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A Corpus of Syriac Incantation Bowls

Magical and Religious Literature


of Late Antiquity
Series Editors
Shaul Shaked
Siam Bhayro

VOLUME 3

The titles published in this series are listed at brill.com/mrla


A Corpus of Syriac Incantation Bowls
Syriac Magical Texts from Late-Antique Mesopotamia

By
Marco Moriggi

LEIDEN BOSTON
2014
Cover illustration: Bowl no. 26 (IsIAO 5206) courtesy of the Museo Nazionale dArte Orientale (Roma).

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CONTENTS

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Syriac Incantation Bowls (list) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Photographs and Facsimiles (credits) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Sigla. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii

I Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
I.1 The Study of Syriac Incantation Bowls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
I.2 Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
I.3 The Language of Syriac Incantation Bowls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
I.4 Terminological Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

II Palaeography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
II.1 Scripts of the Syriac Incantation Bowls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
II.2 Syriac Bowls and Estrangela Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
II.3 Syriac Bowls and Manichaean Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
II.4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

III Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Bowl no. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Bowl no. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Bowl no. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Bowl no. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Bowl no. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Bowl no. 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Bowl no. 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Bowl no. 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Bowl no. 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Bowl no. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Bowl no. 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Bowl no. 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Bowl no. 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Bowl no. 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Bowl no. 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Bowl no. 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Bowl no. 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Bowl no. 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Bowl no. 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Bowl no. 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Bowl no. 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Bowl no. 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Bowl no. 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Bowl no. 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
vi contents

Bowl no. 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124


Bowl no. 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Bowl no. 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Bowl no. 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Bowl no. 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Bowl no. 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Bowl no. 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Bowl no. 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Bowl no. 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Bowl no. 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Bowl no. 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Bowl no. 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Bowl no. 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Bowl no. 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Bowl no. 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Bowl no. 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Bowl no. 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Bowl no. 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Bowl no. 43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Bowl no. 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Bowl no. 45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Bowl no. 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Bowl no. 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Bowl no. 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Bowl no. 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
List of Angels, Deities, Demons, and Other Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
List of Clients and Adversaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

Script Charts
PREFACE

In 2001, at the suggestion of Shaul Shaked, I began an analysis of all the published Syriac incantation
bowls, with the aim of describing their language and updating the work of Hamilton (1971) according to
the subsequently published material. This research was undertaken within the framework of the PhD
courses at the Universit degli Studi di Firenze (Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze filologiche e storiche del
Vicino Oriente, curriculum: Linguistica semitica; supervisor: Prof. Pelio Fronzaroli, tutors: Prof. Maria
Giulia Amadasi Guzzo and Prof. Fabrizio Angelo Pennacchietti).
The PhD thesis resulting from this research was successfully defended in 2003 and, after some minor
adjustments, it was published in book form in 2004 as no. 21 of the series Quaderni di Semitistica
(Universit di Firenze, Dipartimento di Linguistica) with the title La lingua delle coppe magiche siriache.
The book featured a brief history of the field (Moriggi 2004, 133), a short description of the Aramaic
varieties used in incantation bowls (3550), a study of the scripts employed on Syriac bowls (5195), an
outline of the most significant phonological, morphological and syntactic characteristics of the Syriac
language of the bowls (97196), and some conclusions (197214). In the Appendice I (235294) the
bowl texts published until 2001 were transliterated and translated, sometimes with a basic commentary
added.
As one of the reviewers (Braida 2006, 177) correctly pointed out, due to the short interval between its
presentation as a PhD dissertation and its publication as a book, the monograph risente un poco del
fine originario per il quale essa stata composta, i.e. it is to be considered an augmented dissertation
rather than a monograph in the strict sense. This notwithstanding, it proved useful in fostering schol-
arly discussion on Syriac incantation bowls. The lengthy review by Mller-Kessler (2006a) was in turn
of great importance in establishing the further potential of this study, while some scholars (e.g. Morgen-
stern 2010, 282, 288) demonstrated that its conclusions are helpful for the broader study of incantation
bowls.
I was well aware that my initial book was merely a starting point for research on the language of Syriac
incantation bowls and that a number of problems would have to be tackled in order to fulfil the aim of
a precise description.
The first and most important problem was the accuracy of the published versions of the texts.
Moreover, not all previous publications contained good quality photographs and/or drawings to permit
the reader to check the text properly.
I also noticed that, as new collections of bowls (not only Syriac ones) were published (Levene 2009)
or were about to be published (e.g. the Schyen Collection), the need to gather together all published
Syriac bowls had become urgent. It was in this context that the present study emerged.
My main aim was to re-edit and thus to provide scholars with the most complete and accurate
anthology of published Syriac bowls (18532012). Fulfilling this aim was regarded as fundamental and
preliminary for any further study on the grammar of Syriac incantation bowls.
The present work is thus very different from the volume published in 2004. First of all, it does not con-
tain any comprehensive description of the language of Syriac incantation bowls, which will be carried
out in due course, but only after the publication of further Syriac texts. Second, it features completely
new editions of the texts and an entirely new palaeographic section, which excludes unpublished items
but is based on newly realized script charts of published bowls. Not only the grammar, but the magical
practice, the drawings, angelic and demonic names, clients names and all other aspects concerned with
bowls are not treated here, because it is now well established that each of them demands a treatment
of its own.
viii preface

Syriac bowls have now been published and studied for more than one hundred and fifty years. This,
together with past and future studies, is presented in the firm belief that (Shaked 2001, 61):
the only way to do justice to this material is to edit as much of it as possible in a systematic manner and to
make it properly available to the public.

When the idea for this book was still no more than a wish, Dr. Siam Bhayro (University of Exeter) strongly
encouraged me to put it into written form and submit it to the Magical and Religious Literature of
Late Antiquity series scientific committee. The author is therefore wholeheartedly thankful to Dr. Siam
Bhayro, not only for his scientific and scholarly advice, but also for his constant help, his active support
and invaluable friendship.
The editing of the bowl texts could not have been carried out without the support of Dr. James
Nathan Ford (Bar-Ilan University), who constantly provided me with readings, articles and unpublished
material. He further read the final draft of the typescript of this volume and proposed a number of
corrections to the transliterations and the translations, which have been incorporated throughout this
volume. Together with Prof. Shaul Shaked (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem) and Dr. Siam Bhayro,
Dr. James Nathan Ford kindly allowed me to consult a preliminary draft of his forthcoming volume
on the Syriac bowls of the Schyen Collection. Thanks to this act of great generosity, I was able to
check the readings of parallel texts and the updating and integrations of previous editions of published
Syriac texts featured in that work.
As to the new editions of both the Syriac bowls in the British Museum and the Frau Professor
Hilprecht Collection of Babylonian Antiquities (Jena), I am indebted to Dr. Matthew Morgenstern (Tel
Aviv University), who provided his carefully taken, excellent photographs and was always ready to give
his assistance in any situation. Furthermore, Dr. Matthew Morgenstern and Dr. James Nathan Ford put
at my disposal a draft of their edition of the Syriac bowls in the Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of
Babylonian Antiquities (Jena).
Dr. Bahaa Amer al-Jubouri (Baghdad University) was very kind in tracing and taking pictures of two
Syriac bowls that are housed in the Iraq Museum (Baghdad) and were previously studied by Prof. Javier
Teixidor.
For other images, I would like to acknowledge the assistance of Maureen Goldsmith (University
of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology), Prof. Benjamin Foster and Ulla Kasten
(Yale Babylonian Collection), Dr. Monica Blanchard (Semitics/ICOR Collections, The Catholic Uni-
versity of America, Washington D.C.), Dr. Betsy Bryan and Sanchita Balachandran (Johns Hopkins
University Archaeological Museum), Dr. St John Simpson (The British Museum), Thomas G. Urban
and Monica Velez (The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago), Dr. Alessia Prioletta and
Prof. Alessandra Avanzini (Universit degli Studi di Pisa), Dr. Alessandro Greco (S.A.R.G.O.N. Editrice,
Padova), Prof. Dr. Manfred Krebernik (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt and Frau Professor Hilprecht Col-
lection of Babylonian Antiquities, Jena), Claire Taylor (Cambridge University Press), Jonathan Reilly
(Maggs Brothers Ltd. London), Federica Brivio (Scala Archives), Prof. Dr. Joachim Marzahn (Vorder-
asiatisches Museum, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preuischer Kulturbesitz), Marja-Leena Hnninen
and Dr. Hannu Hkkinen (Finnish National Museum, Helsinki), Fayez Barakat (Barakat Inc.), Leonard
A. Wolfe (Jerusalem), Celestina Levant (The Magnes Press), Dr. Paola DAmore (Museo Nazionale dArte
Orientale, Roma), Carolyn Budow Ben-David (Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem), Daisy Njoku, Felicia
Pickering and James Krakker (Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washing-
ton D.C.), Nolle Pourret, Heln Lagrange, and Cristina Sanchez (Agence Photographique de la Runion
des Muses Nationaux et du Grand Palais, Paris).
In addition to putting their photographs or drawings at my disposal, Prof. Victor Paul Hamilton
(Ashbury College) and Dr. Gaby Abousamra (Universit Saint-Esprit de Kaslik) kindly sent quick and
detailed responses to my requests. Dr. Dan Levene (University of Southampton), in addition to putting at
preface ix

my disposal some images of the Berlin bowls, was always ready to share views and give valuable advice as
regards both the Berlin collection and some aspects of Syriac bowls concerned with praxis and religion.
As to matters of bibliography, the author benefited from the assistance of Dr. Alfredo Criscuolo
and Prof. Riccardo Contini (Universit degli Studi di Napoli LOrientale), Prof. Franoise Briquel
Chatonnet (CNRS, Mondes smitiques, Paris), Prof. Javier Teixidor (Collge de France), Dr. Emanuela
Braida (University of Toronto), Sergey Minov (Tel Aviv University), Prof. Michael Morony (University
of California Los Angeles), Dr. Rosina Leone and Dr. Enrico Foietta (Universit degli Studi di Torino).
For English language counselling I am grateful to Dr. Ruth Anne Henderson (Universit degli Studi di
Torino).
A research project like this, which has taken two years to complete, demands constancy and per-
severance, which can be maintained only with the help of colleagues and friends. Tireless supporters
of this work were both Prof. Fabrizio Angelo Pennacchietti and Dr. Alessandro Mengozzi (Universit
degli Studi di Torino), who always gave feedback, when requested, commenting upon texts, providing
insightful comments and encouraging me in times of difficulty. Various people at E.J. Brill have provided
all the serenity and support needed in order to bring this project to completion. In particular I wish to
thank Katelyn Chin, Jennifer Pavelko, Pim Reetbroek and John Hudson for always being ready to discuss
various matters concerning the work.
Finally, I would like to express my indebtedness to Maria Teresa, my wife, for her unfailing support
and constant love.
SYRIAC INCANTATION BOWLS

Bowl no. 1 Bowl no. YBC 2357, editio princeps: Montgomery 1912a.
Bowl no. 2 Bowl no. Semitics/ICOR Collections H 156, editio princeps: Montgomery 19171918.
Bowl no. 3 Bowl no. CBS 9008, editio princeps: Montgomery 1913: no. 31.
Bowl no. 4 Bowl no. CBS 16086, editio princeps: Montgomery 1913: no. 32.
Bowl no. 5 Bowl no. CBS 16019, editio princeps: Montgomery 1913: no. 33.
Bowl no. 6 Bowl no. CBS 9012, editio princeps: Montgomery 1913: no. 34.
Bowl no. 7 Bowl no. CBS 16097, editio princeps: Montgomery 1913: no. 35.
Bowl no. 8 Bowl no. CBS 2933, editio princeps: Montgomery 1913: no. 36.
Bowl no. 9 Bowl no. CBS 2943, editio princeps: Montgomery 1913: no. 37.
Bowl no. 10 Bowl no. BM 91712, editio princeps: Ellis 1853: no. 6.
Bowl no. 11 Bowl no. IM 59098, editio princeps: Teixidor 1962, 5253.
Bowl no. 12 Bowl no. IM 50327, editio princeps: Teixidor 1962, 5354.
Bowl no. 13 Bowl no. IM 41382, editio princeps: Teixidor 1962, 54.
Bowl no. 14 Bowl no. IM 44107, editio princeps: Teixidor 1962, 5456.
Bowl no. 15 Bowl no. IM 23776, editio princeps: Teixidor 1962, 5659.
Bowl no. 16 Bowl no. IM 60960, editio princeps: Teixidor 1962, 5961.
Bowl no. 17 Bowl no. HS 3018, editio princeps: Hamilton 1971: no. 17.
Bowl no. 18 Bowl no. Martin Bodmer Library no. 51, editio princeps: Hamilton 1971: no. 18.
Bowl no. 19 Bowl no. Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum no. 4 N 161, editio princeps: Hamilton 1971: no. 19.
Bowl no. 20 Bowl no. (Nippur OIC Excavations10th Season), editio princeps: Hamilton 1971: no. 20.
Bowl no. 21 Bowl no. (Nippur OIC Excavations9th Season), editio princeps: Hamilton 1971: no. 21.
Bowl no. 22 Bowl no. VK 5738:3, editio princeps: Harviainen 1978.
Bowl no. 23 Bowl no. (formerly Barakat Collection), editio princeps: Naveh and Shaked 1985: no. 1.
Bowl no. 24 Bowl no. (Jewish Historical Museum, Belgrade), editio princeps: Naveh and Shaked 1985: no. 10.
Bowl no. 25 Bowl no. (formerly Aaron and Wolfe Collections), editio princeps: Geller 1986: no. Aaron Bowl C.
Bowl no. 26 Bowl no. IsIAO 5206, editio princeps: Gignoux 1984.
Bowl no. 27 Bowl no. BLMJ 0070, editio princeps: Naveh and Shaked 1993: no. 17.
Bowl no. 28 Bowl no. AO 27064-O, editio princeps: Naveh and Shaked 1993: no. 26.
Bowl no. 29 Bowl no. BM 91754, editio princeps: Segal 2000: no. 118ES.
Bowl no. 30 Bowl no. BM 117882, editio princeps: Segal 2000: no. 119ES.
Bowl no. 31 Bowl no. BM 91718, editio princeps: Segal 2000: no. 120SY.
Bowl no. 32 Bowl no. AO 17.284, editio princeps: Allotte de La Fue 1924.
Bowl no. 33 Bowl no. IM 65572, presented in Salvesen 1998, 143.
Bowl no. 34 Bowl no. Nippur-frag. 11 N 7, editio princeps: Mller-Kessler 2005, 64n26.
Bowl no. 35 Bowl no. Nippur 12 N 5, editio princeps: Mller-Kessler 2005: no. 32a.
Bowl no. 36 Bowl no. HS 3062, editio princeps: Mller-Kessler 2005: no. 34.
Bowl no. 37 Bowl no. HS 3066, editio princeps: Mller-Kessler 2005: no. 37.
Bowl no. 38 Bowl no. HS 3039, editio princeps: Mller-Kessler 2005: no. 35.
Bowl no. 39 Bowl no. HS 3053, editio princeps: Mller-Kessler 2005: no. 33.
Bowl no. 40 Bowl no. HS 3056, editio princeps: Mller-Kessler 2005: no. 36.
Bowl no. 41 Bowl no. CBS 85-48-899, editio princeps: Mller-Kessler 2005: no. 8a.
Bowl no. 42 Bowl no. CBS 8826, editio princeps: Mller-Kessler 2006b, 127.
Bowl no. 43 Bowl no. CBS 16101 + frag. nos. 2, 3, editio princeps: Mller-Kessler 2006b, 127128.
Bowl no. 44 Bowl no. CBS 85-48-953 + one frag. without no., editio princeps: Mller-Kessler 2006b, 128.
Bowl no. 45 Bowl no. VABab 2813 + VABab 2814, editio princeps: Mller-Kessler 2006b, 128129.
Bowl no. 46 Bowl no. VABab 4167-I-5, editio princeps: Mller-Kessler 2006b, 129.
Bowl no. 47 Bowl no. IM 142513, editio princeps: Faraj 2010a, 208212.
Bowl no. 48 Bowl no. IBC 2, editio princeps: Abousamra 2010a.
Bowl no. 49 Bowl no. IBC 3, editio princeps: Abousamra 2010b.
PHOTOGRAPHS AND FACSIMILES

Bowl no. 1 Courtesy of the Yale Babylonian Collection.


Bowl no. 2 Courtesy of the Institute of Christian Oriental Research (ICOR), The Catholic University of America.
Bowl no. 3 Courtesy of the Penn Museum, image no. 228554.
Bowl no. 4 Courtesy of the Penn Museum, image no. 228555.
Bowl no. 5 Courtesy of the Penn Museum, image no. 228556.
Bowl no. 6 Courtesy of the Penn Museum, image no. 228557.
Bowl no. 7 Courtesy of the Penn Museum, image no. 228558.
Bowl no. 8 Courtesy of the Penn Museum (from Montgomery 1913, plate 32).
Bowl no. 9 Courtesy of the Penn Museum, photograph by Gianluca Buonomini.
Bowl no. 10 Courtesy of Dr. Matthew Morgenstern.
Bowl no. 11 Originally published in Teixidor (1962, plate 1, no. 1).
Bowl no. 12 Originally published in Teixidor (1962, plate 4, no. 7).
Bowl no. 13 Courtesy of Dr. Bahaa Amer al-Jubouri.
Bowl no. 14 Courtesy of Dr. Bahaa Amer al-Jubouri.
Bowl no. 15 Originally published in Teixidor (1962, plate 2, no. 4).
Bowl no. 16 Originally published in Teixidor (1962, plate 3, no. 5).
Bowl no. 17 Courtesy of Dr. Matthew Morgenstern.
Bowl no. 18 Courtesy of Cambridge University Press.
Bowl no. 19 Courtesy of the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum.
Bowl no. 20 Courtesy of Dr. Victor Paul Hamilton.
Bowl no. 21 Courtesy of Dr. Victor Paul Hamilton.
Bowl no. 22 Courtesy of the National Board of Antiquities (The National Museum of Finland, Helsinki); photo-
graph by Markku Haverinen.
Bowl no. 23 Courtesy of the Magnes Press (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem).
Bowl no. 24 Courtesy of the Magnes Press (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem).
Bowl no. 25 Courtesy of the Magnes Press (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem).
Bowl no. 26 Courtesy of the Museo Nazionale dArte Orientale (Roma).
Bowl no. 27 Courtesy of the Bible Lands Museum (Jerusalem).
Bowl no. 28 Courtesy of the Department of Anthropology, catalogue no. A207964 (Smithsonian Institution,
Washington D.C.); photograph by Donald E. Hurlbert.
Bowl no. 29 Courtesy of Dr. Matthew Morgenstern.
Bowl no. 30 Courtesy of Dr. Matthew Morgenstern.
Bowl no. 31 Courtesy of Dr. Matthew Morgenstern.
Bowl no. 32 Courtesy of the Runion des muses nationaux (Muse du Louvre).
Bowl no. 34 Courtesy of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
Bowl no. 35 Courtesy of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
Bowl no. 36 Courtesy of Dr. Matthew Morgenstern.
Bowl no. 37 Courtesy of Dr. Matthew Morgenstern.
Bowl no. 38 Courtesy of Dr. Matthew Morgenstern.
Bowl no. 39 Courtesy of Dr. Matthew Morgenstern.
Bowl no. 40 Courtesy of Dr. Matthew Morgenstern.
Bowl no. 41 Courtesy of the Penn Museum, image no. 228559.
Bowl no. 42 Courtesy of the Penn Museum, image no. 228560.
Bowl no. 45 Courtesy of Foto Scala (Firenze)/BPK, Bildagentur fr Kunst, Kultur und Geschichte (Berlin).
Bowl no. 46 Courtesy of Dr. Dan Levene.
Bowl no. 47 Courtesy of S.A.R.G.O.N. Editrice e Libreria (Padova).
Bowl no. 48 Courtesy of Dr. Prof. Gaby Abousamra.
Bowl no. 49 Courtesy of Dr. Prof. Gaby Abousamra.
ABBREVIATIONS

abs. absolute
act. active
adj. adjective
adv. adverb
aph. aphel
BM text in the British Museum (London)
CAD reference to The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 19562011
CAL reference to the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Database (http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/)
CBS text in the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
conj. conjunction
cstr. construct
Davidovitz text in a private collection to be published by James Nathan Ford
DC text in the Drower Collection
dem. demonstrative
du. dual
encl. enclitic
etpa. etpaal
etpe. etpeel
fem. feminine
Heb. Hebrew
HS text in the Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of Babylonian Antiquities (Jena)
IBC text in the Bibliothque Centrale de lUniversit Saint-Esprit de Kaslik
ICOR text in the Institute of Christian Oriental Research (The Catholic University of America, Washington,
D.C.)
IM text in the Iraq Museum (Baghdad)
impf. imperfect
impv. imperative
inf. infinitive
int. interjection
interrog. interrogative
JBA Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
JNF text in an anonymous private collection to be published by James Nathan Ford
M text in the Moussaieff Collection
masc. masculine
MS text in the Schyen Collection
n. noun (in Glossary)
num. numeral
obj. object/objective
OIC The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago
p. person
pa. pael
part. particle
pass. passive
pe. peal
pf. perfect
pl. plural
poss. possessive
prep. preposition
pron. pronoun/pronominal
ptc. participle
xvi abbreviations

rel. relative
sg. singular
shaph. shaphel
s.v. under the word (sub voce)
VA / VABab text in the Vorderasiatisches Museum (Berlin)
vb. verb
Wolfe text in a private collection to be published by James Nathan Ford
YBC text in the Yale Babylonian Collection
SIGLA

[.] one missing letter


[..] two missing letters
[] three or more missing letters
[x] restored letter / phonetic realization (in Notes to the text)
x partially preserved letter
x letter written above the line
x/y alternative reading or translation
(x) uncertain letter
{x} superfluous letter / dittography / false start
x scribal omission
() meaningless sequence
xxx written spelling
/xxx/ phonematic rendering
i

INTRODUCTION

I.1. The Study of Syriac Incantation Bowls

Syriac incantation bowls have been studied ever since the first publication of this kind of ancient
Mesopotamian inscribed objects (Ellis 1853, 521523). Their number has increased since then, although
it has never reached the significance of the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and Mandaic bowls.
In this volume, 49 of the 54 Syriac bowls studied between 1853 and 2012 are included. The reasons for
the exclusion of the remaining five formerly published bowls from this study are that:
bowl no. VA 3383 (Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin)1 is currently being re-edited by the present
author and Dan Levene and, in addition, has been thoroughly investigated by Michael Schneider,
who has concentrated mainly upon the figure of Metatron and other Jewish themes featured in
this text (Schneider, in preparation);
bowls nos. MS 1928/54, MS 2055/16, MS 2055/24 and MS 2055/25 (Schyen Collection)2 are currently
being re-edited in Ford (forthcoming a).
Having decided to dedicate this work to a thorough re-edition of the Syriac bowls published between
1853 and 2012, I had first and foremost to search for good quality pictures and/or drawings to check
previous readings and, whenever possible, to clarify obscure passages. This involved both locating bowls
in museums and private collections, and obtaining from these institutions and organizations good
high-resolution picturesor at least pictures enabling the reader to check the work of the editor. In fact,
together with Morony (2003, 107), the present author is of the opinion that incantation bowls should
always be published with photographs that show the entire object. In spite of a number of unsuccessful
attempts, the task was on the whole carried out successfully.
Bowls for which new pictures have been found are nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 17, 19, 22, 26, 27, 28,
29, 30, 31, 32, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 45, 46, 48 and 49. Bowls for which old published pictures and/or
facsimiles had to be used are nos. 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 33, 34, 35 and 47. The only bowls
for which no pictures and/or drawings could be obtained and which were previously published without
pictures are nos. 43 and 44.
More than 60% of the Syriac bowls published before 2013, therefore, could be re-edited with the help
of new digital images, permitting enlargements and detailed views of single areas of the surface of the
bowl.
The Syriac bowls included in this study were published during a period of some 150 years (18532012),
meaning that a number of sub-groups may be identified, corresponding to the periodic fluctuations of
interest in these objects.
Apart from Ellis, who briefly dealt with bowl no. 10 of this corpus in 1853, Montgomery was the
leading scholar between the end of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century, publishing nine bowls
(nos. 19 in this book): two in separate articles (Montgomery 1912a; 19171918) and seven (all housed in

1 Editio princeps by Lidzbarski 1916. Further studied by Mller-Kessler (2006b, 124126) and Moriggi (2004, 263264).
2 Editio princeps by Shaked 2000.
2 i

the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology) in his famous monograph on
incantation bowls (Montgomery 1913). After some ex tempore contributions such as those by Lidzbarski
(1916, bowl no. VA 3383, Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin, not included here: see above), Allotte de
La Fue (1924, bowl no. 32 in this book) and Gordon (1941, 347348, short notes on bowl no. 17 in this
book), it was Teixidor who presented some more significant new textual evidence from the Iraq Museum
(Teixidor 1962), thus introducing new material in the second half of the 20th century (bowls nos. 1116
in this book).
All the Syriac bowls published prior to his study, together with a handful of unpublished items, were
included by Hamilton in his PhD thesis (Hamilton 1971, bowls nos. 121 in this book), which was prepared
under the supervision of Gordon.
A number of texts were brought to the attention of the scholarly world during the 1970s: two bowls
from Nippur (Kaufman 1975; Gibson 1978, bowls nos. 34 and 35 in this book, merely described and
not edited),3 and the very important bowl studied by Harviainen (1978, bowl no. 22 in this book),
which allowed for some improvements in the reading of the parallel bowl no. IM 44107 (Iraq Museum,
Baghdad), formerly published by Teixidor (bowl no. 14 in this book).
In the succeeding years, new bowls were edited by Naveh and Shaked (1985; 1993, bowls nos. 23,
24, 27 and 28 in this book), Gignoux (1984, bowl no. 26 in this book) and Geller (1986, bowl no. 25 in
this book), and some re-editing of previously published texts began, especially with the help of newly
discovered parallels (Mller-Kessler 1998a, bowl no. 32 in this book). The work of both editing new texts
and re-editing old ones has gone hand in hand since the very beginning, and has always continued, as in
the cases of Segal (2000, bowls nos. 10, 2931 in this book) and Moriggi (2001, bowl no. 26 in this book).
Starting from 2000, new texts were edited by Shaked (2000, bowls nos. MS 1928/54, MS 2055/16,
MS 2055/24, MS 2055/25, not included in the present study: see above) and especially Mller-Kessler,
who published 11 unedited texts between 2005 (bowls nos. 3641 in this book) and 2006 (bowls nos. 42
46 in this book). The same author re-edited bowls nos. 3, 13, 1618, 25 and 31, and proposed the first
readings for bowls nos. 34 and 35 of this book.
In recent years Faraj (2010a, bowl no. 47 of this book) and Abousamra (2010ab, bowls nos. 4849 of
this book) have provided new material from the collections of Near Eastern museums (Iraq Museum
and Bibliothque Centrale de lUniversit Saint-Esprit de Kaslik).
The existence of further Syriac material in various public and private collections of incantation
bowls has been confirmed in various studies. Gordon (1934a, 321) listed, under the caption Syriac and
imitation Syriac bowls (housed in the Museum of Antiquities, Istanbul), one uncatalogued: illegible
incantation, broken into 6 pieces, d. 15,5 h. 6,5. The same scholar (Gordon 1941, 280) referred to a
partly obliterated Syriac charm of about fifteen lines inscribed on a bowl d. 17,6 6,5 housed at the
Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery (no. K 2312, from Kish). While surveying the Syriac incantation
bowls in the Iraq Museum, Teixidor (1962, 61) recognized two Manichaean script bowls in nos. IM 12080
and IM 28028, but was unable to read them because they were illegible. Another fragmentary Syriac
bowl, housed at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, is quoted as
no. CBS 16062 + Frag. CBS 6354 by Mller-Kessler (2006b, 127).
Apart from the Syriac bowls in the Schyen Collection (to be published in a forthcoming volume by
Ford), two Syriac bowls were reported (Gorea 2004, 108) as being in the possession of Michel Bouvier
(Paris). The same source made reference to a bowl en esrangelo dans une collection prive Jrusalem.
Finally, Morgenstern (2012, 157) has stated that the Manichaean script bowls in the Moussaieff
Collection are being prepared for publication by himself and Ford.

3 See the analogous case of bowl no. 33 in this book, which was merely shown in a photograph and very briefly described

in Salvesen (1998, 143).


introduction 3

Before moving on to describe the methodology used in this work, mention should be made of the
following items that are not considered to be Syriac incantation bowls.
The first is a bowl with crosses depicted around its inner bottom, where an inscription in Syriac reads:
lh wnyny lty God, show mercy unto me, the sinner .4 This seems to be attributable to the Christian
community of Nishapur in Sasanian times, but it does not fit into the standard typology of incantation
bowls.
The second is a jar inscribed in Syriac, coming from Sar-i Osyo (Uzbekistan), which Gignoux (1996,
39, 4243) transliterated and translated, in spite of the difficulties of both the script and the content.
Although some words seem to point to its use for magical purposes, this object should not be included
in the ranks of incantation bowls.5 There is no certainty, on the other hand, that the bowl having nine
lines of a Syriac inscription written on its inner surface and exhibited at present in the Prince of Wales
Museum in Bombay (Umvala 1953, 414) is an incantation bowl.6

I.2. Methodology

At the beginning of this project, I was confronted with a series of different publications, issued over the
course of many years. These text editions were all more or less different from each other, and reflected
a variety of methodological approaches.
My first task was to find a way of standardizing the editions of the Syriac incantation bowls in order
to allow the reader to consider the data neatly and consistently.
This way was found both thanks to previous comprehensive publications of incantation bowls, such
as Mller-Kessler (2005), and by means of tools put at scholars disposal by Syriac epigraphic anthologies
(Drijvers and Healey 1999; Harrak 2010).7 Following these examples, I decided that each entry should
provide the following information:
Present location: museum or collection where the bowl is housed, or its last documented location,
with its inventory/excavation/catalogue number if possible.
Dimensions: diameter and height are indicated, if provided by the previous publications. Measure-
ments in inches in original editions are converted to centimetres.
Remarks: the provenance and acquisition of the bowl, and its subsequent history; its state of pre-
servation, clarity of text and the difference, whenever perceptible, between the situation of the
text as seen by the last previous editor and the present author.
Script: whether Estrangela or Manichaean; for the use of the terms Estrangela and Manichaean,
see II.23. The use of diacritical points is described, but no comprehensive or definitive analysis
is proposed (see II.1).
Text arrangement: the way the text is arranged. In most of the Syriac bowls featured in this study,
the text starts at the bottom of the concave side of the bowl and flows in a clockwise fashion
towards the outer edge of the bowl (Levene 2002, 1112).
Number of lines: counted from the first word of the text and, where the beginning is lost, recon-
structed on the basis of the first legible traces. The number of lines provided in previous editions,
especially if different, is indicated, together with a short statement as to the fading or scratching
affecting one line or a series of lines.

4 Wilkinson (1969, 82); read by Rosenthal.


5 Jars bearing Syriac inscriptions used for funerary purposes are known to Mesopotamian archaeology. See recently al-Kab
(2012, 61).
6 Umvala further reported that he purchased it in Ahwaz.
7 See further Desreumaux and Palmer (1994, 445).
4 i

Drawings and other signs: a brief description of drawings and/or other signs drawn on the bowl.
The charaktres are mentioned only if they show peculiar characteristics; otherwise they are
reported in the Contents entry.8
Clients: here intended as a person who orders the text to be written and his name to be inserted
in it and who owns the bowl (Shaked 2011, 190). The vocalization of most of the names is as yet
undecided, and a thorough study of onomastics in incantation bowls is yet to be undertaken, so
the names are given in transliteration and left for discussion in a dedicated study.
Contents: a brief summary of the main themes featured in the bowl. Usual themes, such as
binding and sealing and/or protection, are quoted in detail only when they do not fully adhere
to the standard typologies well known for incantation bowls. Persons, i.e. what Shaked (2011,
190) identified as the various entities which come up in the texts, are listed but not further
investigated. As to the vocalization of their names, if they have thus far not been standardized
in text editions they are left in transliteration.
Parallels: parallel texts, including partial parallels (also in the Notes to the text, where they are
used to clarify some passages in the bowl under discussion).
Editions: all previous and, whenever possible, forthcoming editions of the text. Even though
perhaps outdated or based upon low-quality pictures or drawings, previous studies, as pointed
out by Desreumaux and Palmer (1994, 445), peuvent toujours contenir des details intressants,
[] des positions scientifiques qu il faut enregistrer. The edition used in the CAL database is
presented at the end of the list.
Notes: relevant studies concerned with at least one philological aspect of the text (transmission,
phonology, morphology, reconstruction of missing passages by means of parallels, etc.) and whose
contents are useful for its edition.
Photographs and facsimiles: to permit the reader to trace the images in previous editions.
Notes to the text: difficult and/or problematic words and sentences are commented upon. If an
issue has been dealt with in detail in the commentary on one text, it is not repeated in another, but
a cross-reference is provided. Under this same caption information is provided about any extensive
dependence of the edition upon previous studies.
The transliteration of the Syriac text into Latin script (with diacritics) follows the conventions estab-
lished in the scholarly discussion starting from Nldeke ([1898] 1966, 2), down to Brock et al. (2011, x).9
This method is preferred on the basis that no existing font, neither Estrangela Syriac nor Manichaean
Syriac, could correctly reflect the peculiar palaeography of Syriac incantation bowls (see II.23).
Bearing in mind that, as stressed by Shaked (2011, 199n29):
the fluidity of the texts makes them less amenable to being edited by simply noting variants of orthography
or word order, as is done in the regular treatment of manuscript texts,
the text which is clearly legible is proposed in transliteration. Reconstructions are proposed only when
they can be fully justified by traces of letters. Where the text is lost, the missing part is reconstructed
on the basis of parallels only if the gap allows realistically for the reconstruction of the passage. In
both cases the aim of the reading is to avoid misconstruction, i.e. the situation where (Moller 1988,
163):

8 An overall study of the iconography of drawings in Syriac and other bowls is still a desideratum. See recently Vilozny (2012;

2013). As to previous attempts, such as Hunter (2000a), see Bhayro (2004, 392).
9 See also the Syriac romanization table at www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/romanization/syriac.pdf. In the Notes to the text,

phonematic renderings (/x/) are presented as in Muraoka 2005, but without the indication of fricativization of the /b, g, d, k,
p, t/ phonemes.
introduction 5

various readings are possible given the graphs, but that the reading chosen is not possible (or likely) given
the context, grammar, or other non-graphic considerations,
and especially over-reading, i.e. the situation where (Moller 1988, 163):
a proposed reading cannot be made out from the parchment because of illegibility, or missing or blurred
graphs.
The latter case may happen quite frequently in the incantation bowl texts, where the internal variation
of the formula is a paramount feature. In fact, Shaked (1999a, 187) rightly observed that the texts:
are built around a model, which may have often been transmitted orally, although in some cases copying
from a written Vorlage cannot be excluded. The writers apparently felt free to add or detract from the core
formula, and they must have felt particular freedom with the introductory text and the conclusion. They
also tend to use free variation within the framework used.
The reading featured in the transliteration is based upon both the new photographs (when they were
available), and comparison with the old photographs and/or drawings, as the latter yield important data
as to the state of preservation of the text when it was studied by previous scholars or brought to their
attention.10
Together with the photographs and the old images, the present author was fortunate in having access
to two early drafts of two forthcoming publications of Syriac bowls. These drafts, featuring parallel
texts housed in the Schyen, Hilprecht and in some other collections, were a fundamental tool, as they
allowed the checking of the texts and the solution of many problems regarding the Syriac bowls featured
in this study.
The translation is as literal as possible in order to reflect to the greatest possible degree the sequence
of words and the structure of the Syriac text. This may in some cases have affected the fluidity of the
English text, but it is hoped that it will permit a better understanding of the incantation in its structure
and especially its language.
It is worth stressing that, in transliterating and translating the texts, I let them speak their own
language. This position was taken as I fully share Morgensterns (2007, 277) view that we must learn
to trust the language of our sources more than we trust our grammar books. It is clear that some
grammatical features of Syriac bowl texts diverge from what is usually considered Classical Syriac
(see below I.3), but it is equally evident that under the caption Classical Syriac only a few official
written varieties (mostly literary ones) of the Syriac language are included, while the great majority of
non-official written varieties are not comprised, to say nothing of spoken varieties. Hence, except for a
handful of instances, emendation of the text according to the standard Classical Syriac grammars (e.g.
Nldeke [1898] 1966) has been avoided.

I.3. The Language of Syriac Incantation Bowls

Since the very first publications, interest in the language of Syriac incantation bowls was raised by its
peculiarities in comparison with the well-known Classical Syriac model. Montgomery (1913, 3536)
thought that it belonged to the Edessene type but that there is extensive corruption from the
type of dialect which has been literarily preserved in the Mandaic. Even if very brief, the summary
by Montgomery already singled out some significant issues in the study of this Syriac variety, i.e.
the Mandaic interference and a few affinities with Targumic, Palmyrene and Neo-Syriac. After
Montgomery, apart from various scattered evaluations of single phenomena in text transliterations and

10 See e.g. the remarks about the realization of the facsimiles published in Montgomery (1913, 319320).
6 i

commentaries, such as those by Epstein (1922, 4158), who stressed the importance of Jewish Babylonian
Aramaic prototypes of Syriac texts, Lidzbarski (1916) and Allotte de La Fue (1924), it was Teixidor (1962,
61) who pointed to the language of the Syriac bowls, stating that it
could have taken a double course from its origin; towards the north where Edessa was the center of Syriac
culture, and towards the south round about Babylon which is the best country to find these magical bowls.
The first complete grammatical outline of Syriac incantation bowls was advanced by Hamilton (1971, 38
94), who derived it from the re-edition of previously published texts together with some newly discov-
ered ones.11 Although the limited size of his corpus (21 texts) prevented him from arriving at far-reaching
conclusions, his effort was nevertheless a starting point for an overall study of the linguistic peculiar-
ities of Syriac incantation bowls. Significant contributions to the discussion came subsequently from
Harviainen, who included the evidence of Syriac bowls in the linguistic framework of Eastern Aramaic
koin (Harviainen 1978, 27), i.e. an amalgamation of closely related dialects (cf. Greek koin) exist-
ing in Central Mesopotamia which was inhabited by a mixed population. In his opinion (Harviainen
1995, 60) the linguistic peculiarities of the Syriac bowl texts represent the last vestiges of non-Christian
Syriac writings.
Along the same line, while discussing the issue of the different cultural environments in which the
Syriac bowls and their practitioners were to be set, Juusola (1999b, 88) explained the peculiarities in
the Syriac bowls
by assuming that the scribes copied from the originals in Babylonian Jewish Aramaic/Mandaic or tran-
scribed oral formulae originally uttered in either of those two dialects.
This approach was effectively challenged by Van Rompay,12 who (1990, 373) first acknowledged that Syr-
iac bowls share common Eastern Aramaic features to a certain extent, yet tend to follow Classical Syriac
rules, thus suggesting that (Van Rompay 1990, 374)
the transposition of the Aramaic genre of magic bowls into a Syriac form was not a superficial, almost
unconscious sliding from one script into the other, but a deliberatealbeit incompleteattempt to comply
with the standards of the Syriac literary language.
In this perspective the affinities between Syriac and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic or Mandaic texts may
be considered the common heritage of Eastern Aramaic literary tradition, rather than the result of
direct borrowings and exchange from one community to the other or the outcome of a mixture of the
three dialects. All in all Van Rompay (1990, 375376) described the language of the bowls as:
a natural confluence of the literary tradition established in Classical Syriacand originating from the region
of Edessaand an independent branch of the Eastern Aramaic literary tradition as it existed and developed
in Central and Southern Mesopotamia.
In her contributions dedicated to the languages of the incantation bowls, Mller-Kessler (19992000,
294295) distinguished three varieties for the bowls with text in Square script: Standard Literary
Babylonian Aramaic, Koin Babylonian Aramaic and Talmudic Aramaic; and two varieties for the bowls
with text in Syriac (Estrangela and Manichaean) scripts: Koin Syriac and magic bowl Syriac.13 As for the
last two, she further wrote (Mller-Kessler 2002c, 92n5) that:

11 The bowl published by Lidzbarski 1916 was not included in his work.
12 Van Rompay 1990 is based on the text of 26 published Syriac bowls, with the exception of the one published in Gignoux
1984.
13 All Syriac bowls published in Mller-Kessler 2005 are labelled as koine-syrisch texts. A magic bowl Syriac text is

presented in this volume as no. 32. See Mller-Kessler (19992000, 295n8).


introduction 7

provisorisch kann von zwei verschiedenen Dialekten in den syrischen Zauberschalen ausgegangen werden,
die vorlufig als Koine-Syrisch und Schalen-Syrisch bezeichnet werden.
As to the Syriac texts in general, her position (Mller-Kessler 2002c, 9192) is that:
Ihre Sprache unterscheidet sich deutlich von dem nordwestlichen Klassisch-Syrischen von Edessa. Als
Beispiel lt sich anfhren, da in einigen Schalen nur das Demonstrativpronomen hdyn anstelle des
erwarteten hn auftritt. Die Auswertung dieser noch relativ wenigen syrischen magischen Texte ist besonders
problematisch, da die stark von den Dialekten der Vorlagen (Mandisch, Standard-Literarisch-Babylonisch-
Aramisch, Koine-Babylonisch-Aramisch) durchsetz sind.
Mller-Kessler (2002c, 96) further observed that the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and Syriac incantation
bowl texts often lack homogeneity from the linguistic point of view, whereas the language of the
Mandaic texts is im Gegensatz zu allen anderen Dialekten rein mandisch, und fremde Elemente
zeigen sich eher inhaltlich.
Mller-Kesslers theory is based upon the assumption (Mller-Kessler 19992000, 296297) that:
quite a few of the Mandaic Vorlagen were translated into Standard Literary Babylonian Aramaic, Koin
Babylonian Aramaic, magic bowl Syriac and Koin Syriac and in an exceptional case into Talmudic Aramaic.
This, in her opinion, is particularly evident in Syriac incantation bowls, where (Mller-Kessler 2005, 4):
die zumeist wenig originren syrischen Texte im manichischen Schrifttyp, die oft in Abhngigkeit von
Vorlagen aus anderen Dialekten stehen, liefern nur wenige Anklnge an das Klassisch-Syrische.
While considering the positions of Mller-Kessler described above, one should bear in mind that, as
remarked by Shaked (2006, 363n2):
the texts are not very helpful for classifying dialect varieties, as their writers often make an effort at
reproducing an archaic or high language. The result is usually a mixture of forms.
Further caveats regarding the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls have already been expressed by Juusola
(1999a, 247) who, after emphasizing that we have practically no possibility of dividing bowl texts into
dialect groups, stressed that each text typically contains only a handful of dialectal markers that we
could exploit.14 As to the Mandaic Vorlage that is supposedly at the base of many Jewish Babylonian
Aramaic (and Syriac) bowl texts, the present author is of the opinion that what Morgenstern and Ford
(forthcoming) observe about Jewish Babylonian Aramaic texts, i.e. that not every phonetic or plene
spelling or collocation shared with Mandaic is to be taken as evidence of a Mandaic forerunner for the
formula in question and that the fact that a word, phrase, or idea is attested or at home in Mandaic
does not necessarily mean that it derives from Mandaic, may also be suitable for the evaluation of Syriac
bowls.
Over the past decade, I have made the following three conclusions regarding the language of Syriac
bowls (Moriggi 2004, 209214; 2005, 319321; forthcoming):
1) Syriac bowls bear texts written in a variety of the language that is typologically not very far from
Classical Syriac;
2) the non-Classical features in Syriac incantation bowls, rather than representing borrowings from
Mandaic or Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, may be interpreted as internal factors of a Syriac variety
which shared such features with other Aramaic varieties of the same area and period;
3) some linguistic traits of Syriac bowls may allow for the reconstruction of elements or tendencies of
contemporary spoken varieties whose traits are now continued by North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic.15

14 See further Faraj 2007.


15 The conclusions featured in Moriggi (2004; 2005; forthcoming) are mostly based upon the readings of Syriac bowls
8 i

As regards these statements, the first recalls the analogous evaluation of Van Rompay (1990), while
the second, in addition to the data stressed by other scholars as to borrowings and linguistic traits in
incantation bowls, refers also to both the situation of Syriac as a written language in Babylonia and the
notion of the Aramaic continuum.
Together with Contini (1995, 90), the present author considers that:
les tudes de Lucas Van Rompay nous ont montr quil ne faut pas concevoir le syriaque comme une entit
homogne et presque exempte de divergences dialectales ou dveloppements historiques. Dans la priode
la plus ancienne de son histoire, en effet, les inscriptions et les manuscrits antrieurs la fin du 5e sicle
nous montrent une pluralit de varits littraires du syriaque qui divergent de la forme standardise de la
langue impose ensuite par lautorit des coles et des couvents principaux.
Furthermore, the language of Syriac bowls is not to be considered a lone divergent variety in the frame-
work of the Aramaic varieties of Sasanian Babylonia. At least two other varieties could be mentioned:
the Manichaean, though very scantily documented, described by Contini (1995, 91) as:
une varit littraire orientale de syriaque prclassique, hritire dun ct de la tradition littraire
aramenne antrieure, do les traits de conservation orthographique et grammaticale []; mais ouverte
dun autre ct un certain degr dinfluence lexicale et smantique de la part des parlers aramens de
Babylonie, ce qui expliquerait la prsence des phnomnes orientaux;
and the variety attested in the Hymn of the Pearl, included in the apocryphal Acts of Thomas.16
As to the model of the Aramaic continuum, it seems to be the best framework in which to set the
language of Syriac incantation bowls, as it provides a context where all incantation bowl varieties are
contiguous in time and space, thus providing an ideal context for the languages in contact to give rise
to parallel developments and similar phenomena.
In a word (Moriggi, forthcoming):
Syriac (and other) incantation bowls throw at least some light on that whole continuum of dialects about
which we have no knowledge at all (Boyarin 1981), a continuum that it seems appropriate to mean in the
sense of geographical continuity and contiguousness.
My third conclusion relates to the possibility of discussing some features of North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic
dialects in light of their possible antecedents in Syriac incantation bowls. Anyone familiar with incanta-
tion bowls knows that, even for Syriac bowls, it is probable that the peculiar features in the Syriac texts
cannot be understood as representing the actual vernacular (Juusola 1999b, 88), and that (Morgenstern
2007, 276):
the majority of the Aramaic magic bowls are written in a standard literary language which employs a
largely historical orthography. Accordingly, many phonetic features of the living language are hidden by
this orthography and are revealed primarily through scribal slips.
This situation may in any case create intriguing research opportunities where the comparison between
contemporary written varieties of Sasanian Babylonia, literary Classical Syriac and North-Eastern Neo-
Aramaic dialects could at least lead to the formulation of a well-documented hypothesis about (Moriggi,
forthcoming) the dynamics that, from the quite uniform spoken continuum of the 1st millennium ad
led to the development of modern Neo-Aramaic varieties.
As new corpora of Syriac bowls are to be published and, as I have tried to demonstrate in this study,
many of the previously studied texts are to be newly edited, a new overall analysis of the language of

contained in previous publications. Moriggi (forthcoming) was originally presented at the ARAM XXVI International Con-
ference: The Neo-Aramaic Dialects (Oxford, 68.07.2009).
16 Contini (1995, 9192).
introduction 9

the Syriac bowls must be planned as soon as new texts are at scholars disposal. In the meantime I sug-
gest that, as a working hypothesis, the language of Syriac incantation bowls be considered a written
non-literary variety (Contini 2006, 5556) living, together with others, in Late Antique Babylonia side-
by-side with literary written varieties (e.g. Classical Syriac). These written non-literary varieties, attested
(Contini 2006, 56) in the coppe magiche in siriaco orientale in scrittura esrangela o proto-manichea,
in aramaico giudaico in scrittura quadrata e in mandaico in scrittura mandaica, are part of what Con-
tini (1995, 91) described as:
pluralit de varits daramen tardif msopotamien qui ont d exister, et qui sont aujourdhui encore, au
moins en partie, continues par les dialectes modernes de laramen oriental.
In this respect the present author is in complete agreement with the proposal of Van Rompay (1990,
381) to regard the Syriac bowls as a part of Syriac literature, especially because of their importance as a
source for the study of the Syriac language.

