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Determining the Net Force The above equation is often rearranged to a more

familiar form as shown below. The net force is equated


In the statement of Newton's first law, the unbalanced to the product of the mass times the acceleration.
force refers to that force that does not become
completely balanced (or canceled) by the other Fnet = m a
individual forces. If either all the vertical forces (up and The direction of the net force is in the same direction as
down) do not cancel each other and/or all horizontal the acceleration.
forces do not cancel each other, then an unbalanced
force exists. The existence of an unbalanced force for a Finding Acceleration
given situation can be quickly realized by looking at the
free-body diagram for that situation. Free-body The three major equations that will be useful are the
diagrams for three situations are shown below. Note equation for net force (Fnet = ma), the equation
that the actual magnitudes of the individual forces are for gravitational force (Fgrav = mg), and the equation
indicated on the diagram. for frictional force (Ffrict = Fnorm).
The process of determining the acceleration of an object
demands that the mass and the net force are known. If
mass (m) and net force (Fnet) are known, then the
acceleration is determined by use of the equation.
a = Fnet / m

Practice Problems
1. An applied force of 50 N is used to accelerate an
A net force causes acceleration.
object to the right across a frictional surface.
The object encounters 10 N of friction. Use the
Practice Problems diagram to determine the normal force, the net
1. Free-body diagrams for four situations are shown force, the mass, and the acceleration of the
below. For each situation, determine the net force acting object. (Neglect air resistance.)
upon the object. Click the buttons to view the answers.

1. An applied force of 20 N is used to accelerate an


object to the right across a frictional surface.
The object encounters 10 N of friction. Use the
diagram to determine the normal force, the net
force, the coefficient of friction () between the
object and the surface, the mass, and the
2. Free-body diagrams for four situations are shown acceleration of the object. (Neglect air
below. The net force is known for each situation. resistance.)
However, the magnitudes of a few of the individual
forces are not known. Analyze each situation individually
and determine the magnitude of the unknown forces.
Then click the button to view the answers.

2. A 5-kg object is sliding to the right and


encountering a friction force that slows it down.
The coefficient of friction () between the object
and the surface is 0.1. Determine the force of
Newtons Second Law/ Law of Acceleration gravity, the normal force, the force of friction,
the net force, and the acceleration. (Neglect air
The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force resistance.)
is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force,
in the same direction as the net force, and inversely
proportional to the mass of the object.

This verbal statement can be expressed in equation form


as follows:
a = Fnet / m