035 x 2 = 26.07
From Table I

Type Member Size Length Weight # Members Total wt


(in) (g) (g)
cross member 1/8 4 (.11)(4)=0.44 1 0.440
A
Diagonal cross 3/32 7.2 (.06)(7.2)=0.432 2 0.864
member B
Stressed D 1/8 4.5 (.11)(4.5)=0.495 4 1.980
Horiz. Members 5/32 4 (.17)(4)=0.68 4 2.720
at ends E
Total 6.004
-original BC(x4)=(.27)(4) -1.080
Total Cross & End Member Weight=4.924

Total Bridge Weight = 26.07 + 4.924 + plates + glue


= 30.994 + plates + glue
plates + glue 15-20% of wood member wt
15% = 4.649
= 30.994 + 4.649
= 35.643 g

60
PV = = 1.68 better
35.643

9. Calculate Final Design PV

see above PV for 60# total load

Page 13.248.52
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

10. Successful Designs


Successful designs have typically been similar to problem set #2
or one of the following:

Reminder: This type of truss is not permitted

11. Other Design Information

600 About
5.19
600 600 tall

24
Page 13.248.53
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

12. Construction Information


For top and bottom chords, do not use short pieces end to end.
Example use one 16 piece of 5/32 sq and add1/32 plywood strips
to two adjacent sides where force is 60C

5/32-43 3/16-73
30C 60C
4 4 4 4

1/32 sq plywood strips


5/32 sq best applied to top &
inside

13. Authorized Materials for Bridge Construction


Members
Material basswood for members
Sizes (square cross section) 3/32, 1/8, 5/32, 3/16, 1/4 inch on a side

Plates and Lamination Material


Plates are used to reinforce joints and to laminate sticks to obtain proper size
Material model aircraft plywood
Sizes 1/64 & 1/32 inch thick

Glue
Ordinary wood glue, such as Elmers Carpenters Glue and some epoxies
Do not use glue from a glue gun (heated)
What has worked well in the past: Jet Glue with kicker, Titebond

Coatings none allowed

14. Material Properties


Densities
Basswood Plywood
linear density square density
3/32 .06 g/in 1/64 .25 g/in2
1/8 .11 1/32 .39
5/32 .17
Page 13.248.54

3/16 .24
1/4 .43
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

Tensile Strength for Basswood Sticks


Permissible tension loads for basswood (any length) are:
Size Tensile Strength
(in) (lb)
3/32 20
1/8 35
5/32 54
3/16 80
1/4 140

Compression Strengths for Basswood Sticks


Compression failure loads for basswood are given in the figure below.

Compression Strengths for Basswood Square Sections

180
170
160
150
Compression Load at Failure (lb)

140
130
120
110 3 32
100 18
90 5 32
80 3 16
70 14
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Length (in)

Page 13.248.55
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

15. Suppliers and Supplies


Go to your local hobby shop to purchase the wood.
Glue can be obtained at the hobby shop or local hardware store.
Hobby miter boxes and saws can be gotten from the hobby shop.
Hand files, sand paper, Exacto knives, hobby wood clamps and a Dremel tool
are also helpful in construction.

16. Project Grade


Project score will be derived as follows:
%
Bridge design checked in on schedule 10
One side truss completed and checked in 10
Bridge completed and checked in 10
Performance value (PV)* of tested material 65
Bridge critique submitted after testing 5
----
100
* Maximum design load for credit is 100#
If bridge holds more than 100# when tested, you only get credit for 100#
17. Assignment Prepare Bridge Design

(a) Assume some design load


(b) Choose truss design (1 and 2 can be reversed)
(c) Calculate forces in members
Indicate on the structure the forces for each member
(d) Determine which size sticks you need for each member and indicate
on the structure also.
(e) Calculate weight of 1 truss
(f) Calculate weight of bridge 2 trusses plus cross pieces plus plates
plus glue (estimate as best as possible)
(g) Calculate PV
load(lb)
PV=
weight(g)
(h) Try more than one design

Page 13.248.56
Appendix F Bridge Design Lecture 4

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 4

Detailed Construction Information

This lecture covers all remaining items on the bridge construction, with
recommendations based on what has worked before.