I.4. Terminological Remarks

Apart from the language of the Syriac incantation bowls, which is here understood as an organic variety
with no significant sub-divisions, in this study the following linguistic definitions are employed.
Old Syriac: the language of the Syriac epigraphic and manuscript evidence displayed in Drijvers and
Healey (1999, 2134) and dated between the 1st and the 3rd century ad.
Classical Syriac: in accordance with Healey (2011, 637), it is here understood as the language of
the (mostly theological) Middle Eastern Christian literature from the anonymous Odes of Solomon
(ca. 125ad) to Barhebraeus / Bar Ebry (13th century ad). This language, as pointed out above, was
not totally standardised from its earliest phases (Drijvers and Healey 1999, 21).17
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: here understood as (Sokoloff 2011, 660):
the spoken and written language of Jewish communities in parts of what are today Iraq and Iran during the
Sasanian and post-Sasanian Periods (3rd11th centuries ce), corresponding to the Amoraic, Savoraic, and
Geonic Periods of Jewish chronology.
The various sources referred to in this book (Talmudic treatises, incantation bowls, etc.) are detailed as
they arise.
Mandaic: the Aramaic variety whose name derives from its speakers and writers according to the
surviving documentation, i.e. the Mandaeans, a Gnostic sect who settled in the South-eastern end of
the Aramaic geographical continuum. The first evidence of this language is found in incantation bowls,
and the oldest manuscript may be dated only to the 16th century ad. According to Burtea (2011, 671):
both Mandaic and the Jewish language of the Babylonian Talmud reached their peak in the period between
the 3rd century and the rise of the Islam in the 7th century.
Even though (Burtea 2011, 671) the elaborate style and pure grammatical features of the period
recommend the term Classical Mandaic, it is not used in this study, and the various sources referred to
(incantation bowls, amulets inscribed on metal rolls, religious literature, etc.) are detailed as they arise.

17 See further Van Rompay 1994 and Butts 2011.


ii

PALAEOGRAPHY

II.1. Scripts of the Syriac Incantation Bowls

Since the publication of the Syriac incantation bowls in the Iraq Museum (Baghdad) by Teixidor
(1962), scholars have agreed that these texts were set down using two different scripts. In fact, an
Estrangela bowl (no. 10 in the present volume) had been previously studied by Ellis (1853, 521522),
and other scholars (Levy 1855, 468; Chwolson 1882, 116; Schwab 1890, 297) had commented upon it, but
Montgomery (1913, 32), due to the poor facsimile and the unintelligible transliteration published by
Ellis, did not consider it. Until Teixidors article was presented, the only script used to write Syriac texts
on bowls was supposed to be the Manichaean one. Teixidor (1962, 61) thus distinguished two scripts
for Syriac incantation bowls: Palmyrene Syriac and Edessene Estrangelo, marking the beginning of a
definition destined to last for a long time, even though most scholars did not treat the palaeography of
the texts in detail and limited themselves to quoting Teixidors views.1
Two new and thorough analyses of the scripts employed in Syriac bowls were offered by Hamilton
(1971, 36a, 3846) and Klugkist (1982, 211216). The former proposed two labels: Estrangelo on the
one hand and Syriac Cursive on the other. The latter differentiated between a Nippur-schrifttype
(found in the Syriac bowls from Nippur published by Montgomery) and a Bagdad-schrifttype (found
in the Iraq Museum bowls studied by Teixidor). More recently, Naveh and Shaked (1985, 17, 31, 126,
182; 1993, 118, 121, 141) have presented their Syriac bowls as being inscribed in Estrangelo and pre- or
proto-Manichaean scripts, while other researchers, such as BeDuhn (1995, 419), have simply pointed out
that the texts are written in two varieties of Syriac.2 In recent years Shaked (1999b, 19) has distinguished
between an Estrangelo script and a type manichen, resulting in the currently established labelling
of Estrangela and Manichaean scripts.3
Some further considerations on the scripts of the Syriac bowls emerge in a study by Gorea (2004,
107), where it is stated that they are of two types: esranghelo and une criture qui drive de la cursive
palmyrnienne et que certains diteurs appellent pr-manichenne ou manichenne .
When dealing with the Syriac bowls housed in the Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of Babylo-
nian Antiquities (Jena), Mller-Kessler (2005, 3) used two labels: manichischer Schrift des Nippur-
Schrifttypus Klugkist 1982, 211216 and syrischer Estrangela.4
Analyzing the palaeography of Syriac bowls is crucial for research on both the incantation bowls
themselves and the wider issue Syriac palaeography.5 The analysis presented here is intended as a
contribution to both fields. It must not be considered definitive, however, as it is limited to the Syriac
bowls published from 1853 to 2012, and thus excludes unpublished items and texts published after 2012.
Bearing this in mind, my analysis was first aimed at defining the shapes of the letters in a single text,

1 See e.g. Yamauchi (1965, 513).


2 For analogous definitions see Harviainen (1995, 58); Juusola (1999b, 76); Shaked (2000, 59); Segal (2000, 30, 147150).
3 In the study of Syriac bowls of the Schyen Collection, Ford (forthcoming a) labels the scripts as Estrangela and

Manichaean.
4 The Syriac bowls of the Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of Babylonian Antiquities (Jena) are all inscribed in the

Manichaean script. See further Mller-Kessler (1999a, 199) and Mller-Kessler (2002c, 91).
5 See Moberg (1914, 428): vielleicht sind die Texte sogar palographisch ergiebiger als sprachlich.
12 ii

to clarify readings and interpretations rather than to create a comparative typology of the scripts used
on Syriac bowls.6 However, it seemed important to put my results in the public domain, in order to
facilitate further study and, ultimately, the placing of the Syriac bowl scripts in the context of late antique
Mesopotamian Aramaic scripts.
At this point, it is not possible to include a thorough description of the use of diacritical points in
the Syriac bowls featured in this volume (where no trace of any system of supra- or sub-segmental
vocalization is found), but individual occurrences are noted on a text by text basis. Once all the Syriac
bowls are published, it will be necessary to carry out a thorough study of this aspect of the Syriac bowl
scripts.
As is usual when studying ancient scripts, it must be borne in mind that the script is to a greater
or lesser degree influenced by the writing surface and instruments (Healey 2000, 63). It is clear that the
bowls were not an easy surface to write on because of their concavity. On account of this, some variations
in the forms that could be ascribed to the physical characteristics of the bowl (e.g. its inclination) were
not considered as binding when defining letter typologies.

II.2. Syriac Bowls and Estrangela Script

Only a few scholars have thoroughly examined the palaeography of the Syriac bowls inscribed with
Estrangela script. Levy, who was able to check only one bowl (no. 10 in this volume) wrote (1855, 468)
that it ist in syrischer Schrift, die dem Estrangelo, besonders der Nestorianischen [] Schrift gleicht.
He thus pointed to both the Estrangela and the Eastern Syriac script (until recently usually labelled
Nestorian), the latter being the Syriac script traditionally used in Babylonia. As already noted, Teixidor
(1962, 61) used to define this script as Edessene Estrangelo, a definition which accounted for a quite
well-established script typology. Teixidor was himself aware of this, and added his label with some
moderating phrases such as similar to the Edessene Estrangelo. He nevertheless stated that the first
five nos. were of a classical Estrangelo type with a few variations.7
According to Hamilton (1971, 38), the Estrangela script found in incantation bowls has forms that do
not depart drastically from the historical Estrangelo types. Klugkist (1982, 213214) stated in turn that it
is possible to pinpoint identical forms in the Bagdad-schrifttype (i.e. bowls Estrangela), the Serto and
the Eastern Syriac (Nestorian) scripts. Naveh and Shaked (1985, 182) described the script of Estrangela
bowls as Estrangelo script (with some cursive modifications).8
In fact, most of the forms found in the Estrangela bowls are readily identifiable with the Edessene
prototypes of Estrangela script (including those that appear in Old Syriac inscriptions), but a few diverge
from them and are not to be explained as mere scribal variants:9

laf (): apart from the Estrangela form, found in nos. 15, 22, 24, 26, 29, 33, 45, 47, 48, it appears in three
other forms:

6 The study of the palaeography of Syriac bowls in this volume is thus different from that featured in my previous work on

Syriac bowls (2004, 5195), where script charts of the unpublished Syriac bowls in the Schyen Collection were included.
7 The first five nos. of Teixidor (1962) are nos. 1115 in this volume.
8 A script described as Estrangelo with some cursive modifications is employed in a Syriac amulet on leather studied by

Naveh (1997, 33). It is now preferable to avoid the designation cursive for Syriac scripts, as they are all fondamentalement
des critures cursives, drives d une cursive aramenne dpoque hellnistique (Briquel Chatonnet 2000, 82n3). When
publishing three Syriac amulets on leather, Gignoux (1987, 3) wrote that their texts sont inscrits en syriaque oriental, dans
une belle criture proche de lestranghelo, mais qui nen a pas tous les caractres.
9 Comparison with other Aramaic scripts is based on Klugkist (1982, 274277); with Old Syriac scripts on Drijvers and Healey

(1999, 510).
palaeography 13

a form similar to Palmyrene script: nos. 13, 30, 46;


a form similar to Manichaean script:10 nos. 10, 11, 12, 14, 28, 49;
a form similar to Serto script: nos. 12, 15, 26, 48, 49.11
The Serto-like form is always attested alongside one of the others and is not used alone.

Dlat (d): apart from the Estrangela form, found in bowls nos. 11, 12 (without an inner dot), 13 (inner dot
used inconsistently) and 24, it is documented in two other forms:
a form similar to Serto script (without an inner dot, or with an inner dot used inconsistently):
nos. 15, 22, 26, 28, 29, 30, 33, 45, 46, 49;
a form similar to Serto script (with an inner dot used consistently): nos. 10, 14, 47, 48.

H (h): a form which resembles the prototype of the Old Syriac inscriptions occurs in bowl no. 46, while
in the other bowls of the Estrangela script group another form is found, which is similar to Serto and
Eastern Syriac scripts (with a closed loop in the left half of the letter): nos. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 22, 24, 26,
28, 29, 30, 33, 47, 48, 49.

Waw (w): along with the Estrangela form, found in nos. 11, 22, 26, 29, 30, 45, it is documented in:
a form similar to those attested in the Old Syriac inscriptions: no. 46
a closed-loop form (similar to Serto and Eastern Syriac scripts): nos. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 22, 24, 26,
28, 29, 33, 45, 47, 48, 49.

Mm (m): along with the open Estrangela form in the body of the word, found in nos. 13, 14, 22, 24, 28,
29, 30, 46, 47, 48, it is documented in another, closed form, similar to Serto and Eastern Syriac scripts:
nos. 10, 11, 12, 15, 22, 26, 28, 33, 45, 47, 48, 49.
The mm is presented in the closed form when it is the final letter of the word in nos. 14, 15, 28, 47, 49.
An open form of the letter is featured in final position in nos. 13 and 30.

R (r): along with the Estrangela form, found in nos. 10, 12, 13, 15, 29, 33, 46, it is documented together
with another form, similar to the Serto and Eastern Syriac scripts: nos. 11, 14, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 45, 47, 48,
49.
The r is always presented (with the sole exception of no. 49) with the upper dot.

Taw (t): the Estrangela form is documented in no. 22, while the other bowls (nos. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 24,
26, 28, 29, 30, 33, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49) present the letter in a form which recalls the prototypes of the Old
Syriac inscriptions (Drijvers and Healey 1999, 910). This form is itself at the root of the Serto sign.

The present volume contains 18 Syriac bowls with Estrangela script texts (nos. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 22,
24, 26, 28, 29, 30, 33, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49).12 The label Estrangela is used because the script employed
to inscribe the incantations is not very different from the Estrangela prototypes we know from both

10 Bowl no. 27 well attests to regularly shaped forms and organized script ductus of the Manichaean script in Syriac

incantation bowls.
11 An analogous form of laf is found in a Syriac amulet on leather published by Naveh (1997, 35).
12 Bowls nos. 43 and 44, for which no pictures were at authors disposal, are, according to the information detailed in the

original publications, Manichaean script bowls.


14 ii

earlier Old Syriac inscriptions and later Classical Syriac manuscripts. Diacritical dots are very randomly
employed in the Estrangela bowls included here. A single dot may be found above feminine substantives
or adjectives and feminine suffix pronouns and the seyame may be either absent or marked above plural
substantives as well as plural verbal voices and plural pronouns. In the Estrangela bowls there are no
traces of any vocalization system other than the non-systematic use of matres lectionis: , y and w.
Although the script of Estrangela bowls deserves a specific study, to be conducted in the light of both
epigraphic evidence and manuscript palaeography, it may be suggested that the Estrangela script of the
bowls coincides with the Estrangela B script type singled out by Moller (1988, 161).13 This script typology
was flanked by the Estrangela A (documented in the British Library manuscript BL Add. 12150) and:
as there is considerable chronological overlap in the use of the two alphabet typologies, it would be
inaccurate to refer to one as the development of the other. In fact, one appears and is used alongside of
the other for a number of centuries. (Moller 1988, 161)
As shown by Moller (1988, 188), some of the variants detected in the Estrangela script bowls were also
noticed in the manuscripts written in the Estrangela B script. Using the manuscripts featured in Hatch
(1946), Moller (1988, 161) dates Estrangela B from 564 ad to 15671568ad.
Recently, Kaplan has advanced our field by her study of the palaeography of the British Library Syr-
iac manuscript BL Add. 12153, proposing a nouvelle terminologie des critures syriaques, which est
en rapport avec la morphologie des lettres et avec leur prsence rgulire dans un mme contexte
graphique (Kaplan 2011, 331). Among the new definitions she offers, the criture monumentale semi-
courante seems to fit the characteristics of the Estrangela script used on the bowls, as it is une criture
dapparence plutt esrangelo mais qui mlange des formes sero. Furthermore (Kaplan 2011, 338) this
Syriac script typology is caractrise par la prsence rgulire et simultane de formes monumentales
/ esrangelo (majoritaires) pour certain lettres et de formes courantes pour d autres. In light of the data
gathered thus far, the Syriac script typology outlined by Kaplan could well explain the peculiarities of
the Estrangela script used on the bowls.14

Ii.3. Syriac Bowls and Manichaean Script

The first description of a Syriac bowl script was a cursif (Schwab 1890, 296), defined by Montgomery
(1912b, 27) as an early stage of the Syriac alphabet as finally established, a sort of elder sister, to speak
genealogically, and identified by the same scholar (1912a, 438) as
the alphabet which was used by the Manichaeans and taken by them as the basis of the alphabet they devised
for the Turkish dialect of their converts in China.15
Following from Montgomerys statements, Lidzbarski (1916, 1214) unambiguously wrote about a mani-
chischen Schrifttypus, in consideration of the fact that many forms found in Syriac bowls had par-
allels in the Manichaean texts coming from Central Asia and then being published for the first time.
Lidzbarski (1916, 1214216) further stressed that the Manichaean script was to be sharply distinguished
from Estrangela script, as it had been developed in Babylonia and might be related to Palmyrene

13 See e.g. the epigraphic evidence of a Syriac script (very similar to the one featured on Estrangela bowls), coming from

Central and Southern Mesopotamia in Hunter (1989; 1996).


14 It is hoped that the new taxonomy proposed by Kaplan will give rise to a new series of definitions of Syriac scripts, whose

varieties are not satisfactorily explained by the traditional labels: Estrangela, Serto, Eastern Syriac and the like.
15 See further Montgomery (1913, 3235). The forms of Manichaean Sogdian script as shown in Skjaerv (1996, 519) are the

most similar to those attested in the Syriac bowls.


palaeography 15

antecedents.16 While broadening Montgomerys perspective, Lidzbarski (1916, 1221222) accepted his
suggestion that the Manichaean bowl script was a cursive hand employed by Mani, which later became
(as frequently happens to a script used to write down sacred texts) the elaborated book hand preserved
in Central Asian manuscripts. Epstein (1922, 41), having labelled the Manichaean bowl script as aramo-
manichenne, described it as:
lcriture babylo-aramenne [italics by Epstein] dont se sont servis tous les non-chrtiens, depuis les
Aramens payens [] et Manichens (textes turco-manichens) jusquaux Juifs de Babylonie.17
A detailed analysis of a bowl text in criture manichenne was provided by Allotte de La Fue (1924,
392393), who confirmed the noticeable divergence of Manichaean script from Estrangela script. This
divergence originated in the Manichaeans need for a script not easily understood by the uninitiated.
From this perspective the Manichaean script of the Syriac bowls may provide important evidence for
the Manichaean script in the very period when it was chosen and began to be employed by Mani and
his followers.
After some forty years, Teixidor (1962) resumed the discussion about the Manichaean script on Syriac
bowls, and emphasized the Palmyrene characteristics detectable in its forms. He wrote (1962, 61) that
this script may be seen as a Syriac type evolved from an early form of Aramaic alphabet, of Palmyrene
type, and which enjoys independence from the Edessene Syriac. He (1962, 6162) further attempted to
set up a chronology for the Syriac bowls according to their scripts and assigned the Palmyrene Syriac
bowls to ca. 600ad, while he considered the Edessene Estrangelo bowls to be later than ca. 600 ad.
The peculiarities of the Manichaean script used on the bowls were quite evident for Hamilton (1971,
3846), who considered them typical of this unique Syriac script (1971, 38), effectively described in
Montgomery as an elder sister of the Estrangelo (1971, 45). Furthermore Hamilton (1971, 4546) thought
it was possible to set the Manichaean script bowls chronologically before the Estrangela bowls.
From a chronological point of view, Naveh (1982, 151) claimed to see in the Manichaean script of
the Syriac bowls a script reminiscent of Syriac but closer to the Palmyrene cursive. Naveh further
added that the Manichaean script of the bowls resembles Manichaean writing, invented by Mani in
the third century ad for writing sectarian texts in an Iranian dialect. This script (1982, 151153) may
have originated from the cursive style of Seleucid Aramaic script, in turn the cradle of both Palmyrene
Aramaic and Edessene Estrangela scripts. This hypothesis could well explain the similarities of this
script with the Palmyrene Aramaic script and its somehow ancient traits in comparison with Estrangela
(e.g. the absence of ligatures between letters).18
In the study of the palaeography of the Syriac bowls by Klugkist (1982, 211216), the Manichaean
script of Syriac bowls was labelled as Nippur-schrifttype and described as sharing some forms with
Palmyrene and Hatran Aramaic scripts, it being understood that most of its forms are traceable to
Central Asia Manichaean script. Klugkists Nippur-schrifttype is thus one of the Mesopotamian Ara-
maic scripts, albeit some of its forms do not find direct correspondences in the Mesopotamian Aramaic
scripts of the 4th7th century ad. Klugkist (1982, 216) postulated that the Manichaean script of the Syr-
iac bowls might have had a remote ancestor in the Edessene scribal milieu (Syrisch-Mesopotamisch
schrift) and then have become a fully Mesopotamian (Babylonian) script used by Christians as early as

16 For the similarities between Manichaean bowl script and Palmyrene script, see also Montgomery (1913, 34). Cf. Skjaerv

(1996, 530): Manichaean script is based on Estrangelo.


17 Epstein (1922, 4145) specified that, according to Jewish sources, more than one script could be used by a single religious

group in Sasanian Babylonia. Incidentally, Epstein included in the group of bowls aramo-manichennes the Syriac bowl
studied by Ellis (no. 10 in this volume), which is an Estrangela one.
18 See also Naveh (1972, 294).
16 ii

the 3rd4th century ad. Taking into account scribal criteria (such as the evolution of forms), the
contents of the bowl texts and the archaeological context, Klugkist (1982, 214) assigned the Syriac bowls
with Nippur-schrifttype (= Manichaean script) to the 3rd6th century ad and the Syriac bowls with
Bagdad-schrifttype (= Estrangela script) to the 7th9th century ad.
In the following years, Naveh and Shaked (1985, 31, 126, 182; 1993, 118) chose to put the Manichaean
script of the Syriac bowls under the heading Proto-Manichaean or pre-Manichaean script. They offer
no explanation for this choice, but it is easy to trace it back to Navehs (1972, 294) definition of this script
as an ancestor of the Manichaean script. If, even if from a merely chronological point of view, one
considers the Central Asia Manichaean script (9th10th century ad) to be the Manichaean script tout
court, it is consistent to judge the Manichaean script of the Syriac bowls (ca. 4th7th century ad) to
be something Proto- or pre-Manichaean. A similar position was expressed by Van Rompay (1990,
369), who made reference to this script as a sister script of Estrangela, which (1990, 370) has been
called [] Proto-Manichaean. Van Rompay for the most part shared Klugkists views, but nevertheless
stressed (1990, 380) that, in spite of the fact that Manichaean script of Syriac bowls shows an older
palaeographical facies if compared to the Estrangela script, this evidence is not enough to settle a
chronology for the Syriac bowls (as previously done by Teixidor and Klugkist).
With reference to the theories of Lidzbarski, Montgomery and Naveh, and including some comments
by Beyer, Contini (1995, 71) gathered the Manichaean script of the Syriac bowls and Central Asia
Manichaean script in the category of alphabet (proto-)manichen. BeDuhn (1995, 427) in his turn chose
a plain Manichaean-script bowls label.19
Shaked (2000, 59) summarized the positions featured in the scholarly literature as regards the
presence of two script typologies on Syriac bowls as follows: two varieties of Syriac script [] Estran-
gelo and the style of Syriac writing commonly known as the pre- or proto-Manichaean script. Today
Shaked and other scholars seem to prefer the Manichaean script label, which is the one used in the
present volume.
The Manichaean script of the Syriac bowls is characterized by a noteworthy uniformity in forms, that
are all included in a precise script typology and are seldom or never replaced by forms related to other
scripts. In my opinion, the bowl containing the best prototype of the Manichaean script of the Syriac
bowls is no. 27, which will be used as the point of comparison in the following descriptions of forms.20

laf (): the form recalls the Palmyrene Aramaic script form, and its left vertical stroke is sometimes
prolonged downwards (nos. 7, 23, 36).
Bt (b): the form mainly used is similar to the Palmyrene Aramaic script form. A variant form is attested
in nos. 6, 7, 23, 38, 41, where a U-shaped sign is marked with the curvature inclined to the bottom right
or even vertically.
Gmal (g): the letter has a structure which parallels the analogous Eastern Syriac sign, both signs being
possibly related to a Palmyrene Aramaic prototype.
Dlat / R (d / r): the form of these two letters is identical in most instances. The right stroke may be
joined to the left one in the middle of the letter or at its top. The letter r is distinguished from dlat
by the upper point, which is always marked above the r.
H (h): the letter is similar to that in Hatran Aramaic script, and analogous forms are found in the
Saadiyya and Qabr Abu Nayf inscriptions.

19 See also Reeves (1999, 439): proto-, pre-, or simply Manichaean script. Further positions are summarized in Hitch

(2010, 1213).
20 Comparison with other Aramaic scripts is based on Klugkist (1982, 274277), with Old Syriac scripts on Drijvers and Healey

(1999, 510).
palaeography 17

Waw (w): analogous forms are used in Palmyrene and Hatran Aramaic scripts and in the inscriptions of
Qabr Abu Nayf, Assur and the Elimais.
Zayn (z): the vertical stroke sign is largely shared by Mesopotamian Aramaic scripts as well as by
Palmyrene Aramaic and Old Syriac scripts.
t (): the form of this letter recalls both the Old Syriac scripts and the Estrangela bowl script (see e.g.
nos. 22 and 27).
t (): two variant forms of this letter are documented in the bowls considered in the present study.
The form with an open loop is found in nos. 1, 8, 16, 17, 18, 20, 25, 35, 36; while the form with a closed
loop appears in nos. 3, 4, 7, 9, 21, 23, 27, 38. Some bowls (nos. 2, 5, 6, 31, 32, 40, 41) have both forms.
Palmyrene and Hatran Aramaic scripts have similar forms.
Yd ( y): the point-shaped form of the Manichaean script resembles analogous signs in the Aramaic
scripts from Elimais and Characene.
Kf (k): the letter begins on the right with a vertical stroke that then curves to the left and passes under
the line, very often encompassing the width of following letters.
Lmad (l): two variant forms of the letter are documented in the bowls included in the present study.
The open form is used in nos. 1, 4, 6, 7, 16, 19, 20, 23, 31, 32, 35, 38, 39, 40, 41, while the closed form
occurs in nos. 2, 8, 17, 21. Both forms are employed in nos. 3, 5, 9, 18, 25, 27, 36.
Mm (m): the letter is always presented in a closed shape, not only when it closes a word. In this respect
it recalls Serto and Eastern Syriac scripts.
Nn (n): the letter has two distinct forms, respectively for initial-medial and final positions. Both signs
may show a high degree of chirographical variation if compared to the form found in no. 27.
Semkat (s): two forms of this letter are documented. The first and most frequently employed form has a
closed loop on the right and an open loop on the left (nos. 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 16, 17, 18, 23, 32, 35, 38, 39, 41);
while the second has both loops open (nos. 20, 21, 40). In nos. 1, 4, 5, 25, 27, 31 both forms are used.
Analogous shapes for this letter are found in the Palmyrene Aramaic and Old Syriac scripts.
(): this letter finds some parallels in the Old Syriac and Hatran Aramaic scripts.
P (p): if compared to later Central Asia Manichaean script correspondents, this letter appears quite
roughly drawn.21 Its semicircular shape opened to the left is possibly to be related to some Palmyrene
Aramaic and Old Syriac script prototypes.
d (): the letter resembles some Palmyrene and Hatran Aramaic correspondents. Some of the variant
forms attested in the bowls dealt with in the present book (e.g. no. 32) are very similar to the later
Central Asia Manichaean script sign.22
Qf (q): the letter is presented in an open form (very few bowls attest a closed form, alongside the open
form: nos. 8 and 18), which clashes with the closed form of the letter used in Estrangela, Serto and
Eastern Syriac scripts. Some antecedents for this form may be found in the Palmyrene Aramaic script.
n (): the letter maintains a very well defined shape all over the published bowls featured in this book.
The Palmyrene Aramaic script may possibly provide some hints as regards the origin of this letter,
which Lidzbarski (1916, 1215) identified as the remote ancestor of the Arabic grapheme for // and //.
Taw (t): the Manichaean sign, very frequently attested in the bowls of the present study, may possibly
derive from a stylized form of the Estrangela letter.

The typology of the letters of the Manichaean script of the Syriac bowls dealt with in this volume is
characterized by the following traits:

21 See Skjaerv (1996, 519).


22 See Skjaerv (1996, 519).
18 ii

letters h, w, z, , and find parallels in the forms of Hatran Aramaic and/or Aramaic scripts from
Northern Mesopotamia;
letters b, g, w, z, , , s, , p, , q may be connected to analogous forms in the Palmyrene Aramaic
and/or Old Syriac scripts;
letters , d, r, k, l and n seem to have no direct parallels in contemporary Aramaic scripts of the
Mesopotamian area.
Some further resemblances may involve the Aramaic scripts of Elimais and Characene (letters w, z, y),
while the absence of ligatures is a common trait of Northern Mesopotamian Aramaic scripts.
The present volume contains 31 Syriac bowls inscribed in Manichaean script (nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 25, 27, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42).23 The label Manichaean is used
here in light of the latest scholarly discussion on the Syriac bowls (see above), although, in my opinion,
it is not the best suited label, given its religious connotation.24
The forms and the ductus of the inscriptions are mostly homogeneous throughout any single text. As
for diacritical dots, they are very randomly employed in the Manichaean script bowls included here. A
single dot may be found above feminine substantives or adjectives and feminine suffix pronouns and
the seyame may be either absent, or marked above plural substantives as well as plural verbal voices
and plural pronouns. In the Manichaean script bowls there are no traces of any supra- or sub-segmental
vocalization system other than the non-systematic use of matres lectionis: , y and w.
Although the analysis of the Manichaean script of the bowls deserves its own dedicated study, to
be conducted in the light of both epigraphic evidence and manuscript palaeography, its characteristics
may now be considered in light of the new script charts featured in the present study.25
The Manichaean script of the Syriac incantation bowls seems to be linked typologically to the
Northern Mesopotamian Aramaic scripts on the one hand, and the Palmyrene Aramaic and Old Syriac
scripts on the other. Previous analyses, from Montgomery (1912ab) and Lidzbarski (1916) down to
Teixidor (1962) and Hamilton (1971), were thus correct in stressing the importance of Palmyrene Aramaic
script in order to explain the Manichaean forms attested in the Syriac bowls. On the other hand there is
not enough evidence for this script to be labelled as an elder sister or a sister script of the Edessene
Estrangela (as set forth by Montgomery and Hamilton). In my opinion, Klugkist (1982) was right to
consider this script a Mesopotamian Aramaic variant, developed in the area of Babylonia. It thus
maintained many traits peculiar to Northern Mesopotamian Aramaic scripts, but also had significant
contacts with Estrangela prototypes coming from Osrhoene and with later offshoots of the Palmyrene
Aramaic script. Even if, as pointed out by Harviainen (1995, 5859), the lack of discoveries intermediate
between these Syriac bowls and the supposed ancestors of their type of script leaves a number of
questions open, it may at least be considered that the Manichaean script is used consistently on Syriac
bowls coming from central and southern Mesopotamia at least since the 4th5th century ad.

II.4. Conclusions

The Syriac bowls included in this study are inscribed in two different scripts, which are labelled, for the
time being, Estrangela and Manichaean.

23 Bowls nos. 43 and 44, for which no pictures were at the authors disposal (and thus were not included in the script charts),

are, according to the information detailed in the original publications, Manichaean script bowls.
24 See the cases of Syriac scripts usually labelled in the past as Nestorian and Jacobite and now better designated as

Eastern Syriac and Serto (or Western Syriac).


25 Comparison e.g. with Manichaean Syriac documents from Egypt, such as the ones presented in Margoliouth 1915 and

Lieu (1999, 8789) may yield further data for the discussion.
palaeography 19

The Manichaean script is characterized by a consistent use of mostly regular forms and a well-
organized ductus, while the Estrangela script is significantly contaminated by forms ascribable to other
scripts, such as Serto and Eastern Syriac. Furthermore the Estrangela script of the bowls shows many
variations and the ductus is not always well organized in terms of spacing and texture.
It seems that the Manichaean script of the bowls was a well-developed one, consistent in its forms,
spacing and texture, while the Estrangela script still had to develop a shared standard and readily
employed forms from other scribal inventories.
Although more texts remain to be published, it is possible to set forth the following hypotheses.
While it is possible to compare the Estrangela forms with the Old Syriac script (1st3rd century ad)
of Osrhoene, the only comparison that may be proposed for the Manichaean bowl script is with later
(9th10th century ad) Central Asia Manichaean script. This means that, at least for Estrangela script,
there are important data as regards its origin, while nothing is known of the Mesopotamian origin of
the Manichaean script.
It could be that the Manichaean script was being used as a common hand in Babylonia independent
of the religious affiliation of the scribe. Its consistency and well organized ductus (if compared to the
script of Estrangela bowls) could be due to its being a Mesopotamian Aramaic script developed under
the influence of Northern Mesopotamian models (such as the Hatran Aramaic one) possibly starting
from the first centuries ad. Indeed, it may have been chosen by Mani as an effective tool to spread his
faith precisely because it was a widely used and well-established Babylonian script.
In the same period Estrangela script was taking its first steps in the Edessene milieu and in the area
of upper Euphrates, from where it later moved eastwards with Christianity. Indeed, the testimony of the
Syriac bowls adds some data to the history of Estrangela, such as its presence in Babylonia from at least
the 4th5th centuries ad and its being characterized by the use of forms that were later to be part of the
Serto and Eastern Syriac inventories.
III

TEXTS
BOWL NO. 1

Present location: Yale Babylonian Collection, Yale (YBC 2357).


Dimensions: 16.516.35cm.1
Remarks: the bowl was acquired at Nippur by William T. Ellis of Swarthmore (Pennsylvania) in the
winter of 19101911, while visiting the mounds previously excavated by the University of Pennsylvania
Expedition. According to Montgomery (1912a, 434), the bowl, together with two others (one illegible
and the other inscribed with a Square script text) were doubtless private spoils from the strata
uncovered by the excavators. The bowl is now housed in the Yale Babylonian Collection, where it
was examined by Greenfield who wrote (1973, 153n26):
this bowl, formerly in the possession of W.T. Ellis, has been in the Yale Babylonian Collection for many
years. Thanks to the kindness of W.W. Hallo, Curator of that collection, I was able to examine this and other
bowls.
The bowl is well preserved, but the text written on the part near the bottom of the inner surface has
completely faded. As for the rest of the text, the ink seems to have faded further since Montgomery
and Greenfield read it.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives (e.g. yd dyw wmr ptkr
w[]strt, l. 9), the 3rd person masculine singular suffix pronoun in bn (lines 5, 9, 10), the 2nd person
masculine plural suffix pronoun in lykwn (l. 7), the 3rd person masculine plural suffix pronoun in
srpyhwn (l. 6) and swrywn (l. 8), the plural participle tym yn (l. 8) and the plural verbal voices
nyzwn, nypq wn (l. 9), nwn and nskln (l. 10).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 11. The number of lines has been restored according to the first legible signs in line 5
and is different from that proposed by Hamilton (1971, 98a) who listed 16 lines in his transliteration,
in its turn derived from Montgomerys facsimile.2 The first four lines have totally faded.
Drawings and other signs: traces of a circle surrounding the text are visible near the rim.
Clients: gnyb son of dwdy (quoted in lines 9, 10 2 times).
Contents: protection of the house, wife, sons and property of gnyb son of dwdy. Exorcism performed
with the signet ring of amiza (the Lord Bagdana) against heavenly bodies and winds coming from
the four cardinal points.3
Parallels: bowl no. MS 2055/15 (Schyen Collection).
Editions: Montgomery 1912a; Hamilton (1971: no. 1); Moriggi (2004: no. 1); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 1 (repro-
duces Hamiltons reading).
Notes: Epstein 1913; Epstein (1922, 45, 48); Greenfield (1973, 153); Mller-Kessler (2006a, 269).
Photographs and facsimiles: Montgomery (1912a, plate 1 facsimile); Hamilton (1971, plate 1 copy of
Montgomerys facsimile).

1 In Hamilton (1971, 203) measurements are given in inches.


2 Hamilton was aware that the real number of lines differs from Montgomerys facsimile, as he stated (1971, 203), along with
Montgomery, that the last six lines alone are legible. Cf. Montgomery (1912a, 434 and plate 1). Moriggi (2004, 235236) has the
same enumeration as Hamilton.
3 For the need of protection and related geographic coordinates and toponyms in incantation bowls, see Bohak and Levene

(2012a, 6970).
bowl no. 1 23

Bowl no. 1 (YBC 2357)4


[] 14 []
[] dymm l[] l lbyth ntth wbn wqynyh mn 5 [] of the day [] not to his house, his wife and his
[yw]mn wllm lmyn myn sons and his property from today and forever and
ever. Amen.
yh y[h yh yh] yh yh yh b[ zh wz]h l skr tyty 6 Yh yh yh yh yh yh yh seven (times?). Depart and
drwm[y] byt dsrpyhwn brq brq depart, upon the bolt under the top of the house,
because their shuttings are lightnings, lightnings
dnwr wsk[ryhwn] rpl dwk wmrkbthwn mrkbt lb 7 of fire and their bolts are fogs of darkness and their
rm lykwn my wsyn gzrdyn lykwn chariots are the chariots of the no-good-ones.
Banishment upon you, sun and moon, judgement
upon you
stn wwry wt wgbl swrywn qwrq n wbr 8 north wind and west wind, south wind and east
dprzl wtym yn byzqth dmyz mry bgdn tyhw wind, whose bonds are bronze halters and stakes of
iron and sealed are by the signet ring of amiza, the
Lord Bagdana. May there be
tmt wnrt lgnyb br dwdy wlbyth ntth bn wqnynh 9 sealing and protection for gnyb son of dwdy and for
wnyzwn wnypq wn kwl yd dyw wmr ptkr w[]strt his house, his wife, his sons and his property
and may depart and go out all demons, devils,
amulet-spirits, idol-spirits and goddesses
wllyt mnh dgnyb br dwdy wmn byth ntth bn 10 and liliths from him, who is gnyb son of dwdy and
wqnynh dl nwn wl nskln bhn gnyb br dwdy wl[] from his house, his wife, his sons and his property, so
bb[y]t[h] ntth bn[] that they may not harm and not injure this gnyb son
of dwdy and not his house, his wife, his sons
wqnynh [myn myn s]l[h] 11 and his property. Amen, amen, selah.

Notes to the text


l. 5) bn his sons. Classical Syriac has bn why.5
l. 6) yh y[h yh yh] yh yh yh. This sequence of seven yhs is followed by b[] seven, which Montgomery regarded
as referring to the repetition of yh. Both yh and the following zh were explained by Montgomery (1912a, 436) as
deterrents to the devils. With regard to the same sequence Epstein (1913, 279) wrote:6
zh als Verbannungsinterjektiondenn es ist eine Interjektion, wie das vorhergehende yh, syr. und mand.
y, aram. Papyri yhist in einem talmudischen Zauberspruch zur Verbannung eines Lwen erhalten []
The sequence of seven yhs is attested in other Syriac bowls (see nos. 4, 5, 20, 30, 31, 41) and has been regarded by
Greenfield (1973, 154) as a Jewish theme, to be found also in Mandaic bowl texts.7
l. 6) [zh wz]h depart and depart, nyzwn may they depart (l. 9). The morphology of these verbal parts may
be effectively explained as 2nd person masculine singular imperative pe. (/zah/) and 3rd person masculine
plural imperfect pe. (/nezzhn/ with y = /e/)8 of the root nzh (to depart), which is not attested in Classical

4 The present reading was carried out on two new photographs supplied by the Yale Babylonian Collection, while taking

into account Montgomerys facsimile.


5 As for the frequent replacement of the Classical Syriac plural suffix pronouns with singular ones, see Moriggi (2004,

145146); Moriggi (2005, 319320); Moriggi (forthcoming).


6 Epstein dropped this interpretation afterwards (1922, 48n6), but without offering an alternative.
7 Epstein (1922, 45).
8 Moriggi (2004, 104107).
24 texts

Syriac.9 This interpretation, first proposed by Sperling (1991), replaces all previous proposals and fits well into
the context of Syriac as well as Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and Mandaic bowl texts.10 The weakening of pha-
ryngeal and laryngeal phonemes in Late Mesopotamian Aramaic varieties, leading in the end to the phono-
logical merger of // and /h/ into a single phoneme (see the case of Mandaic), causes the fluctuation in the
orthography of the root in Syriac bowls, where it is mainly spelled with h (see Glossary).11 The voices tzywn
and nzwn are likewise found in a Syriac amulet on leather published by Naveh (lines 4, 11).12 As to the first,
Naveh (1997, 37) stated that it may be an aphel form to remove, whilst the second should rather be nzywn.
The passages preceding the two words are lost, but one may guess that we have here two further attesta-
tions of the root we are dealing with. The first occurrence may be read as a 2nd person masculine plural
imperfect pe. (/tezzn/, Naveh: you should go away), with the y = /e/ misplaced due to a scribal slip. The
second in its turn may well be a 3rd person masculine plural imperfect aph. (/nazzn/, Naveh: they may
remove).13
l. 6) skr bolt. The whole passage proves to be rather obscure; nevertheless the reading is confirmed by the
photograph. Hamilton transcribed pkr, but translated it bolt. Moriggi (2004, 235, 236) preferred to choose
Hamiltons reading and to translate it (magical) bond. Montgomery (1912a, 435, 436) proposed an interpretation
of the term as meaning pole in a dichotomy between the bolt (pole?) of the heights of the house (?) and the
bolt of the shades of darkness (lines 6, 7).14
lines 67) dsrpyhwn brq brq dnwr wsk[ryhwn] rpl dwk because their shuttings are lightnings, lightnings of fire
and their bolts are fogs of darkness. The translation of this sequence is based upon a suggestion by Epstein (1922,
45n2), who proposed to fill the lacuna after dnwr with wskr[yh]n (the reading according to the photograph is
slightly different). The sentence seems to deal with shuttings and bolts, and it is thus possible that the preceding
srpyhwn is to be translated their shuttings, in accordance with the meaning of the root srp in Syriac (to shut,
block).15
l. 7) rm banishment. The substantive is spelled with an , probably used to write /e/. See Jewish Babylo-
nian Aramaic bowls, where Juusola (1999a, 32) found that sometimes aleph apparently represents /e/, e.g. slh
Selah.
l. 8) wt south wind. This term was formerly translated Osten by Epstein (1913, 279280), East by Hamilton
(1971, 98b, 125) and Est by Moriggi (2004, 236). The meaning south, first singled out for this text by Van Rompay
(1990, 374375), is now preferred and is to be considered as part of the common heritage of Eastern Aramaic
literary tradition attested in the bowl texts, together with stn north and wry west. This word, which is a
loanword from Akkadian (tu south, south wind), occurs only very rarely in Classical Syriac, but is attested in
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (Talmud and Geonic literature) and Mandaic (to date, only in the corpus of magic
texts).16 Taking into account their Akkadian origin, the three substantives may be translated as north-, west-
and south wind.17 In fact Syriac and other Aramaic varieties used in the bowls have different names for the
cardinal points: cf. bowl no. 38: 3, the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. JNF 296:18 56 (ry [m]()rb wmdn
ry ry ypn wdrwm witchcraft of the west and the east, witchcraft, witchcraft of the north and the south)19

9Sokoloff (2002, 739).


10 A list of all previous hypotheses is featured in Moriggi (2004, 192193). See also Harviainen (1981, 13). Cf. Mller-Kessler
(2005, 92).
11 For quotations in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and Mandaic texts, see Mller-Kessler (2010a, 487) and literature quoted

there. A short summary is given in Mller-Kessler (2006a, 268269).


12 The amulet is housed at Bible Lands Museum (Jerusalem).
13 Cf. Mller-Kessler (2005, 3637).
14 Hamilton (1971, 98a, 98b). Epstein (1913, 279) translated Trriegel, while Mller-Kessler (2006a, 269) chose Schlo.
15 Sokoloff (2009, 1050). For srpyhwn both Montgomery (1912a, 435) and Hamilton (1971, 98b) have whose flames.
16 Sokoloff (2009, 1539); Bar Ali (1928, 425); Manna ([1900] 1975, 780). For quotations in the Mandaic corpus of magic texts,

see Mller-Kessler (2006a, 269).


17 Mller-Kessler (2006a, 269). A list of angels associated with the winds coming from the four points of the compass

is quoted in a Syriac amulet (no. Syriaque III: 5057) published by Gignoux (1987, 5053). Further references are found in
Wesselius (1991, 715716).
18 Private collection to be published by Ford.
19 Ford (2011, 251, 260261). See also the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. BM 1957-9-25.1: 12 (British Museum) in Bohak

and Levene (2012a, 62).


bowl no. 1 25

and the Mandaic bowl no. Pognon 27: 8 (hry mrb wmdn hry grby wtymy witchcraft of the west and the east,
witchcraft of the north and the south).20
l. 8) gbl east wind. The translation of this term is conditional upon the interpretation of the preceding words.
Classical Syriac has another name for east wind (mdn rw /madn r/, cf. east in bowl no. 38: 3) and the
same is true of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (dy /ady/ east wind).21 With regard to this issue Mller-Kessler
(2006a, 269) made reference to the root gbl in Old Aramaic (border, boundary, territory within boundary) as
Pendant zu akkad. ad Berg, Grenzland.22 The same root is used in Akkadian for ad east, east wind (see
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic above). In Mannas Syriac-Arabic dictionary ([1900] 1975, 88) the meaning mountain
for the root gbl is attested, though this seems to be a late phenomenon, possibly induced by Arabic.23 As our bowl
text seems to be dealing with wind names labelled according to the points of the compass, we may guess that the
last wind to be listed is an east wind coming from the mountains.
l. 8) byzqth myz mry bgdn by the signet ring of amiza, the Lord Bagdana. To the best of my knowledge this
is the only occurrence of the name amiza in association with Bagdana, an evil being well known to incantation
bowl texts as a whole. amiza was on the other hand soon identified with the fallen angel emiaza-emazai of
the Book of Enoch.24 In spite of some attempts to connect the role of the two entities in magic texts, Shakeds
(1985, 516) hypothesis, that Bagdanas own association with Shemazai seems accidental is still valid.25 Ford
(forthcoming a) renders this same sequence in the parallel bowl (no. MS 2055/15: 4) Shemhiza, lord of the
bagdana(s). Regarding this matter, Gabbay (2010, 58) remarked that:
Bagdana seems to be a designation of a type of demon, namely, a demon ruling over others, as can be seen
by the plural form of this word, and the various personal names which can occur with it.
The same figure appears in two Syriac amulets (nos. Syriaque I: 55 and Syriaque II: 11) published by Gignoux (1987,
1415, 23, 31). For the signet ring in incantation bowls, see the references in bowl no. 6: 8.
l. 9) tmt wnrt sealing and protection. For these two nomina actionis that are not found in Classical Syriac
but occur both in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and Mandaic bowls, see Van Rompay (1990, 373). These forms
are possibly a forerunner of later North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic offshoots like plt /plt/ the act of going out
(Maclean 1895, 216).26
l. 9) wnypq wn and may they go out. According to Geller (1977, 142) the root npq in incantation bowls corresponds
to the Greek verb to come out used in the Gospel of Luke as regards Jesus exorcism of a demon (Luke
4, 3436).
l. 10) wl nskln and they may not injure. The verbal voice attests to the use of = /a/, which is also documented
for Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls.27

20 Ford (2011, 261 reading from Pognons hand-copy). See further the cardinal points quoted in the Mandaic lead roll no.

BM 132947: 3233 (British Museum) published by Mller-Kessler (1999a, 200).


21 Sokoloff (2009, 716); Sokoloff (2002, 1112).
22 Hoftijzer and Jongeling (1995, 209210).
23 See Epstein (1913, 280n1).
24 Greenfield (1973, 152154) and literature quoted there. See further Montgomery (1912a, 436437); Epstein (1913, 280);

Bhayro 2005.
25 For the identification of Bagdana, see Shaked (1985, 514520) and literature quoted there. See further Gabbay (2010, 60

and note 14) and Gray (1913, 285).


26 See further Borghero (2005, 115) and Moriggi (forthcoming). As the contribution featured in Moriggi (forthcoming) was

presented in 2009, it still bases its conclusions on Moriggi 2004.


27 See Juusola (1999a, 40n91). Further references are found in Moriggi (2004, 103).
26 texts

Bowl no. 1 (YBC 2357)


BOWL NO. 2

Present location: The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. (Semitics/ICOR Collections
H156).
Dimensions: diameter 15.17cm.
Remarks: in 1918 the bowl was reported as being in the possession of Prof. Hyvernat and it is at present
housed in Semitics/ICOR Collections at The Catholic University of America (Washington D.C.), as
part of his legacy. The Museum file records that this Babylonian bowl was given to Dr. Hyvernat by
Mr. Djabouri Asfar of Bassorah, in Jan. 1889. It was published by Montgomery (19171918) without
any picture and/or facsimile. Montgomery (19171918, 138) observed that the text is in almost every
point similar to those from Nippur. According to the Museum file, the bowl was broken but now
mended. The bowl is at present well preserved. Some sections of the text have disappeared since
Montgomery examined the bowl: this was due to the detachment of the surface layer of clay induced
by salinization.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives (e.g. ywt, l. 5), the 3rd
person feminine singular suffix pronoun (bn wbnt wqnyn, lines 34), the plural demonstrative
pronoun hln (l. 6), the plural participle mnrn (l. 7) and the plural verbal voice nyzhn (l. 5). A dot
is marked on the 3rd person feminine singular suffix pronoun in gbr (l. 3).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 11. The content of each line has been restored thanks to the pictures. Both Montgomery
(19171918, 137) and Hamilton (1971, 203) counted 11 lines.
Drawings and other signs: a circle divided into four quarters by a cross is clearly visible at the bottom
of the basin. In each quarter a dot is marked. The text is surrounded by a circle.28 A human-like figure
is represented on one side of the basin. He is depicted standing with legs apart. In his right hand he
holds a branch. He seemingly wears a necklace adorned with a crescent. On his body we may read,
on the side nearest to the bottom of the basin: myn Amen and, on the side nearest to the rim: yl
dy El adday. Montgomery (19171918, 139) described the drawing as representing the figure of
a sorcerer waving a magic branch. Vilozny (2012, 260) further observed that, in incantation bowls
iconography,
one may distinguish the representations of sorcerers first of all by the fact that they are not bound [].
Furthermore, in most cases the sorcerer appears holding a weapon in his handsa sword, spear, or palm
branch which he is brandishing above his head.29
Clients: nwry daughter of gylwy (quoted in lines 3, 5, 89).
Contents: Protection of the house, husband, sons, daughters and property of nwry daughter of gylwy.
Incantation for protection against various kinds of demons, among them the strangler and the
one who suffocates the animals. A number of angels are asked for help: Michael, Raphael, yhwbyyl,
brqyyl, sryyl, nmyyl. Trinitarian formula at the end of the text.

28 On the circle surrounding the texts of incantation bowls, see Hunter (1995a, 324325); Mller-Kessler (1998a, 334);

Mller-Kessler (1999b, 434n29).


29 Apart from Vilozny (2012; 2013), drawings and iconography in incantation bowls were described in Hunter (1998) and

Hunter (2000a, 170176). On the latter see Bhayro (2004, 392). Analogous images of sorcerers in incantation bowls are displayed
in Morony (2003, 90, 99).
28 texts

Parallels: .30
Editions: Montgomery 19171918; Hamilton (1971: no. 2); Moriggi (2004: no. 2); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 2
(reproduces Hamiltons reading).
Notes: Mller-Kessler (2006a, 269270).
Photographs and facsimiles: .

Bowl no. 2 (The Catholic University of America, Semitics/ICOR Collections H156)31


mzmn hn qmy kyb 1 Prepared is this amulet, press
wsr wtmt wnrt dbyt dyly 2 and bond and sealing and protection of my house,
dy nwry bt gylwy dbyth gbr bn wbnt 3 of nwry daughter of gylwy, of her house, her
husband, her sons and her daughters
wqnyn hdyn rz mn kwl d wdyw dryn bh bbyt 4 and her properties. This is a mystery (for protection)
from all demons and devils that dwell in it, in the
house,
nqyt wpwgdt dywt wnyzhn mn {b}byth dnwry bt 5 the strangler and the one who suffocates the animals
gyl[wy my]n and may they depart from the house of nwry
daughter of gylwy. Amen,
myn slh bwm hln mlk mymn nwn mykyyl mlk 6 amen, selah. In the name of these angels, they are
wrwp[yy]l mlk[] the faithful ones: the angel Michael and the angel
Raphael,
[wml]k mnrn wn ywhbyyl wbrqyyl mlk qdy wn 7 and they are the protector-angels: ywhbyyl and
sryyl brqyyl, they are the holy angels: sryyl
wtmy[y]l mlk mqdy byt ntwn mlk bmytkwn 8 and tmy[y]l, the angels who sanctify the house.
nrw byt dyly dy nwry You, angels, by your stroke protect my house, of nwry
bt gylwy myn myn slh bwm wrn {b[]} bwm b 9 daughter of gylwy. Amen, amen, selah. In the name
bwm br [w]rw yt[ wq]dyt of wrn. In the name of the Father, in the name of
the Son and the Living and Holy Spirit.
hn hw tm{} [dtmh tm] [] byt {q} mqd myn 10 This is the seal which sealed it, the seal [] the
myn [] [] sanctified house. Amen, amen []
[] dlh [] wryr myn 11 [] of God [] and strong. Amen.
On the body of the figure (internal side): myn On the body of the figure (internal side): Amen
On the body of the figure (external side): yl dy On the body of the figure (external side): El adday

Notes to the text


l. 1) qmy amulet. Montgomery (19171918, 139) read qmtyh and commented that it may be a foreign word of
unknown origin, parallel to the following terms indicating the amulet; or we might think of qmy. Considering
the palaeography of this bowl, it may be noted that graphemes and t are similar in shape (see in slh, l. 6) and
that y in some cases does not link to the right (e.g. gylwy, l. 3). The present author thus thinks that the word may
be read as qmy, an usual Syriac bowls variant for Classical Syriac qmy.32

30 According to Ford (forthcoming a) this text is loosely paralleled by bowls nos. MS 2055/22 (Schyen Collection) and

Wolfe 97 (private collection to be published by Ford).


31 The present reading was carried out on a series of new photographs supplied by Semitics/ICOR Collections.
32 Moriggi (2004, 120).
bowl no. 2 29

l. 2) tmt wnrt sealing and protection. For these nomina actionis see bowl no. 1: 9.
lines 23) dbyt dyly dy nwry bt gylwy of my house, of nwry daughter of gylwy. The present author shares
Montgomerys (19171918, 138) interpretation of the sequence as: of my house, of me Nuri daughter of Giloi. See
the same sequence in lines 89. For a Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl text formulated in the first person, see Mor-
genstern (2007, 262).
l. 3) bn her sons. Classical Syriac has bn yh.33
l. 4) hdyn this. Montgomery (19171918, 137) proposed the reading: [whw z]rz (and this is an equipment). As to
hdyn, see further Nebe (2006, 253254).
l. 5) nqyt wpwgdt dywt the strangler and the one who suffocates the animals. The substantive nqyt is
attested in other incantation bowls, e.g. in bowl no. 8: 4 in this volume and in the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
bowls nos. HS 3005: 4 and HS 3033: 3 (Hilprecht Collection).34 As to pwgdt, which Montgomery (19171918, 138) and
Hamilton (1971, 99a) read wgdt, while Mller-Kessler (2006a, 269) corrected to sgdt/zwgdt, the reading of the p
is certain and fits well into Manichaean script typologies attested in Syriac bowls. Because the root pgd usually
means to hold back, to hitch, to harness and the corresponding substantive (masculine pgwd/pwgd; feminine
pgwdt) designates a bridle, a restraining, this feminine substantive matches well with the preceding one.35 It
seems apt to the context of this sentence to postulate that the term refers here to an evil being (the one who
suffocates the animals) strangulating the livestock of the household with harness, while the strangler strangles
the human beings. The spelling ywt is probably a scribal slip that occurred in the attempt to note Classical Syriac
/aywt/ in scriptio plena.
l. 5) nyzhn may they depart. See bowl no. 1: 6.
l. 6) slh selah. Montgomery (19171918, 138139) read slh, adding that in writing the word Selah, the aleph is
expressed with a Serto character. In spite of finding itself in the very middle of a break, the grapheme is quite
evident and it fits well into the shapes it presents in Manichaean script used on bowls. Another occurrence, albeit
faded, of the same grapheme is in l. 9 (slh). Syriac bowls show examples of use of as mater lectionis for /e/ or /i/
(in this case /e/), as remarked in Mller-Kessler (2010b, 457).
lines 68) bwm hln mlk mymn nwn mykyyl mlk wrwp[yy]l mlk[] [wml]k mnrn wn ywhbyyl wbrqyyl mlk
qdy wn sryyl wtmy[y]l In the name of these angels, they are the faithful ones: the angel Michael and the angel
Raphael, and they are the protector-angels: ywhbyyl and brqyyl, they are the holy angels: sryyl and tmy[y]l.
Mller-Kessler (2006a, 269270) proposed to translate the quoted sentences as im Namen dieser getreuen Engel,
sie sind: Michael, der Engel [], die Beschtzer, sie sind: Yo/uhabiel . There is no need to translate in such
a way as also Classical Syriac has adjectives and participles used in the emphatic state with enclitic personal
pronouns in what Goldenberg (1983, 99) has termed the basic sentence-pattern with verbless nexus in Classical
Syriac.36
l. 6) bwm in the name of. For the frequent occurrence of this form, where possibly w = /e/ = [u], in Syriac bowls,
see Van Rompay (1990, 376).
l. 6) mymn faithful. The grapheme is used to note the phoneme /h/, thus pointing again to the fact that, as
remarked by Morgenstern (2010, 288):37
the phonological merger of historical *h and * into a single phoneme (apparently realized as /h/) appears
to characterize all the central and southern Mesopotamian Aramaic dialects, and consequently graphic
interchanges of this kind are quite common.

33 For the frequent replacement of the Classical Syriac plural suffix pronouns with singular ones, see Moriggi (2004,

145146); Moriggi (2005, 319320); Moriggi (forthcoming).


34 Mller-Kessler (2005, 24, 30); Mller-Kessler (2006a, 268); Mller-Kessler (2010b, 472473). For the theme of the baby-

snatching and baby-killing witch in incantation bowls, see Mller-Kessler 2001. For the Babylonian ancestry of this figure,
see Geller (2005, 6370). For quotations in modern Syriac amulets of lytyt wm nwqt dly lilith and the strangling mother of
youths, see Hunter (1993, 246, 251) and references quoted there. See further Hazard (1893, 287, 289).
35 Sokoloff (2009, 1153); Payne-Smith (18791901, 30293030).
36 See further Goldenberg 1991 and Joosten 1989 and literature quoted there.
37 Further discussion on this subject is in Mller-Kessler (2010b, 456457).
30 texts

l. 7) mnrn protectors. The same substantive is quoted in an invocation to angels in a Syriac amulet (no.
Syriaque II: 42) published by Gignoux (1987, 3233).38
l. 7) wn they. This form of the 3rd person masculine plural enclitic personal pronoun (Classical Syriac nwn) is
attested twice in this text. In l. 6 it is written nwn.
l. 8) bmytkwn by your stroke. See Classical Syriac mwt.39
l. 9) bwm wrn In the name of wrn. Montgomery (19171918, 139) proposed to read the sequence bwm wrn and
identified the latter as the name of some potency I cannot identify []; this is probably a pagan element.
l. 9) bwm b bwm br [w]rw yt[ wq]dyt In the name of the Father, in the name of the Son and the Living and
Holy Spirit. Montgomery (19171918, 138), followed by Hamilton (1971, 99a99b, 129), read bwm b bym br[
w]b[rw q]dyt. Both the faded ink and the badly preserved surface of the bowl in this same section compromise
the reading of this important sequence. As for this Trinitarian formula, Geller (1977, 154) observed that this is the
first appearance in the magic bowls of the Trinity [], which does not receive universal acceptance as a doctrine
until the fourth century. Apart from bowl no. 49: 8, the Trinitarian formula is featured at the beginning of two
Syriac amulets (nos. II: 1; III: 1) published by Gignoux (1987, 2829, 4849), thus confirming, according to Van
Rompay (1990, 372) that such texts, remnants of syncretistic magic in the Sasanian period, could be used, copied
and transmitted by Syrian Christians.

38 Reading according to Wesselius (1991, 713).


39 Sokoloff (2009, 737).
bowl no. 2 31

Bowl no. 2 (Semitics/ICOR Collections H 156)


BOWL NO. 3

Present location: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia


(CBS 9008).
Dimensions: 166.6cm.40
Remarks: this bowl, together with the others published by Montgomery in 1913, was unearthed during
the University of Pennsylvania Expedition in Nippur (first two campaigns, directed by Peters, 1888
1889). The bowls were among the antiquities then donated to the University of Pennsylvania by the
Sultan.41 The bowl is well preserved. On one third of the inner surface the text is partly damaged due
to both fading of the ink and cracks in the clay. Some cracks and abrasions are also found near the
rim.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives and adjectives (e.g. ylm
by , lines 910) and above the 3rd person masculine singular suffix pronoun in bn (l. 9).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 10.
Drawings and other signs: an irregular circle divided into four quarters is drawn at the bottom of the
basin. In each quarter a cross is marked. The text is surrounded by a circle near the rim.
Clients: ddbh son of smndwkt (quoted in lines 2 ddb[y]h, 6, 9). The same client is quoted in bowl no. 5
of this volume (lines 5, 10, 13) and in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls nos. CBS 9009 (= Montgomery
1913: no. 12: 1 ddbh br smndwk) and CBS 2920 (= Montgomery 1913: no. 16: 1 ddbh br smndwk). In the
last two bowls ddbh son of smndwkt is quoted together with his wife rqwy daughter of ddh/, who
in her turn appears as the client of bowl no. 38 of this volume.
Contents: protection of the house of ddbh son of smndwkt.
Parallels: bowl no. 38 in this volume.42
Editions: Montgomery (1913: no. 31); Hamilton (1971: no. 3); Moriggi (2004: no. 3); Mller-Kessler (2005:
no. 35a); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 3 (reproduces Hamiltons reading).
Notes: Moberg (1914, 430431); Epstein (1922, 46, 4145 passim); Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270).
Photographs and facsimiles: Montgomery (1913, plate 27 facsimile by H. Frank); Hamilton (1971,
plate 2 copy of Montgomerys facsimile); Mller-Kessler (2005, plate 24 photograph).

Bowl no. 3 (CBS 9008)43


mzmn hn ks l[]tmt 1 Prepared is this bowl for the sealing
dbyth dhn ddb[y]h b[r] smndwkt 2 of the house of this ddbyh son of smndwkt
dtyzh mnh wmn byth m[b]k[l]t 3 that may depart from him and from his house the
mevakkalta

40 Montgomery (1913, 325).


41 Montgomery (1913, 13, 15).
42 See Wesselius (1991, 713) for a synopsis of lines 68 of this bowl and lines 5455 of the Syriac amulet no. II published by

Gignoux (1987, 3435).


43 The reading of the text was carried out on a new photograph kindly supplied by the University of Pennsylvania Museum

of Archaeology and Anthropology. Both the reading and the translation feature only a few changes in comparison with those
proposed in Mller-Kessler (2005, 107). Reconstructions of the damaged and lost sections are mainly based on the facsimile
published in Montgomery (1913, plate 27).
bowl no. 3 33

wlwt wylm bys by syryn [mzrzy]n wmrryn 4 and the curse and the very evil dreams. Bound,
armed and made strong,
mhylyn mgnbryn wmtmyn wmnryn hl[yn] k[s] 5 made powerful, strengthened and countersealed
ltmt and protected are these bowls for the sealing
dbyth dhn ddbh br smndwkt [d]l [nyrwn] l[dd] 6 of the house of this ddbh son of smndwkt, that they
[b][wm] yhyhw yw may not untie each other (?). In the name of yhyhw
yw
nhrbtmws mrs mrmr wt q[pw]t [st]r mw[t]h 7 Nomina barbara
[y]hn[h] h h h hh
myn myn slh hlwlyh [+++++++] nyttym wnytnr 8 Amen, amen, selah, hallelujah +++++++
byth Sealed and protected may be the house
wntth wbn dhn ddbh br smndwkt wtyzh [mnh 9 and the wife and the sons of this ddbh son of
wmn] byth mbklt wlwt wylm smndwkt and may depart from him and from his
house the mevakkalta and the curse and the evil
by myn 10 dreams. Amen.

Notes to the text


lines 13) For an almost identical opening sentence, see bowl no. 38: 12.
lines 1, 5) tmt the sealing. For this nomen actionis see bowl no. 1: 9.
l. 3) m[b]k[l]t the mevakkalta. For the name designating this evil being, who, according to Shaked (2006, 380) is
basically a female character, the usual translation up to some years ago was tormentor.44 As the exact meaning of
this designation still escapes us, the present author preferred not to propose a translation, as already done e.g. by
Ford and Levene (2012, 56). According to Shaked (2006, 378) an image of the demon mevakkalta is possibly found
in a Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl of the Wolfe Collection (Jerusalem), published by Naveh and Shaked (1993,
122124).
lines 3, 9) tyzh may she depart. 3rd person feminine singular imperfect pe. of the root nzh/nz to depart
(/tezzah/). See bowl no. 1: 6.
lines 48) The sentence beginning with syryn (l. 4) and ending in byth (l. 8) is paralleled (with the exception of
the clients name) in bowl no. 38: 610.
l. 5) mhylyn made powerful. The grapheme h is used to represent the phoneme //. For the graphic oscillation
between and h in Syriac bowls, see bowl no. 2: 6.
l. 5) hl[yn] k[s] these bowls. In spite of the damaged surface, both the facsimile published in Montgomery and
the traces of letters extant on the bowl allow the proposed reconstructions. The plural used in this sequence
seems to be due to the fact that this bowl is one of a group of five bowls from Nippur (three Syriac and two
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls) whose texts quote clients from the same family (see above). The man quoted
in bowl no. 3 (ddbh son of smndwkt) could well have ordered a series of bowls in different Aramaic varieties
for the protection of his house: two Jewish Babylonian Aramaic texts on behalf of himself and his wife rqwy
daughter of ddh/ (nos. CBS 9009 and CBS 2920), two Syriac bowls with different charms on behalf of himself
(nos. 3 and 5 in this volume) and one Syriac bowl on behalf of his wife (no. 38 in this volume). These five
bowls may thus come from the same workshop or be the result of the same, parallel order from different
scribes.45
l. 6) [d]l [nyrwn] l[dd ] that they may not untie each other (?). Mller-Kessler (2005, 107) translated damit sie
nicht voneinander gelst werden, while both Montgomery (1913, 223) and Hamilton (1971, 100b) chose another

44 See Montgomery (1913, 79, 121122, 238); Hamilton (1971, 176); Naveh and Shaked (1993, 269).
45 See Epstein (1922, 4344).
34 texts

meaning for the same root and rendered the sequence as that may not lodge together (with them). The text
seems to be still dealing with evil beings featured in lines 34. Another possibility may be that the sentence refers
to the bowls quoted in the preceding line (an alternative translation might be: that they may not come loose from
each other). This may be a hint at the custom of gluing the bowls face to face with bitumen and/or binding them
together with ropes before burying them. The reality of this phenomenon has now been proved and its dynamics
have been thoroughly analyzed by Levene (2011, 224226).
l. 6) yhyhw yw. This reading was already suggested by Moberg (1914, 430431).
l. 9) bn his sons. For bn instead of Classical Syriac bn why see bowl no. 1: 5.
bowl no. 3 35

Bowl no. 3 (CBS 9008)


BOWL NO. 4

Present location: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia


(CBS 16086).
Dimensions: 176.9cm.46
Remarks: this bowl, together with the others published by Montgomery in 1913, was unearthed during
the University of Pennsylvania Expedition in Nippur (first two campaigns, directed by Peters, 1888
1889). The bowls were among the antiquities then donated to the University of Pennsylvania by the
Sultan.47 The bowl is in a fair state of preservation. Regarding this specimen, Montgomery (1913, 325)
wrote as follows: broken and mended, one large and one small fragment missing. The bowl is now
made up of seven potsherds glued together. Two fragments are missing near the rim and two small
portions have been lost in the same area of the basin. The ink has faded at some points, especially
near the rim.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are used on some plural substantives and adjectives (e.g. lm by , l. 3)
and once on the 3rd person masculine plural suffix pronoun (lhwn, l. 5). The sequence ww (l. 3)
seems to represent a case of extra punctuation which is not easy to explain.
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 12. Fading of the ink has affected the openings of lines 6 to 9. Breaks and fading of the
ink have damaged the last sections of lines 10 and 11 and a good part of line 12.
Drawings and other signs: a circle divided into four quarters is drawn at the bottom of the basin. In each
quarter a cross is marked. The text is surrounded by a circle near the rim.
Clients: dynwy son of yspndrmyd (quoted in lines 2, 5, 9, 11 2 times). The same name is featured in
bowls nos. 7 and 43 of this volume.
Contents: the formula is well known to incantation bowl texts (see parallels below). It features the main
theme of the act of divorce, sentenced in the court of law of Rabbi Joshua bar Peraya, to cast away
demons and evil beings from the house of the client.48 Shaked (1999a, 187) has effectively summarized
the traits of this spell as follows:
type A [= the label Shaked assigned to this variant in the framework of exorcistic divorce formulas in
incantation bowls] has a text that mentions Rabbi Joshua bar Peraya together with the poetic formula
one character out of many, one name out of many, one space (?) out of the blank surrounding the text. This
is combined with the figure of speech referring to a heavenly ascension, and occurs in company with the
opening formula that alludes to a lot drawn.49
As remarked by Shaked (1999a, 187), parallel texts are built around a model and
the writers apparently felt free to add or detract from the core formula, and they must have felt particular
freedom with the introductory text and the conclusion. They also tend to use free variations within the
framework used.

46 Montgomery (1913, 325).


47 Montgomery (1913, 13, 15).
48 As it is known from several spell texts, Rabbi Joshua bar Peraya had instituted the custom of divorcing a wife from across

the sea. Shaked (1999a, 178). On divorce formulas in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls, see now Shaked, Ford, and Bhayro (2013,
99100).
49 Further details are found in Levene (2009, 31, 3839).
bowl no. 4 37

Parallels: bowls nos. 5, 31, 34, 41 in this volume. Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowls nos.
CBS 9010 (= Montgomery 1913: no. 9); IM 142131 (Iraq Museum);50 M11, M50, M59 (Moussaieff Col-
lection); MS 1927/5, MS 1927/39, MS 1929/16, MS 2053/33, MS 2053/150, MS 2053/164, MS 2053/165
(Schyen Collection);51 HS 3046 (Hilprecht Collection).52
Editions: Montgomery (1913: no. 32); Hamilton (1971: no. 4); Moriggi (2004: no. 4). CAL: no. SyrIncBowl
4 (reproduces Hamiltons reading).
Notes: Epstein (1922, 4649); Levene (2009, 3839); Gorea (2004, 114115); Mller-Kessler (2005, 3637);
Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270).
Photographs and facsimiles: Montgomery (1913, plate 28 facsimile by W.C. Orchard); Hamilton (1971,
plate 3 copy of Montgomerys facsimile).

Bowl no. 4 (CBS 16086)53


mzmn hn ks ltmt dbyth 1 Prepared is this bowl for the sealing of the house
wdntth wdbnh ddynwy br yspndrmyd dtyzh mnh 2 and of the wife and of the sons of dynwy son
mbklt of yspndrmyd, that may depart from him the
mevakkalta
wlm by pwr rmyn wqyn bwd dbyd ww 3 and the evil dreams. The lot I cast and I take,
magical act that was performed
ky hw dytyb rby yw br prhy wktb lyhwn dstbyr l 4 like it was when Rabbi Joshua bar Peraya sat (in
klhwn yd wdyw court), and wrote against them a bill of divorce,
against all of them: demons and devils
wsn wllt wlb dyt bbyth ddynwy br yspndrmyd twb 5 and satans and liliths and no-good-ones that are in
ktb lhwn dstbyr dllm the house of dynwy son of yspndrmyd. Again, he
wrote against them a bill of divorce that is forever:
bwm tmdg ttwt twt mn gwt twt twt m gylywn mn 6 In the name of the sign of mdg, the sign of the signs,
gw gylywn dbhnhwn ytkby signs out of signs, the signs of the name, the blank
space out of the blank space, that by virtue of those
were pressed
[m] wr wwr wbhnhwn ytqr rm[t] wbhnhwn 7 the heaven and the earth and the mountains and
ytmsr r[ yd] wdy wsn wllyt wlb by virtue of those were uprooted the heights and by
virtue of those were delivered (for punishment) the
sorcery, demons and devils and satans and liliths
and no-good-ones

50 Faraj (2010b, 8796). For corrections and a new reading of the text, see Burrafato (2013, 2635).
51 Jewish Babylonian Aramaic parallels in the Schyen Collection are published in Shaked, Ford, and Bhayro (2013) as nos.
JBA 13, JBA 14, JBA 16, JBA 17, JBA 20, JBA 21, JBA 22.
52 Levene (2009, 3537) provides a synopsis of our text no. 4 and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic parallels nos. CBS 9010, M50

and M59. Bowl no. HS 3046 is published in Mller-Kessler (2005, 3234), where she further listed bowls nos. CBS 16062 (+ frag.
CBS 6354) and CBS 16101 as Syriac parallels of the formula dealt with here. As to bowl no. 16062 (+ frag. CBS 6354), the present
author was not able to check the text on a photograph, but bowl no. CBS 16101 (published in Mller-Kessler (2006b, 127128)
and re-edited in the present volume as bowl no. 43) does not present any feature of the formula, except for the name of the
client (dynwy son of yspndrmyd).
53 The reading of the text was carried out on a new photograph kindly supplied by the University of Pennsylvania Museum

of Archaeology and Anthropology.


38 texts

[w]bhnhwn br mn lm wslyq lykwn lmrwm wyt 8 and through those (they) went out from the world
l[ykwn] qybl byl[] lblwt wpq [lpqt]kwn and he ascended against you to the heights and he
brought against you the counter-charms: destruction
to destroy and removing to remove you
[mn b]yth ddynwy br yspndrmyd wmn kl dytlh 9 from the house of dynwy son of yspndrmyd and
byqyt[wn] bdstbyr dsyr []tym wmtm ykyn d[yd from everything he has. You are divorced by virtue
q]dmy[ l kd]ybw of the bill of divorce: Bound, sealed and
countersealed, as the primeval demons did not lie
wns qdm dwr l hww twb syr tym wm[t]m hn 10 and the primeval men who evaporated (?), they
dstbyr bwm yh yh yh yh yh yh 7 m[yn myn slh] [] are not (any longer). Again bound, sealed and
countersealed is this bill of divorce in the name of yh
yh yh yh yh yh yh seven (times?). Amen, amen, selah.
[]
[nyt]tym wnytnr byth wdwrh ddynwy br 11 May be sealed and may be protected the house and
yspn[drmyd] mn mbklt wlm by wlwt the dwelling of dynwy son of yspndrmyd from the
wn[y]dr wtyt[tym] wtytnr [ntth wbn ddynwy mevakkalta and the evil dreams and the curses
br yspndrmyd] and the vows and may be sealed and may be
protected the wife and the sons of dynwy son of
yspndrmyd
mn mbklt wlm by wlwt wnydr wnyywn 12 from the mevakkalta and the evil dreams and the
[wny]tqymw[n] lh() [] myn curses and the vows and may they live and exist for
him []. Amen.

Notes to the text


l. 1) tmt the sealing. For this nomen actionis see bowl no. 1: 9.
l. 2) dtyzh that may depart. See bowl no. 1: 6 for further references.
lines 2, 11, 12) mbklt the mevakkalta. For this evil being, see bowl no. 3: 3.
l. 3) pwr the lot. This meaning was first proposed by Epstein (1922, 46) who effectively challenged Montgomerys
(1913, 225, 228) choice: bowl.
l. 3) qyn I take. This form was recognized as coming from the root ql (qyln) by Epstein, who translated
the sequence rmyn wqyn as je jette et prends (porte).54 This proposal is now confirmed by two parallel
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl texts where the form qyln is found.55 The participle /qel/ is joined to the
1st person singular enclitic pronoun, this causing, according to Epstein, the loss of /l/. Epstein also referred to an
analogous phenomenon attested in other written testimonies of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and in North-Eastern
Neo-Aramaic.56 In the present writers opinion this form accounts for the process of regressive assimilation [ln]
[nn] as attested in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls and borrowed in this Syriac text possibly due to the Jewish
origin of the formula. This phenomenon involves the consonantal phonemes /l, m, n, r/ and, in addition to
incantation bowls, is found in Talmudic manuscripts. On the whole one may easily agree with Morgenstern (2007,
264266) when he states that there is no need for this process in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic to be regarded as
resulting from a widespread morphological shift, but it is better seen as a phonological phenomenon, resulting
from the weakening of certain consonants. I preferred to keep Epsteins translation rather than share the proposal
of Shaked (1999a, 176).57

54 Epstein (1921, 37); Epstein (1922, 46).


55 Levene (2009, 32, 33, 35). See also the spelling qln in Mller-Kessler (2005, 32 Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no.
HS 3046: 1). Cf. Montgomery (1913, 225) who translated this form I sink down.
56 Epstein (1921, 37); Nldeke ([1868] 1974, 53).
57 See also Levene (2009, 32) I am drawing; Mller-Kessler (2005, 32) Ich zog. On the translation of this participle as a

perfect by Mller-Kessler, see Gzella (2006, 585).


bowl no. 4 39

lines 34) bwd dbyd ww ky hw dytyb rby yw br prhy magical act that was performed like it was when Rabbi
Joshua bar Peraya sat (in court).58 This formula clearly refers to Jewish legal practice and this sentence accounts
for the fact that this Syriac text had a Jewish Babylonian Aramaic source. Furthermore, one may share with Shaked
(1999a, 176n17) the view that the Syriac is a transcription from a Jewish Aramaic model (or from an oral formula
first uttered in Jewish Aramaic). The spelling ww groups together the active participle pe. /hw/, here spelled
without the final , and the 3rd person masculine singular perfect pe. /hw/. This sequence is known to Classical
Syriac and is usually employed in the sense of Latin erat, expressing a repeated or continuing action in the
past.59 The sequence rby yw is usually presented in the spelling rb yyw in parallel texts (see bowls nos. 5: 3,
31: 5).60 As pointed out by Harviainen (1981, 13) rb is the genuine Eastern (Babylonian) Jewish title pro Palestinian
rby.
l. 4) dstbyr a bill of divorce. For the meaning of this Iranian loanword, see Shaked (1985, 513), Van Rompay (1990,
374) and Ciancaglini (2008, 153).61 Jewish Babylonian Aramaic parallels at this point have the word g. See e.g. bowl
no. CBS 9010: 3 (= Montgomery 1913: no. 9: 3) in Shaked (1999a, 188). The theme of divorcing demons (especially
liliths) is a prominent one in incantation bowls, see further Levine (1970, 349350) and Levene (2003a, 176178,
182184).62
l. 6) bwm tmdg ttwt twt mn gwt twt twt m gylywn mn gw gylywn In the name of the sign of mdg, the sign of
the signs, signs out of signs, the signs of the name, the blank space out of the blank space. The whole sequence
is a loan translation (with some slips and strained renderings) of the Hebrew passage quoted in the same place
in the parallel Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl text no. CBS 9010: 56 (bwm wt mtwk wt wwtywt mtwk wtywt
wym mtwk hymwt wnyqb mtwk hgywl).63 See the analogous sequence wmw mytwk wtwtw wwtwt mytwk mdh
wmdh mwq wmwq mytwk hstr wstr {wstr} mytwk hnqwb wnqwb mytwk gylwy Son nom est dans ses lettres et les
lettres dans la mesure et la mesure [est dans], la profondeur et la profondeur est dans ce qui est cach et ce qui est
cach {ce qui est cach} est dans ce qui se prononce et ce qui est prononc est dans ce qui est manifeste (Jewish
Babylonian Aramaic Bowl II: 1112) in Gorea (2001, 7980).64
l. 6) gylywn blank space. The meaning proposed by Epstein (1922, 47) espace (entre les mots et les lettres),
comme le misnique glywn (l spr), qui signifie aussi bien marge [] que espace has been accepted by most
scholars since then. Mller-Kessler (2005, 35) proposed the alternative rendering Leerstelle/Schribtafel. Shaked
(1999a, 177n23) first proposed that that which is manifest is meant here, but recently (Shaked 2010, 224), referring
to the sequence gylywn mn gw gylywn, stated that it evidently means, as suggested by Epstein (1922, 47), a blank
space from the midst of a blank space.
l. 6) hnhwn those. On this pronoun see bowl no. 31: 8, 9 and Moriggi (2004, 132).
ls. 68) dbhnhwn ytkby [m] wr wwr wbhnhwn ytqr rm[t]
wbhnhwn ytmsr r[ yd] wdy wsn wllyt
wlb [w]bhnhwn br mn lm that by virtue of those were pressed the heaven and the earth and the mountains
and by virtue of those were uprooted the heights and by virtue of those were delivered (for punishment) the
sorcery, demons and devils and satans and liliths and no-good-ones and through those (they) went out from
the world. The verbal voices featured in these sentences do not agree with their subjects. The reason could
be that the sentence was not correctly translated from the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic model, where, as we
understand from Jewish Babylonian Aramaic parallels, verbs and subjects agree properly. See e.g. bowl no.
MS 2053/33: 56 (Schyen Collection), where it is written: d[ybhwn] yytbzww my wrh w[](w)wryh bhwn
(y)y[t](qrw) [wrm](t) bh(w)[n] [y]yt(msy)[yh w]yy[dy wry w](d)[ywy wmy]r(y) (ws)[]n[y w](l)by bhwn
bdww mn [lm](h) [through] w[hich] heaven and earth are split, and [mo]untains ar[e] uprooted through
them, [and heig]hts [m]elt aw[ay] through the[m; and] demo[ns and sorcerers and] d[vs and hidd]en ones

58 Levine (1970, 348) translated as when R. Joshua s. Perahiah was in court session and wrote a restraining ban.
59 Moriggi (2004, 190191); Nldeke ([1898] 1966, 207). Cf. Mller-Kessler (2005, 33).
60 Cf. Mller-Kessler (2005, 37) and Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270).
61 Cf. Mller-Kessler (2005, 37) offizielles Schreiben.
62 For a comparison of the practice of divorcing the lilith in incantation bowls and Cairo Genizah magic material, see Bohak

and Levene (2012b, 204212).


63 Montgomery (1913, 163 bowl no. 9: 56); Epstein (1922, 47); Shaked (1999a, 178); Mller-Kessler (2005, 37).
64 The Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl studied in Gorea (2001, 7885) is housed in the Muse de lcriture de Figeac. As to

this sequence, see now Shaked, Ford, and Bhayro (2013, 103).
40 texts

and sa[ta]n[s and] no-good ones perish from the wo[rld] through them.65 Furthermore, it is well known that
in Classical Syriac the 3rd person masculine plural termination /-/ of perfect voices is no longer pronounced, and
this may have resulted in the scribal choice not to mark it on this occasion.66 As regards this passage it is worth
quoting Levene (2009, 38) who wrote:
Epstein did note the discrepancy between the nouns and qualifying verbs when comparing the Syriac section
AIT 32:6,7 [= our bowl no. 4] with its equivalent Jewish Aramaic AIT 9:6 [= bowl CBS 9010] [] Whereas, in
the Syriac text the word wr is modified by the first verb (ytkby), in the Jewish Aramaic texts (AIT 9:6,
M50:4 and M59:10) the equivalent wry occurs with the second verbytqrw. This is the point where the
Syriac and Jewish Aramaic versions fall out of step. The equivalent to this second verb in the Syriac version
(ytqr) relates to rmt which in the Jewish Aramaic text is modified by a third verbytmsyh. The equivalent
of this third verb in the Syriac version (ytmsr) refers to the list of demons that follows. The differences
between the two versions of this particular section are interesting as they could reflect a corruption in the
transmission of the text from one Aramaic dialect to the other.
Mller-Kessler (2005, 37) in her turn set forth the interpretation that:
ytkby, ytqr, ytmsr und br sind Imperative Plural maskulin, die aber erwartungsgem der Zentral-
Babylonisch Aramisch-Bildungsweise bereits ohne Endung -w erscheinen, und aus diesem Grunde mit den
Perfektformen homonym sind. [] Fr die Deutung als Imperativ spricht aber auch die Einleitungspartikel
d_ am Satzanfang, die im Aramischen die direkte Rede einfhrt.
l. 7) ytqr were uprooted. The weakening of the phoneme // and the fall of the corresponding grapheme in the
root qr are further attested in this verbal voice in bowls nos. 5: 8 and 31: 8.67
l. 8) qybl the counter-charms. According to Van Rompay (1990, 373), this is one of the termini technici of magic
literature that are not attested in Classical Syriac and have entered Syriac bowl texts by means of text borrowing
from Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and Mandaic formularies. As pointed out by Levene (2011, 224, 225), in some
cases, the term qybl refers to bowls set rim to rim opposite each other to be fixed with bitumen and interred
as a unit. In that case the two bowls that were a qybl in purposecharm or counter-charmwere also a
qybl in the physical sensebeing opposite each other. Hunter (1995, 323n11) observed (quoting also other
scholars) that, among incantation bowls found in archaeological contexts, occasionally specimens were joined
lip to lip.
l. 8) byl[] lblwt wpq [lpqt]kwn destruction to destroy and removing to remove you. The reading proposed by
Epstein (1922, 47) is confirmed by the photograph. The t and the preceding q are reconstructed on the basis of their
traces near the break.68 The form lpqtkwn and the parallel lpqkwn in bowl no. 5: 10 have been considered by Van
Rompay (1990, 378379)
somewhat dubious forms which may be explained as infinitive of the afel [] if the reading and interpreta-
tion are correct, they may point to the existence of an infinitive without the mim-prefix and with the ending
-, which is attested in Imperial Aramaic as well as in other Aramaic dialects.
While commenting upon the form lpwqwkwn in the parallel bowl no. 41: 10 (emended by her in lpwqwtkwn),
Mller-Kessler (2005, 37) stated that:
es scheint sich daher nicht um einen Infinitiv zu handeln, sondern wie im Falle des vorhergehenden lblwt
um ein abstraktes Verbalsubstantiv, bei dem das t an das folgende Suffix -kwn assimiliert wurde.
l. 10) dwr who evaporated (?). The meaning of this verb could perhaps be traced to the root r, the w being
misplaced, possibly due to a scribal slip. For the parallel ywr (bowl no. 31: 11) Segal (2000, 149) proposed the
translation that are vanished. See bowl no. 14: 11 where the form rw (imperative pe.) is found.69 In a Syriac

65 Bowl no. MS 2053/33 is published in Shaked, Ford, and Bhayro (2013, 117) as no. JBA 17.
66 For the elision of the // in the 3rd person masculine plural perfect and other verbal voices in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
bowls, see Morgenstern (2007, 269272). As to this same elision in Classical Syriac, Birkeland (1947, 35) wrote that it seems to
have taken place as early as in the old literary language. Cf. Beyer (1966, 244245).
67 For the situation of this phoneme in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls, see Morgenstern (2007, 249251).
68 Cf. Mller-Kessler (2005, 37) who reconstructed [lp]wqwkwn.
69 Moriggi (2004, 194).
bowl no. 4 41

anthology of charms (Codex B, 10) published by Gollancz ([1912] 1976, 7072) the following sequence, referred
to malevolent entities, is encountered: l ntlqwn yk tnn mn qdm ll llm lmyn may they vanish as smoke from
before the wind forever and ever.
l. 10) yh yh yh yh yh yh yh 7. This sequence of seven yhs is followed by the digits indicating number 7, probably
referring to the seven-fold writing of yh. In bowl no. 1: 6 the same sequence is followed by the numeral b[]. As to
number 7 put down in digits in Syriac incantation bowls, see further bowl no. 14: 9.
42 texts

Bowl no. 4 (CBS 16086)


BOWL NO. 5

Present location: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia


(CBS 16019).
Dimensions: 15.56.2cm.70
Remarks: this bowl, together with the others published by Montgomery in 1913, was unearthed during
the University of Pennsylvania Expedition in Nippur (first two campaigns, directed by Peters, 1888
1889). The bowls were among the antiquities then donated to the University of Pennsylvania by the
Sultan.71 The bowl is in a fair state of preservation. Montgomery (1913, 326) wrote of it as follows:
broken and mended, with two considerable fragments missing. The bowl is now made up of three
large potsherds glued together. A large fragment is missing near the rim. The bowl was damaged by
a hole in its surface, possibly made by a pointed tool. The ink has faded at some points, but not sig-
nificantly.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above a fair number of plural substantives and adjectives
(e.g. wns qd my, l. 12). Besides it is marked on yt (l. 9), 3rd person masculine singular perfect aph.
of the verb t. A single dot is marked above the sequence hww (l. 2). The two upper dots marked
above the proper name yy (l. 3) cannot be explained with any certainty. The script of this bowl is
similar to those used in bowls nos. 3 and 38 of this volume.
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 13. The hole on the surface has damaged the opening words of lines 710.
Drawings and other signs: a circle divided into four quarters is drawn at the bottom of the basin. The
text is surrounded by a circle near the rim.
Clients: ddbh son of smndwkt (quoted in lines 5, 10, 13). The same client is quoted in bowl no. 3 of this
volume (lines 2, 6, 9) and in the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls nos. CBS 9009 (= Montgomery
1913: no. 12: 1 ddbh br smndwk) and CBS 2920 (= Montgomery 1913: no. 16: 1 ddbh br smndwk). In the
last two bowls ddbh son of smndwkt is quoted together with his wife rqwy bt ddh/, who in her turn
appears as the client of bowl no. 38 of this volume.
Contents: for the contents of this bowl text, see bowl no. 4.
Parallels: bowls nos. 4, 31, 34, 41 in this volume. Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowls nos.
CBS 9010 (= Montgomery 1913: no. 9); IM 142131 (Iraq Museum);72 M11, M50, M59 (Moussaieff Col-
lection); MS 1927/5, MS 1927/39, MS 1929/16, MS 2053/33, MS 2053/150, MS 2053/164, MS 2053/165
(Schyen Collection);73 HS 3046 (Hilprecht Collection).74
Editions: Montgomery (1913: no. 33); Hamilton (1971: no. 5); Moriggi (2004: no. 5); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl
5 (reproduces Hamiltons reading).

70 Montgomery (1913, 326).


71 Montgomery (1913, 13, 15).
72 Faraj (2010b, 8796). For corrections and a new reading of the text, see Burrafato (2013, 2635).
73 Jewish Babylonian Aramaic parallels in the Schyen Collection are published in Shaked, Ford, and Bhayro (2013) as nos.

JBA 13, JBA 14, JBA 16, JBA 17, JBA 20, JBA 21, JBA 22.
74 Levene (2009, 3537) provides a synopsis of our text no. 4 and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic parallels nos. CBS 9010, M50

and M59. Bowl no. HS 3046 is published in Mller-Kessler (2005, 3234), where she further listed bowls nos. CBS 16062 (+ frag.
CBS 6354) and CBS 16101 as Syriac parallels of the formula dealt with here. As to bowl no. 16062 (+ frag. CBS 6354), the present
author was not able to check the text on a photograph, but bowl no. CBS 16101 (published in Mller-Kessler (2006b, 127128)
and re-edited in the present volume as bowl no. 43) does not present any feature of the formula, except for the name of the
client (dynwy son of yspndrmyd).
44 texts

Notes: Epstein (1922, 4649 passim); Mller-Kessler (2005, 3637); Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270).
Photographs and facsimiles: Montgomery (1913, plate 29 facsimile by M.L. Baker); Hamilton (1971,
plate 4 copy of Montgomerys facsimile).

Bowl no. 5 (CBS 16019)75


pwr rmyn wqyn 1 The lot I cast and I take,
bwd dbyd hww ky hw 2 magical act that was performed like it was
dytyb rb yy br prhy wktb 3 when Rab Joshua bar Peraya sat (in court), and
wrote
lyhwn dstbyr l klhwn yd wdy wsn 4 against them a bill of divorce against all of them:
demons and devils and satans
wllt wlb d[]yt bbyth dddbh br smndwkt 5 and liliths and no-good-ones that are in the house of
ddbh son of smndwkt.
twb ktb lyhwn dstb[y]r dllm bwm t mdg t twt 6 Again he wrote against them a bill of divorce that is
forever: in the name of the sign of mdg, the sign of
signs,
tw[t mn gw] twt twt m [gy]lywn mn gw gylywn 7 the signs out of signs, the signs of the name, the
dbhnhwn ytkby blank space out of the blank space, that by virtue of
those were pressed
m[y wr] wwr wbhnwn [yt]qr rmt wbhnwn 8 the heaven and the earth and the mountains and
ytmsr rs yd by virtue of those were uprooted the heights and by
virtue of those were delivered (for punishment) the
sorcery, demons
wdy[w ws]n wllyt wlb wb[hnwn ]br mn lm wslyq 9 and devils and satans and liliths and no-good-ones
lykwn lmrwm wyt and through those (they) went out from the world
and he ascended against you to the heights and he
brought
[lykwn] qybl byl lblwt [wpq] lpqkwn mn byth 10 against you the counter-charms: destruction to
dddbh br smndwkt destroy and removing to remove you from the house
of ddbh son of smndwkt
wmn kwl dytlh byqytwn bdstb[yr dsyr] tym 11 and from everything he has. You are divorced by
wmtm ykyn dyd qdmy lkdybw virtue of the bill of divorce: Bound, sealed and
countersealed, as the primeval demons did not lie
wns qd my dwr l hww twb syr t[ym wmtm hn] 12 and the primeval men who evaporated (?), they
dstbyr bwm yh yh yh yh yh yh yh 7 are not (any longer). Again bound, sealed and
countersealed is this bill of divorce of in the name of
yh yh yh yh yh yh yh seven (times?).
myn myn sl[h] nyttym wnytnr byth dh[n ddbh br 13 Amen, amen, selah. May be sealed and may be
s]mndwkt wntth bn wbnt wqnynh mn mbklt wlwt protected the house of this ddbh son of smndwkt
myn and his wife, his sons and his daughters and his
property from the mevakkalta and the curse. Amen.

75 The reading of the text was carried out on a new photograph kindly supplied by the University of Pennsylvania Museum

of Archaeology and Anthropology.


bowl no. 5 45

Notes to the text


For the sentences featured in lines 13 and 67, see bowl no. 4: 34, 6.
l. 4) dstbyr a bill of divorce. For the meaning of this Iranian loanword, see bowl no. 4: 4.
l. 5) wllt and liliths. The photograph clearly demonstrates that the reading ptkr statt llyt proposed by
Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270) is untenable.
l. 8) hnwn those. This is the form of the demonstrative pronoun found in Classical Syriac. Parallel texts also supply
evidence for the form hnhwn (see l. 7). See bowl no. 4: 6.76
lines 79) ytkby [yt]qr ytmsr []br were pressed were uprooted were delivered (for punishment)
went out. See bowl no. 4: 67 for further information as regards the agreement of these voices with their subjects
and the transmission of this part of the formula from a Jewish Babylonian Aramaic model. For the form [yt]qr see
bowl no. 4: 7.
l. 10) qybl the counter-charms. For this word see bowl no. 4: 8.
l. 10) lpqkwn to remove you. For this form and its parallels in bowls nos. 4: 8 ([lpqt]kwn), 31: 10 (lpwqwkwn) and
41: 10 (lpwqwkwn), see bowl no. 4: 8 and literature quoted there.
l. 11) bdstb[yr dsyr] by virtue of the bill of divorce: Bound. The sequence is reconstructed according to the
parallel texts.
l. 11) lkdybw did not lie. There is no trace of the seyame read here by Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270).
l. 12) wr they evaporated (?). For wr see bowl no. 4: 10.
l. 12) yh yh yh yh yh yh yh 7. For this sequence of seven yhs, see bowl no. 4: 10.
l. 13) mbklt the mevakkalta. For this evil being, see bowl no. 3: 3.