1. Plates for Stressed Joints

Plates for Stresses Joints 1/32 plates for loads 50


#

1/64 plates for loads < 50#

0
rounded force

Small plate
Plates should extend over each stressed member at joints. Zero force
members should have a little plate of some sort to assist the glue. Plates are
used only on outside of vertical trusses. None on the inside or horizontally on
top or bottom. Exception is the center joint for loading rods.
Note: These are the ideal conditions for minimum weight. Sometimes the
glue does not hold as well as expected and plates have been added to the top
and/or bottom cross members. This adds weight to the bridge but does
provide more support.
1 3/8

x 1 x 1
1 3/8

Start with
Page 13.248.57

Use on both sides of each truss for loads > 65#. Total 4 for whole bridge
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 4

2. Plates for Center Members Where Rod is Placed


For bars

Clearance

Loading Plates
Sand members and plates lightly with coarse sand paper to rough up surface.
Glue holds better.

Cover all three


Dont again
cut
radius

or

Cutting Plates

Break
off File or use hobby
knife to get
round corner
Page 13.248.58
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 4

3. End View
END VIEW

Approximately 45o 1/8 or 3/32 square material


Top only
Both sides each joint

max

4. Cross Members

Construction
To construct: typical

A little clearance end to end *


Cut to 4 length

(a) Put top and bottom chords on flat surface.


(b) Cut verticals and glue in. (Put weights on)
(c) After dry, put diagonals to fit loosely. Use glue sparingly. Dont put in
gobs to fill corners, etc. Just enough to hold sticks together for check-in.
If diagonals are forced in, truss may end up warped.

Glue Glue
Page 13.248.59
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 4

To construct: no verticals

Etc.

Place top and bottom chords on surface and add weight.


Cut diagonals to fit and glue in.

5. Tips
(a) Put wax paper or plastic down on surface, or glue may stick to it.
(b) Put weights on all members being glued, so bottom side will be flat.
(c) Dont put any plates on before checking in one truss.
(d) Glues Elmers Wood Glue, Elmers Por Bond,DAP Wood Glue,
Crazy Glue (gel type or slow setting), Titelock, Jet with or without kicker.
No model airplane glue, no flexible glue, no glue gun.
Jet with kicker and Titelock seem to work best.
(e) Can use hobby wood clamps, or clothespins or metal paper clamps.
(f)

not much
advantage, but
OK
vs
.

Page 13.248.60
ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 4

6. Assembling Two Sides


Books

(a) Bottom at ends


(b) Top members
(c) Let set
(d) Diagonals (again should not have to press in)