76 Moriggi (2004, 132).


46 texts

Bowl no. 5 (CBS 16019)


BOWL NO. 6

Present location: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia


(CBS 9012).
Dimensions: 17.57.5cm.77
Remarks: this bowl, together with the others published by Montgomery in 1913, was unearthed during
the University of Pennsylvania Expedition in Nippur (first two campaigns, directed by Peters, 1888
1889). The bowls were among the antiquities then donated to the University of Pennsylvania by the
Sultan.78 The bowl is in a fair state of preservation. Montgomery (1913, 326) wrote that it was broken
and mended. The bowl is now made up of 5 sherds glued together. Two very small fragments are
missing, one at the bottom and the other on the rim. Except for some spots near the rim, the ink does
not seem to have faded significantly since Montgomery read the text.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above a fair number of plural substantives (e.g. kwkb
wmzl, l. 6) and adjectives (e.g. my, l. 10), above some 3rd person masculine singular suffix pronouns
(e.g. wbn wbnt, l. 3) and above the feminine proper name btshd (lines 12, 14). A single dot is marked
above the masculine proper name mw (l. 4), the 3rd person feminine singular suffix pronoun -h
(kwl, l. 7; l, l. 13), the masculine singular active participle pe. r (l. 10) and perhaps the 3rd person
feminine singular imperfect pe. ty() (l. 14).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 14. Some fading of the ink occurred in lines 1214.
Drawings and other signs: a circle divided into four quarters is drawn at the bottom of the basin. In each
quarter a cross is marked. The text is surrounded by a circle drawn near the rim.
Clients: myrwrmyzd son of mmy (quoted in lines 1, 3, 7, 1112); brwy daughter of btshd (quoted
in lines 12, 14). The name btshdy is quoted in a Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl of the Schyen
Collection (no. MS 2053/251: 6). Montgomery (1913, 50) Shaked (2006, 383) and Geller (1977, 149)
consider it a Christian name (daughter of the martyrs). The masculine equivalent br shd is quoted
in bowl no. 13: 910 of this volume. A man called myrrmyz is quoted in bowl no. 45: 3b of this volume.
Contents: the incantation is divided into a series of cola. In the first (lines 16) the protection is
invoked for the house, family and possessions of the client in the name of Jesus the healer and
the mighty ny. Some examples of powerful subjugation are quoted: Moses dividing the Red Sea,
God dominating earth and trees with his word. A series of bonds are accounted for, such as the bond
of the mountains and of the heights, the fortune of heaven and earth, sun and moon, stars and
constellations. In the second colon (lines 611), the angels Michael, Raphael and Gabriel are quoted,
together with the seal of rywn son of znd, the signet ring of king Solomon, the son of David, the
seal of El adday and the mighty Lord Abraxas. All of them should protect the client and cast away
and seal and bind evil beings until the melting of heaven and earth. In the third colon (lines 1114)
further bindings and sealing of evil beings, poverty, harms and various misfortunes are featured.
Parallels: bowl no. MS 2055/14 (Schyen Collection). Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowls nos.
MS 1928/22 and MS 1928/38 (Schyen Collection).
Editions: Montgomery (1913: no. 34); Hamilton (1971: no. 6); Moriggi (2004: no. 6); Ford (forthcoming a,
Excursus 5a); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 6 (reproduces Hamiltons reading).

77 Montgomery (1913, 326).


78 Montgomery (1913, 13, 15).
48 texts

Notes: Epstein (1922, 4953); Levine (1970, 372373); Geller (1977, 151154); Gorea (2004, 114); Mller-
Kessler (2006a, 270).
Photographs and facsimiles: Montgomery (1913, plate 30 facsimile by W.C. Orchard); Hamilton (1971,
plate 5 copy of Montgomerys facsimile).

Bowl no. 6 (CBS 9012)79


mzmn hn ks ltwmyn byth dmyrwrmyzd br mmy 1 Prepared is this bowl for the sealings (of) the house
of myrwrmyzd son of mmy
byl {yl} dyyw sy byl ny tqyp syr dwrh 2 by virtue of the power of Jesus the healer, by virtue
wmkwnth of the power of the mighty ny, bound is the
dwelling and the tent
wbyth wntth wbn wbnt dmyrwrmyzd dmytqr br 3 and the house and the wife and the sons and the
mmy syr wtym daughters of myrwrmyzd who is called son of
mmy. Bound and sealed is
yk dmr mw lym dswp wqmw yk wr dmn trwyhwn 4 as said Moses to the Red Sea and stood (the waters)
gys syr wtym syr wtym like walls that (were) on both sides. Bound and
sealed, bound and sealed is
drdyn lmryhwn syr
bd mlt dkbh lh lr wlyln 5 with this word by which God made the earth and
wtym bswr wr wrmt the trees to lie down so that they submit to their
Lord (?). Bound and sealed is by the bond of the
mountains and the heights,
syr wtym bgd my wr m wshr kwkb wmzl 6 bound and sealed is by the fortune of heaven and
dbmlth syryn wbpwqdnh qymyn bwm earth, sun and moon, stars and constellations, that
by his word are bound and by his command stand.
In the name of
mkyyl sy wrwpyyl mdwly wgbryyl bdh ddwny syr 7 Michael the healer and Raphael the deliverer and
wtym kwl bywt dyt bpgrh dmyrwrmyzd br Gabriel the servant of Adonay, bound and sealed is
mmy every evil that is in the body of myrwrmyzd son of
mmy
wbbyth ntth wbn wbnt wbyrh wqnynh wbkl dwrh 8 and in his house, his wife and his sons and his
btm drywn br znd wbyzqth dlymwn mlk br dwyd daughters and his cattle and his property and in all
his dwellings by the seal of rywn son of znd and by
the signet ring of king Solomon, the son of David
db tymyn m wlb wtymn btm dyldy wbrkss 9 by which are sealed the wrath-demons and the
mry tqyp wtm rb dtymyn bh my wr dkl yd no-good-ones and I seal by the seal of El adday and
by the mighty Lord Abraxas and the great seal by
which are sealed heaven and earth that all demons
wpyqd my wlb mnh mn qdmh mtzyn wtm hn l 10 and impious visitation-spirits and no-good-ones
ntbrwn wl qm wqybl l nylwn wkl dmqr wy wr from it, before it they tremble and may they not
nytsr bswr break this seal and against the amulet and the
counter-charm may they not do evil (?) and
everyone that casts an evil gaze (?) and roams about
and dwells, may he be bound by the bond

79 The reading of the text was carried out on a new photograph supplied by University of Pennsylvania Museum of

Archaeology and Anthropology.


bowl no. 6 49

nwr wbyln my dm lmr my wr myn myn slh 11 of fire and by the chains (of) water until the
nyttym wnytnr byth wntth wbn wqnynh wpgrh melting of heaven and earth. Amen, amen, selah.
dmyrwrmyzd May be sealed and may be protected the house and
the wife and the sons and the property and the body
of myrwrmyzd
br mmy wtyzh mnh mbklt wlm by wlwt wnydr 12 son of mmy and may depart from him the
wrs wmbklt wzyn wwsrn wtwk wmyskynwt mevakkalta and the evil dreams and the curses and
wtyttym wtytnr brwy bt btshd the vows and the sorcery and the mevakkalta and
the losses and the lacks and the harms and the
poverty and may be sealed and may be protected
brwy daughter of btshd
mn mbklt wlm bys wlwt wnydr wrs wmbd 13 from the mevakkalta and the evil dreams and the
wtytsr mbklt wllyt wmmtt wmblt bydh wbrglh dl curses and the vows and the sorcery and the magical
[ty]qrwb l acts and may be bound the mevakkalta and the lilith
and the excommunicated one and the abolished one
in her hands and in her feet so that she may not
approach her
wl ty() bh bhd brwy bt btshd myn 14 and may not harm her, this brwy daughter of btshd .
Amen.

Notes to the text


When the transliteration and translation of this text were in preparation, the author was fortunate enough to have
the opportunity to check them on the new edition of this bowl then prepared by Ford (forthcoming a). Although
many of the new readings had emerged independently, it must be recognized that many of the choices featured
here as regards readings, translations and commentary were orientated by the work of the above-mentioned
scholar. On the whole this edition features only a few changes in comparison with that proposed by Ford, to which
the reader may refer for further details.

l. 1) ltwmyn for the sealings. According to Van Rompay (1990, 379) this form may perhaps be connected with
the typical Babylonian pattern of the infinitive pael, qaol.
l. 2) byl {yl} dyyw sy by virtue of the power of Jesus the healer. For the identification of this figure with Jesus
of Nazareth, see Geller (1977, 152154).
l. 2) ny tqyp the mighty ny. The reading dwny of Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270) is in fact an emendation.
l. 2) dwrh his dwelling. The new photograph seems to confirm Montgomerys reading (1913, 231) with final -h.
l. 4) yk dmr mw as said Moses. The new photograph confirms Epsteins (1922, 49) reconstruction ([m]r).
The reading suggested by Ford (forthcoming a) is based on the parallel bowl no. MS 2055/14: 34 (Schyen
Collection) reading yk dsr mw .
l. 4) gys sides. Both seyame dots are visible in the picture.80

l. 5) bd mlt dkbh lh lr wlyln drdyn lmryhwn with this word by which God made the earth and the
trees to lie down so that they submit to their Lord (?). The verbal voice kbh has usually been interpreted as
suppressed, i.e. a metathesized voice of the verb kb (to press), frequently attested in incantation bowls.81 The
verb kb is documented in Classical Syriac and may fit well in this context without need to refer to kb.82
The sequence drdyn lmryhwn may be provisionally rendered as so that they submit to their Lord (?), as
suggested by Epstein (1922, 4950) and confirmed by Ford (forthcoming a). For d with instead of Classical

80 Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270).


81 See Epstein (1922, 49); Moriggi (2004, 246).
82 See Payne Smith ([1903] 1999, 576).
50 texts

Syriac h, see Moriggi (2004, 117) and, as regards Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls, Morgenstern (2007, 251). For
other occurrences of d, see bowl no. 24: 7, 11, 13 of this volume.
l. 6) bgd by the fortune of. The parallel text (no. MS 2055/14: 5) supports this reading.
l. 6) mzl constellations. For this word and its Akkadian antecedents, see Van Rompay (1990, 375).
l. 7) On the list of angels featured in this line, see bowl no. MS 2055/14: 67. As regards the substantive mdwly
(deliverer), in which w = /a/ = [u] (/mdally/), see bowl no. 9: 10 and Moriggi (2004, 109112).
l. 8) byrh his cattle. See bowl no. 32: 9 as regards this spelling of Classical Syriac byrh.
l. 8) btm drywn br znd by the seal of rywn son of znd. For further references to this rather obscure figure in this
and other bowl texts, see bowl no. MS 2055/14: 8. Geller (1977, 153) noted that this bowl does call upon the sorcerer
Arion b. Zanad. Mller-Kessler (2002a, 205206) singled out two possibly corrupted versions of this name (pryn
br znd and prwn br znd) in two Mandaic lead rolls (nos. BM 135793 II: 34 and BM 134700, unpublished, British
Museum).
l. 8) byzqth dlymwn mlk br dwyd by the signet ring of king Solomon, the son of David. Another occurrence of this
theme is in bowl no. 28: 10 of this volume. See Levine (1970, 364368) on the theme of the signet ring in incantation
bowls. For the signet ring of Solomon in Syriac bowls, see Juusola (1999b, 84).
l. 9) m the wrath-demons. In spite of the existence of a Syriac root m (to oppress), the meaning of this
substantive has been settled possibly in an Iranian milieu by Shaked (1985, 514).
l. 9) wbrkss mry tqyp and by the mighty Lord Abraxas. Ford (forthcoming a) reads brkss as well. The photograph
seems to suggest that, after having marked the initial sequence wb, the scribe crudely changed the b to and rewrote
a b after it. For a possible description of the appearance of Abraxas, see bowl no. 26: 12. For Abraxas in incantation
bowls see further Shaked (2006, 376n28, 377378).
l. 9) wtm rb dtymyn bh and the great seal by which are sealed. Ford (forthcoming a) reads wtm rb dtym bgd,
but the picture shows quite clearly that, after the m of tym, the scribe put down another m, which he filled and
to which he subsequently added a small dot. The same seal is quoted in bowls nos. 28: 11 and 48: 5 of this volume.
l. 10) For the meaning of pyqd (visitation-spirits) and mtzyn (they tremble) compared to previous renderings,
see Ford (forthcoming a, Excursus 5a).
l. 10) wtm hn l ntbrwn wl qm wqybl l nylwn and may they not break this seal and against the amulet and the
counter-charm may they not do evil (?). The sequence has been partly corrected by Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270),
but the picture fully confirms the reading by Ford (forthcoming a, Excursus 5a). The root ly is assumed to explain
the voice nylwn, though this is to be taken as a guess.
l. 10) qybl the counter-charm. For this word see bowl no. 4: 8.
l. 10) wkl dmqr wy wr and everyone that casts an evil gaze (?) and roams about and dwells. For this sequence,
featuring the participles mqr (possibly a corrupted spelling of msqr found in one Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
parallel text), y and r, see Ford (forthcoming a, Excursus 5a) and literature quoted there.
l. 12) wtyzh and may depart. See bowl no. 1: 6.
lines 12, 13) mbklt the mevakkalta. For this evil being, see bowl no. 3: 3.
l. 12) wzyn wwsrn wtwk wmyskynwt and the losses and the lacks and the harms and the poverty. An identical
sequence is found in bowls nos. 38: 6 (wzyn wwsrn wtwk wmyskynwt) of this volume and MS 2055/5: 12. For the
meaning of zyn, see Mller-Kessler (2005, 106) and Mller-Kessler (2010b, 456n19).
bowl no. 6 51

Bowl no. 6 (CBS 9012)


BOWL NO. 7

Present location: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia


(CBS 16097).
Dimensions: 16.16.5cm.83
Remarks: this bowl, together with the others published by Montgomery in 1913, was unearthed during
the University of Pennsylvania Expedition in Nippur (first two campaigns, directed by Peters, 1888
1889). The bowls were among the antiquities then donated to the University of Pennsylvania by the
Sultan.84 The bowl is in a fair state of preservation. As stated by Montgomery (1913, 326), it is broken
and mended, two small fragments missing. The bowl is now made up of 17 potsherds glued together.
The ink has faded on a good third of the surface, and scratches due to breaks affect the bowl in many
spots.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above a good many plural substantives and adjectives (e.g.
lm by , l. 11), and on the 3rd person masculine singular suffix pronoun (bn, l. 12). A single dot is
marked above the 3rd person feminine singular suffix and object pronouns (e.g. pgr, l. 2; [nn]rwn,
l. 6) and above the name mw (l. 6).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 12. Most of the lines are broken by cracks, abrasions and fading of the ink. Lines 29
have suffered greatly from the fading of the ink.
Drawings and other signs: a circle divided into four quarters is drawn at the bottom of the basin. In each
quarter a cross is marked. The text is surrounded by a circle drawn near the rim.
Clients: mydwkt daughter of kwmbwy (quoted in lines 23, 67, 10 2 times, 1112); dynwy son of
yspndrmyd (quoted in line 12). A client named dynwy son of yspndrmyd is quoted in bowls nos. 4:
2, 5, 9, 11 and 43: 2a (bottom fragment) of this volume. On the basis of this, Montgomery (1913, 237)
stated that bowl no. 7 was made for the wife of this man. The name yspndrmyd is quoted in bowl
no. 20: 4 of this volume.
Contents: protection of the house, sons, properties and body of the client. A series of both demons and
misfortunes is featured, which finds parallel occurrences in bowl no. 6 of this volume. Angels mzyyl,
Nuriel, aliel, mnryyl, tmyyl, mryyl, ryyl are quoted, together with Moses.
Parallels: a number of sequences and two sentences occur in bowl no. 6 of this volume.
Editions: Montgomery (1913: no. 35); Hamilton (1971: no. 7); Moriggi (2004: no. 7); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl
7 (reproduces Hamiltons reading).
Notes: Epstein (1922, 5354); Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270); Ford (forthcoming a, bowl no. MS 2055/28
Schyen Collection).
Photographs and facsimiles: Montgomery (1913, plate 31 facsimile by W.C. Orchard); Hamilton (1971,
plate 6 copy of Montgomerys facsimile).

83 Montgomery (1913, 326).


84 Montgomery (1913, 13, 15).
bowl no. 7 53

Bowl no. 7 (CBS 16097)85


mzmn hn ks ltmt wnrt 1 Prepared is this bowl for the sealing and the
protection
dbyt wdbnh wdqnyn wdpgr dmydwkt 2 of the house and of the sons and of the property
and of the body of mydwkt
bt kwmbwy dtytnr mn [y]d b[ w]d[y]w wsn 3 daughter of kwmbwy, that may she be protected
from demons, strokes and devils and satans
wswy wdlwl wmn nydr[] wqrwt wlm[t] dbny 4 and terrors and frights and from vows and
n bwm invocations and spells of men. In the name of
ry rdy dry m()ry mzyyl [wnw]ryyl wlyyl 5 Nomina barbara the Lord mzyyl and Nuriel and
wmnryyl wtmyyl aliel and mnryyl and tmyyl,
dnwn ytpqyd m mw lmnrnwt wnwn [nn]rwn 6 for they were commanded with Moses to protect
lhd mydwkt bt and they protect this mydwkt daughter of
kwmbwy mn kl [..] d[y]w sny wyd mdln wmn kl 7 kwmbwy from all [..] bad devils and terrible demons
lwt wnydr dbny n[] dgbr[] and from every curse and vow of men, of male
[wd]n wdptk[r] d[y]k[r] wy[st]rt [nyq]bt[] bwm 8 and of female, and of male idol-spirits and female
wbmh dr hyh mryyl wryy[l] goddesses. In the name of and in the name of r
hyh, mryyl and ryyl
[]l sy hdyh dwnqmy nyy w w myr myr bwm 9 [] the healer, this (?) Nomina barbara Affirmed
hlyn ml[k] wtwt dnwn nnrwn is, affirmed is in the name of these angels and signs
so that they protect her
wntmwn lhd mydwkt bt kwmbwy mn kl dby llm 10 and seal her, this mydwkt daughter of kwmbwy from
lm mn tyttym w[t]ytnr mydwkt bt kwmbwy mn everyone who is wicked forever and ever, amen. May
she be sealed and protected mydwkt daughter of
kwmbwy from
mbklt wlm by wlwt wnydr wtytsr mbklt wllyt 11 the mevakkalta and the evil dreams and the curses
w[m]mtt wmblt byd wbrgl dl tqrwb l lmydwkt and the vows and may be bound the mevakkalta and
the lilith and the excommunicated one and the
abolished one in her hands and in her feet so that
she may not approach her, mydwkt
bt kwmbwy wnytnr byth wntth wbn wqnynh ddynwy 12 daughter of kwmbwy and may be protected the
br y[s]pndr[myd] mn mbklt wlm bys wlwt [w]ndr house and the wife and the sons and the property of
myn dynwy son of yspndrmyd from the mevakkalta and
the evil dreams and the curses and the vows. Amen.

Notes to the text


l. 1) tmt wnrt sealing and protection. For these nomina actionis see bowl no. 1: 9.
l. 4) swy terrors. For the meaning of this word, to be related to Mandaic syw, see the hypothesis featured in
Epstein (1922, 53) and further developed in Ford (forthcoming a, bowl no. MS 2055/28). See also bowl no. 41: 14 of
this volume.

85 The reading of the text was carried out on a new photograph kindly supplied by the University of Pennsylvania Museum

of Archaeology and Anthropology.


54 texts

l. 5) mzyyl [wnw]ryyl wlyyl wmnryyl wtmyyl mzyyl and Nuriel and aliel and mnryyl and tmyyl. An
analogous list of angels is featured in bowl no. MS 2055/22: 2230. The angel Nuriel is quoted in two recently
published Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls in the Iraq Museum (nos. IM 212092: 6 and IM 212103: 7).86
l. 6) dnwn ytpqyd for they were commanded. In addition to the pronoun nwn spelled with - instead of h-
(Classical Syriac hnwn), note here the spelling of the 3rd person masculine plural perfect etpe. of the root pqd
without the final -w (not pronounced in Classical Syriac). For the elision of the // morpheme of the 3rd person
masculine plural perfect as well as in imperative plural voices in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls and Rabbinic
Babylonian Aramaic texts, see Morgenstern (2007, 269272).87
l. 8) bmh dr hyh in the name of r hyh. This magical name derives from Hebrew hyh r hyh.
l. 9) twt signs. For the occurrence of this term in Syriac bowls, see bowl no. 4: 6 and parallel texts.
lines 1011) mn mbklt wlm by wlwt wnydr wtytsr mbklt wllyt w[m]mtt wmblt dyd wbrgl dl tqrwb l from
the mevakkaltas and the evil dreams and the curses and the vows and may be bound the mevakkalta and the lilith
and the excommunicated one and the abolished one in her hands and in her feet so that she may not approach
her. A parallel sentence is documented in bowl no. 6: 13 of this volume.
lines 11, 12) mbklt the mevakkalta. For this evil being, see bowl no. 3: 3 of this volume.

86 al-Jubouri (2013, 62); al-Jubouri (2011, 26).


87 Moriggi (2004, 135).
bowl no. 7 55

Bowl no. 7 (CBS 16097)


BOWL NO. 8

Present location: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (on loan since 1999 from the University of
Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, CBS 2933).
Dimensions: 15.46.3cm.88
Remarks: this bowl, together with the others published by Montgomery in 1913, was unearthed during
the University of Pennsylvania Expedition in Nippur (first two campaigns, directed by Peters, 1888
1889). The bowls were among the antiquities then donated to the University of Pennsylvania by the
Sultan.89 As it proved impossible to obtain a new picture of this bowl from the institution it is loaned
to, the information supplied by Montgomery (1913, 326), i.e. that the bowl was broken and mended,
with about half of the two lines on the margin missing, is the only available source for the analysis
which follows.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives (e.g. mlk, l. 5), the
masculine plural demonstrative pronoun hlyn (l. 5), the 3rd person masculine plural suffix pronoun
(e.g. ymthwn , l. 5), and the 3rd person masculine plural imperfect pe. nyn (l. 6). A single dot is
marked above the 3rd person feminine singular suffix pronoun (e.g. l, l. 4).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: eight.
Drawings and other signs: according to the facsimile published by Montgomery, the bowl features
(presumably at the bottom) the drawing of a demon. His head, neck and eyes are evident. His hands
are bound to his feet.90
Clients: wrmyzdwk (quoted in line 7). A woman called wrmyzdwkt daughter of dwty is quoted in bowl
no. 41: 3 of this volume.
Contents: exorcism against an evil spirit labelled as murderess daughter of a murderess, dwryb, the
Strangler and the Slayer, responsible for hateful abortions and the death of children. The performer
of the exorcism is sent, commanded and strengthened by the ancient Mesopotamian gods ami, Sn,
Bl, Nannay, Nabu and Nergal and he has the power of casting away the spirit after offering her some
fat and drink at a marriage feast.91
Parallels: bowls nos. MS 1928/27 (Schyen collection); JNF 220, JNF 226 (private collection to be pub-
lished by Ford).
Editions: Montgomery (1913: no. 36); Hamilton (1971: no. 8); Moriggi (2004: no. 8); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl
8 (reproduces Hamiltons reading).
Notes: Epstein (1922, 5455); Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270).
Photographs and facsimiles: Montgomery (1913, plate 32 facsimile by H. Frank); Hamilton (1971,
plate 7 copy of Montgomerys facsimile).

88 Montgomery (1913, 326).


89 Montgomery (1913, 13, 15).
90 A similar drawing is found in bowl no. 25. Apart from Vilozny (2012; 2013), drawings and iconography in incantation bowls

were described in Hunter (1998) and Hunter (2000a, 170176). On the latter see Bhayro (2004, 392).
91 For the contents of this text and its parallels, see Ford (forthcoming a, bowl no. MS 1928/27) where further references are

found.
bowl no. 8 57

Bowl no. 8 (CBS 2933)92


[] wnzh rw brt rw tpyk [] [brt] mwt 1 [] and depart spirit daughter of a spirit, be
overturned [], daughter of death,
dhy qwlt brt qwlt pwq pwq wny mn qdm [] mry 2 who is a murderess daughter of a murderess, go out,
go out and migrate from before [] the Lord
my lk lny syn drny by pqdny nny mr ly wnbw 3 ami sent me against you, Sn sent me, Bl
mbyd[n] bynh wnyryg commanded me, Nannay told me and Nabu, I do his
will, and Nergal
yhb ly yl dzyl l l rw byt wl dwryb dqryn l 4 gave me the strength that I can go against her,
nqyt dql drq against the evil spirit, and against dwryb, whom they
call the Strangler who kills the children
bn dymthwn wmtqry mmtnyt wbyhwn mwbdn 5 in the bosom of their mothers and is called the
pwqy mn qdmyhwn dhlyn mlk Slayer and their fathers the Destroyers. Go out
from before these angels,
dnyn bn lymthwn wyld rym lbyhwn dm yhb 6 so that may live the sons for their mothers and the
ly dbh pqky rw byt pwq mn qdmy beloved children for their fathers, for I was given a
name by which I can make you go out, evil spirit. Go
out from before
[] wny mn hn tm tqyp wzyl lbyt lwl wkwl 7 [] and migrate from this mighty seal and go to the
[ym] wp nqwt yty w[ny mn] [] [wrm]yzdwk marriage feast and eat fat and also drink a libation
wmn bn and migrate from [] wrmyzdwk and from her
sons.
[]myn myn slh 8 Amen, amen, selah.

Notes to the text


If on the one hand it proved impossible to obtain a new photograph of this bowl, on the other the present writer
was fortunate in having access to a draft of Ford (forthcoming a), where the parallel Syriac bowl text no. MS 1928/27
is featured. With the help of this draft it was possible to propose new readings and/or corrections of the previous
editions of this text to a good degree of probability.

lines 34) my lk lny syn drny by pqdny nny mr ly wnbw mbyd[n] bynh wnyryg yhb ly yl ami sent me
against you, Sn sent me, Bl commanded me, Nannay told me and Nabu, I do his will, and Nergal gave me the
strength. Lists of ancient Mesopotamian deities (usually associated with the seven planets) are documented in
other bowls, e.g. the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. BM 91771: 45 (British Museum), where the text reads:
bymk nyny mrt dlm wbymk ystrh hwl {d}d rh mlk rb dyhwk wbymk my wsyn wnbw wdlybt wbyl wnryg wkywn
im Namen der Nannay, der Herrin der Welt und im Namen des! Itar, des Erzeugers der Erde, des groen Knigs
der Finsternis, und im Namen des ami und des Sin und des Nabu und der Dilbat und des Bel und des Nerig und
des Kewan.93 Analogous lists are in Mandaic lead rolls, e.g. Leroy lead roll: 2935 (syr nbw wsyr nyryg wsyr nny
bound is Nabu and bound is Nergal and bound is Nannay).94 ami, Bl and Nergal are quoted in a Syriac amulet
(no. Syriaque I: 4547, 54) published by Gignoux (1987, 1415).95 The spelling of the divine name by (Bl) recalls
analogous examples of fall of final l, well known to Jewish Babylonian Aramaic texts.

92 As it proved impossible to obtain a new photograph of the bowl, previous readings were checked and new ones proposed

using the facsimile published by Montgomery (1913, plate 32).


93 Editio princeps in Segal (2000, 7981). Reading and translation according to Mller-Kessler (20012002, 125). Another

interesting text, too long to be quoted here, is studied in Bohak and Levene (2012a, 6069). For a Mandaic incantation bowl
quoting Bel, Nabu and Nergal, see Morgenstern (2012, 167).
94 Mller-Kessler (2010b, 475).
95 See further Wesselius (1991, 711); Mller-Kessler (2000a, 313314); Mller-Kessler (1999c, 112113); Mller-Kessler (1998b,

85).
58 texts

l. 3) nny mr ly Nannay told me. The deity Nannay is a goddess of the ancient Mesopotamian pantheon. The
verb should thus read, in Classical Syriac, mrt. This text contains some variations in gender agreement of verbal
voices: see zyl for Classical Syriac zyly (l. 7) and kwl for Classical Syriac kwly (l. 7). In both instances one may also
hypothesise that the spelling simply reproduces the pronunciation of the quoted verbs, where the y is no longer
pronounced, even in Classical Syriac.
l. 3) mbyd[n] bynh I do his will. Though the caveats mentioned above must be kept in mind, this reconstruction,
based on the parallel text no. MS 1928/27: 8, fits in well here. Cf. Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270): wnbw qby[lny] wkbynh
wnyryg yhb ly yl Nabu empfing mich, und Kewan und Nerig gaben mir Kraft.
l. 4) dwryb. For the identification of this evil being, see Epstein (1922, 5455).
l. 4) nqyt the Strangler. This same evil being, apart from the parallel texts listed above, is quoted also in bowl
no. 2: 5, where it is coupled with pwgdt dywt the one who suffocates the animals.
l. 4) drq the children. The reading follows a suggestion by Ford (2012, 230231n40), who extensively dealt with
the shift [d] [] in incantation bowl texts.
l. 5) ymthwn their mothers. In this line and the next, is spelled instead of Classical Syriac h (see also byhwn ,
l. 6). For this phenomenon, see bowls nos. 1: 6 and 2: 6 of this volume.
l. 5) wmtqry mmtnyt wbyhwn mwbdn and is called the Slayer and their fathers the Destroyers. See the parallel
bowl no. JNF 226: 4, where it is read wmytqry mmtnyt wbywn mwbdn.
l. 6) wyld rym and the beloved children. Here the text of the parallel (no. MS 1928/27: 10) is used to correct the
previous reading: rqyq. 96
l. 7) [ym] fat. The reconstruction is based upon the parallel text no. MS 1928/27: 11. Fat is also quoted in the
Mandaic bowl no. YBC 2364: 21 (Yale Babylonian Collection): wmn tyrb l nwr rmyl and throws some of his fat
into the fire.97
l. 7) nqwt a libation. For this word and its Akkadian antecedents, see Van Rompay (1990, 375).

96 Cf. Hamilton (1971, 109a).


97 Reading according to Mller-Kessler (1996, 187, 190).
bowl no. 8 59

Bowl no. 8 (CBS 2933)


BOWL NO. 9

Present location: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia


(CBS 2943).
Dimensions: 176.5cm.98
Remarks: this bowl, together with the others published by Montgomery in 1913, was unearthed during
the University of Pennsylvania Expedition in Nippur (first two campaigns, directed by Peters, 1888
1889). The bowls were among the antiquities then donated to the University of Pennsylvania by the
Sultan.99 The bowl is in a bad state of preservation. Montgomery (1913, 326) already commented on it
as follows: broken and frequently repaired, much of the margin missing and a large part of the text
obliterated. The bowl seems to have suffered further deterioration since Montgomery analyzed it. It
is now made up of seven potsherds glued together. Three portions are missing, two near the rim and
one at the bottom of the basin. The ink has faded on half of the surface. Cracks and abrasions affected
one of the potsherds in such a way that it is no longer possible to detect what Montgomery read.100
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives (e.g. gnd, l. 6), the plural
participle qym yn (l. 8), the 3rd person masculine singular suffix pronoun in qdmw and ylwy (l. 8),
and the 2nd person masculine plural suffix pronoun in lkn (l. 7) and bwkwn (l. 10). A single dot is
marked above the 3rd person masculine singular suffix pronoun in [wb]nt (l. 2).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 11. The first three lines have almost completely faded or have been lost due to the
missing potsherd at the bottom of the basin. The beginnings of lines 511 have been scratched by
deep abrasions. Abrasions and fading of the ink have also damaged the last parts of lines 911.
Drawings and other signs: traces of a circle divided into four quarters by a cross are detectable at the
bottom of the basin. According to Montgomery (1913, 326) each segment contain[s] presumably
letters of the Tetragrammaton. Near the rim, traces of a circle surrounding the text are still visible.
Clients: zrwy (quoted in line 3).
Contents: for the contents of this bowl text, see bowl no. 14 of this volume. This text is shorter than the
parallel texts. No final formula is featured after the charaktres that, in this case, close the text.101
Parallels: bowls nos. 10, 14, 22, 23, 36 in this volume; MS 1928/16, MS 2055/4, MS 2055/5, MS 2055/7,
MS 2055/31 (Schyen Collection); JNF 230, JNF 231, JNF 232, JNF 237, JNF 240; Wolfe 25, Wolfe 27,
Wolfe 28 (private collections to be published by Ford). Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowls
nos. MS 2053/134, MS 2053/99 (Schyen Collection).
Editions: Montgomery (1913: no. 37); Hamilton (1971: no. 9); Moriggi (2004: no. 9); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl
9 (reproduces Hamiltons reading).
Notes: Epstein (1922, 5658); Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270); Ford (forthcoming a, bowl no. MS 2055/31).
Photographs and facsimiles: Montgomery (1913, plate 33 facsimile by H. Frank); Hamilton (1971,
plate 8 copy of Montgomerys facsimile).

98 Montgomery (1913, 326).


99 Montgomery (1913, 13, 15).
100 Maureen Goldsmith (University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology) kindly reported to the

present writer that, like many of the incantation bowls housed in Philadelphia, this specimen was mended many decades ago
using glues that stained the surface and tend to fall off when the artefact is handled. Furthermore, cleaning of the potsherds is
unlikely to improve the legibility of the inscription, as the ink used for the inscriptions generally dissolves in water and most
solvents (21.05.2012).
101 The nearest parallel to this text is the formula of bowl no. MS 2055/31 (Schyen Collection).
bowl no. 9 61

Bowl no. 9 (CBS 2943)102


[mzmn hn k]s [] 1 Prepared is this bowl []
[] []sqwpth (ntth) [wbnh wb]nt b(yrh) [] 2 [] the threshold, the wife and the sons and the
daughters, the cattle []
[] [wd]hwyn lh lzrwy [br] [] (m) byth [] 3 [] and that belong to him, to zrwy son of [] his
house []
[] b[yl] mylt dlh rz my [b]m[y] qbyr [] 4 [] by the power of the word of God. The mystery of
heaven in heaven is buried []
[] [r]zh dbyt hydyn n ymr l kwl dytbh l r[ w]l 5 [] the mystery of this house I say against all that is
mb[d] [] in it, against sorcery and against magical acts []
[] dptkrwt wl kwl gnd wl wmr wl ystrt wl kwl 6 [] of idolatry and against all troops (of demons)
[y]d t[qyp] [] and against amulet-spirits and against goddesses
and against all mighty demons []
[] wl kwl llyt tqypt pytgm hyd[yn] lkn mwyn 7 [] and against all mighty liliths. I declare this spell
dmqb[y]l yth b[t mk] [] to you: he who accepts it, find goodness []
[] [m]l rzy mlk rwgz tyn ylwy dsyp wrb 8 [] the spells of the mysteries, the angels of wrath
qdmw qym yn w[] come against him so that sabres and swords stand in
front of him and []
[] []l[]b[yt ]ty lwh dpytgm m ytyb bbyt kyl 9 [] the flame comes upon him. He who listens to
wmkyl t wmq d wmd [] the spell, sits in the house, eats and feeds, drinks and
pours drink, rejoices and causes joy []
[] [hw] wrm [ldyr] [] []b[r] ldrdq hw 10 [] he is and friend for the dwellers [] comrade for
wmrwbyn mytqr wt[] lbyr hw wg[d] mytqr lm the children he is and educator is called, companion
[q]byl mn bwkwn db[my] for the cattle he is and a genius of good fortune is
called. Accept peace from your father who is in
heaven
[w]b lm mn lh [d]ykr [wm]n []ystrt nyq[bt 11 and seven peaces from male gods and from female
d]mw lm zk [bdyn wd]mw byl bnwr mytql goddesses. The one who makes peace wins in
m[yn] charaktres judgement and the one who causes destruction is
burnt in fire. Amen. charaktres

Notes to the text


l. 5) hydyn this. The same form of the demonstrative pronoun is found in bowls nos. 25: 3 and 36: 2, 3 of this
volume. See the latter occurrence, where further references are provided.
l. 6) wl kwl gnd and against all troops (of demons). Geller (1977, 143) paralleled the term gnd (which he rendered
legions), with the class of demons mentioned in the Gerasene incident (Luke 8, 30).
l. 7) mwyn I declare. See the parallel occurrence of this form in bowl no. 10: 6, where further comments are
featured.

102 The reading of the text was carried out on a series of high-resolution colour pictures shot by Gianluca Buonomini, official

photographer of a team of researchers from the Universit di Pisa (Italy), headed by Prof. Alessandra Avanzini and coordinated
by Dr. Alessia Prioletta. During a survey of the South Arabian antiquities housed in the Museum, they kindly made this series
of pictures of bowl no. CBS 2943 on authors behalf. Thanks are due to Maureen Goldsmith and Dr. Katy Blanchard (University of
Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology) for successfully arranging this matter and for providing an accurate
restoration of this bowl.
62 texts

l. 7) yth: it (direct object). The use of the nota accusativi yt /yt/ to introduce the direct object of a transitive verb
is typical of the oldest textual witnesses of Classical Syriac, which spelled it yt. Nldeke ([1898] 1966, 217n1) stated
that im 4. Jahrh. war es vllig obsolet. Further recurrences of yt- are in bowls nos. 10: 6; 14: 6, 7 (reconstructed
reading); 22: 6 ( yth); 23: 6 (all parallel texts of bowl no. 9). For = //, see Moriggi (2004, 102).103 The nota accusativi
yt- is documented also in a Syriac amulet on leather (l. 13) published by Naveh (1997, 38).
l. 8) mlk rwgz tyn ylwy dsyp wrb qdmw qym yn the angels of wrath come against him so that sabres and
swords stand in front of him. In this sequence Montgomery (1913, 242) read wdsyp wrb and translated and with
sabres and swords, while Epstein (1922, 56) proposed to reconstruct an uncertain [b] thus reading [b]syp wrb.104
For further discussion of this sequence in parallel texts, see bowl no. 23 of this volume.
l. 10) mrwbyn educator. This word corresponds to Classical Syriac mrbyn /mrabbyn/ (see e.g. bowl no. 10:
9), which is spelled with w in this case, possibly because it was pronounced [mrubbyana]. Van Rompay (1990,
376), while commenting on this and other analogous recurrences in Syriac bowls of w = /a/ = [u], stated that this
orthography, instead of recalling the use of waw for qame, well known in Babylonian Aramaic, would rather be
the reflection of the shift of front and central vowels in closed syllables to short [u], a shift which occurs
mainly in the neighbourhood of labials. This is well attested in various Aramaic dialects but seems to be
particularly frequent in Eastern Aramaic.
One may find the word mrwby used also in a negative context, see e.g. the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no.
VA 3854: 56 (Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin), where a mrwby by (evil educator) is quoted.105

103 See further Mller-Kessler (2006a, 266).


104 Hamilton (1971: 110a) reproposed Epsteins reading.
105 Levene (2003b, 105, 108).
bowl no. 9 63

Bowl no. 9 (CBS 2943)


BOWL NO. 10

Present location: British Museum, London (BM 91712).


Dimensions: diameter 17; depth 7.7cm.106
Remarks: together with bowl no. BM 91739, this bowl was originally in the possession of Claude
Scott Steward and was then deposited in the British Museum in 1841. The site it was brought from
remains unknown.107 The bowl is well preserved. The internal surface of the vessel has suffered
from some abrasion at and in the neighbourhood of the bottom. A hollow on the surface seems
to have been created accidentally before the text was written on the bowl. The ink has faded and
has been scratched at the bottom of the basin and in the area around it. The rest of the text is well
preserved, and not too much damage seems to have occurred since the first editions of the bowl were
published.
Script: Estrangela. Seyame dots are marked above a good number of plural substantives and adjectives
(e.g. strt, l. 5; dykr, l. 5) and above the 2nd person masculine plural suffix pronoun in bwkn
(l. 9). A single dot is marked above the participles d, md, hw (l. 8) and mtqr (l. 9). Letter forms
displayed in the alphabet at the end of the text are sometimes different from those used in the
text.108
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 11. Lines 15 have mostly faded or have been scratched through abrasion. Lines 7
and 8 are interrupted by a hollow on the surface of the bowl. The scribe stopped writing before the
hollow and resumed after it. Neither Ellis (1853, 521522) nor Epstein (1922, 56) numbered the lines
of this bowl. Hamilton (1971, 112a) divided the text into nine lines, while Segal (2000, 147) counted 11
lines.109
Drawings and other signs: traces of a circle are detectable at the bottom of the basin. It is probable
that this circle enclosed (Hunter 2000a, 172) a four-petalled motif, which may be a cross, whose
remains are still visible. The text is surrounded by a speckled ouroboros drawn at the interior rim
edge (Hunter 2000a, 172).110
Clients: hwrmyz son of dwktyb (quoted in line 10).
Contents: for the contents of this bowl text, see bowl no. 14 of this volume. The sequence between ww
and yqdn (l. 9) is absent from parallels. No charaktres are found in the text (cf. bowls nos. 9: 11; 14: 10;
22: 10; 23: 10).
Parallels: bowls nos. 9, 14, 22, 23, 36 in this volume; MS 1928/16, MS 2055/4, MS 2055/5, MS 2055/7,
MS 2055/31 (Schyen Collection); JNF 230, JNF 231, JNF 232, JNF 237, JNF 240; Wolfe 25, Wolfe 27,
Wolfe 28 (private collections to be published by Ford). Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowls
nos. MS 2053/134, MS 2053/99 (Schyen Collection).

106 The height of the bowl is not provided by Hunter (2000b, 193).
107 Hunter (2000a, 163); Walker (2000, 35); Layard ([1853] 2002, 509). Even if it is not known where he found this piece of
information, it must be considered that, while dealing with the bowls published in Layard 1853, Schwab (1890, 297) reported
that these bowls (including the present one) proviennent [] des environs de illah.
108 Levy (1855, 468) described this bowl as in syrischer Schrift, die dem Estrangelo, besonders der Nestorianischen [] Schrift

gleicht. Chwolson (1882, 116) dated this bowl on the base of palaeography to a date preceding the manuscript no. BL Add 12150
(411 ad). His opinion is featured again in Schwab (1890, 318).
109 Moriggi (2004, 251) has Segals subdivision.
110 Apart from Vilozny (2012; 2013), drawings and iconography in incantation bowls were described in Hunter (1998) and

Hunter (2000a, 170176). On the latter see Bhayro (2004, 392).


bowl no. 10 65

Editions: Ellis (1853: no. 6); Hamilton (1971: no. 10); Segal (2000: no. 117ES); Moriggi (2004: no. 10); CAL:
no. SyrIncBowl 10 (reproduces Hamiltons reading).
Notes: Epstein (1922, 5658).
Photographs and facsimiles: Ellis (1853, 521 drawing); Segal (2000, plate 134 photograph).

Bowl no. 10 (BM 91712)111


mz[mn] [] 1 Prepared is []
[] mn k[w]l dby wsn yn (wmyn) [myn rz] 2 [] from everything that is evil and bad. Yes and
amen, amen. The mistery of
[my] b[m]y qbyr wr[]z r br[] [qbyr] [] 3 heaven in heaven is buried and the mystery of the
earth in the earth is buried []
[] n m[r]n [l k]wl mdy[m] [] wr[] [] w[l] 4 [] I say against everything [] and sorcery [] and
kwl zgnd [dp]tkr against all messengers of idol-spirits
wl kwl [] l kwl strt wl kwl sn tq[y]p wl kwl lly[t 5 and against all [] against all goddesses and against
tqy]pt dykr wnq[bt] all mighty satans and against all mighty liliths, male
and female.
ptg[m] {ptgm} [hn] lkwn mwyn dmqbyl yth bt 6 This spell to you I declare: he who accepts it, finds
mk wdby wl m[qbyl y]t myl wrz [t]yn [lwh]y goodness and he who is wicked and does not accept
the spells of the mysteries, sabres, swords come
against him,
syp r{y}b wqdmwhy qymyn wqlyn lh [nw]r hdr lh 7 and they stand in front of him and they kill him, the
wlbyt hdr [hollow in the surface of the bowl] fire surrounds him and the flame surrounds [hollow
wlbt npl lwhy wdptgm in the surface of the bowl] and the flame falls upon
him and he who listens to the spell,
m ytyb byb[yt] kyl wmw[kyl ]t wmq d wmd 8 he sits in the house, eats and feeds, drinks and pours
ln hw wrm [hollow in the surface of the bowl] drink, rejoices and causes joy, brother for the people
ldyr byt br ldrdq hw he is and friend [hollow in the surface of the bowl] for
the dwellers of the house, comrade for the children
he is
wmrbyn mtqr wt l[b]r hw wgd b mtqr ww 9 and educator is called, companion for the cattle he
wmw myl bwkn wl twwn mwl dnwrh np is and a genius of good fortune is called. Obey and
lykwn wlbyth yqdn listen to the words of your father and do not neglect
(them), because his fire blows against you and his
flames burn.
[ty]mw wnr[w] byt hdyn [d]hwrmyz br dwktyb 10 Seal and protect this house of hwrmyz son of
wyn wmyn myn sl bbggd dhh ww zz yy kk dwktyb and yes and amen, amen, selah. bbggd dhh
kllmmnn s ss pp qq ww zz yy kk kllmmnn s ss pp qq
rr t qt ttttt 11 rr t qt ttttt

Notes to the text


Although this text has been published four times in its entirety, a new series of excellent photographs kindly put at
the authors disposal has offered the opportunity to thoroughly read even the tiniest traces of letters on the surface

111 The reading of the text was carried out on a new photograph of the bowl supplied by Dr. St John Simpson (British

Museum) and especially on a series of high-resolution colour pictures shot by Dr. Matthew Morgenstern (University of Tel
Aviv). Reconstructions and new readings are mostly based on Morgensterns excellent photographs.
66 texts

of the bowl. The new pictures were thus fundamental to obtain the readings featured here, and in most cases they
allowed for the solution of puzzling sequences proposed in previous editions.

l. 5) wl kwl sn tq[y]p and against all mighty satans. Previous editions read wl kwl yd tqyp (and against all
powerful demons) but the photograph clearly shows the word sn. For the shape of the grapheme s, see syp
(l. 7). Parallel texts featuring sn tqyp in the same position in the text are nos. 22: 5; 23: 6 in this volume and nos.
MS 2055/7: 7; MS 1928/16: 8; MS 2055/5: 6; MS 2055/4: 6.
l. 6) ptg[m] {ptgm}. This dittography points to the still undecided matter of the bowls as being based upon a
written model or not. In the present authors opinion the issue is to be addressed as suggested by Shaked (2011,
204), who stated:
our examples cannot decide the issue between oral or written transmission. There can hardly be a doubt to
my mind that both forms of transmission played a role in the communication of incantations.
l. 6) mwyn I declare. Most of the parallels have mw in this position, see bowls nos. 14: 6; 22: 6; 23: 6 in this
volume and nos. MS 2055/7: 7; MS 1928/16: 8; MS 2055/5: 7; MS 2055/4: 7. In bowl no. 9: 7 the same form mwyn is
found.
l. 6) yth it (direct object). For the use of the nota accusativi yt /yt/ (Classical Syriac yt) in Syriac bowls, see bowl
no. 9: 7.
l. 7) r{y}b swords. In this case the scribe began to write a p, but realized that he was writing the wrong letter
and traced the b beneath the loop of the p without crossing the latter out.112
l. 9) l[b]r for the cattle. The reconstruction is based upon the traces of letters. The scribe seems to have begun
writing a g and then have traced a b without crossing out the lower stroke of the g. Epstein (1922, 58) already
noticed that lgr est srement une erreur du dessinateur pour lbr.113
l. 9) ww wmw myl bwkn wl twwn mwl dnwrh np lykwn wlbyth yqdn Obey and listen to the words of your
father and do not neglect (them), because his fire blows against you and his flames burn. This part of the formula
is absent from the published parallel texts and also from the unpublished texts to which I have had access.
l. 10) hdyn this. As for the morphology of this demonstrative pronoun, see Nebe (2006, 253254).
lines 1011) A doubly written alphabet closes the text. See bowls nos. 14: 13; 49: 8 (doubly written); MS 2055/1: 12
(doubly written) for further instances of alphabets closing the text in Syriac incantation bowls. See bowl no. 28:
8 for the alphabet written twice in the body of the text. According to Harviainen (1993, 33) since all the words,
the helpful as well as the evil ones, are included in the alphabet, the last circle with the alphabet renders the
incantation completed.114

112 See bowl no. 49 for a good number of false starts.


113 See Naveh and Shaked (1985, 129130).
114 See further Harviainen (1995, 53).
bowl no. 10 67

Bowl no. 10 (BM 91712)


BOWL NO. 11

Present location: Iraq Museum, Baghdad (IM 59098).


Dimensions: 16.55.2cm.115
Remarks: according to the information supplied in Teixidor (1962, 52), the bowl was acquired in Najaf.
The specimen was well preserved at the time when the editio princeps of the text was published, but
most of the ink had faded due to abrasion of the earthenware. Teixidor (1962, 52) further observed
that only the last three lines are legible.
Script: Estrangela. Seyame dots are marked above the 2nd person masculine plural independent per-
sonal pronoun ntn (l. 8), the 3rd person masculine singular suffix pronoun (lbn, wlqnyn, l. 9) and
some plural substantives (e.g. dyw, l. 9). According to Hunter (1989, 91) the script of this bowl is sim-
ilar with the one of a Syriac inscription (no. VIII) on an ostrakon found in Dukakin caves (near Najaf,
southern Iraq), which she labelled Nestorian.
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 10. The distribution of the text presented here is based on the photograph. Teixidor
(1962, 52) has a different distribution, which was accepted by Hamilton (1971, 113a113b) for his
transliteration and translation. In his facsimile Hamilton (1971, plate 9) arranged the text in 12 lines.
In Moriggi (2004, 252253) Teixidors reading is taken up again. The first seven lines of text, with the
exception of a few letters, have completely faded.
Drawings and other signs: the text is surrounded by a circle.
Clients: qmdyn son of bwrzkw (quoted in lines 3, 8 and 9).
Contents: protection of the family and property of the client.
Parallels: .
Editions: Teixidor (1962, 5253); Hamilton (1971: no. 11); Moriggi (2004: no. 11); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 11
(reproduces Hamiltons reading).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Teixidor (1962, plate 1, no. 1 photograph); Hamilton (1971, plate 9
facsimile).

Bowl no. 11 (IM 59098)116


[] qmy [] 1 [] amulet []
[] 2 []
[] qm[d]yn [br bwrzkw] [] 3 [] qmdyn son of bwrzkw []
[] 46 []
[] myn 7 [] amen,
sl ntn mlk nrw [] dqmdyn br bwrzkw 8 selah. You angels protected [] of qmdyn son of
bwrzkw

115 Teixidor (1962, 52).


116 The reading of the text was carried out on a series of enlarged and reworked versions of the picture published by Teixidor
(1962, plate 1, no. 1) and on the facsimile featured in Hamilton (1971, plate 9).
bowl no. 11 69

wlbn wlntth wlqnyn dqmdyn br bwrzkw mn rw 9 and for the sons and for the wife and for the
wyd wdyw wllyt wmn [r] wmn mbd wmn property of qmdyn son of bwrzkw from spirits and
demons and devils and liliths and from sorcery
and from magical acts and from
brtql dqry bh()n myn myn sl hllywyhy hllywyhy 10 the voice that invokes in this (?). Amen, amen, selah,
hllywyhy myn myn hallelujah, hallelujah, hallelujah, amen, amen.

Notes to the text


The author was unable to obtain a new photograph of this bowl from the Iraq Museum (Baghdad). The photograph
published by Teixidor was thus used to check the readings featured in his edition and to improve the analysis of
the whole text. It is hoped that a new photograph and direct check will provide improvements in the study of this
bowl.

l. 8) nrw they protected. See bowl no. 2: 7, where [ml]k mnrn (the protector-angels) are quoted.
l. 10) The sequence brtql dqry is paralleled in the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. CBS 2920 (= Montgomery
1913: no. 16: 10) by btql dqryh, which Levine (1970, 356) rendered the mysterious voice that cries out. See also the
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. C: 89 (Geller 1980, 54, 56), parallel to bowl no. CBS 2920, where btql dqryh
(the Bat Qol who calls him) is read.
l. 10) bh()n in this (?). Apart from the , the reading is certain. The hypothesis here is that we may have a
demonstrative pronoun hn (this) with misplaced .
70 texts

Bowl no. 11 (IM 59098)


BOWL NO. 12

Present location: Iraq Museum, Baghdad (IM 50327).


Dimensions: 198cm.117
Remarks: according to the information supplied by Teixidor (1962, 53) this bowl comes from Tell
Ramadi (near Najaf). As far as the photograph allows us to see, the bowl is well preserved. The ink
has faded in some places. Teixidor (1962, 53) pointed out that only a bit more than half of each one
of the ten first circles is legible.
Script: Estrangela.
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 11. This number must be taken with reservations, as the photograph shows only part
of the basin of the bowl. Teixidor alluded to the ten first circles (see above), thus admitting that the
total might be greater. Hamilton (1971, 150) read some words in lines 8, 9 and 11. Fading of the ink and
scratches have damaged the text of lines 1, 3, 78, 11.
Drawings and other signs: a circle is drawn at the bottom of the basin.
Clients: ym daughter of md (quoted in lines 3, 45, 10). The name ym (and its variant ymy) is found
also in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls nos. B: 2, IM 5467: 1 (m), National Museum Washington
207963: 11, IM 9732: 2 (ymy).118
Contents: protection from sorcery and sorcerers operating against the client. The angels that revealed
the mysteries of their Lords in a bond of eternity and the Day of Judgement are quoted.
Parallels: .
Editions: Teixidor (1962, 5354); Hamilton (1971: no. 12); Moriggi (2004: no. 12); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 12
(reproduces Hamiltons reading).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Teixidor (1962, plate 4, no. 7 partial photograph); Hamilton (1971, plate 10
facsimile).

Bowl no. 12 (IM 50327)119


mzmn [hn] qmy lkyb wlswr dkwl 1 Prepared is this amulet for the pressing and for the
binding of all
ry byy wdwbdy snyn wdgbry w ny dbd nwn 2 evil sorcery and of hateful magical acts and of the
men or women who performed them
lhdmy (l)p[gr] [] lym bt md ry 3 to the limbs, to the body [] to ym daughter of
md evil
byy bwm [] wntkbwn kwl ry dbdw lh dbdyn lh 4 sorcery. In the name of [] and pressed are
lym all sorcery that they performed to her, that they
perform to her, to ym

117 Teixidor (1962, 53).


118 Gordon (1934a, 324325); Gordon (1934b, 467, 471); Gordon (1937a, 93, 95); Gordon (1941, 121122). See further Hamilton
(1971, 150) and literature quoted there.
119 The reading of the text was carried out on a series of enlarged and reworked versions of the picture published by Teixidor

(1962, plate 4, no. 7) and on the facsimile by Hamilton (1971, plate 10).
72 texts

bt md [] mw [end of photograph] myly mlky 5 daughter of md [] they listened to [end of


dglwn rzy mryhwn bsr photograph] the words of the angels that revealed
the mysteries of their Lords in a bond of
lm (zlwm) byz[qth] [end of photograph] [] byd 6 eternity () by the signet ring of [end of photograph]
llhwn d d(l)ty ywm ddyn l ntpr [] performed to their god, until it comes the Day of
Judgement he will not take vengeance
mynhwn [end of photograph] [] [m] pytgm hdyn 7 from them [end of photograph] [] he listens to
(blyltn qrbt )[end of photograph] this spell (), you/she approached (?) [end of
photograph]
[end of photograph] lwhy wbd ryn wrz l[end of 8 [end of photograph] against him, the performer of
photograph] sorcery and the mystery to [end of photograph]
[end of photograph] [b]wm l dytyb l yy bwt [end 9 [end of photograph] in the name of the god who sits
of photograph] upon the brightness of ebaot [end of photograph]
[end of photograph] [ym] bt md wrz mn sym [end 10 [end of photograph] [ym] daughter of md and the
of photograph] mystery from the placing (?)[end of photograph]
[end of photograph] [..] mmll t[] 11 [end of photograph] [..] the speech/voice (?) []

Notes to the text


The present author was unable to obtain a new photograph of this bowl from the Iraq Museum (Baghdad). The
photograph published by Teixidor was thus used to check the readings featured in his edition and to improve
the analysis of the whole text. Despite having a picture showing a good portion of the formula in the area
around the bottom of the basin, Teixidor limited himself to reading a few words in the first lines of text. Hamilton
(1971, 114a) in his turn drew an excellent facsimile of the text, but he too read only the words already singled out
by Teixidor in the transliteration, while he listed some other words in lines 8, 9 and 11 in the commentary (150).120
The photograph shows only a part of the text, and this hinders the thorough reading and understanding of its
contents. It is hoped that a new photograph and/or direct check will provide improvements in the study of this
bowl.

l. 9) [b]wm l dytyb l yy bwt in the name of the god who sits upon the brightness of ebaot. The sentence
recalls an analogous sequence in the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. Wolfe 10: 5 (private collection to
be published by Ford), where it is read: bmy dl y dqym wytyb l yy bwt in the name of the living God
who stands and sits upon the brightness of ebaot. Cf. Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. CBS 16007: 45 (=
Montgomery 1913: no. 7). Mller-Kessler (2005, 150) referred the spelling bwt to the mandischen Schreibung
bwt.
l. 11) mmll the speech/voice (?). Again, the lack of context does not allow for further continuing of the interpreta-
tion of the text. Hamilton (1971, 150) joined the traces of the following -t to this word, thus obtaining mmllt, which
he explained through the closest Syriac equivalent [] mmllwt speaking, discourse.

120 Moriggi (2004, 253) reproduced previous readings.


bowl no. 12 73

Bowl no. 12 (IM 50327) (partial view)


BOWL NO. 13

Present location: Iraq Museum, Baghdad (IM 41382).


Dimensions: 166cm.121
Remarks: as to the provenance of this bowl Teixidor (1962, 54) reported that: The Catalogue does not
indicate its origin. It may be remarked here, together with Gordon (1941, 348), that the magic bowls
that are steadily chanced upon by the Iraqian fellain often find their way into the Iraq Museum. The
bowl is well preserved. The surface of the vessel has suffered from abrasion at the internal bottom
and thus the first seven lines of the text are damaged. Some fading in the ink occurred near the rim.
As for the rest of the basin, the ink does not seem to have faded significantly since Teixidor read
it.
Script: Estrangela. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives and adjectives (e.g. db [ny]
sn, lines 78), the plural participle b dyn (l. 8) and the preposition qdm (l. 8). The script of this bowl
is characterized by considerable inconsistency. Even though Mller-Kessler (2006b, 122n16) suggested
that da unsere Kenntnis [] des Inhalts vieler Texte noch sehr unzureichend ist, erbrigen sich
vorschnelle Urteile ber die Qualitt der Schreiber oder der Verfasser dieser Texte, it leaps to the
readers eyes that the scribe is not well trained in the script he is using.
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral. Between
lines 1 and 2 and between lines 11 and 12 the scribe added some words above the main text. In line 14
the text is split into two parts by an empty space.
Number of lines: 14. The first seven lines have suffered greatly from the abrasion that effaced the clay
surface. Teixidor (1962, 54) counted 14 lines on the inner part of the bowl and four lines on the
exterior part above the border of the vessel.122 The reading of the new photograph allowed for a
new distribution of the contents of lines 12 and 13 compared to Mller-Kesslers.123
Drawings and other signs: a circle is drawn at the bottom of the basin and the text is surrounded by a
circle.
Clients: wrmyz son of mlpt (quoted in lines 3 wmwyz, 8 wrmywz, 9 2 times). The name
mlpt is possibly also quoted in bowl no. 33: 2 of this volume. As for br shd son of myn, the servant
and adversary of the client (quoted in lines 2, 910), its feminine equivalent is found in bowl no. 6:
12, 14 (btshd ) and in the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. MS 2053/251: 6 (Schyen Collection):
btshdy.124
Contents: invocation to angels for the protection of the client from the evil magical practices of a wicked
servant and members of the household. The seven holy angels are quoted but, due to the difficulties
of interpretation, only six names may be found in the formula: sryyl, nqyyl, kbyyl, mmyyl, skryyl,
blmyyl.
Parallels: .
Editions: Teixidor (1962, 54); Hamilton (1971: no. 13); Moriggi (2004: no. 13); Mller-Kessler (2006b: no. 3);
CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 13 (reproduces Hamiltons reading).

121 Teixidor (1962, 54).


122 See Mller-Kessler (2006b, 122). Unfortunately it was not possible to obtain pictures of the external surface of the bowl.
123 Cf. Mller-Kessler (2006b, 122).
124 As well as its feminine counterpart, br shd may be considered a Christian name (son of the martyrs). See bowl no. 6 in

this volume for further references.


bowl no. 13 75

Notes: Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270).


Photographs and facsimiles: Teixidor (1962, plate 1, no. 2 photograph); Hamilton (1971, plate 11
facsimile).

Bowl no. 13 (IM 41382)125


mzmn hn rz 1 Prepared is this mystery
ltmt [d]br sh[d] br my[n] 2 for the sealing of br shd son of myn
bdh dwmwyz b[r] mlpt dmtqr 3 the servant of wmwyz son of mlpt who is called
(bt nwkr) bwm sryyl mlk d[sr] wl 4 bt nwkr. In the name of the angel sryyl who binds
and does not
r wbwm (sb) qdw lh lh [] (dry) kynth 5 untie and in the name of sb qdw lh lh [], whose
Divine Presence dwells (?)
l krwb dnwr wmtqn kwrsyh bmrwm l[y] [][yn] 6 upon cherubs of fire and His throne is established in
qdmwh the supreme heights [] before him,
wmsryn bd byd mrhwn wmksyn bn qdm bwhwn 7 and they bind the slaves into the hand of their lord
w[kbyn] bn db [ny] and they rebuke the sons in front of their father and
they subdue the powerful sons of sons
sn wbd db dyn qdm mrhwn wytybyn l bbh 8 and the slaves who perform (magic acts) in front of
dwrmywz br mlpt wl their lord, and they sit on the door of wrmywz son
of mlpt and on
syqpth wl grh {dh} dwrmyz br mlpt wkbyn bdh 9 the threshold and on the roof of wrmyz son of
dwrmyz br mlpt {br} br mlpt and they subdue the slave of wrmyz son
of mlpt, br
shd br myn wgyryh wbnh wl bqyn lmrq wyn drq 10 shd son of myn, and his hired-man and his sons and
wgyr wbr drqyn mtryn they do not allow (them) to flee. And the one who
flees and the hired-man and the son who flee, they
are let loose
lyhwn b mlk qdy sryyl dsr rglyhwn wnqyyl 11 upon them the seven holy angels: sryyl who binds
dnqy lhwn [] wkbyyl kby lhwn qdm their feet and nqyyl who gathers them (in sheaves)
[] and kbyyl subdues them in front
mrhwn mmyyl mm lh llbbyhwn wskry[yl] 12 of their lord, mmyyl makes their hearts serve him
s[]kyn lmgmr yh lqdmyhwn blmyyl blm lh and skry[yl], [] () in front of them, blmyyl
lnhwn dwm dwny dwmy dwny yh mtl lyhwn wyn muzzles their tongues for him, dwm dwny dwmy
dwny yh issues an oracle about them (?). And which
bd wbr wgyr drq skryyl lh lskr pmhwn wd l bynh 13 slave and the son and the hired-man who flees,
myth ntwn mlk qdy skryyl shuts up their mouth for him and until not
(according to) his will (will be) his coming (back)
(?). You (are) the holy angels
dbdyn rwt [empty space] mrhwn 14 who do the will of [empty space] their Lord.

125 The reading of the text was carried out on a new photograph of the bowl kindly supplied by Dr. Bahaa A. al-Jubouri

(Baghdad University).
76 texts

Notes to the text


A few sentences have been made clear and some lacunae of previous editions have been filled with the help of the
new photograph at authors disposal. When the transliteration and translation of this text were in their final draft,
the author was fortunate to have the opportunity to have them checked by Dr. James N. Ford (Bar Ilan University),
who kindly provided the author with his own reading and translantion. It must be recognized here that the lacunae
and difficult passages, especially in lines 2, 5, 6, 9, 12 and 13, have been filled and solved on the basis of Fords
suggestions.

l. 3) wmwyz. The name of the client of this bowl is spelled very inconsistently: wmwyz (l. 3); wrmywz (l. 8);
wrmyz (l. 9). This phenomenon may be ascribed to carelessness on the part of the scribe while inserting the
name in a text arranged in advance.126
l. 7) wmsryn bd byd mrhwn wmksyn bn qdm bwhwn and they bind the slaves into the hand of their lord and they
rebuke the sons in front of their father. The sentence is referred to the angels the bowl deals with in the formula.
As it is evident from the first lines, they are evoked to stop the evil magical attacks of the servant of the client and
here some exemplary actions are listed to show what they may do against (rebelling?) slaves, bad sons and wicked
descendants. The participle msryn is a masculine plural pa. with loss of the , which is not rare in Syriac bowls (see
e.g. nytsr, bowl no. 6: 10). One may also think of it as a participle of the root msr (pa. and aph. to scorn, accuse).
As to mksyn, it is postulated here that it is a participle masculine plural aph. of the root kss (see bowl no. 27: 2 for
further details).
l. 8) sn powerful. Considering the new photograph, together with Ford, this reading is preferable to Mller-
Kesslers (2006b, 123) qn.
l. 8) bbh his door. This word is not attested with this meaning in Syriac dictionaries. Its use may have been induced
by Jewish Babylonian Aramaic influence on this text.
l. 11) nqyyl dnqy lhwn nqyyl who gathers them (in sheaves). The root nq is not attested in Syriac, where we
find the corresponding root lq.127 Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, in contrast, well knows the root nq: pa. to gather,
to collect, used especially, but not exclusively, for agricultural products.128 Morgenstern (2004, 219) has pointed
out that: the shift of l n is quite well attested in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic []. In verbal roots, it occurs in
root-initial position in the common Talmudic form nq lq.129
l. 12) mm lh llbbyhwn he makes their hearts serve him. Mller-Kessler (2006b, 123) translated the same sequence
as dient ihren Herzen. The orthography of lbbyhwn recalls Jewish Babylonian Aramaic lbb (inner part).130
l. 12) mtl lyhwn he issues an oracle about them (?). The root l is translated here according to the meaning of
the ethpa. in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: to allow ones self to be inquired of; to answer, issue an oracle.131 As
to the loss of the , see msryn (l. 7).
l. 12) yn which. The stands in for . See the regular Classical Syriac form in l. 10 (yn).
l. 13) lskr he shuts up. This 3rd person masculine singular imperfect pa. voice of the root skr presents the
prefix l-, as in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, instead of Classical Syriac n-. The root skr (to shut) is used in Syriac
incantation bowls in various contexts: see bowls nos. 1: 67 (dsrpyhwn brq brq dnwr wsk[ryhwn] rpl dwk
because their shuttings are lightnings, lightnings of fire and their bolts are fogs of darkness), 27: 34 (lm mrt
ly mr qym drkybyn lm skwr kys skrn lywy br rnyndwk Why did you become hot (in anger) against me?
He said: I shall make to stand those riding. Why the one who shuts blames (and) did shut us, (viz.) ywy
son of rnyndwk?). See the angelic name skryyl in lines 12 and 13. While commenting upon a skull inscribed

126 For texts arranged in advance with temporary labels to be replaced, in the event of need, with clients names, see Gordon

(1937b, 107) and Hunter (1995b, 66).


127 Payne Smith ([1903] 1999, 244).
128 Sokoloff (2002, 773775).
129 See Mller-Kessler (2006b, 123124) and Mller-Kessler (2011, 241), where the root nq is also credited with the meaning

to hold, take with reference to some Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl texts.
130 Sokoloff (2002, 616).
131 Jastrow (18861903, 1507).
bowl no. 13 77

with an Aramaic incantation (no. B179a, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology,
Philadelphia), Levene (2006, 366) stated that:
the words []wm (name), sr (to bind) and skr (to block) that are present in my reading of it are all part
of the stock vocabulary of magic bowls.
78 texts

Bowl no. 13 (IM 41382)


BOWL NO. 14

Present location: Iraq Museum, Baghdad (IM 44107).


Dimensions: 185cm.132
Remarks: according to the information supplied by Teixidor (1962, 54), this bowl was acquired near
Kadhamain (North of Baghdad).133 The bowl is well preserved. It was originally broken into two parts
but the two halves were correctly glued together. The surface of the vessel does not seem to have
suffered much from abrasion. The ink has faded at the bottom and on one third of the internal surface.
On the whole the ink does not seem to have faded significantly since Teixidor read the text.
Script: Estrangela. Seyame dots are marked above a good number of plural substantives and adjectives
(e.g. rw byt, l. 10), the 3rd person masculine singular suffix pronoun (bn wbnt, l. 13), the 2nd
person masculine plural suffix pronoun lkn (l. 6), the plural participle [ytb]n (l. 8), the plural
demonstrative pronoun lyn (l. 12) and the two plural verbal voices tkmrn wz ylw (l. 11). The letter
forms featured in the text are in some cases different from those of the alphabet that closes the
text.
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 13. The first six lines have suffered greatly from the fading of the ink. Teixidor (1962,
54) counted 13 lines of which the first five are legible. Harviainen (1978, 89) in his turn counted 15
lines.134 In spite of having noticed that, in this bowl, there are five of thirteen lines legible, Hamilton
(1971, 204, 116a117b) arranged his transliteration and translation in nine lines. The reading of the new
photograph allowed for a new distribution of the contents compared to previous editions.
Drawings and other signs: the text is surrounded by a circle.
Clients: gwny daughter of qywmt (quoted in lines 12, 13).
Contents: the formula featured in this bowl is widely attested in Syriac incantation bowls (see parallels
below). Its outline is organized according to two themes: a) a mystery (i.e. a magical spell to
exorcize demons), which has its correlated mysteries buried in heaven and earth, is uttered against
the evil beings haunting the house and possessions of the client; b) if the evil entities accept the
mystery, they are allowed to stay in the house and become genius of good fortune (gd b).
If the demons do not accept the mystery, they are instead killed and burnt in fire. The hostile
entities are further encouraged to receive peace from their father who is in heaven and seven
peaces from gods and goddesses. This bowl further features charaktres and a long final adjuration,
which is also preserved, albeit only partially, in the Syriac bowl of the Finnish National Museum
(Helsinki) published by Harviainen (no. 22 in this volume). An alphabet comes at the end of the
text.135
Parallels: bowls nos. 9, 10, 22, 23, 36 in this volume; MS 1928/16, MS 2055/4, MS 2055/5, MS 2055/7,
MS 2055/31 (Schyen Collection); JNF 230, JNF 231, JNF 232, JNF 237, JNF 240; Wolfe 25, Wolfe 27,
Wolfe 28 (private collections to be published by Ford). Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowls
nos. MS 2053/134, MS 2053/99 (Schyen Collection).

132 Teixidor (1962, 54).


133 See Mller-Kessler (2005, 103).
134 Cf. Moriggi (2004, 254 15 lines).
135 The text of this formula has been given an effective description in Ford (forthcoming a). See Naveh and Shaked (1985,

126127).
80 texts

Editions: Teixidor (1962, 5456); Hamilton (1971: no. 14); Harviainen (1978: no. IMB); Moriggi (2004:
no. 14); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 14 (reproduces Hamiltons text with emendations from Harviainen).
Notes: Gorea (2004, 112, 114); Mller-Kessler (2005, 103); Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270).
Photographs and facsimiles: Teixidor (1962, plate 2, no. 3 photograph); Hamilton (1971, plate 12
facsimile).

Bowl no. 14 (IM 44107)136


[] 12 []
[] bmy qbyr [] 3 [] in heaven is buried []
qbyr [] mrn l kwl mdym [d]yt bh l [r] 4 is buried [] I say against all that is in it, against
sorcery
wl m[bd wl zgnd [] wl kwl rw byt wl kwl 5 and against magical acts and against messengers
wmr zydnt[] [] [] and against all evil spirits and against all wicked
amulet-spirits []
[] wnyqbt ptgm hn lkn mwn dmqbl yth bt 6 [] and female. I declare this spell to you: he who
mk accepts it finds goodness
wd[by] wl mqbyl y[t]h []t[yn] lwhy s[yp] {syp} 7 and he who is wicked and does not accept it, they
wrb wqdmwhy qymy[n] wqlyn lh nwr dr lh come against him, sabres and swords, and they
wlhbyt npl lwhy stand in front of him and they kill him, the fire
surrounds him and the flame falls upon him
wdptgm m w[ytb]n bbyt kyl [wmwk]yl t wmq 8 and he who listens to the spell, sits (lit. they sit) in
d wmd ln hw wrm ldr byt br ldrdq hw the house, eats and feeds, drinks and pours drink,
wmrbyn mytqr rejoices and causes joy, brother for the people he is
and friend for the dwellers of the house, comrade for
the children he is and educator is called,
wt lbyr hw wgd b mytqr [lm] q[by]lw mn 9 companion for the cattle he is and a genius of good
bwkwn dbmy wb w 7 lm mn lh dykr wmn ystrt fortune is called. Accept peace from your father who
dmw lm zk bdyn wdmw bl mytql is in heaven and seven and 7 peaces from male gods
and from goddesses. The one who makes peace
wins in the judgement and the one who causes
destruction is burnt
bnwr charaktres charaktres p ntyn r 10 in fire charaktres charaktres Moreover,
wwmr wllt wnbklt wd wdy wpg wlb wrw you, spirits and amulet-spirits and liliths and
byt wwmr mevakkaltas and demons and devils and misfortunes
and no-good-ones and evil spirits and wicked
amulet-spirits,
zydnyt ptkr dykr wstrt nyqbt wlwt wqrt wq ll 11 male idol-spirits and female goddesses and curses
dbzywn wywn wndr {wndr} wsgdt wlmt dlyyn and invocations and the shames of derisions (?) and
wmqpyn w[r]yn zw rw wtkrzw prw wpwqw wl harms and vows and (evil) worship and spells that
tkmrn wz ylw are cursed and battered and dissolved. Depart,
evaporate and be excommunicated, flee and go out
and do not return and go

136 The reading of the text was carried out on a new photograph of the bowl kindly supplied by Dr. Bahaa A. al-Jubouri

(Baghdad University).
bowl no. 14 81

lwr rwrb wlym dbyt wlbryt dbyt yk bd y 12 to the high mountains and to the sea of evil and to
dpwqdyn mrh l mqbyl wl nr bmht lyn dlh myn the desert of evil, just as the sinful servant who does
myn myn sl thw sywt l[gwny] bt qywmt[] not accept and does not observe the commands of
his master. In these names of God. Amen, amen,
amen, selah. May be healing to gwny daughter of
qywmt
[] bn wbnt dgwny myn myn myn sl bgd hwz 13 [] the sons and the daughters of gwny. Amen,
y klmnn sp qrtt myn myn myn slh amen, amen, selah. bgd hwz y klmnn sp qrtt.
Amen, amen, amen, selah.

Notes to the text


lines 6, 7) yth it (direct object). For the use of the nota accusativi yt /yt/ (Classical Syriac yt) in Syriac bowls,
see bowl no. 9: 7 in this volume.
l. 7) wd[by] wl mqbyl y[t]h []t[yn] lwhy s[yp] {syp} wrb wqdmwhy qymy[n] wqlyn lh and he who is wicked and
does not accept it, they come against him, sabres and swords, and they stand in front of him and they kill him.
The reconstruction proposed here is based on the new photograph. The sentence varies slightly from parallel
sequences in other Syriac bowls, where we can read wdby wl mqbyl ml rz tyn lwhy syp wrb wqdmh qymyn
wqlyn lh and he who is wicked and does not accept the spells of the mysteries, sabres and swords come against
him, and they stand in front of him and they kill him (no. 22: 67), wdby l mqbyl ml rz wmlk
rwgz tyn lwh wsyp
wrb wqdmwhy qymyn wqlyn lh and he who is wicked does not accept the spell of the mysteries, the angels of
wrath and sabres and swords come against him and they stand in front of him and they kill him (no. 23: 67) and
other variants.137 All variants featured in published Syriac bowls seem to present a series of slips and/or different
scribal choices if compared to unpublished Syriac bowls such as no. JNF 230: 89 (private collection to be published
by Ford), where the text reads mlk drwgz tyn lh kd lqyyn syp wrb wqdmh qymyn wqlyn angels of wrath will
come against him holding swords and sabres, and they will stand before him and slay (him).138 The traces of the
graphemes t and h of the word yth are quite clear in the picture of this bowl and the same applies to tyn and
lwhy.
l. 8) w[ytb]n sits (lit. they sit). The reading is not certain, but the word is clearly longer than ytyb, found in parallel
texts. Moreover, final -yn is clear in the picture. If my reading is correct, a scribal slip may explain this occurrence.
l. 9) lbyr for the cattle. The word byr stands in for Classical Syriac byr /br/ here and in most of the parallel
texts of this formula.139
l. 9) gd b mytqr a genius of good fortune is called. This translation is proposed in Ford (forthcoming a), where
further indispensable references are found.
l. 9) wb w 7 lm and seven and 7 peaces. The number seven is repeated twice, first with the word and then
with the numeral. An analogous occurrence of the number written with digits is in the Syriac bowl no. MS 2055/31:
10. In another Syriac bowl, no. Wolfe 27: 7, 13 (private collection to be published by Ford), both forms are used in
the spell, which is written twice: in the first occurrence the number is noted with digits, while in the second it is
represented by means of the word.140 The digits were not recognized in the previous editions of this text and the
signs were interpreted as the sequence -yn, to be completed with b = byn seventy. The peaces quoted in
the parallel texts are always seven.141 As to number seven put down in digits in Syriac incantation bowls, see
further bowls nos. 4: 10; 5: 12; 31: 11; 41: 12.
l. 10) nbklt mevakkaltas. The text is clear in this place, so that the spelling of this word may possibly indicate a
shift [m] [n], as in bowl no. 22: 11.

137 See bowl no. 23 in this volume for further details.


138 The passage is quoted from Ford (forthcoming a) by kind permission.
139 See Moriggi (2004, 159) and Mller-Kessler (2005, 149).
140 For the system of indicating digits in Old Syriac, Palmyrene and Hatran Aramaic inscriptions, see Ifrah (1984, 306312,

374382).
141 Cf. Harviainen (1978, 8, 10); Moriggi (2004, 254255). See the analogous digits employed in Old Syriac inscriptions (al-Jadir

2006, 4).
82 texts

l. 10) pg misfortunes. While commenting upon the text of the Mandaic lead roll no. BM 135794 II: 6, 8 (British
Museum) Mller-Kessler (2002b, 187) pointed out that: plg and pyg also occur often in lists of demons where
their meaning is difficult to determine. She thus decided that they should be left untranslated.142
lines 1011) wwmr zydnyt and wicked amulet-spirits. For this sequence see bowl no. 22: 11.
l. 11) q ll dbzywn the shames of derisions (?). The sequence is only partially attested to in the Syriac bowl no. 22: 11
(the closest parallel to this text). The reading of the second part as dbzywn is now confirmed by the new picture and
was already proposed by Teixidor (1962, 5556), Hamilton (1971, 116a) and Harviainen (1978, 9, 11, 23).143 According
to Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270) dbzywn means der Verspottung as the word bzywn is to be referred to the root bz
(pa. to mock, scoff at, insult).144 See [bwz] (bowl no. 16: 5), bwz (bowl no. 32: 3), bwz (bowl no. 38: 5) in this
volume and the commentary in Mller-Kessler (2005, 105).
l. 11) wsgdt and (evil) worship. For the corresponding root zgd used in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and Mandaic
bowls in alternation with sgd, see Ford (forthcoming a, Excursus 3) and literature quoted there. The variant plural
form msgwdyt is used in bowl no. 38: 5 of this volume.145
l. 11) zw depart. For this verbal voice, see bowl no. 1: 6.
l. 11) rw evaporate. For the meaning of this verbal voice, see Moriggi (2004, 194). The root r is attested as well in
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls where it is usually translated as to depart (Morgenstern 2013, 48).
l. 12) sywt healing. While discussing the connections between the practice of divorce as documented (against
demons) in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic incantation bowls and Talmudic text of bGit 67b70a, Levene (2003a, 181)
pointed out that:
as well as both being products of the same cultural environment they also share the same language, motifs
and concepts of magic/medicine. The common use of technical terminology is obvious. Examples are the
term swt which refers simultaneously, in both, to curing illness and the disposing of nuisance demons.
l. 13) For the alphabet closing the text, see bowl no. 10: 1011.

142 See further Mller-Kessler (2007, 79), where Jewish Babylonian Aramaic wmn pg by is translated und vom bsen Paga.
143 See also Harviainen (1981, 8).
144 Mller-Kessler (2012, 910); Payne Smith ([1903] 1999, 40).
145 See Mller-Kessler (2012, 15).
bowl no. 14 83

Bowl no. 14 (IM 44107) (partial view)


BOWL NO. 15

Present location: Iraq Museum, Baghdad (IM 23776).


Dimensions: 17.36.5cm.146
Remarks: as for the provenance of this bowl, Teixidor (1962, 56) reported that the place of its origin is
not indicated. The bowl is in a fair state of preservation; three fragments have been glued to the main
body of the vessel and only a small fragment is missing by the rim. The bowl seems to have suffered
greatly from abrasion, above all in the area near the rim, and fading of the ink is evident at the bottom
of the basin.
Script: Estrangela.
Text arrangement: the lines are placed around the centre of the bowl like the spokes of a wheel.
Hamilton (1971, 154) pointed out that the lines follow each other counter-clockwise.147
Number of lines: 36 (two short additional lines follow lines 17 and 19). Teixidor (1962, 57) proposed
an arrangement of the transliteration in 13 lines, specifying that it is mine without following that
of the bowl at all. Having arranged the transliteration and the facsimile of the text in the same way,
Hamilton (1971, 154) specified in his turn that the entire incantation is written in 36 short lines always
in a right to left direction. Due to abrasions and fading of the ink, lines 3, 11, 1215, 17, 19, 21, 2325 are
not completely legible and/or the text is lost.
Drawings and other signs: a circle is drawn at the bottom of the basin. Traces of a circle surrounding
the text are visible near the rim. A spectacles-like figure is drawn in line 18. In the middle of line 21
an X sign is marked. An analogous sign is found in the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. M131: 1
(Moussaieff Collection).148
Clients: ztzd son of bby (quoted in lines 2, 7, 17, 3031); t (quoted in line 17).
Contents: sealing of the house of the client and abolishing of evil beings. The Lord of healings is quoted
and there is a series of magic words beginning with pq. Virgo, the sun, and the moon are featured,
together with an angel tqnws, the Great One, Asar ha-gadol who is called syn syn and the angel
hwyl.
Parallels: bowls nos. MS 2055/8, MS 2055/18, MS 2055/21, MS 2055/23 (Schyen Collection); JNF 211,
JNF 238 (private collection to be published by Ford). Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: nos. M131
(Moussaieff Collection);149 JNF 169, JNF 252 (private collection to be published by Ford).
Editions: Teixidor (1962, 5659); Hamilton (1971: no. 15); Moriggi (2004: no. 15); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 15
(reproduces Hamiltons reading).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Teixidor (1962, plate 2, no. 4 photograph); Hamilton (1971, plate 13
facsimile).

146 Teixidor (1962, 56).


147 See bowls nos. 33 and 40 in this volume for an identical text arrangement.
148 Levene (2009, 91).
149 Levene (2009, 9192). See Ford (2006, 210) for some improved readings in this text.
bowl no. 15 85

Bowl no. 15 (IM 23776)150


mzmn hn rz wtm 1 Prepared is this mystery and seal
lbyth [dzt]zd br bby 2 for the house of ztzd son of bby,
dntbl mnh kl mdym db[y] 3 that may be abolished from him everything that is
evil
wsn kl dyw 4 and bad, every devil
[wkl] ptkr wkl llt 5 and all idol-spirits and all evil liliths.
byt ntblwn mn byth 6 May they be abolished from the house
d[ztzd] br bb[y] myn bwm 7 of ztzd son of bby. Amen. In the name of
mryhyn dswt pq 8 the Lord of healings, pq
pq (m) pq 9 pq m pq
(lswnd) 10 magic words
l[n]ds p ks lbnw [] 11 magic words []
lb[] 12 magic words []
mysyh y[] 13 magic words
[] 14 []
[..] glw b[] 15 [..] make go into exile []
rw byt dyt bbyth 16 the evil spirit that is in the house
dztzd br bby wd[]t 17 of ztzd son of bby and of t
[bt] 17a daughter of
(..)p [spectacles-like figure] byn [dykr] 18 () [spectacles-like figure] whether male
wbyn nyqbt [lmdbr] 19 or female to a desert
[d] 19a desolated
wrwb myn s[lh] 20 and wasted. Amen, selah
hllwhy [an X sign is marked in the line] wbl[t] [] 21 hallelujah [an X sign is marked in the line] Virgo []
[m] 22 the sun
wsh[r] [] 23 and the moon []
n qryn[ tqnw]s 24 I invoke tqnws
mlk nwtn [] 25 the afflicted (?) angel []
wt[tqr]wn wttbrzwn rw byt[] 26 and may you be eradicated and may you be pierced
through, evil spirits,
ptkr 27 idol-spirits

150 The reading of the text was carried out on a series of enlarged and re-worked versions of the picture published by Teixidor

(1962, plate 2, no. 4) and on the facsimile by Hamilton (1971, plate 13).
86 texts

wwmr wllyt 28 and amulet-spirits and liliths,


[dy]kr wnyqb t dyt 29 male and female, that are
bbyth dztzd br 30 in the house of ztzd son of
bby bwm 31 bby. In the name
rb bwm srh gd(w)l 32 of the Great One, in the name of Asar ha-gadol
dmtqr s[yn] syn knwnyh 33 who is called syn syn, his appellation (?)
wbm[h] d 34 and in the name of
dh[w]yl mlk 35 of the angel hwyl.
myn myn slh hllwhy 36 Amen, amen, selah, hallelujah.

Notes to the text


While the transliteration and translation of this text were in preparation, the author was fortunate enough to
have the opportunity to check them against the parallel texts in the Schyen Collection, then being prepared for
publication by Ford. It is to be recognized that many of the choices featured here as regards reading, translation
and notes to the text were orientated by the work of the above mentioned scholar. The author was unable to obtain
a new photograph of this bowl from the Iraq Museum (Baghdad). The photograph published by Teixidor was thus
used to check the readings featured in his edition and to improve the analysis of the whole text. It is hoped that a
new photograph and/or direct check will provide improvements in the study of this bowl.

l. 8) mryhyn dswt the Lord of healings. See Gorea (2004, 112) who rendered the genitive construction Seigneur
des gurisons. Cf. the translation Lord of doctors proposed by Palmer (2005, 250).
lines 810) pq pq (m) pq (lswnd). The reading is based upon the parallel text no. MS 2055/21: 4, reading in this
passage: pyq m pyq lsnd. The sequence pq pq ym pq is featured also in the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl
no. M131: 1.151
l. 15) [] glw b[] [] make go into exile []. The sequence is proposed according to the parallel text no.
MS 2055/21: 6, where the form glw is found. Here the Classical Syriac voice glw is clearly detectable on the surface
of the basin.
lines 1920) [lmdbr] [d] wrwb to a desert desolated and wasted. See the sequence lmdbr dy wwrb, which is
read in bowl no. MS 2055/21: 7.
lines 2225) As regards lines 1113, the traces of letters detectable in this section of the bowls surface may allow for
the reading of some of the words attested in the parallel bowl no. MS 2055/21: 8, where we read: wtyn m wsyhr
wkym lky n qryn tqnws mlk nwtn.
l. 26) ttbrzwn may you be pierced through. The meaning of the root brz in the sense of to pierce through does
not seem out of place here, although the parallels sometimes have tybdrwn in the same place (see e.g. bowl no.
MS 2055/23: 8).152
lines 3133) bwm rb bwm srh gd(w)l dmtqr s[yn] syn knwnyh In the name of the Great One, in the name of Asar
ha-gadol who is called syn syn, his appellation (?). Thanks to the help of the parallel bowl no. MS 2055/21: 10, it is
now possible to read this text completely. The term knwnyh is considered by Ford (forthcoming a) as a corruption
of kwnyh in the sense of his appellation.
l. 35) h[w]yl mlk. This angel is quoted in a variety of spellings in the parallel texts of the Schyen Collection:
wyyl (bowls nos. MS 2055/21: 10 and MS 2055/8: 7); []wyyl (bowl no. MS 2055/23: 9). The text seems to read
mlz (for mlk) in this line.

151 Levene (2009, 91).


152 See further Sokoloff (2002, 242b).
bowl no. 15 87

Bowl no. 15 (IM 23776)


BOWL NO. 16

Present location: Iraq Museum, Baghdad (IM 60960).


Dimensions: 18.67cm.153
Remarks: as reported by Teixidor (1962, 59), this bowl was bought in Nippur. The bowl is well preserved.
It was broken but has been successfully restored. It is now made up of 6 potsherds glued together.
A fragment is missing in the area near the rim. As already pointed out by Teixidor (1962, 59), the
text appears very deteriorated due to the fact that the ceramic is very porous and so the ink has
been obliterated. The text is visible only through scanty traces of letters in the area near the internal
bottom and by the rim. On the whole the ink has for the most part badly faded.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are used above some plural substantives (e.g. mlk, l. 10) and on the
3rd person masculine singular suffix pronoun (e.g. bn, l. 9; ytb, l. 12). A single dot is marked above
the in (m) (l. 7).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 16. Hamilton (1971, 119a and plate 14) and the present author (2004, 257258) presented
only the eight passages of lines clearly visible on the basin according to Teixidor (1962, 5960). The
fading of the ink has affected almost the whole text and only small parts of it are still clearly visi-
ble. The first five lines of the formula are totally reconstructed. Some differences are noticeable
between the distribution of the text in the reading of Mller-Kessler (2005, 148) and in that featured
here, especially in lines 8, 11, 12, 15, 16.
Drawings and other signs: a circle is drawn at the bottom of the basin; it is no longer possible to see
what was depicted in it.154 Traces of a circle surrounding the text are visible near the rim.
Clients: son of prwrmyz (quoted in lines 2, 9, 13, 14).155
Contents: protection of the house, wife, sons, daughters, cattle, grain and belongings of the client. As
for the analysis of the formula, see bowl no. 32.
Parallels: bowl no. 32 in this volume. Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: Borsippa bowl (Harviainen
1981). Parallels in Mandaic: Khuzistan lead roll incantations b, c (Greenfield and Naveh 1985), Mandaic
lead roll M1, from the Macuch legacy (Mller-Kessler 1998a, 337341).
Editions: Teixidor (1962, 5961); Hamilton (1971: no. 16); Moriggi (2004: no. 16); Mller-Kessler (2005:
no. 3A); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 16 (reproduces Hamiltons reading).
Notes: Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270).
Photographs and facsimiles: Teixidor (1962, plate 3, no. 5 photograph); Hamilton (1971, plate 14
facsimile).

Bowl no. 16 (IM 60960)156


mzmn h[n] qm l[swt] 1 Prepared is this amulet for the healing,
tmt wnr[t] d[ br] p[rw]rm[y]z 2 the sealing and the protection of son of
prwrmyz,

153 Teixidor (1962, 59).


154 Cf. Mller-Kessler (2005, 148 zwei Kreise auf dem inneren Boden).
155 For the name ypr / pr hwrmyz, see Goodblatt 1976.
156 The reading of the text was carried out on a series of enlarged and re-worked versions of the picture published by Teixidor

(1962, plate 3, no. 5) and on the facsimile by Hamilton (1971, plate 14).
bowl no. 16 89

b[yt]h nt[t]h bn [wbnt] [] b[y]rh 3 his house, his wife, his sons and his daughters
[] his cattle
[] [gzyryn rymyn wmmtyn] syryn [] kwl 4 [] Cut, banned and excommunicated, bound are
[] all
l[wt] nydr wq[rw]t w[t qll bwz] yyn d[p]tkr 5 curses, vows and invocations, outcries, shames,
[][d](lh) wmllt derisions (?), the harms of idol-spirits [] of gods
and the word
dnyqbt nwsy dqybl[] w[] by[l] wm(wr dbryt) 6 of women, the attempts of the (evil) accusers (?) and
w[bk]yt dygr [] the ways and the guardians of the desert (?) and
the weeping of the roofs (?)
wbt q[l] d(m) yy b[] dyb wl dqrnt r dr 7 and the sound of the name yy [] of the jug and
wsgy the (whispered) incantation of the corners (?), the
run of midnight (?) and the multiplicity
dmwmt mmt dlly [wyzwn dymm wny] [] 8 of adjurations, the excommunications of the night
nkmrwn wnplwn l mryhwn qryhwn wl bdnyhwn and the visions of the day and []. May they
return and may they fall upon their lords, their
invocators and against their performers
wmdrnyhwn wntblwn [] d br prwrmyz byth 9 and their senders and may they be abolished [] of
ntth bn wbnt wqnynh son of prwrmyz, his house, his wife, his sons and
his daughters and his property.
byd[yyl] [] bprwm syn wbbb 10
bmykwn rb mlk In your name, four angels, by ydyyl [], by the
tqyp nhw pwrn wmyr bynwt powerful prwm and by the mighty bb. May he be
separation and distinction between
by wltb nwn nnrwnh wn[] nwr [wm]gyn 11 evil things and good things. They preserve him and
mksyn[yt] wnwn nnrwn n[k]lwn[] wnprzwn [] protectors and covering shields and they
preserve him, prevent him and keep away him
mn [y]n byt wmyn mskyt [symt] wmn (y)b 12 from the Evil Eye and from the envious glance
(lyb) wmn mlt lyn (lh) byt wytb lyn bb and from the plotting of the heart and from the word
of the tongue, his followers (?), the house and its
inhabitants, the ones entering the door
wslqyn gr bwrh q[lh] [] syr wtym wbyth 13 and the ones going up on the roofs, the grain, the
wnt[th wbn wbn]t bzqt my wtm field [] Bound and sealed is and his house and
his wife and his sons and his daughters by the signet
ring of heaven and the seal of
sdn dr mn kwl dyw my w[n]p [] bwm r[r ] 14 the anvil of the earth from all dirty and impure
rmw [] [tw]b syr [w]tym devils [] In the name of rr [] () [] Again
bound and sealed is
bzqth dlwm rb qmy (bb) kby [] wtmt y lhy 15 by the signet ring of the great primeval lwm, by b
n[] ysy[s] []q the press (?) [] and the sealing. My living God (?)
[] () []
wsrwdyn myn myn slh 16 and fears. Amen, amen, selah.

Notes to the text


The author was unable to obtain a new photograph of this bowl from the Iraq Museum (Baghdad). The photograph
published by Teixidor was therefore used to check the readings featured in Mller-Kessler (2005, 148), which
is largely based on the parallel text of bowl no. 32. Some changes have been introduced in the present study.
90 texts

They mostly concern text distribution in lines and the deletion of Mller-Kesslers reconstructions when not fully
justified by traces of letters and/or space on the surface of the bowl. It is hoped that a new photograph and/or
direct check of the text will provide fundamental improvements in the study of this bowl.157

l. 1) [swt] healing. For this term in incantation bowls, see bowl no. 14: 12.
l. 3) b[y]rh his cattle. As in bowl no. 32: 9, here the word for cattle may be observed (Classical Syriac byr) written
without the . See Moriggi (2004, 119).
lines 56) l[wt] nydr wq[rw]t w[t qll bwz] yyn d[p]tkr [][d](lh) wmllt dnyqbt nwsy dqybl[] w[]
by[l] wm(wr dbryt) w[bk]yt dygr curses, vows and invocations, outcries, shames, derisions (?), the harms of
idol-spirits [] of gods and the word of women, the attempts of the (evil) accusers (?) and [] the ways and the
guardians of the desert (?) and the weeping of the roofs (?). The same sentence is quoted in bowl no. 32: 34, with
minor variations.
l. 5) [bwz] derisions (?). For the meaning of this word, see bowl no. 14: 11 and literature quoted there.
l. 5) yyn the harms. For the meaning of this term, see bowl no. 32: 34 and the discussion featured there.
l. 6) m(wr dbryt) the guardians of the desert (?). The reading of this passage is mostly based upon the parallel
bowl text no. 32: 45, which at this same point has qr dbryt. The translation is a mere guess. Mller-Kessler (2005,
148) proposed die Bewacher der Gassen.
l. 6) w[bk]yt dygr the weeping of the roof (?). In spite of the difficulties of reading, the reconstruction by
Mller-Kessler (2005, 148) seems plausible here. Bowl no. 32: 5 has here sky dgr.
l. 7) dyb of the jug. The term ()y(b)y is quoted in a list of evil beings in the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl
no. M1: 6 (Moussaieff Collection): mn rw ()y(b)y mn rw mzryby mn rw by qbry from the spirit of jugs; from
the spirit of drain-pipes; from the spirit of the cemetery.158
l. 7) r dr the run of midnight (?). For this sequence (in which is used instead of Classical Syriac h), see bowl
no. 32: 5 and discussion featured there.159
lines 78) wsgy dmwmt and the multiplicity of adjurations. Cf. Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270) who translated und
die Praxis des Eides.
l. 8) nkmrwn may they return. For this verbal voice, see bowl no. 32: 5.
l. 8) bdnyhwn their performers. For this nomen actoris derived from the pe. active participle added with the suffix
/-n/, see Mller-Kessler (2002c, 98).
l. 10) bynwt between. See Palmyrene Aramaic bynwt in Hoftijzer and Jongeling (1995, 154).
l. 12) (y)b (lyb) the plotting of the heart. An analogous sequence is featured in bowl no. 32: 8. See discussion
and literature quoted there.
l. 13) bwrh his grain. For bwrh instead of Classical Syriac bwrh, see bowl no. 32: 9.
l. 14) sdn dr the anvil of the earth. See bowl no. 32: 10 for further information as regards this theme in incantation
bowls.
l. 15) bzqth dlwm rb qmy by the signet ring of the great primeval lwm. See bowl no. 32: 11 for further references
to this entity in incantation bowls. For the signet ring, see bowl no. 6: 8. The spelling of the adjective qdmy reflects
the assimilation of /d/ as is usual in the Babylonian Talmud.
l. 16) wsrwdyn fears. See bowl no. 23: 3 (srwdt) and discussion featured there.