7. Typical Typical etc.


Page 13.248.61


Appendix G Bridge Testing Grades

Bridge Test Grades


PV GRADE Points for PV GRADE Points for PV GRADE Points for
ME half ME half ME half
2.00 100.00 32.50 1.65 81.00 26.33 1.30 67.00 21.78
1.99 99.00 32.18 1.64 81.00 26.33 1.29 67.00 21.78
1.98 98.00 31.85 1.63 81.00 26.33 1.28 66.00 21.45
1.97 97.00 31.53 1.62 80.00 26.00 1.27 66.00 21.45
1.96 96.00 31.20 1.61 80.00 26.00 1.26 65.00 21.13
1.95 95.00 30.88 1.60 80.00 26.00 1.25 65.00 21.13
1.94 94.00 30.55 1.59 79.00 25.68 1.24 64.00 20.80
1.93 93.00 30.23 1.58 79.00 25.68 1.23 64.00 20.80
1.92 92.00 29.90 1.57 78.00 25.35 1.22 64.00 20.80
1.91 91.00 29.58 1.56 78.00 25.35 1.21 63.00 20.48
1.90 90.00 29.25 1.55 77.00 25.03 1.20 63.00 20.48
1.89 89.00 28.93 1.54 77.00 25.03 1.19 63.00 20.48
1.88 89.00 28.93 1.53 76.00 24.70 1.18 62.00 20.15
1.87 89.00 28.93 1.52 76.00 24.70 1.17 62.00 20.15
1.86 88.00 28.60 1.51 75.00 24.38 1.16 62.00 20.15
1.85 88.00 28.60 1.50 75.00 24.38 1.15 61.00 19.83
1.84 88.00 28.60 1.49 74.00 24.05 1.14 61.00 19.83
1.83 87.00 28.28 1.48 74.00 24.05 1.13 61.00 19.83
1.82 87.00 28.28 1.47 74.00 24.05 1.12 60.00 19.50
1.81 87.00 28.28 1.46 73.00 23.73 1.11 60.00 19.50
1.80 86.00 27.95 1.45 73.00 23.73 1.10 60.00 19.50
1.79 86.00 27.95 1.44 73.00 23.73 1.09 59.00 19.18
1.78 86.00 27.95 1.43 72.00 23.40 1.08 59.00 19.18
1.77 85.00 27.63 1.42 72.00 23.40 1.07 58.00 18.85
1.76 85.00 27.63 1.41 72.00 23.40 1.06 58.00 18.85
1.75 85.00 27.63 1.40 71.00 23.08 1.05 57.00 18.53
1.74 84.00 27.30 1.39 71.00 23.08 1.04 57.00 18.53
1.73 84.00 27.30 1.38 71.00 23.08 1.03 56.00 18.20
1.72 84.00 27.30 1.37 70.00 22.75 1.02 56.00 18.20
1.71 83.00 26.98 1.36 70.00 22.75 1.01 55.00 17.88
1.70 83.00 26.98 1.35 70.00 22.75 1.00 55.00 17.88
1.69 83.00 26.98 1.34 69.00 22.43 0.99 54.00 17.55
1.68 82.00 26.65 1.33 69.00 22.43 0.98 54.00 17.55
1.67 82.00 26.65 1.32 68.00 22.10 0.97 54.00 17.55
1.66 82.00 26.65 1.31 68.00 22.10 0.96 53.00 17.23
Page 13.248.62
Bridge Test Grades
PV GRADE Points for PV GRADE Points for
ME half ME half
0.95 53.00 17.23 0.60 40.00 13.00
0.94 53.00 17.23 0.59 39.00 12.68
0.93 52.00 16.90 0.58 39.00 12.68
0.92 52.00 16.90 0.57 38.00 12.35
0.91 52.00 16.90 0.56 38.00 12.35
0.90 51.00 16.58 0.55 37.00 12.03
0.89 51.00 16.58 0.54 37.00 12.03
0.88 51.00 16.58 0.53 36.00 11.70
0.87 50.00 16.25 0.52 36.00 11.70
0.86 50.00 16.25 0.51 35.00 11.38
0.85 50.00 16.25 0.50 35.00 11.38
0.84 49.00 15.93 0.49 34.00 11.05
0.83 49.00 15.93 0.48 34.00 11.05
0.82 48.00 15.60 0.47 34.00 11.05
0.81 48.00 15.60 0.46 33.00 10.73
0.80 47.00 15.28 0.45 33.00 10.73
0.79 47.00 15.28 0.44 33.00 10.73
0.78 46.00 14.95 0.43 32.00 10.40
0.77 46.00 14.95 0.42 32.00 10.40
0.76 45.00 14.63 0.41 32.00 10.40
0.75 45.00 14.63 0.40 31.00 10.08
0.74 44.00 14.30 0.39 31.00 10.08
0.73 44.00 14.30 0.38 31.00 10.08
0.72 44.00 14.30 0.37 30.00 9.75
0.71 43.00 13.98 0.36 30.00 9.75
0.70 43.00 13.98 0.35 30.00 9.75
0.69 43.00 13.98 0.34 29.00 9.43
0.68 42.00 13.65 0.33 29.00 9.43
0.67 42.00 13.65 0.32 28.00 9.10
0.66 42.00 13.65 0.31 28.00 9.10
0.65 41.00 13.33 0.30 27.00 8.78
0.64 41.00 13.33 0.29 27.00 8.78
0.63 41.00 13.33 0.28 26.00 8.45
0.62 40.00 13.00 0.27 26.00 8.45
0.61 40.00 13.00 0.26 25.00 8.13
Page 13.248.63
Appendix H Bridge Critique

Engineering 190

BRIDGE CRITIQUE

Good Points (1.5 pts)


of design
of construction
of performance
Bad Points (1.5 pts)
of design
of construction
of performance
What would you do differently, if you built another bridge? (1 pt)
Include your design drawing and calculations (1 pt)

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