157 The same view is featured in Mller-Kessler (2005, 149).


158 Transliteration and translation by Shaked (1995, 207, 209210). See further Morgenstern and Ford (forthcoming, s.v. 51 and
literature quoted there).
159 See further Mller-Kessler (2005, 149150).
bowl no. 16 91

Bowl no. 16 (IM 60960)


BOWL NO. 17

Present location: Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of Babylonian Antiquities, Jena (HS 3018).
Dimensions: 16.57.4cm.160
Remarks: the incantation bowls housed in Jena are part of the Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection
of Babylonian Antiquities, which was donated to the Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena in 1925,
according to the last wish of Professor Hilprecht, who worked in Nippur during the excavations
carried out in the site by the University of Pennsylvania (four seasons, 18881900) and was also in
charge of the acquisition of pieces for the then newly founded University of Pennsylvania Museum
of Archaeology and Anthropology (Philadelphia). This bowl, together with the others, comes from
Nippur and is part of the group of six Syriac bowls (all written in Manichaean script) housed in
Jena.161 The bowl is in a fair state of preservation. It was broken, but has been successfully and carefully
restored. It is now made up of 20 potsherds glued together, while a fragment is missing in the area
of the rim. Three smaller fragments are missing elsewhere. The ink has faded near the bottom and in
the outer area of the basin. On the whole the text does not seem to have suffered much damage since
Gordon examined it, albeit in pictures only, in the first half of the 20th century.162
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above a good many plural substantives (e.g. llyt, l. 2) and
the proper name of the demon ybwl (l. 6). A single dot is marked above the participle mzn (l. 1)

and substantives qm (l. 1) and t (l. 5).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: eight. In spite of what is stated by Mller-Kessler (2005, 91), Hamilton (1971, 156 and
plate 15) understood that there are eight lines of text in this bowl and accordingly numbered the lines
in the plate he added to his study. Cracks and fading of the ink have affected especially lines 68. Some
traces of letters between the circle closing the text and the circle traced by the rim may allow us to
hypothesize the former existence of two further lines of texts in that area.
Drawings and other signs: a circle divided into four quarters by a cross is depicted at the bottom of the
basin. In each quarter a cross is marked. The text is surrounded by a circle. Another circle is depicted
near the rim.
Clients: myr son of bwrdwkt (quoted in lines 12, 7 myr). Myhr son of brdwk is also quoted in
the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls nos. HS 3008 (Jena) and 5361 (Istanbul).163
Contents: protection of the client and his healing. The bond of the lion and the seal of the dragon are
quoted. Together with the bond of ybwl and the seal of bwryt.164 Further bonds and seals are referred
to as the bond of the blast-demons and the seal of the bagdanas. A great load of the blast-demons
is evoked against evil beings.165

160 Mller-Kessler (2005, 91).


161 Mller-Kessler (2005, 3). Montgomery (1913, 319) reported that it was Hilprecht who put the bowls housed in Philadelphia
into the hands of Montgomery after Jastrow and Gottheil gave up their work on them.
162 Gordon (1941, 346).
163 The name is barely visible in bowl no. HS 3008: 1, 2, while some more traces are visible in l. 5. See Mller-Kessler (2005,

plate 7). As for bowl no. 5361 (Istanbul), see Jeruzalmi (1963, 114126). For the name myr spelled with instead of h, see
Mller-Kessler (2010b, 456n19).
164 For references to the royal demonic couple ybwl and bwryt in incantation bowls (e.g. no. CBS 16018 = Montgomery 1913:

no. 19), see bowl no. MS 2055/26 in Ford (forthcoming a).


165 For the parallel (emended) reading of this sequence in bowl no. CBS 16018 (= Montgomery 1913: no. 19: 17), see Naveh and

Shaked (1993, 120).


bowl no. 17 93

Parallels: bowls nos. 25, 35, 39 in this volume. Bowls nos. MS 2055/26 (Schyen Collection); JNF 212,
JNF 213, JNF 228, JNF 233, JNF 241, JNF 242; DCG 1 (private collections to be published by Ford).
Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowl no. MS 1929/2 (Schyen Collection).
Editions: Hamilton (1971: no. 17); Moriggi (2004: no. 17); Mller-Kessler (2005: no. 32); CAL: no. SyrInc-
Bowl 17 (reproduces Hamiltons reading).166
Notes: Gordon (1941, 347348).
Photographs and facsimiles: Hamilton (1971, plate 15 facsimile);167 Mller-Kessler (2005, plate 21
photograph).

Bowl no. 17 (HS 3018)168


mzn hn qm wsr m[hy]mn lsywt wdrmn dmyr 1 Prepared is this amulet and reliable bond for the
healing and the medicine of myr
br bwrdwkt dnzhwn dw w[y]d wllyt wmbk{k}lt 2 son of bwrdwkt, that may depart devils and demons
wlt and liliths and mevakkaltas and curses
wndr wqrwt yn wmllt wmsnwkyt dlh d[yk]r 3 and vows and invocations, harms and (magical)
wnqbwt zh dyw wlb words and the poverty of gods (?), male and female.
Depart devil and no-good-one,
yr wkb w{l}kl [l]hwt byt mn hn byt wmn dwr 4 awake and asleep, and all evil deities from this house
dbgwh ryn syr by wlb wmrt and from the inhabitants who dwell in it. Bound is
the evil and the no-good-one, the amulet-spirits,
dykr wnyqbt wllyt dykr wnyqbt wyt wry bhd[yn 5 male and female, and the lilith, male and female,
by]t syr bswrh dry wytm bt and she comes and dwells in this house. Bound is
she by the bond of the lion and sealed is she by the
seal

dtnyn syr bswrh dybwl w[tym btm d]bwryt syr 6 of the dragon. Bound is she by the bond of ybwl and
bswr zq wtym b[t]m dbgdn syr sealed is she by the seal of bwryt. Bound is by the
bond of the blast-demons and sealed is by the seal of
the bagdanas. Bound
dy[w] [] [lb
wtym {m} bmwbl rb dzq kwl syd 7 and sealed is by the great load of the blast-demons,
myn] myn slh sywt wdrmn lmyr br b[wrdwk]t mn all demons, devils [], no-good-ones. Amen, amen,
kwl selah. Healing and medicine for myr son of
bwrdwkt from all
wdyw llt wmb[kl]t myn
syd 8 demons and devils, liliths and mevakkaltas. Amen.

Notes to the text


When the transliteration and translation of this text were in their final draft, the author was fortunate to have
the opportunity to check them on the new edition of this bowl then being prepared by Ford and Morgenstern.
Although many of the new readings had emerged independently, it must be recognized that many of the choices

166 In spite of what is stated by Mller-Kessler (2005, 91): wegen der fehlenden Photographie konnte Moriggi 2004, 258259

(= Nr. 17) nur die Bearbeitung Gordons bernehmen, the transliteration and the translation featured in the quoted passage
were obtained from Hamiltons facsimile and reading.
167 As reported by Hamilton (1971, iv) the facsimile was originally drawn by Gordon, who handed it to Hamilton together

with his facsimile of bowl no. 18.


168 The reading of the text was carried out on a new series of high-resolution colour pictures shot by Dr. Matthew Morgenstern

(University of Tel Aviv). Reconstructions and new readings are mostly based on Morgensterns excellent photographs.
94 texts

featured here as regards reading and translation were orientated by the work of the above-mentioned scholars. On
the whole this edition features only a few changes in comparison with that proposed by Ford and Morgenstern (in
preparation).

l. 1) sywt healing. For this term in incantation bowls, see bowl no. 14: 12.
l. 2) nzhwn may they depart. See bowl no. 1: 6.
l. 2) mbk{k}lt mevakkaltas. For this evil being, see bowl no. 3: 3.
l. 3) yn harms. For the meaning of this term, see bowl no. 32: 3.
l. 3) wmsnwkyt dlh and the poverty of gods (?). The word msnwkyt seems to be a scribal slip for mskynwt (Classi-
cal Syriac msknwt). See myskynwt in bowl no. 38: 6. According to Mller-Kessler (2005, 93) after msnwkyt ist
offensichtlich Text ausgefallen.
l. 4) yr wkb awake and asleep. Mller-Kessler (2005, 93) proposed blinder-schlafender Dmon. The sequence
wkb wyr occurs also in a Syriac amulet (no. Syriaque II: 51) published by Gignoux (1987, 3435), who translated
it et lendormi et lveill.
l. 4) [l]hwt deities. On the morpheme -wt in this text and in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic studies, see Morgenstern
(2010, 288).
l. 5) wyt wry and she comes and dwells. The y in yt is placed before instead of after the t. The Jewish Babylonian
Aramaic bowl no. MS 1929/2: 6 (Schyen Collection) provides a parallel attestation of the sequence ty wry.
Parallel Syriac texts have: dt wr (who came and dwelt, bowl no. 35: 4) and dtt wrt (who came and dwelt,
bowl no. 25: 3). Another variant features dyt w[r](y) (that is there and dwells, bowl no. MS 2055/26: 3).
lines 57) syr bswrh dry wytm bt dtnyn syr bswrh d ybwl w[tym btm d]bwryt syr bswr zq wtym
b[t]m dbgdn syr wtym {m} bmwbl rb dzq Bound is she by the bond of the lion and sealed is she by the
seal of the dragon. Bound is she by the bond of ybwl and sealed is she by the seal of bwryt. Bound is by
the bond of the blast-demons and sealed is by the seal of the bagdanas. Bound and sealed is by the great load of
the blast-demons. This sentence is featured in parallel texts with minor variations. Here, note that the participles
syr, ytm (for tym, l. 5) and syr and tym (l. 6) are feminine, with possible reference to the preceding llyt, even
though the latter is meant as both dykr and nyqbt. The figures of ybwl and bwryt are also known from a Syriac
amulet published by Gignoux (1987, 2829, 37), where we read (no. Syriaque II: 7): mry ybwl wmrt bwryt Mary
Ibbl, et Mart Ibblt. For = // in zq , see Mller-Kessler (2006a, 266). The mwbl rb dzq (the great load of the
blast-demons) is also featured in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls, such as nos. MS 1929/2: 9 and CBS 16018: 17
(= Montgomery 1913: no. 19).169
l. 6) b[t]m dbgdn by the seal of the bagdanas. In bowl no. 1: 8 the same demonic figure is presented in the
singular, as mry bgdn (the Lord Bagdana). Here (and in the parallel texts) we seem to be faced with what Shaked
(1985, 515) described as a collective plural that may thus be taken to denote a very general group of divine figures,
akin to the term gods, though perhaps on a lower level of importance.170

169 See Mller-Kessler (2005, 93) for further details. For possible links between the blast-demons (zyq) and the bagdanas

in Syriac incantation bowls and beyond, see Shaked (1997, 115) and Gabbay (2010, 6061).
170 The passage accompanies the commentary on bowl no. CBS 16018 (= Montgomery 1913: no. 19).
bowl no. 17 95

Bowl no. 17 (HS 3018)


BOWL NO. 18

Present location: Martin Bodmer Library, Geneva (no. 51).


Dimensions: 13.85.8cm.171
Remarks: the bowl was in possession of Maggs Brothers (London) in 1936, when Gordon (1941, 353)
first examined it. It was seemingly still in the same place when it was studied by Hamilton (1971,
159). Geller (1976, 422 and note 1) worked on the bowl and newly edited the text when the bowl had
itself already shifted to Martin Bodmer Foundation (Geneva). The provenance remains unknown.
The bowl is well preserved. There is a single large crack occurred near the rim, together with a few
other small cracks. The ink has faded in the area of the internal basin near the rim. The line of text
written on the external surface seems to have suffered from abrasion.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above a good many plural substantives and adjectives (e.g.
hwmr zdnyt, l. 7), and above the 3rd person masculine singular suffix pronoun (e.g. ltm, l. 11). A
single dot is marked above some 3rd person feminine singular suffix pronouns (e.g. byt, l. 2), above
one 3rd person masculine singular suffix pronoun in lnrt dbpry br hdkt (l. 12) and above the
feminine singular adjective byt (l. 7).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 13 (and one line on the exterior). Lines 1213 have suffered greatly from the fading of
the ink and the cracks of the rim. The line on the external surface seems to have been abraded in
some spots.
Drawings and other signs: a circle is depicted at the bottom of the basin. Cf. Geller (1976, 422) stating
that the inscription begins in the centre of the bowl, which contains an image of a snake with its tail
in its mouth.
Clients: dyb son of prdkt (quoted in lines 1, 1011); brq son of hdkt (quoted in lines 2, 45, 11);
mhgwnzdkt daughter of nty (quoted in lines 2, 11); btryk son of mhgwnzdkt (quoted in lines 3,
11); wl daughter of mhgwnzdkt (quoted in lines 3, 12); bwpry son of hdkt (quoted in lines 4,
12); dndkt daughter of zdnnyt (quoted in lines 4, 12).
Contents: sealing, binding and healing of the house of a series of clients, possibly members of the same
family or lineage. In the name of the Lord, the great primeval God suppression is invoked against
evil acts of demons and spirits of various kinds. Adonay ebaot, El adday and the angels Gabriel,
Michael, shryyl, and Raphael are quoted.
Parallels: bowl no. MS 2055/19 (Schyen Collection).
Editions: Hamilton (1971: no. 18); Geller (1976: no. Syriac bowl A); Moriggi (2004: no. 18); Mller-Kessler
(2006b, 119121); Ford (forthcoming a, Excursus 2, bowl a); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 18 (reproduces
Hamiltons reading).
Notes: Gordon (1941, 353); Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270271).
Photographs and facsimiles: Hamilton (1971, plates 16A16B facsimile);172 Geller (1976, plates 12
photographs).

171Gordon (1941, 353).


172The facsimile was originally drawn by Gordon, who handed it to Hamilton together with his facsimile of bowl no. 17.
Hamilton (1971, iv).
bowl no. 18 97

Bowl no. 18 (Martin Bodmer Library no. 51)173


tym byth ddyb br prdkt tym byth 1 Sealed is the house of dyb son of prdkt, sealed is the
house
dbrq br hdkt tym byt dmhgwnzd(k)t bt 2 of brq son of hdkt, sealed is the house of
nty mhgwnzdkt daughter of nty
tym btryk br mhgwnzdkt tym wl bt 3 sealed is btryk son of mhgwnzdkt, sealed is wl
mhgwnzdkt tym daughter of mhgwnzdkt, sealed is
bwpry br hdkt tym dndkt bt zdnnyt tym 4 bwpry son of hdkt, sealed is dndkt daughter of
bythwn dbrq br zdnnyt, sealed is their house, of brq son of
hdkt tym sqpt hd bmk mry lh rb qdmy 5 hdkt, sealed is this threshold. In your name, Lord,
kbw dkl rqnwt the great primeval God, the suppressor of all
demonisms
w(dy)nwt wdywnwt (w)kl ptkrwt wlhwt 6 and diabolic cunning and demoniacal possession
dyd ddyw dsr sn snqbl dkl bn ygr drw and all idolatry and (evil) deities, of demons, of
myt devils, of visiting-spirits, satans, bad opponents, of
all roof-spirits, of impure spirits,
rw l(n)d rw ty(l) rw qbr rw byt hwmr 7 the spirit of corpses, the spirit of ruin-mounds,
zdnyt ntkbwn bkb dtkb rt() bswr the spirit of graves, the evil spirit, the wicked
amulet-spirits, may they be pressed in the press (by)
which were pressed the lands, by the bond
swpyr bwm yhw sbhw dwny bwt l dy yhyhyh 8 of the sphere. In the name of yhw sbhw, Adonay
hhh hy ssssssss ebaot, El adday, yhyhyh hhh hy ssssssss
sssssssssssss hhhhhhhhhhhhhh bwm hlyn 9 sssssssssssss hhhhhhhhhhhhhh. In the name of
mh qdy these holy names
gbryyl [m]kyyl shryyl rwpyyl bwt b[]wt 10 Gabriel, Michael, shryyl, Raphael, ebaot, ebaot,
bwt yhw yhw yhw yw yw yw yw yw yw yw ebaot, yhw yhw yhw yw yw yw yw yw yw yw.
swt tmt lbyth ddyb br Healing, sealing for the house of dyb son of
prdkt tmt lbyth l(h) [lbrq br] (hd)kt lbyt 11 prdkt, sealing for his house, for him, for brq son of
dmhgwnzdkt bt nty ltmt dbn (w)bnt hdkt, for the house of mhgwnzdkt daughter of nty,
ltm d[btryk] br mhgwnzd()[k]t for the sealing of her sons and her daughters, for the
sealing of btryk son of mhgwnzdkt,
ltmt dbyt dw[l bt mhgwnzd]kt lnrt 12 for the sealing of the house of wl daughter of
dbpry br hdkt [ltmt ddnd]kt bt [zdnny]t mhgwnzdkt, for the protection of bpry son
tym byt d[] of hdkt, for the sealing of dndkt daughter of
zdnnyt, sealed is the house of []
[] wb[..]w [] ()dr ks w[t]kby [] 13 [] he sent the bowl and it was pressed (?) []
bmk mry lh rb() qdmy External In your name, Lord, the great primeval God.
surface

Notes to the text


When the transliteration and translation of this text were in preparation, the author was fortunate enough to have
the opportunity to check them on the new edition of this bowl then being prepared by Ford. Although many of

173 The reading of the text was carried out on a series of enlarged and reworked versions of the pictures published by Geller

(1976, plates 12) and on the facsimile by Gordon published in Hamilton (1971, plates 16A16B).
98 texts

the new readings had emerged independently, it must be recognized that many of the choices featured here as
regards reading, translation and commentary were orientated by the work of the above-mentioned scholar. On
the whole this edition features only a few changes in comparison with that proposed by Ford, to which the reader
should refer for further details.

l. 5) kbw the suppressor. The hypothesis by Ford (forthcoming a) is accepted here, i.e. the substantive kbw
being a nomen actoris from the root kb followed by the 3rd person feminine singular suffix pronoun.
l. 5) rqnwt demonisms. The parallel bowl text no. MS 2055/19: 7, reading rq(n)w[t], supports the present
transliteration. Ford interprets the term as an abstract noun formed from the Greek loanword rkwn ruler,
sovereign.174 The meaning of this word in the Manichaean and Gnostic contexts allows for its being used as
designation of a specific category of evil deities. The archons in the framework of Gnostic and Manichaean
thoughts are surveyed in Albrile (1997) among others.
l. 6) w(dy)nwt wdywnwt and diabolic cunning and demoniacal possession. See dnwt /()dnt/ and
dywnwt /daywnt/ in Payne Smith ([1903] 1999, 553, 89).
l. 6) wlhwt and (evil) deities. See bowl no. 25: 1 where a lhwt byt is quoted.
l. 6) sr visiting spirits. According to the hypothesis set forth by Ford this substantive is to be linked to the root
sr (to visit). Mller-Kessler (2006b, 121) proposed a translation as Macher, paralleling this form to the term sr
found in bowl no. MS 2055/16: 6. In her words, both are based auf der Wurzel sr mach; tun.175 For the former
interpretation of sr / sr as coming from Hebrew /ar/ (prince) or Middle Persian sar head, chief, see Shaked
(2000, 67n39).
l. 6) snqbl (bad) opponents. For this term and its etymology (from Classical Syriac sqwbl), see Ford (forthcoming
a, Excursus 2). The n is due to the dissimilation of the doubled /q/.
l. 6) bn ygr roof-spirits. These demonic forces are now thoroughly investigated in Kwasman (2007, 165169).
l. 7) rw l(n)d the spirit of corpses. See Mller-Kessler (2006b, 120) and Ford (forthcoming a, Excursus 2) for
further details.
l. 7) rw ty(l) the spirit of ruin-mounds. For evil spirit and ruin-mounds in incantation bowls, see Ford (forth-
coming a, Excursus 2).
lines 78) bswr swpyr by the bond of the sphere. The word wspyr is also found in a Syriac amulet (no. Syriaque I:
39) published by Gignoux (1987, 1415) and reading: tymty wmtmty b[]wspyr dmy (Tu es scelle et bien scelle,
par la sphere du ciel). In Moriggi (2004, 259) in this same position mswtyr (hidden (?)) was read.176
l. 8) dwny bwt Adonay ebaot. The sequence dwny bwty is documented in a Syriac amulet on leather (l. 8)
published by Naveh (1997, 34, 36).177
lines 10, 11) tmt the sealing. For this nomen actionis see bowl no. 1: 9.
l. 10) swt healing. Classical Syriac has sywt. For this term in incantation bowls, see bowl no. 14: 12.

daemonum princeps). As for the loanword rkwnw from Greek into


174 See further Payne Smith (18791901, 385 rkwn dsd

Old Syriac in the sense of governorship, magistracy, see Healey (1995, 81).
175 Bowl no. MS 2055/16 was first edited by Shaked (2000), and is now newly studied in Ford (forthcoming a).
176 For other references, see Ford (forthcoming a, Excursus 2) and Mller-Kessler (2012, 8).
177 The amulet is housed at Bible Lands Museum (Jerusalem).
bowl no. 18 99

Bowl no. 18 (Martin Bodmer Library, Geneva)


100 texts

Bowl no. 18 (Martin Bodmer Library, Geneva) (partial view with external surface)
BOWL NO. 19

Present location: Johns Hopkins University Archaeological Museum, Baltimore (4 N 161).


Dimensions: .
Remarks: Hamilton (1971, 162) reported that this bowl
was discovered during an expedition to Nippur by the Chicago Oriental Institute in 19531954. It is now at
the Johns Hopkins University and bears the identification number (in the Oriental Institute files) P47613.
He (ivv) further acknowledged that
Dr. George Huges, Director of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, has granted me the
priviledge to publish for the first time texts 19 [this bowl], 20, and 21.
The present author understands from the information kindly provided by the staff in the Johns
Hopkins Archaeological Museum that the potsherd was allocated to the Johns Hopkins University
archaeological collection in the 1950s. The potsherd was itself excavated during the 4th season of
Nippur excavations, carried out by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago and the Baghdad
School of the American Schools of Oriental Research from November 1953 to March 1954. It appears to
have been a surface find from the west part of the site.178 The objects accession number, now identified
as no. 4 N 161, represents its original excavation number.179
Only a single potsherd is preserved of the original bowl. It belonged to the rim-by-section of the basin.
Abrasion has affected the surface and the margins of the potsherd. The ink does not seem to have
faded significantly since Hamilton read the text.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above plural substantives and adjectives (e.g. wmbd by ,
l. 4).
Text arrangement: the text ran from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: seven. Hamilton (1971, 122a) read five lines, while no number of lines is provided in
Lewis, Guinn-Villreal, and Thames (2011). Scratches on the surface have damaged the text, especially
in lines 1, 2, 6 and 7.
Drawings and other signs: .
Clients: bby son of mhnw[] (quoted in line 2). The name bbw is quoted in the Jewish Babylonian
Aramaic bowl no. VA 2417 (Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin), while mhnw occurs in some Mandaic
texts.180
Contents: .
Parallels: .
Editions: Hamilton (1971: no. 19); Moriggi (2004: no. 19 reproduces Hamiltons reading); Lewis, Guinn-
Villreal, and Thames 2011; CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 19 (reproduces Hamiltons reading).
Notes: Mller-Kessler (2006a, 271).

178 The potsherds Nippur provenance was confirmed to Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum by Karen Wilson (The

Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago) in 2013.


179 In the 1980s the potsherd was either identified as no. A.527. The author is grateful to Dr. Betsy Bryan (Director) and

Ms. Sanchita Balachandran (Curator) for kindly providing all information about the provenance and the present state of the
potsherd, and especially for allowing its publication in this book. Thanks are due to Dr. Betsy Bryan and Dr. Theodore Lewis
(Johns Hopkins University) for previous check of this edition.
180 See Wohlstein (1894, 34); Yamauchi (1967, 370); Hamilton (1971, 162).
102 texts

Photographs and facsimiles: Hamilton (1971, plate 17 facsimile); Lewis, Guinn-Villreal, and Thames
(2011 photograph and three epigraphic drawings by E. Guinn-Villreal).

Bowl no. 19 (Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum 4 N 161)181


[](b) w(b)d/r [] 1 []
[]h bby br mhnw[] [] 2 []him/his (?) bby son of mhnw []
[] w[..]qyn lgwh bwm [] 3 [] () within him. In the name of []
[] [by] wmbd by wmdrnw[t] [] 4 [] evil and evil magical acts and (sorcerous)
dispatch []
[] [m]n ywm wmn ht wll[m] l[myn] [] 5 [] from today and from now and forever and
ever []
[] by mn byth wn byt[h] [] 6 [] evil, from his house and the people of his
house []
[] 7 []

181 The reading of this bowl has been carried out on a new high-definition photograph kindly supplied by Johns Hopkins

Archaeological Museum. Most of the readings proposed in Lewis, Guinn-Villreal, and Thames (2011) are featured here.
bowl no. 19 103

Bowl no. 19 (Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum 4 N 161)


BOWL NO. 20

Present location: Iraq Museum, Baghdad.182


Dimensions: .
Remarks: the bowl was reported by Hamilton (1971, 163) as unearthed by the tenth season archeological
dig at Nippur, conducted by the Oriental Institute at Chicago. As to its state of preservation, the same
source (204) stated: one part of bowl missing. This bowl, together with nos. 19 and 21, was published
by Hamilton (1971, ivv) upon authorization of Dr. George Huges, Director of the Oriental Institute
of the University of Chicago.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above plural substantives and adjectives (e.g. yd, l. 5;
dykr, l. 7) and the 3rd person masculine plural suffix pronoun (lhn, l. 5). A single dot is marked
above the 3rd person masculine singular suffix pronoun in the sequence ntt (lines 4, 8).
Text arrangement: even though not specified in the editio princeps, one may plausibly guess that it runs
from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 10.
Drawings and other signs: .
Clients: []dwrwk daughter of nrqys (quoted in lines 4, 8 and 10) and ysp[ndrmyd] (quoted in l. 4).
yspndrmyd is also quoted in bowls nos. 4, 7 and 43.
Contents: protection of the house, family and property of the client. Worodaq-demons are quoted.
Parallels: .
Editions: Hamilton (1971: no. 20); Moriggi (2004: no. 20); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 20 (reproduces Hamiltons
reading).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Hamilton (1971, plate 18 facsimile).183

Bowl no. 20 (OIC 10th season Nippur)184


mzmn hn k[s] [] 1 Prepared is this bowl []
[] lkwl mdm dby w[sn] [] 2 [] for every thing that is evil and bad []
[]ly wb bl mn byt[h] [] 3 [] () abolished from his house []
[]dwrwk bt nrqys ntt wmn ysp[ndrmyd] [] 4 []dwrwk daughter of nrqys his wife and from
yspndrmyd []
[] wqnynh dl nyqrbwn lhn yd wdy w[] 5 [] and his property, that may not approach them
demons and devils and []
[] []wmr byt wrwq my wsdn pyk twb [] 6 [] evil amulet-spirits and the unclean spittle (?)
and the overturned anvil (?), again []
[] yd wdyw wmn lylyt wmn wrwdq dykr wnyqbt 7 [] demons and devils and from liliths and from
w[] Worodaq-demons, male and female and []

182Information provided in Hamilton (1971, 163), without inventory number.


183It was not possible to evaluate how far this plate reflects the hand copy Prof. Giorgio Buccellati sent to Hamilton (1971, v)
while the latter was preparing his edition of this bowl.
184 The reading of this text was carried out on the facsimile published by Hamilton.
bowl no. 20 105

[][d]wrwk bt nrqys ntt ntsrwn bswr{d} dllm yk 8 []dwrwk daughter of nrqys his wife may they be
dl[]n [] bound by the bond which is forever, just as []
[] yh [y]h yh yh yh yh yh h h h []h []h [] 9 [] yh yh yh yh yh yh yh h h h h h []
[][dwr]wk bt nrqys ntth myn slh 10 []dwrwk daughter of nrqys his wife. Amen, selah.

Notes to the text


The present author was unable to find new photographs and facsimiles of this bowl. The facsimile published by
Hamilton was thus used to check the readings featured in his edition and to improve the analysis of the whole
text. It is hoped that a new photograph and direct check will provide further elucidation.

l. 2) lkwl mdm dby for every thing that is evil. In this sequence mdm is considered as corresponding to Classical
Syriac mdm. For = /e/ see also slh (l. 10).185
l. 6) wrwq my wsdn pyk and the unclean spittle (?) and the overturned anvil (?). The sdn dr (the anvil of the
earth) is quoted in bowls nos. 32: 10 and 16: 14, but the passage is obscure here and no further consideration may
be offered. The reference to rwq spittle here is unusual, but cf. the collocation of references to it and sdny pyky
perverted anvil-spirits in an enumeration of evil forces in the Mandaic magical text no. DC 43D: 6465 (Drower
Collection). For instead of Classical Syriac h in pyk, see Moriggi (2004, 116117) and Mller-Kessler (2006a, 267).
l. 7) wmn wrwdq and from Worodaq-demons. Here the translation follows a suggestion by Ford, who, while
commenting upon bowl no. MS 2055/12: 5 (Schyen Collection), identified wrwdq as a demons name. This name
may possibly be used in the same way as mevakkalta, i.e. a collective designation.
l. 7) dykr wnyqbt male and female. For = // see the Syriac bowl no. JNF 236: 4 (private collection to be published
by Ford), where the word rmt (the heights) is spelled rmt.
l. 9) yh [y]h yh yh yh yh yh. As for this sequence of seven yhs, see bowl no. 1: 6. The sequence of seven yhs finds
parallels in bowls nos. 1, 4, 5, 30, 31, 41 in this volume.

185 Mller-Kessler (2006a, 266).


106 texts

Bowl no. 20 (Nippur OIC Excavations10th Season)


BOWL NO. 21

Present location: unknown.


Dimensions: .
Remarks: Hamilton (1971, 204) reported that this tiny fragment of Syriac bowl was unearthed in
Nippur, during the 9th season of the excavations by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago
(19641965).
Script: Manichaean.
Text arrangement: even though this is not specified in the previous edition, the text seemingly ran from
the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: five.
Drawings and other signs: .
Clients: .
Contents: .
Parallels: .
Editions: Hamilton (1971: no. 21); Moriggi (2004: no. 21); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 21 (reproduces Hamiltons
reading).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Hamilton (1971, plate 19 facsimile).

Bowl no. 21186


[] s[n] [] 1 [] satans []
[] dtqr(w)[b][] 2 [] that you/she approaches []
[] r yd[] [] 3 [] sorcery, demons []
[] lqblh [] 4 [] against him []
[] kyn d[] 5 [] then (?) []

Notes to the text


l. 4) lqblh against him. The Classical Syriac form is lqwblh.187 In bowl no. 27: 5 the sequence is spelled lqyblh.

186 In spite of all efforts, it proved impossible to obtain new pictures and/or drawings of this bowl. The reading is thus based

on Hamiltons facsimile.
187 Payne Smith ([1903] 1999, 492).
108 texts

Bowl no. 21 (Nippur OIC Excavations9th Season)


BOWL NO. 22

Present location: Finnish National Museum, Helsinki (VK 5738:3).


Dimensions: 18.819.188.5cm.188
Remarks: Harviainen (1978, 4) reported that this bowl was found during the construction of a dam
in Diyala region on March 29, 1976. In summer 1977 this bowl, together with other antiquities, was
offered as a gift of the Iraqi government to the President of Finland.189 The bowl is very well preserved.
The surface does not show evidence of having suffered significantly from salt incrustation, and the
ink has faded only near the rim. On the whole the bowl shows the same characteristics as those it
had when Harviainen read it.
Script: Estrangela. Seyame dots are marked above a good number of plural substantives (e.g. ml rz, l. 6)
and above the 2nd person feminine plural independent personal pronoun ntn (l. 10).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 14. Traces of letters are detectable near and on the rim. With regard to the number of
lines, Harviainen (1978, 3) wrote that the text seems to have reached the brim of the bowl in 14 coils
but two last of them are now almost completely faded and obliterated.
Drawings and other signs: a cross is depicted at the bottom of the basin. Its shape was described
(Harviainen 1978, 3) as a kind of Maltese cross.190
Clients: prwkdd son of bwny (quoted in l. 2), yyn daughter of gwny (quoted in lines 2, 3), mbwd
and mhdwr gwnsp and br gdbr sons of yyn (quoted in l. 3). The name gwny is featured in bowls
nos. 14 and 28. A woman called yyn is the client of bowl no. 42. For other occurrences of the
name gwnsp, see bowl no. 24: 11, 14 and the Mandaic bowl no. IM 60494: 2, 10, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,
23.191
Contents: for the contents of this bowl text, see bowl no. 14 in this volume. The closest parallel to this
text known to date is featured in bowl no. 14, where further elements of the formula (presumably lost
in this bowl) are preserved. In particular, in bowl no. 22, the long final adjuration of bowl no. 14 (after
the charaktres) is only partially preserved, and the end of the formula (with alphabet) is completely
lost. Charaktres are found in the same position as in text no. 14.
Parallels: bowls nos. 9, 10, 14, 23, 36 in this volume; MS 1928/16, MS 2055/4, MS 2055/5, MS 2055/7,
MS 2055/31 (Schyen Collection); JNF 230, JNF 231, JNF 232, JNF 237, JNF 240; Wolfe 25, Wolfe 27,
Wolfe 28 (private collections to be published by Ford). Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowls
nos. MS 2053/134, MS 2053/99 (Schyen Collection).
Editions: Harviainen (1978: no. HB); Moriggi (2004: no. 23); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 24 (reproduces Harvi-
ainens reading).
Notes: Harviainen (1981, 3n1 emendations by Rosenthal).
Photographs and facsimiles: Harviainen (1978, 2829, plates 12 photographs).

188 Harviainen (1978, 3).


189 According to Harviainen (1978, 3) the bowl originally bore the Iraq Museum catalogue number IM 7863, but Hunter (1998,
106n40) indicated no. IM 78630 as the correct number. See the correction in Harviainen (1993, 29n1).
190 For crosses drawn on Syriac incantation bowls, see Juusola (1999b, 8182).
191 See Hunter (1998, 106).
110 texts

Bowl no. 22 (VK 5738:3)192


mzmn hn qmy lsywt wnrt dbyth 1 Prepared is this amulet for the healing and the
protection of the house
wmdwrth dprwkdd br bwny wdyyn bt gwny 2 and the dwelling of prwkdd son of bwny and of yyn
daughter of gwny
wmbwd wmhdwr gwnsp wbr gdbr bnh dyyn rz 3 and mbwd and mhdwr gwnsp and br gdbr sons of
my bmy qbyr yyn. The mystery of heaven in heaven is buried
wrz r br qbyr wrzh dbyt hdyn n mrn l r wl kwl 4 and the mystery of the earth in the earth is buried
mbd and the mystery of this house I say against sorcery
and against all magical acts
wl kwl gnd dptykr wl gnd wl kwl wmr wstrt wl 5 and against all messengers of idol-spirits and against
kwl d wdyw wsn tqp troops (of demons) and against all amulet-spirits
and goddesses and against all demons and devils
and mighty satans
wllyt tqypt ptgm hdyn lkwn mw kwl dmqbyl yth 6 and mighty liliths. One declares this spell to you:
bt mk wdby wl mqbyl ml rz everyone who accepts it, finds goodness and he who
is wicked and does not accept the spells of the
mysteries,
tyn lwhy syp wrb wqdmh qymyn wqlyn lh wnwr 7 sabres and swords come against him, and they stand
dr lh wlhbyt npln lwhy dptgm m ytyb in front of him and they kill him and the fire
surrounds him and the flames fall upon him. He who
listens to the spell, he sits
bbyt kyl wmwkyl t wmq d wmd lnh hw 8 in the house, eats and feeds, drinks and pours drink,
wrm ldyry byt br ldrdq hw wmrbyn mtqr rejoices and causes joy, brother for its people he is
and friend for the dwellers of the house, comrade for
the children he is and educator is called,
wt lbyr hw wgd b mtqr lm qblyw mn bwkwn 9 companion for the cattle he is and a genius of good
dbmy wb lmn mn lh dykr wmn strt nyqbt fortune is called. Accept peace from your father who
dmw is in heaven and seven peaces from male gods and
from female goddesses. The one who makes
lm zk bdynh dmw bl mtql bnwr charaktres 10 peace, wins in his judgement, the one who causes
[]s charaktres p ntn rw wwmr destruction is burnt in fire charaktres []s
charaktres . Moreover, you, spirits and
amulet-spirits,
[w]llyt wnbklt wyd wdyw wpg[] wlb[] wrw 11 and liliths and mevakkaltas and demons and
byt wwmr zd[ny] ptykr dykr wstrt wlwt devils and misfortunes and no-good-ones and evil
wqrwt[] wq[ll] []t [] spirits and wicked amulet-spirits, male idol-spirits
and goddesses and curses and invocations and
shames []
[] wnydr wnwsy wsgdt wlmt dlyyn wmqpyn 12 [] and vows and debility and (evil) worship and
wry[n] zw [] p[rw] spells that are cursed and battered and dissolved.
Depart [] flee.
[] 1314 []

192 The reading of the text was carried out on a series of new high-definition colour pictures of the bowl supplied by the

Finnish National Museum (Helsinki).


bowl no. 22 111

Notes to the text


l. 1) sywt healing. For this term in incantation bowls, see bowl no. 14: 12.
l. 1) nrt the protection. For this nomen actionis see bowl no. 1: 9.
lines 4, 6) hdyn this. As for the morphology of this demonstrative pronoun, see Nebe (2006, 253254).
l. 5) gnd dptykr messengers of idol-spirits. The spelling gnd (attested also in bowl no. MS 2055/31: 6) reflects
Mandaic orthography.193
l. 5) wl gnd and against troops (of demons). Geller (1977, 143) paralleled the term gnd (which he rendered
legions), with the class of demons mentioned in the Gerasene incident (Luke 8, 30).
lines 67) wdby wl mqbyl ml rz tyn lwhy syp wrb wqdmh qymyn wqlyn lh and he who is wicked and does not
accept the spells of the mysteries, sabres and swords come against him, and they stand in front of him and they
kill him. This sentence is found in the parallel texts with some slight variants. In bowl no. 14: 7 the same passage
reads: wd[by] wl mqbyl y[t]h []t[yn] lwhy s[yp] {syp} wrb wqdmwhy qymy[n] wqlyn lh and he who is wicked
and does not accept it, they come against him, sabres and swords, and they stand in front of him and they kill him.
See further bowl no. 23: 67.
l. 6) yth it (direct object). For the use of the nota accusativi yt /yt/ (Classical Syriac yt) in Syriac bowls, see
bowl no. 9: 7.
l. 9) lbyr for the cattle. Cf. Classical Syriac byr.
l. 10) The sequence of seven followed by s is also found in bowl no. 28: 9.
l. 11) wnbklt and mevakkaltas. Harviainen (1978, 7, 22) read wnkwlt (the deceivers). As in bowl no. 14: 10, this
spelling possibly indicates a shift [m] [n]. For this evil being, see bowl no. 3: 3 in this volume.
l. 11) wwmr zd[ny] and wicked amulet-spirits. The meaning of the adjective zdnyt in the Syriac bowls is to
be referred to Mandaic zydn angry, wrathful, furious (Drower and Macuch 1963, 165) and Jewish Babylonian
Aramaic zydnh wicked (Sokoloff 2002, 406).194 In bowl no. 14: 11 the adjective is spelled zydnyt.
l. 11) wq[ll] and shames. The traces of letters allow for the reconstruction of this word. This cannot be said of the
faded following marks as regards the sequence dbzywn, which is found in the parallel bowl text no. 14: 11 (wq ll
dbzywn and the shames of derisions (?)).
l. 12) wnwsy and debility. Harviainen (1978, 24) translated this word trials, in accordance with Syriac dictionaries.
It now seems more suitable to the context of this incantation bowl to explain nwsy as a loan from Greek
illness, sickness, disease.195
l. 12) zw depart. For this verbal voice, see bowl no. 1: 6.

193 See Van Rompay (1990, 375); Ciancaglini (2008, 105106).


194 Harviainen (1978, 23). See further Mller-Kessler (2011, 230) and Morgenstern (2013, 47).
195 See bowl no. MS 2055/1 in Ford (forthcoming a).
112 texts

Bowl no. 22 (VK 5738:3)


bowl no. 22 113

Bowl no. 22 (VK 5738:3) (partial view)

Bowl no. 22 (VK 5738:3) (partial view)


114 texts

Bowl no. 22 (VK 5738:3) (partial view)

Bowl no. 22 (VK 5738:3) (partial view)


BOWL NO. 23

Present location: unknown.


Dimensions: .
Remarks: the bowl, together with another one, was seen by Naveh and Shaked (1985, 26) in the hands
of an antique dealer in Jerusalem, Mr. Victor Barakat [], although the present whereabouts of these
latter bowls is unknown.196 The bowl was well preserved at the time when it was first published. The
internal surface had suffered from some abrasions near the bottom and in two other areas. On
the whole the damage to the surface did not hinder the reading of most of the formula.197
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked on a good number of plural substantives (e.g. syp, l. 7)
and the 3rd person masculine singular suffix pronoun in ytw (l. 6). A single dot is marked above the
participles mw (l. 6), t, mq, d, md, hw (l. 8), mtqr (l. 9 2 times), mw (l. 10 2 times), zk
(l. 10), mtql (l. 10) and above the verb nhw (l. 8).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 13. Line 11 partly intersects line 12 (see Notes to the text, below). Three charaktres of
line 10 occupy some space in line 11.
Drawings and other signs: a circle divided into four quarters by a cross is depicted at the bottom of the
basin. Each quarter contains a cross. The text is surrounded by a circle.
Clients: wn son of kwpyty (quoted in lines 2 hwn, 10, 12 2 times).
Contents: for the contents of this bowl text, see bowl no. 14. The final adjuration of this bowl text is
recalled, with textual variations typical of incantation bowls, in Syriac bowls nos. MS 2055/7: 1315,
MS 1928/16: 1417 and MS 2055/5: 1113 (all included in the Schyen Collection).198 Charaktres are
found in the same position in parallel texts (see bowls nos. 14 and 22).
Parallels: bowls nos. 9, 10, 14, 22, 36 in this volume; MS 1928/16, MS 2055/4, MS 2055/5, MS 2055/7,
MS 2055/31 (Schyen Collection); JNF 230, JNF 231, JNF 232, JNF 237, JNF 240; Wolfe 25, Wolfe 27,
Wolfe 28 (private collections to be published by Ford). Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowls
nos. MS 2053/134, MS 2053/99 (Schyen Collection).
Editions: Naveh and Shaked (1985: no. 1); Moriggi (2004: no. 24); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 22 (reproduces the
reading by Naveh and Shaked).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Naveh and Shaked (1985, plates 1415 photographs).

Bowl no. 23 (formerly Viktor Barakat Collection, Jerusalem).199


[mzmn hn ks l]tmt[ w]nr[t] d(by)th wddwrh 1 Prepared is this bowl for the sealing and the
protection of the house and of the dwelling
[wdpgrh dhwn br kwpyty dtyzh mnh m]bklt wylm 2 and of the body of hwn son of kwpyty, that may
wlwt wnydr wr depart from him the mevakkalta and (evil) dreams
and curses and vows and sorcery

196 Mr. Barakat himself confirmed this information to the present author (personal communication, 31.03.2012).
197 Naveh and Shaked (1985, 126127).
198 See also Naveh and Shaked (1985, 130132).
199 Unfortunately it was not possible to find any new photograph of the bowl. The reading was thus checked on the

photographs published by Naveh and Shaked.


116 texts

[wmbd] (wyd) wdyw wllyt wmrwby wsrwdt rz 3 and magical acts and demons and devils and liliths
my bmy qbyr wrz [r] and mrwby-demons and fears. The mystery of
heaven in heaven is buried and the mystery of the
earth
b[r qby]r wrzh dbyt hdyn n mr l kl dytbh l yd wl 4 in the earth is buried and the mystery of this house I
dyw wl r say against all that is in it: against demons and
against devils and against sorcery
wl m b[d] wl kl zgnd dptkrwt wlkl gnd wl wmr 5 and against magical acts and against all messengers
wl ystrt wlkl yd tqyp of idolatry and against all troops (of demons) and
against amulet-spirits and against goddesses and
against all mighty demons
wlkl sn tqp wlkl llt tqypt ptgm hdyn lkwn mw 6 and against all mighty satans and against all mighty
dmqbyl ytw bt mk wdby l mqbyl liliths. One declares this spell to you: he who accepts
it finds goodness and he who is wicked does not
accept
ml rz wmlk
rwgz tyn lwh wsyp wrb wqdmwhy 7 the spells of the mysteries, the angels of wrath and
qymyn wqlyn lh nwr drh lh wlhbyt ty lwh sabres and swords come against him and they stand
in front of him and they kill him. The fire surrounds
him and the flame comes upon him.
dptgm m wytyb bbyt kyl wmwkyl t wmq d 8 He who listens to the spell sits in the house, eats and
wmd l nhw wrm ldyr byt br ldrdq hw feeds, drinks and pours drink, rejoices and causes
joy, brother for the brothers he is and friend for the
dwellers of the house, comrade for the children he is
wmrwby mtqr wt lbyr hw wgd b mtqr lm qbylw 9 and educator is called, companion for the cattle he
mn bwkwn dbmy wb []lm mn lh dykr wmn is and a genius of good fortune is called. Accept
ystrt peace from your father who is in heaven and
seven peaces from male gods and from female
nqbt dmw lm zk bdyn wdmw byl mtql bnwr 10 goddesses. The one who makes peace wins in
charaktres nytt[ym] [w]nyt[n]r byth wdwrh judgement and the one who causes destruction is
wpgrh dwn br kwpyty burnt in fire charaktres Sealed and protected
may be the house and the dwelling and the body of
wn son of kwpyty
wtyzh mnh mbklt wylm by wlwt wnydr wr 11 and may depart from him the mevakkalta and evil
wmbd wyd wdyw charaktres wllt mrwby dreams and curses and vows and sorcery and
wsrwdt wnytkby kwrnh wndrh wr magical acts and demons and devils charaktres
and liliths, mrwby-demons and fears and may be
pressed his sickness and may surround a wall
ddms dky lwn br kwpyty wnytkby [space due to 12 of pure steel wn son of kwpyty and may be pressed
intersection with l. 11] [wn]tkby kwrnh wydh wdywh [space due to intersection with l. 11] and may be
dwn br kwpyty pressed the sickness and the demon and the devil of
wn son of kwpyty
wntnr blly wbymm myn 13 and may he be protected by night and by day. Amen.

Notes to the text


l. 1) [l]tmt[ w]nr[t] for the sealing and the protection. For these nomina actionis see bowl no. 1: 9.
l. 2) [dtyzh] that may depart. For this verbal voice, see bowl no. 1: 6.
lines 2, 11) mbklt the mevakkalta. For this evil being, see bowl no. 3: 3.
bowl no. 23 117

lines 3, 11) mrwby wsrwdt mrwby-demons and fears. According to Naveh and Shaked (1985, 127) the word to be
read here is qrwby, which means approach, attack, accusation, a cognate of qr war, and could possibly serve
as the proper name of a demon.200 On the other end mrwby is attested also in a Syriac amulet on leather (lines 9,
12) published by Naveh (1997, 37), who commented upon it as follows: mrwby corresponds with Syriac mrbyn
educator. However, mrwbyn are a class of demons. Naveh (1997, 3738) further referred to a Jewish Babylonian
Aramaic bowl (no. 15: 6 in Naveh and Shaked 1993, 115) where this term is included in a list of evil beings. The other
word in the sequence (srwdt fears) is well known to Syriac magical texts, both on bowls (see e.g. bowl no. 16: 16)
and on amulets (see Gignoux 1987, 3233 no. Syriaque II: 44).
lines 4, 6) hdyn this. As for the morphology of this demonstrative pronoun, see Nebe (2006, 253254).
l. 4) n mr I say. The same spelling is found in bowls nos. MS 2055/31: 5, MS 2055/7: 45, MS 1928/16: 5, MS 2055/5:
4, MS 2055/4: 45. The first in mr is the morpheme of the 1st person singular imperfect pe., while the second ,
usually not marked in Classical Syriac, is the first consonant of the root mr, which may possibly be used, from a
synchronic point of view, as mater lectionis for //.201
l. 5) wlkl gnd and against all troops (of demons). Geller (1977, 143) paralleled the term gnd (which he rendered
legions), with the class of demons mentioned in the Gerasene incident (Luke 8, 30).
l. 6) ytw it (direct object). For the use of the nota accusativi yt /yt/ (Classical Syriac yt) in Syriac bowls, see
bowl no. 9: 7. The suffix pronoun used here is -wh, opposed to -h, used in all other recurrences of yt-.
lines 67) wdby l mqbyl ml rz wmlk
rwgz tyn lwh wsyp wrb wqdmwhy qymyn wqlyn lh and he who is wicked
does not accept the spell of the mysteries, the angels of wrath and sabres and swords come against him and they
stand in front of him and they kill him. According to Ford (forthcoming a) the sequence mlk rwgz tyn lwh wsyp
wrb is to be rendered as angels of wrath will come against him with sabres and swords. The w here should be
paralleled to the wwu al-maiyya of Arabic. In Naveh and Shaked (1985, 125), as well as here, the w preceding mlk
rwgz is not translated.
l. 8) m listens. In parallel texts nos. 14: 8 and 22: 7 the Classical Syriac form m is documented. The spelling m
is attested in bowls nos. MS 2055/7: 9, MS 1928/16: 11, MS 2055/5: 8, MS 2055/4: 9 and is a phonetic spelling of the
participle /ma/. According to Mller-Kessler (2006a, 266) m is the spelling of /me/ and thus the grapheme
mit supralinearem Punkt would be a graphic notation of /e/, /i/. The picture does not show any dot in the
neighbourhood of the grapheme . See the analogous cases of b (l. 9) and of mbd (l. 11). In the latter case the
scribe misplaced the grapheme. The dropping and/or misplacing of the grapheme are by no means rare in Syriac
incantation bowls and they further provide data on the weakening of pharyngeal phonemes in Mesopotamian
Aramaic varieties of the Sasanian period.202
l. 9) mrwby educator. For mrwby /mrabby/ possibly pronounced [mrubbya], see bowl no. 9: 10.
l. 9) lbyr for the cattle. Cf. Classical Syriac byr.
lines 1112) wr ddms dky a wall of pure steel. Similar sequences are attested in other Syriac incantation bowls,
e.g. bowl no. MS 2055/10: 4 (wr dprzl a wall of iron). The use of the word dms in incantation bowl texts has
been thoroughly dealt with by Naveh and Shaked (1985, 131132). In a Syriac amulet published by Gignoux (1987,
3233 no. Syriaque II: 4243) the text reads wn[bdwn] lh [wr dprzl] wwr ddms ddr lkwrwhz[]d and may
they make for her a wall of iron and a wall of steel which surrounds kwrwhzd.203
l. 12) wnytkby [space due to intersection with l. 11] [wn]tkby and may be pressed [space due to intersection with l. 11]
and may be pressed. Due to the intersection of the text of line 11, the scribe did not find blank space to continue.
He therefore jumped forward and searched for some more space near the rim to complete the formula. The second
occurrence of the verb nytkby is possibly to be interpreted as a recall word.
l. 12) kwrnh the sickness. Classical Syriac has kwrhn. For the weakening of the pharyngeal and laryngeal
phonemes in Syriac incantation bowls and related phenomena, see bowl no. 2.

200 Sokoloff (2009, 1402).


201 Moriggi (2004, 102). See Nldeke ([1898] 1966, 32, 38).
202 See bowl no. 27; Moriggi (2004, 119120). As to Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls, see Morgenstern (2007, 249251).
203 The passage is read and translated according to the interpretation of Wesselius (1991, 713).
118 texts

Bowl no. 23 (formerly Barakat Collection)


bowl no. 23 119

Bowl no. 23 (formerly Barakat Collection)


BOWL NO. 24

Present location: Jewish Historical Museum, Belgrade.204


Dimensions: .
Remarks: together with another bowl with Jewish Babylonian Aramaic text, this specimen was found,
as reported by Naveh and Shaked (1985, 181),
in 1912 by a Jugoslav engineer, Janko Miloevi, who was working on the building of a railway at a place
specified as being 700 metres north of Kadhimain, which lies 6km. north of Baghdad. The finder, who
supplied this information, took the bowls with him to Belgrade.
The bowl is broken. Two large fragments were extant and have been glued together, while nearly 1/3
of the basin is missing. The ink has been erased in the area at the bottom of the bowl, and further
abrasions and fading of the ink occur near the rim and on the basin as a whole.
Script: Estrangela. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives (e.g. dyw, l. 3), the 3rd person
masculine singular imperfect etpe. [n]ytnr (l. 6). A single dot is marked above the feminine plural
substantive lt (l. 9).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 14. In Naveh and Shaked (1985, 180) 13 lines are featured. In the present edition some
attempts have been made to detail the contents of lines 13 and this resulted in a different distribution
of the text compared to the editio princeps. The first five lines have been much affected by abrasions
and fading, as have the lines near the rim.
Drawings and other signs: traces of a circle surrounding the text are visible near the rim.
Clients: brym son of zdndwk (quoted in lines 4, 6 brm, 8, 10, 12 brm); brpt son of tbw (quoted
in lines 7, 11, 1314 brbt);205 nrwy (quoted in lines 7, 11); mry son of qymt (quoted in line 7); rbyt
daughter of w (quoted in lines 11, 14); pnhqdwk (quoted in line 11); gwnsp (quoted in lines 11, 14).
Contents: protection of the body, sons and daughters, property and cattle of a series of clients. Protection
and healing are asked in the name of ebaot ebaot, the living and the existent and of great and holy
Lord. Evil beings and acts are rebuked and sent away like birds who flee and wax which melts in
the fire is quoted as a metaphor for their running away. Angels qdyyl, mpqyyl, kbyyl and pwryyl
are quoted.206
Parallels: .
Editions: Naveh and Shaked (1985: no. 10); Moriggi (2004: no. 25); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 23 (reproduces
the reading by Naveh and Shaked).
Notes: Mller-Kessler (2006a, 271).
Photographs and facsimiles: Naveh and Shaked (1985, plate 26 photograph).

204 The bowl was there when photographs of it were referred to Naveh and Shaked for study.
205 For this name in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls nos. VA 2414: 1 and VA 2422: 1 (Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin), see
Ford and Levene (2012, 55).
206 For angels and deities quoted in this bowl and their connection with Jewish Babylonian culture, see Juusola (1999b,

7879).
bowl no. 24 121

Bowl no. 24 (Jewish Historical Museum Belgrade no. 243)207


[] b(r)n []w 1 [] () []
b[y]yn nytqr[w]n [] yn 2 evil they are uprooted []
nyt(q)rwn yd wdyw [] (by) [] lm 3 they are uprooted (?), demons and devils [] evil
[] dreams
dlyly wyzwn dmm mn p[] [by]ryh wbytyh 4 of night and visions of day from [] the cattle and
dbrym b[r zdndwk] the house of brym son of zdndwk.
bwm bwty bwty y wq[y]m bw[m] []hw bwm 5 In the name of ebaot ebaot, the living and the
yh yhw bwm h hyh h (y)h(w) [] dtytwn existent, in the name [] in the name of yh yhw, in
the name of h hyh h (y)h(w), that you may come
wtybdwn lh sywt lpgryh dbr(m)[ br zdnd]wk 6 and you may make for him healing, for the body of
[wl][] yh {wlbnh} wlbnyh wlb[n]t[y]h dytlyh brm son of zdndwk [] and for his sons and for his
wd[nywnlyh wn]ytnr daughters which he has and which he will have and
may be protected
d brpt br tbw wnytnr d n[rwy] [] br rbyt 7 this brpt son of tbw and may be protected this
wd mry br qymt lbytyh wl(n bytyh) nrwy [] son of rbyt and this mry son of qymt for
his house and for the people of his house,
lqynynyh wlbryh wlpgryh dylyh dbrym br [zdndwk] 8 for his property and for his cattle and for his body, of
[] bwm mry rb wq[dy] prw wpwqw ntwn r brym son of zdndwk [] In the name of the great
wmbd sny and holy Lord, flee and go out, you, sorcery and
hateful magical acts,
wlwt wlt dtt wtyqt {w}wzylw wsmw [] br 9 and curses and spells new and old and go and put (?)
[] mdr bwq []twn kyd npqytwn bt dmw kypr [] son of [] the one who sends (). As you go out
in the form of birds
dprn wnpqn wmnyn mn tr lt[r h]k[n] tynwn 10 who flee and go out and migrate from one place to
wtypqwn mn pgryh d[brym br zdndwk] [] bnyh another, so will you migrate and go out from the
wbntyh dyt lyh wdnywn lyh wnytnr body of brym son of zdndwk [] his sons and his
daughters which he has and which he will have and
may be protected
brpt br tbw wd rbyt bt w wnytnrwn (p)nhqdwk 11 brpt son of tbw and this rbyt daughter of w and
nrwy wgwn[sp] [] wnymy wyk yt dpr bnwr may they be protected pnhqdwk, nrwy and gwnsp
[] and () and like wax which melts in the fire
qdw {rwsw} rwqw wtbylw wtqlw wtklw w(zy)lw 12 run away, flee away and be abolished and be killed
wzylw mn pgryh dbr(m)[ br zdndwk] [] wl and be prevented and go and go away from the body
mdrnyh myn mmll pwmyh wmyn of brm son of zdndwk [] and against his sender
from the word of his mouth and from
bd dyh bmyh dqdyyl wmpqyyl wkby[yl] 13 the magical acts (of) his hand. In the name of
wpwryyl (sywt) [][]l (wl lkbywh) wnytnr d qdyyl and mpqyyl and kbyyl and pwryyl, healing
brbt [] and may it not press him (?) and may be
protected this brbt

207 It unfortunately proved impossible to obtain a new photograph of this bowl. The reading of the text was thus carried

out on a series of enlarged and reworked versions of the picture published by Naveh and Shaked. On the whole this edition
features only very small and few changes if compared to the one proposed by Naveh and Shaked, to which the reader is referred
for further details. It is hoped that a new photograph and/or direct check will provide improvements on the study of this bowl.
122 texts

br []tbw wdyn rbyt [bt ]w w[ny]t[n]rwn [] 14 son of tbw and this rbyt daughter of w and may
gwnsp b[n]h [] they be protected [] gwnsp, her children []

Notes to the text


l. 2) nytqr[w]n they are uprooted. This bowl features a great number of examples of vacillation in the orthography
of laryngeal and pharyngeal phonemes. Here the replaces etymologic . In lines 6 and 10 the opposite exchange
takes place (yt = yt). The is dropped in tybdwn (l. 6). The weakening of pharyngeal and laryngeal phonemes
in Late Mesopotamian Aramaic varieties and its reflexes in the orthography of Syriac incantation bowls are
well-known phenomena, particularly well documented in this text.208 In this respect Juusola (1999b, 79) stated
that this text is by far the most Mandaean type Syriac bowl in the treatment of gutturals.
l. 6) sywt healing. For this term in incantation bowls, see bowl no. 14: 12.
l. 6) bnyh his sons. Classical Syriac has bnwhy. See bowl no. 1: 5 and Juusola (1999b, 7980).
l. 6) wd[nywnlyh] and which he will have. The reconstruction is based upon the analogous sequence in line 10
(wdnywn lyh). In addition to the loss of the h as compared with the orthography of Classical Syriac nhwwn, here
note another phenomenon frequently documented in this text, i.e. the use of mater lectionis y to note the phoneme
/e/ (e.g. nytnr in this same line).
lines 7, 11, 13, 14) d brpt br tbw this brpt son of tbw, d mry br qymt this mry son of qymt, d rbyt
bt w this rbyt daughter of w, dyn rbyt bt w this rbyt daughter of w. In addition to the datum that all
the demonstrative pronouns quoted in these sequences are spelled with instead of h (see bowls nos. 1: 6, 2: 6
and literature quoted there), the lack of gender agreement in the use of demonstrative pronouns is attested in this
text.209
l. 9) dtt wtyqt new and old. Naveh and Shaked (1985, 181, 183) translated new and sealed. Here a suggestion
by Mller-Kessler (2005, 105) is followed, considering that a spelling with instead of Classical Syriac for tyqt
would not be out of place in this bowl, given the frequent vacillation between ayn and alef in the orthography of
laryngeal and pharyngeal phonemes documented in it (see above).
l. 9) bt dmw kypr in the form of birds. Classical Syriac has dmwt. For further references see Naveh and Shaked
(1985, 183).210
l. 11) yt wax. Classical Syriac knows wt.211
l. 12) qdw run away. The translation proposed by Naveh and Shaked (1985, 181) is accepted here. The reader
should refer to the same study for the use of the root qd in magic texts.
l. 12) wtbylw wtqlw wtklw and be abolished and be killed and be prevented. For the spelling of these verbs with
replacing , see Moriggi (2004, 119). Further examples of the use of instead of in the orthography of this text are
dyh (l. 13) for ydh (his hand) and yt (lines 6, 10) for yt.212
l. 13) bmyh dqdyyl wmpqyyl wkby[yl] wpwryyl In the name of qdyyl and mpqyyl and kbyyl and pwryyl.
According to Ruani (2013, 305), these angelic names are part of the group of nomina barbara construits partir
dune racine des sens en syriaque et ajout dun suffixe connu, soit hbraque (-el), soit dorigine grecque (-s, -os,
-ws). She further observed that les racines composant les noms angliques des entits mentionnes se succdent
selon lenchanement suivant: percer (qda), expulser (mappeq), oppresser (kba) et dissiper (parra).
l. 14) dyn this. As for the morphology of this demonstrative pronoun, see Nebe (2006, 253254).

208 Moriggi (2004, 118). See Morgenstern (2007, 249251) for the situation in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls.
209 Further references are found in Naveh and Shaked (1985, 182183); Moriggi (2004, 126129); Moriggi (2005, 319).
210 As regards demons in the guise of animals in incantation bowl texts, see Moriggi 2013.
211 Naveh and Shaked (1985, 183).
212 For a Gaonic responsum regarding the graphic shift , see Sokoloff (1994, 407408).
bowl no. 24 123

Bowl no. 24 (Jewish Historical Museum, Belgrade)


BOWL NO. 25

Present location: unknown.


Dimensions: diameter 17.8cm.213
Remarks: together with bowl no. 27, this bowl was formerly in the possession of the Aaron Gallery
(London), where it was examined by Geller (1986, 101n1)). When Naveh and Shaked (1993, 118119)
published it, it was housed in the Leonard A. Wolfe Collection (Jerusalem), where it had been kept
at least since 1989, when it was included in Wolfe and Sternberg (1989, 29).214 The present owner
remains unknown. As for the provenance, Geller (1986, 101) wrote that the bowls he was presenting
are unlikely to come from Nippur, while Mller-Kessler (2005, 99) stated that die sternfrmige
Zeichnung auf dem Boden von Schale 17 [= bowl no. 27] macht Nippur als Fundstelle wahrscheinlich.
Mller-Kessler further linked the two bowls to the same area in view of the fact that the clients
have the same name ( ywy son of rnyndwk) and thus might be the same person.215 The bowl is well
preserved. The ink has faded on nearly half of the surface, but on the whole this did not greatly hinder
the reading and the detecting of the text. Fading of the ink was stronger near the rim.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives and adjectives (e.g. yd
by , lines 56), but also above some words in the singular (e.g. yr, l. 1).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: eight (and one label on the exterior). Line 8 has suffered greatly from the fading of the
ink.
Drawings and other signs: a demon is depicted at the bottom of the basin. His head, neck and eyes are
evident. His hands are bound to his feet.216 Traces of a circle surrounding the text are visible near the
rim.
Clients: ywy son of rnyndwk (quoted in l. 2). The same proper name is featured in bowl no. 27.217
Contents: as regards the contents of this bowl text, see bowl no. 17. In the present text the formula
starts directly with the utterance: Depart devil , while in bowl no. 17 this utterance is preceded
by an introductory spell. At the end of the text this bowl does not feature the closing sentence with
quotation of the name of the client used in bowl no. 17: 78.
Parallels: bowls nos. 17, 35, 39 in this volume. Bowls nos. MS 2055/26 (Schyen Collection); JNF 212,
JNF 213, JNF 228, JNF 233, JNF 241, JNF 242; DCG 1 (private collections to be published by Ford).
Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowl no. MS 1929/2 (Schyen Collection).
Editions: Geller (1986: no. Aaron C); Naveh and Shaked (1993: no. 16); Moriggi (2004: no. 26); Mller-
Kessler (2005: no. 33a).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Geller (1986, 111 facsimile, plate 7 photograph); Naveh and Shaked
(1993, plate 21 photograph); Wolfe and Sternberg (1989, 29, no. 54 photograph).

213 Mller-Kessler (2005, 98 height is not provided).


214 Mller-Kessler (2005, 98) bore out the datum of the bowl as still being in the possession of Leonard A. Wolfe. I understand
from the owner of the collection that this information is no longer valid (private communication, 29.05. 2012).
215 See Naveh and Shaked (1993, 121) for analogous considerations.
216 A similar drawing is found in bowl no. 8. Apart from Vilozny (2012; 2013), drawings and iconography in incantation bowls

were described in Hunter (1998) and Hunter (2000a, 170176). On the latter see Bhayro (2004, 392).
217 For other occurrences of this name in bowls nos. MS 1928/54 (Schyen Collection), JNF 216 and JNF 243 (private collection

to be published by Ford), see Ford (forthcoming a), where a new reading of bowl no. CBS 2945: 15 (= Montgomery 1913: no. 2)
is also featured.
bowl no. 25 125

Bowl no. 25 (formerly Aaron Gallery, London, and Leonard A. Wolfe Collection, Jerusalem)218
zh dyw wlb yr wykb wkwl lhwt byt mn 1 Depart devil and no-good-one, awake and asleep
and every evil deity from
hn byt dywy br rnyndwk wmn dyr dbgwh 2 this house of ywy son of rnyndwk and from the
rn syr by inhabitants who dwell in it. Bound is the evil
wlb wwmrt dykr wnyqbt wllyt dykr 3 and the no-good-one and the amulet-spirit,
wn[y]qbt dtt wrt bhydyn male and female, and the lilith, male and female,
who came and dwelt in this
byt syr bswrh dry wtym btmh dtnyn syr 4 house. Bound is by the bond of the lion and sealed is
bswr dybwl wtym btmh by the seal of the dragon. Bound is by the bond of
ybwl and sealed is by the seal
dbwryt syr bswr zq wtym btm dbgdn syr 5 of bwryt. Bound is by the bond of the blast-demons
wtym bmwbl rb dzq dkwl yd and sealed is by the seal of the bagdanas. Bound and
sealed is by the great load of the blast-demons, so
that all evil
by wlb wwmr ptkr wystrt wlly wkwl ny 6 demons and no-good-ones and amulet-spirits,
n y bmh wkwl yd by lwth dhn byt idol-spirits and goddesses and liliths and every
individual by his name and all evil demons at this
house,
dhn rz qbyr bgwh l nyqrbwn lh syr hd rw 7 in which this mystery is buried, so that they may not
byt dry wyd dyw wllyt wkwl dbhn byt approach it. Bound is this evil spirit who dwells and
the demon, devil and lilith and everyone who in this
house
r syr wtym [] ntyn bgdn myn 8 dwells. Bound and sealed is [] the descending
bagdanas. Amen.
dkwrt(y)stn dbt dt External Belonging to the dining area of the new houses (?)
surface

Notes to the text


l. 1) zh depart!. For this verbal voice, see bowl no. 1: 6.
l. 1) yr wykb awake and asleep. See the parallel bowl no. 17: 4 for further references to this sequence.
l. 3) dtt wrt who came and dwelt. For variants of this sequence in parallel texts, see bowl no. 17: 5.
l. 3) hydyn this. This demonstrative pronoun is also found in bowls nos. 9: 5 and 36: 2. See bowl no. 36: 2 for further
details on this pronoun in incantation bowl texts.
l. 4) syr bswrh dry wtym btmh dtnyn syr bswr dybwl wtym btmh dbwryt syr bswr zq wtym btm dbgdn
syr wtym bmwbl rb dzq Bound is by the bond of the lion and sealed is by the seal of the dragon. Bound is by the
bond of ybwl and sealed is by the seal of bwryt. Bound is by the bond of the blast-demons and sealed is by the seal
of the bagdanas. Bound and sealed is by the great load of the blast-demons. For this sequence and its contents,
see bowl no. 17: 57, where comments and references are found.

218 The reading of the text was carried out on a series of enlarged and reworked versions of the picture published by Naveh

and Shaked. On the whole this edition features only very small and few changes if compared to that proposed by Naveh and
Shaked, to which the reader is referred for further details. It is hoped that a new photograph and/or direct check will provide
improvements on the study of this bowl.
126 texts

l. 6) wkwl ny n y bmh and every individual by his name. The present author is no longer convinced that the
spelling ny is a scribal error for Classical Syriac n.219 Spellings like this may be quite usual in the bowl texts, where
graphic interchanges between letters and phonetic spellings are well documented.220
l. 7) After the participle ry Mller-Kessler (2005, 98) emended the text by adding the sequence bhn byt (in this
house).
l. 8) Neither the photograph nor Gellers facsimile gives a clear picture of the whole line. After the participle
tym Ford (forthcoming a) now proposes to read: b[y]z(q)t yt[y]n []() zq [w]tmnn ntyn bgdn myn. For the
sequence ntyn bgdn (here rendered as the descending bagdanas), Naveh and Shaked (1993, 118) proposed
the Bagdanas descend, while Mller-Kessler (2005, 98) read ty before bgdn, but did not translate it.

The external surface of the bowl is not documented by pictures, but only by Gellers facsimile. The label featured
on it was thus not presented in the studies of Naveh and Shaked (1993, 118120), Moriggi (2004, 269270) and
Mller-Kessler (2005, 9899). According to the facsimile, it seems that the reading of Geller (1986, 111112) may
be accepted and a provisional translation may be proposed. The kwrtystn is most likely a room in the building
where the bowl was to be placed. The word kwrtystn may reflect the Persian verb khward(an) to eat, thus pointing
to the area of the building where food was taken.221

219 Moriggi (2004, 270).


220 See Naveh and Shaked (1993, 120); Mller-Kessler (2005, 99).
221 The author is grateful to Prof. Shaul Shaked (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem), who kindly and promptly sent him

this suggestion (private communication, 15.11.2013).


bowl no. 25 127

Bowl no. 25 (formerly Aaron and Wolfe Collections)


BOWL NO. 26

Present location: Museo Nazionale dArte Orientale, Rome (IsIAO 5206).


Dimensions: 18.28cm.
Remarks: as recorded in Moriggi (2001, 205) this bowl, together with the other incantation bowls housed
in the Museo Nazionale dArte Orientale, was purchased in the market of antiquities in Teheran
(Iran), by the former IsMEO in 1970. The bowl is well preserved; only a couple of small fragments are
missing at the rim. The internal surface of the vessel has been crudely erased and Gignoux (1984, 47)
already pointed out that approximately three quarters of the inscription have disappeared due to
abrasion.
Script: Estrangela. Seyame dots are marked above plural substantives and adjectives (e.g. pgyn byn,
l. 8), the plural demonstrative pronoun ylyn (l. 10),222 the 3rd person masculine plural suffix pronoun
-hwn (e.g. mtwn, l. 10), plural participles (e.g. zrn, l. 10), and the numeral tltm wtltn (l. 11). The
presence of the seyame dots above brb(b) (l. 16) is still to be explained. A dot is marked above an h
in line 18, but the context is lost.223
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 19. As already stated in Gignoux (1984, 48), only one quarter of the text at most has
been preserved. The first five lines are completely lost and scratches on the surface damaged the
surviving section of lines 1419.
Drawings and other signs: it is likely that the text was closed by a line whose traces are visible in line 18
after the sequence wl[l]m. Furthermore, traces of a circle possibly surrounding the text after line 19
are visible by the rim.
Clients: .
Contents: protection from misfortunes and evil apparitions. The text is too defective to allow for an
indisputable description of its contents.
Parallels: .
Editions: Gignoux 1984; Moriggi (2001, 223225); Moriggi (2004: no. 27); CAL: no. Magic BowlRome
5206 (reproduces Moriggi 1999, 128135).
Notes: Mller-Kessler (19992000, 304).
Photographs and facsimiles: Gignoux (1984, 5253, plates 13 photographs); Cordera (2001, 240241,
plates 1720 photographs).

Bowl no. 26 (IsIAO 5206)224


[] 15 []
[] lyh [] 6 [] () []
[] bhyl mlk h[] 7 [] bhyl the angel []
[] kwl pgyn byn dmny npqwn l[..] t[] 8 [] all evil misfortunes that may go out from me,
to []

222 Cf. Classical Syriac hlyn. See Moriggi (2004, 130).


223 See also Gignoux (1984, 48) for information about the script of this bowl.
224 The reading of the text was carried out on a series of photographs kindly supplied by the Museo Nazionale dArte Orientale

(Rome).
bowl no. 26 129

[]n l sqwpt dbyt bry [] 9 [] on the threshold of the outer house []


[] []rb wylyn mhtwn zrn pgn [] b [] 10 [] the sword and these names of them spreading
the misfortunes []
[] bpry tltm wtltn (rypn) rkybn bprzl w[] 11 [] especially the three hundred and thirty rypwn
(?) mounted with iron and []
[] yt lh krblth dtrngl bryh sr ddb lby[] [] 12 [] he has the crest of the cock on his head, he
wears the fur of a wolf []
[] dmn ry yr yr (byr) my bh tr(l) dyn (g)l dhw 13 [] that from the beginning of the month of Iyyar, in
mytdm [] Iyyar it will wither away in it (?) () this calf (?) that
he has the appearance []
[] wty dm g(rm) wmy[] db ny[]n [s]gy rw 14 [] and she drinks blood, the bones and water of
byt dry l brn wmhklh () [] many men, evil spirit who dwells upon a human and
() []
[] [l] []w l dwt mn bt [] ywn (wnrt) lykwn 15 [] against [] against joy, from the house [] their
rw byt dmytdmy bdmwt wr pgmyyl d[] and protection against you, evil spirit who seems to
the shape of a mountain, pgmyyl who []
[]q wlh[] wl wbth [..](b) m(l) m(b)ytqd [] 16 [] and on [] and on his fingers [..] () this angel
hy(d)yn mlk brb(b) mb[] [] brbb. I adjure []
[] m(l)k [] ()tn wntr(z)wn wt(km) []t [..] hw 17 [] the angels [] you and () [] of satans (?) []
[.]ds[n] []bwy wlbr br mh[] wmn [] () and () [] and from []
[]hy d[] (bth d) [] [y]n wmyn my[n] sl 18 [] () [] the house of [] yes and amen, amen,
wl[l]m [line at right angle closing the text] [] [] selah, and forever [line at right angle closing the text]
[]
[] (w)dy [] by wmn lwt [] 19 [] and devils [] evil and from curses []

Notes to the text


This bowl, originally published by Gignoux (1984), was re-edited by the present author in 2001 (Moriggi 2001,
223225). The text of the incantation is not completely clear, as most of the text has been erased from the surface
of the basin. The reading featured here presents some changes as compared to the 2001 edition, but on the whole
some old problems of interpretation remain unresolved. It is hoped that some parallel texts will come to light in
the future to help the scholarly debate in clarifying the contents of this bowl.

l. 10) ylyn these. For the morphology of this demonstrative pronoun, see Nebe (2006, 256257).
l. 12) yt lh krblth dtrngl bryh sr ddb lby[] he has the crest of the cock on his head, he wears the fur of a wolf. In
spite of the obscurity of this passage, it may be pointed out that devilish apparitions in Mesopotamian incantation
bowls often involve animal guises.225 In this case it may be further recalled that the demon Abraxas is usually
represented with a cock-head in the iconography of magic gems and the like. As a matter of fact in bowl no. 6: 9
the mighty Lord Abraxas (brkss mry tqyp) comes to the fore.
l. 13) dmn ry yr yr (byr) my bh that from the beginning of the month of Iyyar, in Iyyar it will wither away in it
(?). See amulet no. Syriaque I: 8081 (Gignoux 1987, 1819), which reads: mn ry yr[ d] ry yr mn nysn d lnysn
mn t[ry] d ltry du dbut du mois au dbut du mois (suivant), davril avril, doctobre octobre.
l. 14) wty dm g(rm) wmy[] db ny[]n [s]gy and she drinks the blood, the bones and water of many men.
Mller-Kessler (19992000, 304) read wty dm grm wmy dbn y[]n and they drink blood and water of human

225 Moriggi 2013.


130 texts

beings.226 For demons drinking the blood and eating the meat of their victims, see the recently published Jewish
Babylonian Aramaic bowl text no. IM 2929: 6 (Iraq Museum), reading: nn zlyn lmykl bsr dl bsykyn lmyt dm dl
bsykyn we go to eat meat without knives, to drink blood without knives.227 In the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
bowl no. VA 2414: 67 (Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin) maggots are found in the sequence: wl sst byr dbyr
kln wbyr tyn and maggots (in) flesh that devour flesh and drink flesh.228

226 Further references to blood as food for demons are in Mller-Kessler (19992000, 302304).
227 See Faraj (2007, 272). Transliteration and translation by the present author.
228 Ford and Levene (2012, 59).
bowl no. 26 131

Bowl no. 26 (IsIAO 5206)


132 texts

Bowl no. 26 (IsIAO 5206) (partial view)

Bowl no. 26 (IsIAO 5206) (partial view)


bowl no. 26 133

Bowl no. 26 (IsIAO 5206) (partial view)


BOWL NO. 27

Present location: Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem (BLMJ 0070).


Dimensions: diameter 17.5cm.229
Remarks: the bowl was formerly in the possession of the Aaron Gallery (London) and was first analysed
by Geller. It is now housed in the Bible Lands Museum (Jerusalem), where it was already kept when
Naveh and Shaked studied it. No information regarding its provenance is known to date.230 The bowl
is well preserved. Some fading in the ink occurred near the rim. As to the rest of the basin, the ink
does not seem to have faded significantly since Naveh and Shaked read it.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above the plural substantive rkybyn (l. 3) and the singular
verbal voice ntm (l. 5).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: six.
Drawings and other signs: at the bottom of the basin a flower-shaped drawing with nine petals is
depicted. It is divided into four sections by a cross. Another diagonal stroke divides one of the petals
into two parts. An analogous drawing is featured at the bottom of bowls nos. 35 and 42 in this volume.
The text is surrounded by a circle.
Clients: ywy son of rnyndwk (quoted in lines 2, 23, 4 2 times). The same proper name is quoted in
bowl no. 25.231
Contents: smiting the Evil Eye and protection for the client again adversaries. A dialogue between the
client and a supernatural being seems to be featured in the text.232 The power of Christ is invoked and
a cross precedes the charaktres that bring the formula to an end.
Parallels: there is one sentence parallel to this text in lines 26 of bowl no. MS 1928/54 (Schyen
Collection).
Editions: Naveh and Shaked (1993: no. 17); Moriggi (2004: no. 28).
Notes: Gorea (2004, 113114).
Photographs and facsimiles: Naveh and Shaked (1993, plate 22 photograph); Geller (1997, plate 4
facsimile).

Bowl no. 27 (BLMJ 0070)233


tytwr wtytm yn byt dhy mth 1 May it be confounded and smitten the Evil Eye that
smote him,
lywy br rnyndwk lm kys wmkys ly ksy lywy 2 ywy son of rnyndwk. Why do (you) blame and
rebuke me? He has (protectively) covered ywy

229 The height was not provided by the Bible Lands Museum (private communication, 13.02.2013).
230 Naveh and Shaked (1993, 121).
231 For other occurrences of this name in bowls nos. MS 1928/54 (Schyen Collection), JNF 216 and JNF 243 (private collection

to be published by Ford), see Ford (forthcoming a), where a new reading of bowl no. CBS 2945: 15 (= Montgomery 1913: no. 2)
is also featured.
232 See reservations in Naveh and Shaked (1993, 121). Gorea (2004, 113) read the text as un bref dialogue entre le bnficiaire

des incantations [], et Dieu.


233 The reading of the text was carried out on a new high-resolution photograph of the bowl kindly supplied by Bible Lands

Museum (Jerusalem).
bowl no. 27 135

br rnyndwk lm mrt ly mr qym drkybyn lm skwr 3 son of rnyndwk. Why did you become hot (in
kys anger) against me?. He said: I shall make to stand
those riding. Why the one who shuts blames
skrn lywy br rnyndwk ht dyn mrt ly mr myt 4 (and) did shut us, (viz.) ywy son of rnyndwk?.
qymyt wzky lywy br rnyndwk Now then you have become hot (in anger) against
me. He said: A dead man I raised and he granted
victory to ywy son of rnyndwk.
wkwl mnw dnqwm lnph hkn ntm wntbl rwgzh kwl 5 and everyone who stands in front of him in this
dylyd ntt hw wlqyblh qym manner shall be smitten and his anger shall be
annulled, (namely) everyone who is born of a
woman and who stands against him.
nqwm wndr ylh dmy + charaktres 6 May the power of Christ arise and help. +
charaktres

Notes to the text234


l. 1) tytwr may it be confounded. Another translation of this verb is proposed in the study of the parallel sentence
in bowl no. MS 1928/54: 2, where tytwr is considered a phonetic spelling of tytwr be blinded. The dropping of
is by no means a rare phenomenon in Syriac bowls and the semantics of the text seems to allow for the proposed
interpretation.235
l. 1) yn byt the Evil Eye. The Evil Eye is quoted also in bowl no. 32: 8 in this volume. For an excursus on this
theme in incantation texts (bowls, amulets and Jewish prayers), see Levene (2005, 175180).236
l. 2) lm kys wmkys ly Why do (you) blame and rebuke me?. The interpretation of this sentence is as yet unsettled.
The translation proposed here is the same as that featured in Ford (forthcoming a) for the parallel sentence in bowl
no. MS 1928/54: 3. It is supposed that this utterance is the first of this cut-and-thrust formula. The meaning of the
words kys and mkys has been derived by scholars from the root kss (to blame, to put to shame).237 As regards
morphology, we must postulate for kys a scriptio plena (with dropping of ) of /kes/, participle masculine singular
active pe. (absolute state), and for mkys another scriptio plena of /makkes/, participle masculine singular active
aph. (absolute state).238 A Mandaic bowl published by Pognon (1898, 7781 no. 27: 58) and then by Yamauchi
(1967, 198 no. 13: 67) has a couple of participles of the same root: ksysytwn wmksytwn rebuked and doubly
rebuked.239 A derivation of the two forms attested in this text from the root qs (to bend, to twist) by dissimilation
of q ( ks) and dropping of the weakened as in a Mandaic lead roll of the Kelsey Museum (Incantation B, KM 29883:
56 kys wm[]ks bent, and twisted) does not seem to be suitable to the context we have here.240
lines 23) ksy lywy br rnyndwk he has (protectively) covered ywy son of rnyndwk. The parallel sentence in
bowl no. MS 1928/54: 3 reads ksy lbyth dywy br rnyndwk he has (protectively) covered the house of ywy son of
rnyndwk. Our text omits lbyth, but the verb ksy (pa. to protect) may be suitable for a person, too.241
lines 3, 4) mrt you have become hot (in anger). The meaning of this verb has been guessed by Naveh and Shaked
(1993, 122) with reference to the root mr (Syriac to ferment, to become red).242 The same form is rendered in
the translation of the parallel sentence in MS 1928/54: 4 as you have raged.

234 For further comments on this text, see the study of the parallel sentences of bowl no. MS 1928/54 in Ford (forthcoming a).
235 See Moriggi (2004, 119120).
236 For a history of the motif of the Evil Eye, see Ford 1998.
237 Payne Smith ([1903] 1999, 220). Mller-Kessler (2006b, 117), in her study of bowl no. MS 1928/54, translated this sentence:

Warum beschuldigt er mich und weist mich zurecht?.


238 See Moriggi (2004, 193194).
239 Yamauchi (1967, 198). The reading and translation featured here follow Ford (2011, 261).
240 Mller-Kessler (2010a, 484, 485486).
241 Payne Smith ([1903] 1999, 220).
242 Payne Smith ([1903] 1999, 147); Margoliouth (1927, 129).
136 texts

lines 34) lm mrt ly mr qym drkybyn lm skwr kys skrn lywy br rnyndwk Why did you become hot (in anger)
against me? He said: I shall make to stand those riding. Why the one who shuts blames (and) did shut us, (viz.)
ywy son of rnyndwk?. This series of utterances has no parallel in bowl no. MS 1928/54 and its sense still escapes
us. The use of the root skr for the nomen actoris skwr and the verb skrn recalls other Syriac bowl texts (nos. 1: 67
and 13: 13) but without helping us to find a reasonable interpretation.
l. 4) ht dyn now then. As in bowl no. 32: 8, the word dyn is now better read as a Syriac particle rather than as a
demonstrative pronoun. Cf. Moriggi (2004, 126).243
l. 4) myt qymyt a dead man I raised. According to Gorea (2004, 114) le mort relev dont il est question est sans
conteste le Christ.
l. 5) kwl dylyd ntt hw (namely) everyone who is born of a woman. The translation is based on the parallel
statement in bowl no. MS 1928/54: 5. Naveh and Shaked (1993, 122) commented upon the sequence that we should
have expected dkwl dylyd ntt hw and translated of everyone who is born of a woman.
l. 5) lqyblh against him. In bowl no. 21: 4 the same sequence is spelled lqblh. Cf. Classical Syriac lqwblh.
l. 6) ndr may it help. In bowl no. MS 1928/54: 6 the text reads ndrh (may it help him), but the photograph of our
text clearly shows that there is no h after r. The same word was read nwr (may it become awake) by Naveh and
Shaked (1993, 120), but, apart from the parallel, the d after the is readable in the photograph.

243 See Mller-Kessler (2006b, 117).


bowl no. 27 137

Bowl no. 27 (BLMJ 0070)


BOWL NO. 28

Present location: Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. (AO27064-O).


Dimensions: diameter 17.5cm.244
Remarks: the bowl was already housed in Smithsonian Institution when Naveh and Shaked studied it.
Nothing is known as regards its provenance. The bowl is well preserved. Extensive scratches have
erased the surface, especially at the bottom of the basin. Some fading of the ink has affected some
spots of the basin.
Script: Estrangela. Seyame dots are marked above a good many plural substantives and adjectives
(e.g. ptk[r] [d]ykr wystrt, l. 9), plural participles (e.g. ktybyn, l. 4), 3rd person masculine singular
suffix pronoun (e.g. bn, l. 6), 3rd person masculine plural suffix pronoun (e.g. lwn, l. 7), the
demonstrative pronoun hln (l. 11) and the verbal voice nbrn (l. 4). The presence of the seyame
dots above the name pyrn (l. 5) has not yet been definitively explained.245
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 13. Lines 17 have suffered greatly from abrasion of the surface.
Drawings and other signs: a circle is drawn at the bottom of the basin. It surrounds a cross shaped like
the one drawn at the bottom of bowl no. 22. There are at least four hook-like strokes coming out from
three of the arms of the cross, two from the longest arm.246 A circle encloses lines 18 and line 8 is
itself separated into two parts by this circle. Traces of a further circle surrounding the text are visible
near the rim.
Clients: kwsrw son of qqy (quoted in lines 3, 5, 7, 11), lt daughter of qywmt (quoted in lines 3, 4, 6 2
times, 7 2 times, 11 2 times), prwkdd (quoted in lines 3, 6, 7, 11), byrw (quoted in lines 3, 6, 7, 11),
gwny (quoted in lines 4, 6, 7, 11). A man called byrw son of nywndwkt is quoted in bowl no. 41: 6. A
woman called qywmt is quoted as the mother of the client of bowl no. 31. A man called prwkdd is in
his turn featured as a member of the family of bowl no. 22. The client of bowl no. 14 is named gwny
and the mother of one of the clients of bowl no. 22 has the same name.
Contents: protection for a family against evil beings, misfortunes and illnesses. Those who mumble a
mumbling, charm charms, the great primeval pyrwn zyw and the great first lypr are quoted.
A simile involving a reed which comes from inside the house and does not go again to the marsh
is used to exemplify the casting away of demons and magical acts. An alphabet repeated twice and a
series of charaktres close the first part of the formula. In the second part the signet ring by which
heaven and earth are sealed, the seal by which Noah sealed his ark, the signet ring of Solomon,
the great seal and the living God are quoted.247
Parallels: .
Editions: Naveh and Shaked (1993: no. 26); Moriggi (2004: no. 29).
Notes: Mller-Kessler (2006a, 271).
Photographs and facsimiles: Naveh and Shaked (1993, plate 31 photograph).

244 Naveh and Shaked (1993, 140 height is not provided).


245 Cf. Naveh and Shaked (1993, 141).
246 For crosses drawn on Syriac incantation bowls, see Juusola (1999b, 8182).
247 The figure of lh y (the living God) is commented in Juusola (1999b, 8283).
bowl no. 28 139

Bowl no. 28 (Smithsonian Institution no. AO207964-O)248


l[q]yyn syryn zryzyn lyn qmyyn wtymyn r 1 Gathered, bound, armed, tied, held and sealed are
rt wt[m]n
dstyn the sorcery of sixty witches and the eight ones,
dtkyn [t]wkn dr[n]n ryn wpn p lyly wymm 2 who cause harm, who mumble a mumbling and
wdk(w)l dnsyb wd wmqbyl [q]w[r]bn charm charms by night and by day. And that
everyone who takes a gift and accepts a present
wdkwl dt my mn n[r] w[..] (dylt wbq) dndryn lh 3 and that everyone who drinks water from a river and
lkwsrw br qqy wllt bt qywmt wlpr[wkd]d wl[byr]w [..] the accusation and the convulsion (?) which they
vow to him, to kwsrw son of qqy and to lt daughter
of qywmt and to prwkdd and to byrw
wlgwny bnh wbnth [d]lt lytqrwn wlytsrwn bswr 4 and to gwny, sons and daughters of lt, may they be
dby wtqyp wqmy ktybyn tymyn dl nbrn kwrh[n] knotted and may they be bound by a bond that is
wl []n [] evil and mighty and holding. Written, sealed are, so
that the illnesses do not pass and not []
wl [n]mwn wl nrmwn []yl nythpkwn lwt 5 and they do not strike and do not cast but they may
mdrnyhwn wqrybyhwn bwm pyrn zyw rb qdmy be returned to their senders and their invocators. In
wlypr rb ryy dhw [n]pr lh [lk]wsrw br qqy the name of the great primeval pyrwn zyw, and the
great first lypr, who solves him (from magic
binding), kwsrw son of qqy,
wllt bt qywmt wlprwkdd wlbyrw wlgwny bn wbnt 6 and lt daughter of qywmt and prwkdd and byrw
dlt mn kyl wll[m] myn myn yk dhn qny dmn gw and gwny, sons and daughters of lt, henceforth
b(y)t t wtwb lgm l zyl wtwb and forever. Amen, amen. As this reed which comes
from inside the house and does not go again to the
marsh and again
y l hwyn lwn hkn l thw bwn ywt br dbnyn 7 life is not to them, so may there be not vitality in
dbdn lh lkwsrw br qqy wllt bt qywmt wlprwkdd them, in the sorcery of the people which they
wlbyrw wgwny bn wb[n]t [d]lt yn perform to him, to kwsrw son of qqy and to lt
daughter of qywmt and to prwkdd and to byrw and
gwny, sons and daughters of lt, yes,
wmyn myn slh whllwhy bgd hwz y klmnn sp 8 and amen, amen, selah and hallelujah. bgd hwz y
qrtt myn myn sl [line closing line 8] bgd hwz y klmnn sp qrtt. Amen, amen, selah [line closing
klmnn sp qrtt myn myn slh line 8] bgd hwz y klmnn sp qrtt. Amen, amen,
selah.
charaktres s charaktres p ntwn [r]w 9 charaktres s charaktres You too, spirits
[w]wm r wllyt ptk[r] [d]ykr wystrt nyqbt and amulet-spirits and liliths, male idol-spirits and
female goddesses.
syr wtym byt wnyh ylyn bbh [w]slyqyn ygrh bwrh 10 Bound and sealed is the house and the men entering
qlh wbyrh wqnynh syr wtym byzqt dtym bh my his door and going up on his roof, his grain, his field
wr wbtm dtmh nw lkywlh wb[y]zqth dlymwn and his cattle and his possessions. Bound and sealed
is by the signet ring by which heaven and earth are
sealed and by the seal by which Noah sealed his ark
and by the signet ring of Solomon

248 The reading of the text was carried out on two new high-resolution colour photographs kindly supplied by the Smithso-

nian Institution, Washington D.C.


140 texts

dtymyn bh d wdw wbtm rb tymyn tymyn 11 by which demons and devils are sealed and by the
mzrzyn wmrryn qmy hln dtktbw lsywth wlnrth great seal are sealed, sealed, armed and made strong
dkwsrw br qqy wlt bt qywmt wprwkdd wbyrw these amulets that were written for the healing and
wgwny bn h wbnt [d]lt lyd srgws for the protection of kwsrw son of qqy and lt
daughter of qywmt and prwkdd and byrw and
gwny, the sons and daughters of lt, by srgws,
sr syryn wqr qrn myn myn myn sl hllwhy lmk 12 binder of bindings and tier of knots. Amen, amen,
lh y lh dbyl kwl dyn wkl dywyn sywt wwlmn amen, selah, hallelujah. For your name, living God,
wdrmn wtmt wqymt wnrt dy the God who abolished all demons and all devils.
Healing and recovery and medicine and sealing and
stability and protection of life
mn my n ktbty lh ns mn h wllm yn wmyn myn 13 from heaven. I wrote, God heals, from now and
myn sl forever, yes and amen, amen, amen, selah.

Notes to the text


l. 2) dtkyn [t]wkn that cause harm. The reconstruction is allowed for by the new picture, and the interpretation
of the sequence, already set forth by Naveh and Shaked (1993, 141), is now strengthened by the occurrence of the
word twk (harm) in Syriac bowls nos. 6: 12 and 38: 6.
l. 2) wpn p and charm charms. For p instead of the expected Classical Syriac p, see Naveh and Shaked (1993,
141). Further occurrences are in bowl no. MS 2055/11: 1: pn. Cf. Mller-Kessler (2006a, 266): pn p /pn p/
beschwrt!. In Mller-Kessler (2010b, 467) the Mandaic correspondent pt is translated as incantation.
l. 3) wdkwl dt my mn n[r] w[..] (dylt wbq) dndryn lh and that everyone who drinks water from a river and [..]
the accusation and the convulsion (?) which they vow to him. The alternative proposal by Mller-Kessler (2012,
22), who read this sequence as wdkwl dt my mn nhr w[kl] gblt wm[ny] dndryh lh (and everyone who drinks
water from the river and e[ats] dough, and the vessels that one vows to him), is untenable according to the new
pictures at the present authors disposal.
l. 4) lytqrwn may they be knotted. The prefix l- for the 3rd person masculine plural imperfect is also attested in
bowl no. 13: 13 (lskr) and in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and Mandaic incantation bowls. See Moriggi (2004, 195)
for a comparative table of occurrences.
l. 5) wqrybyhwn and their invocators. According to the picture, the reading of this sequence as proposed by
Mller-Kessler (2006a, 271): wqrbnyhwn ihre Spender (Nomen agentis akt. Part. Pe. + n) is untenable.
As the meaning those that are near them is not expected in this context, it may be posited that /b/ was here
pronounced as [w] and thus the grapheme b stands in for /w/. See the spelling qryywhwn in bowl no. 32: 6.
l. 5) bwm pyrn zyw rb qdmy wlypr rb ryy dhw [n]pr lh In the name of the great primeval pyrwn zyw,
and the great first lypr, who solves him (from magic binding). See the Mandaic text no. DC 29: 363364 (Drower
Collection), where it is read: bwm -pyrwn zyw gbr pwr in the name of Pirun Ziwa, the exorcist.
l. 8) The alphabet, repeated twice, is featured in this line, before and after the line closing the first half of the
formula. A doubly written alphabet is featured in bowls nos. 49: 8 and MS 2055/1: 12, while the alphabet, but not
doubly written, is featured in bowl no. 14: 13. In all quoted texts the alphabet closes the formula.
l. 9) The sequence of seven s followed by s is also featured in bowl no. 22: 10.
l. 10) wnyh ylyn bbh [w]slyqyn ygrh bwrh qlh wbyrh wqnynh and the men entering his door and going up on
his roof, his grain, his field and his cattle and his possessions. The same sequence is featured, with only minor
variations, in bowl no. 16: 1213. See also the sequence wl{y}yly byt wnpqy sqwpt and for those who enter his
house and those who leave his threshold in the Mandaic bowl no. Nippur 12 N 493: 4.249

249 Bowl no. Nippur 12 N 493 is published in Mller-Kessler (2005, 145147 bowl no. 2A). The transliteration and translation

presented here follow Morgenstern (2010, 286). See also Mller-Kessler (2006a, 271).
bowl no. 28 141

l. 10) btm dtmh nw lkywlh by the seal by which Noah sealed his ark. The seal of Noah by which he sealed his
ark is attested also in the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. CBS 16014: 5 (= Montgomery 1913: no. 10). See Juusola
(1999b, 84) for further details.
l. 10) b[y]zqth dlymwn by the signet ring of Solomon. See bowl no. 6: 8 for another occurrence of this theme in
published Syriac bowls.
l. 11) btm rb by the great seal. rb is clear in the picture, as suggested by Mller-Kessler (2006a, 271). Cf. rbh in
Naveh and Shaked (1993, 139).
Lines 1112) lyd srgws sr syryn wqr qrn by srgws, binder of bindings and tier of knots. srgws appears to be the
equivalent of the angel srgwn, quoted in a number of unpublished Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls, e.g. bowl no.
Wolfe 32: 56 (private collection to be published by Ford), where it is read: srgwn mlk rb sr sryn wtym tmyn
the great angel srgwn, binder of bindings and sealer of seals.
lines 1112) sywt healing. For this term in incantation bowls, see bowl no. 14: 12.
l. 12) wtmt, wnrt and sealing, and protection. For these nomina actionis see bowl no. 1: 9.
142 texts

Bowl no. 28 (AO 27064-O)


bowl no. 28 143

Bowl no. 28 (AO 27064-O)


BOWL NO. 29

Present location: British Museum, London (BM 91754).


Dimensions: diameter 12; depth 5.3cm.250
Remarks: no information as regards the provenance of this bowl is found in the British Museums
records. It is part of a group of specimens that, according to Walker (2000, 37, 39), clearly derive from
19th century collections or excavations. The bowl is well preserved. The internal surface has suffered
greatly from abrasion at the bottom and in its neighbourhood. The ink has almost completely faded
all over the surface and traces of letters are barely detectable.
Script: Estrangela.
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in concentric circles.
Number of lines: seven. Segal (2000, 148) counted seven lines, the first three of which are indecipher-
able. The fading of the ink hinders any possibility of further investigating the number of lines of this
bowl.
Drawings and other signs: traces of a circle surrounding the text are still visible on the bevelled everted
rim.
Clients: mynsn (quoted in line 7); a female client, whose name is lost, with matronymic (bt mlyk) is
quoted in line 7 as well.
Contents: angels seem to be quoted in the text; they are probably evoked to protect the clients.
Parallels: .
Editions: Segal (2000: no. 118ES); Moriggi (2004: no. 30).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Segal (2000, plate 135 photograph).

Bowl no. 29 (BM 91754)251


[] 13 []
bw[m] []yl mlk dhw [] 4 In the name of [] the angel who []
bwm ptyl mlk dhw pt tr lkl [] 5 In the name of the angel ptyl, who opens the gate
for every []
[] mlk dhw r yd w[r]gl dkl bnn 6 [] the angel, who releases the hands and feet of all
humans
[] lhwn lmynsn wl()[] bnh d[] bt mlyk [] 7 [] to them, to mynsn and to [], sons of []
daughter of mlyk []

Notes to the text


Due to the bad state of preservation of the ink, which has almost completely faded, and the abrasions affecting the
surface of the vessel in the area near the bottom of the basin, the reading and the translation featured here must
be taken as tentative. This caveat is intended also as for line numeration.

250 Hunter (2000b, 192 height of the bowl is not provided).


251 The reading of the text was carried out on a new photograph of the bowl supplied by Dr. St John Simpson (British
Museum) and especially on a series of high-resolution colour pictures shot by Dr. Matthew Morgenstern (University of Tel
Aviv). Reconstructions and new readings are mostly based on Morgensterns excellent photographs.
bowl no. 29 145

Bowl no. 29 (BM 91754)


BOWL NO. 30

Present location: British Museum, London (BM 117882).


Dimensions: diameter 11.7; depth 4.5 cm.252
Remarks: together with bowl no. BM 117883, this bowl was unearthed in Sippar (Abu Habbah) and
sent to the British Museum by Hormuzd Rassam, who, in the second half of the 19th century, was
Rawlinsons agent in Babylonia and also (Hunter 2000a, 163) responsible for conducting excavations
at various locations on behalf of the British Museum and forwarding the finds to the Museum.
This bowl (Hunter 2000a, 164) was part of the final consignment of antiquities sent by Rassam to
London from his various excavations in Babylonia. The bowl is well preserved. Some slight fading
of the link is visible at some points, but on the whole the surface has not suffered from much
damage.
Script: Estrangela.
Text arrangement: the text is divided into four parts, each enclosed in a cartouche. The four cartouches
are placed around the centre of the bowl like the spokes of a wheel. Segal (2000, 148) described the
text as inscribed in a spoke pattern.253 The reading sequence of the cartouches has been changed in
this edition following the hypothesis of a clockwise run of them around the bottom of the bowl. Here
follows a synoptic table:

Segal 2000 Moriggi


I I
II IV
III III
IV II

Number of lines: 22.


Drawings and other signs: in the second (Segals fourth) cartouche three circles each divided into four
segments by a cross and two crescents are found.254
Clients: ddgdy daughter of mym (quoted in lines 56 ddgy, 1415, 22).255
Contents: protection for the house and children of the client. A sequence of seven yhs is found in the
first and third cartouches.256 In the first cartouche the sequence is preceded by bwm, as e.g. in bowl
no. 4: 10.
Parallels: .
Editions: Segal (2000: no. 119ES); Moriggi (2004: no. 31); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 25 (reference to Segals
reading, no citations currently stored).
Notes: Mller-Kessler (2006a, 271).
Photographs and facsimiles: Segal (2000, plate 136 photograph).

252 Hunter (2000b, 192 height of the bowl is not provided).


253 Hunter (2000a, 171).
254 Hunter (2000a, 172). For further information on these drawings see Hunter (2000a, 184185n33).
255 See Segal (2000, 148).
256 See bowl no. 1: 6 for further references.
bowl no. 30 147

Bowl no. 30 (BM 117882)257


I cartouche
mzmn hn qmy 1 Prepared is this amulet
lqmy 2 for the fastenings
wlbly ry 3 and for the annulments (of) sorcery
wmbd 4 and magical acts
mn bbytyn dddgy 5 from the houses of ddgy
bt mym bwm 6 daughter of mym. In the name of
yh yh 7 yh yh
yh yh yh 8 yh yh yh
yh yh 9 yh yh
II cartouche
- charaktres - yh yh 10 - charaktres - yh yh
- charaktres - z tzyn 11 - charaktres - z you depart (?)
- charaktres - yn 12 - charaktres - yn
III cartouche
wmn bnyh 13 and from the children
dy ddgdy 14 of ddgdy
bt mym 15 daughter of mym
yh yh yh 16 yh yh yh
yh yh 17 yh yh
yh yh 18 yh yh.
IV cartouche
lqyyn wsryn 19 Gathered and bound
wmblyn 20 and annulled are
ry wmbd 21 sorcery and magical acts
mbytyh ddgdy 22 from the house of ddgdy.

Notes to the text


l. 1) qmy amulet. Classical Syriac has qmy. This form with dropped reflects the weakening of the phoneme. See
bowl no. 24: 2 for further details.

257 The reading of the text was carried out on a new photograph of the bowl supplied by Dr. St John Simpson (British

Museum) and especially on a series of high-resolution colour pictures shot by Dr. Matthew Morgenstern (University of Tel
Aviv). Reconstructions and new readings are mostly based on Morgensterns excellent photographs.
148 texts

l. 5) mn bbytyn from the houses. The scribe of this bowl used a peculiar kind of ligature between b and y, where
the latter touches the upper horizontal stroke of the former. See the analogous graphic sequence in mbytyh (l. 22).
lines 79, 1618) yh yh yh yh yh yh yh. As for these sequences of seven yhs, see bowl no. 1: 6.
l. 19) lqyyn gathered. The word is preceded by a short line, a hyphen-like mark whose meaning escapes us.
l. 20) wmblyn and annulled. Here it seems that the scribe began to write a w after the l, but then left it unfinished
and concluded the word with an n. The unfinished w may have served as a mark for y, though it is usually written
here in a different way.
l. 22) mbytyh ddgdy from the house of ddgdy. The /d/ of the genitive marker has probably assimilated to the
initial /d/ of the proper name. For a discussion of this phenomenon, see Morgenstern and Ford (forthcoming).
bowl no. 30 149

Bowl no. 30 (BM 117882)


BOWL NO. 31

Present location: British Museum, London (BM 91718).


Dimensions: diameter 17.3; depth 7.5 cm.258
Remarks: the provenance of this bowl is unknown. Considering the registration number (1980-4-15,3) as
the sole datum at our disposal and what was written by Walker (2000, 37, 39), it may be suggested that
it was one of a group of specimens that clearly derive from 19th century collections or excavations.
It is likely enough that this bowl comes from Southern Mesopotamia, like most of the incantation
bowls housed in the British Museum. The bowl is in a fair state of preservation. Despite its having
been broken into pieces, it was successfully mended and restored. It is now made up of 19 fragments
glued together. Some small fragments are missing in the area near the bottom of the bowl and
by the rim. Some fading of the ink is visible in the area of the internal surface nearest to the
rim.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked on a good many plural substantives and adjectives (e.g.
yd qdmy, l. 11). A single dot is marked above the verbs w (l. 4) and yt (l. 9).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 12. Cracks on the surface have damaged the text of lines 3 and 4. In some other spots
missing fragments have erased some letters (lines 10 and 11).
Drawings and other signs: a circle divided into four quarters is depicted at the bottom of the basin. In
each quarter a cross is marked. The text is surrounded by a circle near the rim.
Clients: yrwy son of qywmt (quoted in lines 23, 6, 10 [y]rwy, 12).
Contents: for the contents of this bowl text, see bowl no. 4.
Parallels: bowls nos. 4, 5, 34, 41 in this volume. Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowls nos.
CBS 9010 (= Montgomery 1913: no. 9); IM 142131 (Iraq Museum);259 M11, M50, M59 (Moussaieff Col-
lection); MS 1927/5, MS 1927/39, MS 1929/16, MS 2053/33, MS 2053/150, MS 2053/164, MS 2053/165
(Schyen Collection);260 HS 3046 (Hilprecht Collection).261
Editions: Segal (2000: no. 120SY); Moriggi (2004: no. 32); CAL: no. SyrIncBowl 26 (reference to Segals
reading, no citations currently stored).
Notes: Mller-Kessler (20012002, 138139); Mller-Kessler (2005, 36n13).
Photographs and facsimiles: Segal (2000, plate 137 photograph).

258 Hunter (2000b, 193 height of the bowl is not provided).


259 Faraj (2010b, 8796). For corrections and a new reading of the text, see Burrafato (2013, 2635).
260 Jewish Babylonian Aramaic parallels in the Schyen Collection are published in Shaked, Ford, and Bhayro (2013) as nos.

JBA 13, JBA 14, JBA 16, JBA 17, JBA 20, JBA 21, JBA 22.
261 Levene (2009, 3537) provides a synopsis of our text no. 4 and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic parallels nos. CBS 9010, M50

and M59. Bowl no. HS 3046 is published in Mller-Kessler (2005, 3234), where she further listed bowls nos. CBS 16062 (+ frag.
CBS 6354) and CBS 16101 as Syriac parallels of the formula dealt with here. As to bowl no. 16062 (+ frag. CBS 6354), the present
author was not able to check the text on a photograph, but bowl no. CBS 16101 (published in Mller-Kessler (2006b, 127128)
and re-edited in the present volume as bowl no. 43) does not present any feature of the formula, except for the name of the
client (dynwy son of yspndrmyd).
bowl no. 31 151

Bowl no. 31 (BM 91718)262


mzmn hn ks ltmt 1 Prepared is this bowl for the sealing
wlnrt dbyth wdntth [d]yrwy br 2 and for the protection of the house and of the wife of
yrwy son of
qywmt dtyzh mnh mbklt w[l]m by pwr 3 qywmt that may depart from it the mevakkalta and
the evil dreams. The lot
rmyn wqyn b[w]d dbyd hwhw k[y] w dytyb rb 4 I cast and I take, magical act that was performed like
it was when Rab
yyw br prhy wktb lyhwn dstbyr l k[l]hwn yd 5 Joshua bar Peraya sat (in court), and wrote against
wdy wsn them a bill of divorce against all of them: demons
and devils and satans
wllyt wlb dyt bbyth dyrwy br qywmt twb ktb 6 and liliths and no-good-ones that are in the house of
lyhwn dstbyr yrwy son of qywmt. Again he wrote against them
a bill of divorce
dllm bwm t mdg t twt twt mn gw twt twt m 7 that is forever: in the name of the sign of mdg, the
gylywn mn gw gylywn dbhnhwn sign of signs, the signs out of signs, the signs of
the name, the blank space out of the blank space,
that by virtue of those
ytkby my wr wwr wbhnwn ytqr rmt wbhnwn 8 were pressed the heaven and the earth and the
ytmsr r yd wdyw mountains and by virtue of those were uprooted the
heights and by virtue of those were delivered (for
punishment) the sorcery, demons and devils
wsn wlly wlb wbhnwn br mn lm wslyq lykwn 9 and satans and liliths and no-good-ones and
lmrwm wyt lykwn qybl byl lblwt through those (they) went out from the world and
he ascended against you to the heights and he
brought against you the counter-charms: destruction
to destroy
wpq lpwqwkwn mn byth d[y]rwy br qywmt wmn 10 and removing to remove you from the house of
kl dytlh byqytwn bdstbyr dsyr tym wmtm ykyn yrwy son of qywmt and from everything he has.
You are divorced by virtue of the bill of divorce:
Bound, sealed and countersealed as
dyd qdmy lkdybw wn qdmy dwr l hww twb syr 11 the primeval demons did not lie and the primeval
tym [w]mtm hn dstbyr bwm yh yh yh yh yh yh yh men who evaporated (?), they are not (any longer).
7 Again bound and sealed and countersealed is this
bill of divorce in the name of yh yh yh yh yh yh yh
seven (times?).
myn myn slh nyttym wnytnr byth wdwrh wntth 12 Amen, amen, selah. May be sealed and may be
dyr[w]y br qywmt mn mbklt wlm by myn slh protected the house and the dwelling and the wife of
yrwy son of qywmt from the mevakkalta and the
evil dreams. Amen, selah.

262 The reading of the text was carried out on a new photograph of the bowl supplied by Dr. St John Simpson (British

Museum) and especially on a series of high-resolution colour pictures shot by Dr. Matthew Morgenstern (University of Tel
Aviv). Reconstructions and new readings are mostly based on Morgensterns excellent photographs.
152 texts

Notes to the text


For the sentences featured in lines 35 and 7, see bowl no. 4: 34, 6.
lines 12) ltmt wlnrt for the sealing and for the protection. For these nomina actionis see bowl no. 1: 9.
l. 2) yrwy. The new photographs corroborate this reading, which was already suggested by Mller-Kessler
(20012002, 139).263
l. 3) dtyzh that may depart. For this verbal voice, see bowl no. 1: 6.
lines 3, 12) mbklt the mevakkalta. For this evil being, see bowl no. 3: 3.
l. 6) dstbyr a bill of divorce. For the meaning of this Iranian loanword, see bowl no. 4: 4.
lines 8, 9) hnwn those. As in bowl no. 5: 8, 9, we have here three occurrences of the demonstrative pronoun as
attested to in Classical Syriac. The form hnhwn (l. 7) is in its turn the only one used in bowl no. 4: 6, 7, 8.264
lines 89) ytkby ytqr ytmsr br were pressed were uprooted were delivered (for punishment) went
out. See bowl no. 4: 67 for further information as regards the agreement of these voices with their subjects and
the transmission of this part of the formula from a Jewish Babylonian Aramaic model. For the form ytqr see bowl
no. 4: 7.
l. 9) qybl the counter-charms. For this word see bowl no. 4: 8.
l. 10) lpwqwkwn to remove you. For this form and its parallels in bowls nos. 4: 8 ([lpqt]kwn), 5: 10 (lpqkwn) and
41: 10 (lpwqwkwn), see bowl no. 4: 8 and literature quoted there. In this bowl the l is written over an additional as
a correction.
l. 11) wr they evaporated (?). For wr see bowl no. 4: 10.
l. 11) yh yh yh yh yh yh yh 7. For this sequence of seven yhs, see bowl no. 4: 10.

263 Cf. Mller-Kessler (2005, 36n13).


264 See bowl no. 5: 8; Moriggi (2004, 132); Nebe (2006, 260261).
bowl no. 31 153

Bowl no. 31 (BM 91718)


BOWL NO. 32

Present location: Louvre Museum, Paris (AO 17.284).


Dimensions: 17.56.5cm.265
Remarks: the bowl was received from Baghdad by Allotte de La Fue (1924, 388) in 1902 avec un lot
de coupes mandennes et judaeo-babyloniennes, qui provenait, mat-on dit, de Hit sur l Euphrate.
The bowl is in a fair state of preservation. According to his facsimile, it seems that Allotte de La
Fue was able to work on a still complete bowl, while now it is made up of 7 potsherds glued
together.266 The surface of the vessel is damaged at some points by cracks, and the rim is mostly
fractured. The ink has faded at some points, especially due to salt incrustation at the bottom of the
basin.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above a good many plural substantives and adjectives
(e.g. dyw by my wnp, l. 10), the plural participle pkyryn (l. 3), the 3rd person masculine singular
suffix pronoun (e.g. drnwy, l. 6; wbnwy wbnty, l. 7; hdmwy, l. 10), the 3rd person masculine plural
suffix pronoun in mryhn and mdrnyhn (l. 6), and above the 2nd person masculine plural suffix
pronoun in bmykwn (l. 7). A single dot is marked on the substantives m and r (l. 5) and gb
(l. 6).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 12. Cracks and fading of the ink made it difficult to read some words in lines 15 and
1011.
Drawings and other signs: a circle divided into four quarters by a cross is depicted at the bottom of the
basin. Traces of a circle surrounding the text are visible near the rim.
Clients: yly son of ymdbwh (quoted in lines 2 ymdbwhy, 6 yl, 9 2 times, 10 2 times).
Contents: protection of the house, wife, sons, daughters, cattle, grain, and belongings of the client.
The text seems to be grounded on a Mandaic model, attested to in three Mandaic incantation
texts on lead rolls.267 Apart from the Syriac parallel bowl no. 16, the formula is known also in a
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic version inscribed on a bowl from Borsippa published by Harviainen
(1981). As to the relationships between the parallel texts, Mller-Kessler (1998a, 333) pointed out
that
Greenfield-Naveh argumentierten, da das mandische Formular die Basis der Beschwrungsformular
bildet, da Details vom babylonisch-aramischen Schreiber anscheinend nicht mehr verstanden wurden.
Auch der Text der syrischen Variante aus dem Louvre leidet unter derartigen Missverstndnissen.
In spite of the existence of parallel texts, many textual elements remain enigmatic or obscure in
the Syriac versions attested in bowls nos. 16 and 32. For the structure of the incantation and a
synopsis of parallel texts in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and Mandaic, see Mller-Kessler (1998a,
342345).
Parallels: bowl no. 16 in this volume. Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: Borsippa bowl (Harviainen
1981). Parallels in Mandaic: Khuzistan lead roll incantations nos. b and c (Greenfield and Naveh 1985),
Mandaic lead roll no. M1, from the Macuch legacy (Mller-Kessler 1998a, 337341).

265 Mller-Kessler (1998a, 334).


266 See Mller-Kessler (2010a, 487n40).
267 Khuzistan lead roll incantations nos. b and c in Greenfield and Naveh 1985; Mandaic lead roll no. M1 (from the Macuch

legacy) in Mller-Kessler (1998a, 337341).


bowl no. 32 155

Editions: Allotte de La Fue 1924; Mller-Kessler (1998a, 334337); Moriggi (2004: nos. 3738).
Notes: Mller-Kessler (2005, 86, 105, 149150); Mller-Kessler (2006a, 271272).
Photographs and facsimiles: Allotte de La Fue (1924, 390 facsimile); Mller-Kessler (1998a, 335
photograph).

Bowl no. 32 (AO 17.284)268


mzmn hn ks {lmnrh} lmnrw[t]hy dbythy 1 Prepared is this bowl for the protection of the house
{dbythy} dyly br ymdbwhy gzyryn rymyn 2 of yly son of ymdbwhy. Cut, banned and
wmmtyn excommunicated,
syryn pkyryn wmyryn lwt wnydr wqrwt wt qll 3 bound, tied and repressed are curses and vows and
wbwz yn invocations, outcries, shames and derisions (?), the
harms
dptkr wnydr dlh mllt dnyq bt nwsy dql[] w[tq]blt 4 of idol-spirits and the vows of gods, the word of
drst gys dbyl qr women, the attempts of the (evil) accusers (?), and
() of witches (?), the way-robbers (?), the (magical)
knots
dbryt sky dgr brtql dm yy ddbr wywy brm[t]
5 of the desert (?), the watching of the roofs (?), the
r dr blly wzw dymm nyswrwn wnkmrwn sound of the name yy of the open country (?), wywy
in the heights (?), the run of midnight (?) at night
and the visions of the day. May they be bound and
may they return
wnplwn l mryhn qryywhwn wbwdyhwn 6 and may they fall upon their lords, their invocators
wmdrnyhn nytblwn wnzhwn wntrqwn mn kwl gb and their makers and their senders, may they be
drnwy dyl br ymdbwh abolished and may they depart and may they go
away from every side around him, of yl son of
ymdbwh
wntth wbnwy wbnty wdbyth bmykwn rb mlk 7 and his wife and his sons and his daughters and of
bdyyl bmwdzry rb bprwm syn wbbb tqyp his house. In your name, four angels, by dyyl, by the
nhwwn nwr dywr great mwdzry, by the powerful prwm and by the
mighty bb, may they be protectors, helpers
wmgyn mksynyt nwn nnrwn dyn wnkllwn 8 and covering shields. They preserve then and they
wnprzwn yn byt wmn {mks} mskyt smt wmn hinder and they keep away the Evil Eye and from the
wbn lyb by wmn mylt lyn kr {ntym} envious glance and from the plotting of the evil
heart and from the word of the slandering tongue
nttym byt hdyn dyly br ymdbwh wy{z}tbwy 9 may be sealed this house of yly son of ymdbwh
llyn bb wslqyn ygr bwrh {m}ql byr wqynyn syr and its inhabitants, the ones entering the door and
wtym hdyn yly [br ]ymdbwh the ones going up the roofs, his grain, the field, the
cattle and the property. Bound and sealed is this yly
son of ymdbwh
wsyryn wtymyn tltm wytyn hdmwy dqwmthy 10 and bound and sealed are the three hundred and
dyly bswr yzqt my wbtm sdn dr mn kl dyw by sixty parts of the body of yly by the bond of the
my wnp dl nqrbwn lhdy[n] y[l]y br ymdbwh signet ring of the sky and by the seal of the anvil of
the earth from all evil, dirty and impure devils, that
they may not approach this yly son of ymdbwh.

268 The reading of the text was carried out on a series of new photographs of the bowl supplied by the Runion des Muses

Nationaux Agence Photographique (Paris).


156 texts

bwm rr wdmy wrmrm wns sb syr wtym byzqt 11 In the name of rr and dmy and rmrm and ns sb,
dlwm rb qdmy nn kyb ww mry bwl wylh bound and sealed is by the signet ring of the great
wwyn wryqwn tlh wmwmt m[y] lhyk primeval lwm, nn the press (?) and w, the lord
bwl and his strength (?) () and renounce (?) ()
your god (?)
dyhyhyh ysys gzq swr wrywn myn myn slh 12 Nomina barbara the bond of wrywn (?). Amen,
amen, selah.

Notes to the text


This bowl was first published by Allotte de La Fue (1924), with facsimile and translation, but his editio princeps was
overlooked by Mller-Kessler when publishing the same text (1998a, 333): [] wird hier die unpublizierte syrische
Louvreschale in protomanichischer Schrift [] prsentiert. The present author in his turn did not recognize the
identicalness of the bowls published by the quoted scholars, and hence assigned (Moriggi 2004, 48) two different
numbers to them. The identicalness of the two bowls was at last noted by Mller-Kessler (2005, 149). The new
photographs used for this study fully confirm the fact that the Allotte de La Fue specimen and the Louvre bowl
are the same thing.269

l. 1) lmnrw[t]hy for the protection. The scribe here probably intended to write Classical Syriac mnrnwt. This
attempt is preceded by a false start.270 For false starts and dittography in incantation bowls and their significance
re the transmission of the texts, see bowl no. 10: 6.
l. 2) {dbythy}. This dittography is now read instead of the previously proposed dbybhy of the canal. As a matter of
fact, in spite of its shape (which is quite similar to the b), the t in bythy recalls the form of the same letter in bryt
(l. 5), tqyp (l. 7), mksynyt (l. 8), tltm wytyn (l. 10) and mwmt (l. 11).
lines 34) lwt wnydr wqrwt wt qll wbwz yn dptkr wnydr dlh mllt dnyq bt nwsy dql[] curses and vows
and invocations, outcries, shames and derisions (?), the harms of idol-spirits and the vows of gods, the word of
women, the attempts of the (evil) accusers (?). The same sentence is quoted, with minor variations, in bowl no. 16:
56.
l. 3) bwz derisions (?). For this hypothesis of translation, see bowl no. 14: 11.271
lines 34) yn dptkr the harms of idol-spirits. For the meaning of this sequence in incantation bowls and the
semantic proximity of roots skl and y in their texts, see the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. MS 2053/134:
4 (Schyen Collection).272 Mller-Kessler (2005, 148) first rendered yyn as Vergehen in bowl no. 16: 5 (parallel
text to bowl no. 32), but then (2012, 9) changed to the harm when presenting a quotation of bowl no. 32: 34. The
meaning harm is proposed for Jewish Babylonian Aramaic yyn in Morgenstern (2013, 47).
l. 4) nwsy dql[] the attempts of the (evil) accusers (?). In this occurrence the hypothesis of translation follows a
suggestion of Mller-Kessler (2005, 148), who rendered the sequence nwsy dqybl[] in bowl no. 16: 6 as der Versuch
der Gegenbeschwrungen.
l. 4) [tq]blt drst () of witches (?). According to Mller-Kessler (2012, 19) tqblt is derived by merging of
intervocalic /b/ /w/ from *tqwlt. The latter is attested in the Mandaic sequence tqblt {}-whrt stumbling
blocks of the road of the lead roll no. M1 published in Mller-Kessler (1998a, 343). According to the same scholar
(2005, 149), the word rst found here should further be ein Miverstandis fr dwrh t der Wege.273 The present
author is not convinced of this interpretation, as in fact the root meaning to stumble is tql and not qbl qwl as
posited by Mller-Kessler.

269 See further Mller-Kessler (2006a, 271); Mller-Kessler (2010a, 487n40).


270 Payne Smith ([1903] 1999, 338).
271 See Mller-Kessler (2006a, 270); Mller-Kessler (2012, 910).
272 Ford (forthcoming a, Excursus 1).
273 See further Mller-Kessler (2010b, 474).
bowl no. 32 157

l. 4) gys dbyl the way-robbers (?). The meaning of this sequence was first proposed by Harviainen (1981, 10),
while discussing the text of the parallel Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl usually labelled as Borsippa bowl: 6. In
his words, the being singled out by this epithet is rather a demon than an ordinary bandit.
l. 4) qr the magical knots. The q is clear in the picture. Mller-Kesslers proposal (1998a, 334) of reading an m
here is therefore untenable.274
l. 5) sky dgr the watching of the roofs. This sequence remains enigmatic, having probably gone through difficult
text transmission and/or copying from an originally corrupt model. In the parallel Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
Borsippa bowl: 6 published by Harviainen (1981, 5) the sequence gwrgy dygr (the rattle of roof) is read.
Harviainen pointed to Syriac and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic br gr (demon, Poltergeist).275
l. 5) r dr the run of midnight (?). This sequence remains quite rather obscure and the translation is tentative.
Apart for the first word, spelled with instead of h (as may frequently happen in Syriac incantation bowls), the
interpretation followed here is that the word rh stands in for hr (see r dr in the parallel bowl no. 16: 7).
The latter could alternatively be a corrupted spelling of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic syhr (Borsippa bowl: 7) and
thus indicating the moon.276
l. 5) nyswrwn wnkmrwn may they be bound and may they return. The first verbal voice is read as 3rd person
masculine plural imperfect ethpa. of the root sr. It features the regressive assimilation ([ts] [ss]) between the first
radical of the verb and the /t/ of the verbal affix. It must be taken into account that, in this context, the form could
also be referred to the root swr (to turn) attested in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and alternatively be translated
as may they turn away.277 As to the root kmr, Harviainen (1981, 12) reported that is attested in a meaning suited
to the context viz. to return, only in Mandaic and Modern East Aramaic (Assyrian).278
l. 6) wnzhwn and may they depart. For this verbal voice, see bowl no. 1: 6.
l. 7) rb four. Cf. Classical Syriac rb. The fluctuation in the orthography of laryngeal and pharyngeal phonemes,
probably mirroring their weakening, is particularly evident in this text. See also swr (l. 10) for Classical Syriac swr,
the spelling bwrh (l. 9) for bwrh, and the matronymic of the client, ymdbwhy for etymological ymdbwhy (lines 2,
9, 10).
l. 7) A synopsis of the list of angels featured in this bowl and in the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic parallel from
Borsippa, as well as in the Mandaic lead roll M1 with parallel text, is provided in Mller-Kessler (2010a, 487488).
l. 7) dywr helpers. See ydwr helper(s) in bowl no. MS 2055/1: 10. The new photograph corroborates the reading
of the d rather than y, as suggested by Mller-Kessler (2006a, 272).279 As for the use of this word in incantation bowls
and a thorough discussion on its etymology, see Morgenstern and Ford (forthcoming, s.v. 32).
l. 8) mgyn mksynyt covering shields. The translation is based on the meaning that the root ksy is supposed to
have in bowl no. 27: 2 (to (protectively) cover). Mller-Kessler (1998a, 336) proposed Verborgene. The word
mksynyt is intended as an adjective in accordance with the feminine substantive mgyn. The interpretation follows
Morgenstern and Ford (forthcoming, s.v. 32).
l. 8) nwn they. Cf. Classical Syriac hnwn. Here is found another instance of an orthographical slip due to the
weakening of laryngeal phonemes in Aramaic varieties of Sasanian Mesopotamia. See Moriggi (2004, 134135).
l. 8) dyn then. As in bowl no. 27: 4, this word is now better read as a Syriac particle rather than as a demonstrative
pronoun. Cf. Moriggi (2004, 126).280
l. 8) nprzwn they keep away. For the singling out of the meaning of this four-radical root borrowed from Middle
Persian phrz (to abstain, restrain), see Mller-Kessler (2012, 2021) and literature quoted there.281

274 See also Mller-Kessler (2006a, 271).


275 See Mller-Kessler (1998a, 335); Mller-Kessler (2012, 11). For the demon of the roof, see Kwasman (2007, 165169).
276 For a summary of the hypotheses, see Mller-Kessler (2005, 149150) and Harviainen (1981, 1112).
277 See Ford (forthcoming b) and Sokoloff (2002, 797).
278 See Mller-Kessler (2005, 150). Cf. Moriggi (2004, 178).
279 See also Mller-Kessler (2012, 1415).
280 See Mller-Kessler (2006b, 117).
281 See also Sokoloff (2002, 928929) and Morgenstern and Ford (forthcoming, s.v. 54).
158 texts

l. 8) yn byt the Evil Eye. See bowl no. 27: 1 for further references to this theme in incantation texts.
l. 8) wmn {mks} mskyt smt wmn wbn lyb by wmn mylt lyn kr and from the envious glance and from
the plotting of the evil heart and from the word of the slandering tongue. As to mskyt, attested in the Jewish
Babylonian Aramaic parallel bowl from Borsippa, Harviainen (1981, 16) stated that it derives
from the root sky to look, look out, foresee, hope. A noun *mask does not occur, in any event, in
dictionaries and thus mskyt seems to be active participle st. det. sg. (or pl.) of pael (or afel) = female
watcher(s), speculator(s) (sc. with the evil eye).
The same meaning could well be implied in the sequence sky dgr (l. 5). The adjective smt is used to qualify the
evil eye in the Syriac bowls nos. MS 2055/13: 3 and MS 2055/24: 3436.282 The word wbn (literary reckoning) may
be rendered as plotting according to the context.283 In the spelling kr, etymological q has partially dissimilated
to k, due to the presence of the emphatic (Geers law).284
l. 9) hdyn this. For this demonstrative pronoun and its use in the Targum of Onqelos and Jonathan, Palmyrene,
Hatran and Qumran Aramaic, see Moriggi (2004, 127) and literature quoted there.285 Juusola (1999b, 8081n7)
thinks that the appearance of hdyn in this text does not necessarily imply that it goes back to a Mandaic Vorlage.
l. 9) bwrh his grain. For instead of in Syriac bowls, see Moriggi (2004, 118) and, specifically in this bowl,
Morgenstern and Ford (forthcoming, s.v. 32).
l. 9) byr the cattle. For the loss of (byr) in Syriac bowls, see Moriggi (2004, 119).
l. 10) sdn dr the anvil of the earth. This concept, which is well known to Gnostic literature, but not only, is also
attested in a Mandaic bowl housed in the Museo Nazionale dArte Orientale in Rome (no. IsIAO 5210: 11) where we
may read: wmn hzyn [] m[]n hzyn nph ldn rq and who is this [] who is this who shook off the anvil of
the earth. See Moriggi (2001, 219) and literature quoted there.286
l. 11) byzqt dlwm rb qdmy by the signet ring of the great primeval lwm. For further references to this angelic
figure in incantation bowls, see the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. MS 2053/134: 12, where the name is
corrupted to tlsywm.287 For signet ring in incantation bowls see bowl no. 6: 8.
lines 1112) lhyk dyhyhyh your god (?) Nomina barbara. Mller-Kessler (1998a, 336) proposed to translate this
sequence dein Gott addai, yhyh.

282 For the association of the Evil Eye with envy, see Ford (1998, 223228) and bibliography cited there.
283 Harviainen (1981, 16) proposed the thought of the heart (= intrigue).
284 Ginsberg (1936, 96).
285 Further bibliography in Juusola (1999a, 111).
286 For further information see also Mller-Kessler (2012, 13) and Morgenstern and Ford (forthcoming, Conclusions).
287 Bowl no. MS 2053/134 is presented in Ford (forthcoming a, Excursus 1).
bowl no. 32 159

Bowl no. 32 (AO 17.284) (partial view)

Bowl no. 32 (AO 17.284) (partial view)


160 texts

Bowl no. 32 (AO 17.284) (partial view)


BOWL NO. 33

Present location: Iraq Museum, Baghdad (IM 65572).


Dimensions: .
Remarks: the bowl is registered in Dalley (1998, xi). The bowl is well preserved. A number of scratches
have damaged the surface of the vessel.
Script: Estrangela.
Text arrangement: the lines are placed around the centre of the bowl like the spokes of a wheel. The
spokes follow each other counter-clockwise (as in bowls nos. 15 and 40).
Number of lines: 20. Due to scratches on the basin, most of the lines are difficult to read or completely
obliterated.
Drawings and other signs: the whole internal bottom and nearly one third of the internal surface of the
vessel are occupied by drawings. At the bottom a figure shaped like a cross surrounded by a circle may
be detected. Each arm of the cross ends in a head (eyes, nose and mouth are clearly recognizable).
A number of other elements seems to emerge from the cross, but the signs are not clear. Between
the last line and the beginning of the text, from right to left around the bottom of the bowl, there is
a drawing of a creature with the head pointing towards the centre of the bowl. This figure, enclosed
in a square frame, is followed by three small sun-like circles (with rays) and two other drawings that
are not easily describable (harpoons?). These drawings are in their turn enclosed by a line which,
after starting from the square frame (see above), follows the rim of the bowl at some distance and
then turns left (90) towards the centre of the bowl. The text follows immediately. Line 14 seems to
be enclosed in a cartouche.
Clients: [m]lpt (quoted in line 2), bzt (?) (quoted in lines 8 and 18), r(.) daughter of r (?) (quoted
in line 15). Due to the very provisional status of this study, only the name mlpt may be considered
plausible in this context, according to its occurrence in bowl no. 13 (which, like the present one, is
inscribed in Estrangela script).
Contents: .
Parallels: .
Editions: .
Notes: Mller-Kessler (2006a, 265).
Photographs and facsimiles: Salvesen (1998, 143, plate 71 photograph).

Bowl no. 33 (IM 65572)


[] s [..] 1 [] s [..]
[m]lpt 2 [m]lpt
[] b [] 3 [] b []
[] () (.) 4 [] () (.)
(prdkw)[n] 5 he made you flee away (?)
[]syr (bsrt)[] 6 bound by the bond (?)
[] 7 []
()[..] (bzt) 8 ()[..] (bzt)
162 texts

(hw) [] 9 he (?) []
b [] 10 b []
p(qd)[]k 11 he commanded [] k
[] 12 []
[..](wty) bt [] 13 [..] (wty) daughter of []
() zbnt 14 () zbnt
l(r)(.) bt (r) 15 to r(?) daughter of (r) (?)
(..)m 16 (..)m
bbtb [] 17 bbtb []
(..) bzt 18 (..) bzt
bt (..) pk(tn) 19 daughter of (..) pk(tn)
() [] 20 () []

Notes to the text


This bowl was not read and translated by Salvesen, who merely published a picture of it (together with the ones of
two other bowls). In spite of a series of attempts to contact the Iraq Museum re permission to publish a picture
of this bowl in a published work, no answer was obtained and thus the present author decided to publish the
reading and the translation of the text, confining himself to describing the bowl and to providing some essential
data that he was able to obtain from the picture and the previous publications. Although there is evidence of the
need to have new and better photographs of the bowl, it is hoped that making these few notes available to other
scholars will help foster further study.
BOWL NO. 34

Present location: unknown (excavation no. 11 N 7).


Dimensions: .
Remarks: the bowl to which the preserved fragment originally belonged to was unearthed during the
11th season of excavations at Nippur by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Kaufman
(1975, 152) described the potsherd as fragment of a magic bowl inscribed in Mandaic script. As bowl
no. 35, this item comes from the West Mound (area WA, loose debris above level I).
A small portion of the rim-area of the bowl is preserved. The ink has not faded significantly.
Script: Manichaean.
Text arrangement: the text ran from the internal bottom to the rim on a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: only a portion of what may have been the last two lines of text remains. All the
preserved letters are easily legible.
Drawings and other signs: the text is surrounded by a circle near the rim.
Clients: .
Contents: .
Parallels: bowls nos. 4, 5, 31, 41 in this volume.288
Editions: Mller-Kessler (2005, 64n26 transliteration).
Notes: Kaufman (1975, 152); Mller-Kessler (2006a, 265).
Photographs and facsimiles: Gibson (1975, 55, plate 38, no. 1 photograph).

Bowl no. 34 (11 N 7)289


[] tym wmtm [] 1 [] sealed and countersealed is []
[]h yh yh yh yh [] 2 []h yh yh yh yh []

288 Levene (2009, 3537) provides a synopsis of our text no. 4 and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic parallels nos. CBS 9010, M50

and M59. Bowl no. HS 3046 is published in Mller-Kessler (2005, 3234), where she further listed bowls nos. CBS 16062 (+ frag.
CBS 6354) and CBS 16101 as Syriac parallels of the formula dealt with here. As to bowl no. 16062 (+ frag. CBS 6354), the present
author was not able to check the text on a photograph, but bowl no. CBS 16101 (published in Mller-Kessler (2006b, 127128)
and re-edited in the present volume as bowl no. 43) does not present any feature of the formula, except for the name of the
client (dynwy son of yspndrmyd).
289 The reading of the text was carried out on a series of enlarged and re-worked versions of the picture published in Gibson

(1975, 55, plate 38, no. 1).


164 texts

Bowl no. 34 (Nippur-frag. 11 N 7)


BOWL NO. 35

Present location: unknown (excavation no. 12 N 5).


Dimensions: 176cm.290
Remarks: the bowl was unearthed during the 12th season of excavations at Nippur by the Oriental
Institute of the University of Chicago. The bowl was found on the surface of the West Mound.291 It was
subsequently taken to the Iraq Museum (Baghdad) where, according to Mller-Kessler (2005, 94), it is
als gestohlen verzeichnet. The bowl is well preserved. Abrasion and fading of the ink have occurred
near, but not at, the bottom of the basin. A large area near the rim has been almost completely
abraded, thus leading to the disappearance of the text.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives and adjectives (e.g. dykr,
l. 4; [z]q , l. 9).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: nine. Lines 2, 3, 7 and 9 are badly damaged and may be reconstructed with the crucial
help of parallel texts.
Drawings and other signs: at the bottom of the basin a flower-shaped drawing with ten petals is
depicted. A series of strokes starting from the centre of the bowl divides each petal into two halves.
An analogous drawing is found at the bottom of bowls nos. 27 and 42. Traces of a circle surrounding
the text are visible near the rim.
Clients: .
Contents: for the contents of this bowl text, see bowl no. 17. The formula contained in this bowl is longer
than that inscribed on the parallel bowl no. 25 and has some elements that recall the incantation of
bowl no. MS 2055/26 (Schyen Collection).
Parallels: bowls nos. 17, 25, 39 in this volume. Bowls nos. MS 2055/26 (Schyen Collection); JNF 212,
JNF 213, JNF 228, JNF 233, JNF 241, JNF 242; DCG 1 (private collections to be published by Ford).
Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowl no. MS 1929/2 (Schyen Collection).
Editions: Mller-Kessler (2005: no. 32a).
Notes: Gzella (2006, 582583, 585).
Photographs and facsimiles: Gibson (1978, 109, plate 80, no. 3 photograph).

Bowl no. 35 (12 N 5)292


mzmn hn qm kyb w{k}sr() tmt lbyth w 1 Prepared is this amulet, press and bond, sealing for
the house and
[] zh dyw wlb yr 2 [] depart devil and no-good-one, awake
wkb wkwl lh[wt byt mn hn] byt wmn dyr dbgwh 3 and asleep, and all evil deities from this house and
ryn syr from the inhabitants who dwell in it. Bound is

290 Mller-Kessler (2005, 94).


291 Gibson (1978, 109, plate 80, no. 3 wrongly labelled as 12 N 493). Mller-Kessler (2005, 94) reported Westmauer,
Oberflche.
292 The reading of the text was carried out on a series of enlarged and re-worked versions of the picture published in Gibson

(1978, 109, plate 80, no. 3). It is hoped that new photographs and/or direct check will provide further improvements in the
reading of this bowl.
166 texts

by wlb [wwmr]t dykr wnyqbt dt wr bhdyn byt 4 the evil and the no-good-one and the amulet-spirits,
syr bswrh dry male and female, who came and dwelt in this house.
Bound is by the bond of the lion
wtym btmh dtnyn syr bswrh dybwl wtym btm 5 and sealed is by the seal of the dragon. Bound is by
dbwryt syr bswr zq wtym the bond of ybwl and sealed is by the seal of bwryt.
Bound is by the bond of the blast-demons and
sealed
btm dbgdn syr wtym bmwbl rb dz(y)q dkl [yd 6 by the seal of the bagdanas. Bound and sealed
dyw] by wlb wwmr ptkr w[y]strt is by the great load of the blast-demons so that
all demons, evil devils and no-good-ones and
amulet-spirits, idol-spirits and goddesses
[wllyt] [w]kl ny ny bmh wkwl yd by lwth 7 and liliths and every individual by his name and all
[][d]h[n] [k]s qbyr bg[wh] l [] evil demons at him [] in which this bowl is buried,
do not []
r wysmt wlwt syr kwl rw byt [] kwl db[hn 8 the sorcery and the envy and the curses. Bound is
by]t [r] every evil spirit [] everyone who in this house
dwells []
s[yr w]t[ym] bzqt dytyn [ z]q wtmnn nt[] 9 Bound and sealed is by the signet ring of sixty
bg[dn] [] blast-demons brothers and eighty descending (?)
bagdanas []

Notes to the text


In spite of the fact that it proved impossible to obtain a new photograph of this bowl, some passages in it were
clarified with the help of parallel texts.

l. 2) zh depart!. For this verbal voice, see bowl no. 1: 6.


Lines 23) yr wkb awake and asleep. For this sequence, see bowl no. 17: 4.
l. 3) wkwl lh[wt byt mn hn byt] wmn dyr and all evil deities from this house and from the inhabitants. The
traces of letters allow for this reconstruction and the passage is furthermore well documented by the parallel texts
(e.g. bowl no. 17: 4). Mller-Kessler (2005, 94) did not read it in either her transliteration or her translation.
l. 4) dt wr who came and dwelt. See bowl no. 17: 5 for further details on this sequence.
lines 45) syr bswrh dry wtym btmh dtnyn syr bswrh dybwl wtym btm dbwryt syr bswr zq Bound is by the
bond of the lion and sealed is by the seal of the dragon. Bound is by the bond of ybwl and sealed is by the seal
of bwryt. Bound is by the bond of the blast-demons. As for this sequence and its contents, see bowl no. 17: 57,
where comments and references are found.
l. 6) btm dbgdn by the seal of the bagdanas. See bowl no. 17: 6 for further details as regards this sequence.
l. 6) wtym bmwbl rb dz(y)q and sealed is by the great load of the blast-demons. See bowl no. 17: 7 for further
references on this passage.
l. 7) [w]kl ny ny and every individual. On the spelling of the word ny in this sequence, see bowl no. 25: 6.
l. 8) wysmt and the envy. Envy and envious behaviour are usually attributed to the Evil Eye. See e.g. bowl no. 32:
8 (wnprzwn yn byt wmn {mks} mskyt smt and they keep away the evil eye and from the envious glance).293
l. 9) bzqt dytyn [ z]q wtmnn nt[] bg[dn] [] by the signet ring of sixty blast-demons brothers and eighty
descending (?) bagdanas []. The sequence is reconstructed on the parallel text no. MS 2055/26: 78 and

293 For the persistence of this theme in Syriac tradition to the present day, see Lembert (2002, 483489).
bowl no. 35 167

according to the traces of text visible on the bowl. The translation of nt as descending is to be considered merely
tentative. See bowl no. 25: 8 for further details. Mller-Kessler (2005, 94) read bzqt dmy wr [] wtqy[]. For
the signet ring, see bowl no. 6: 8.
168 texts

Bowl no. 35 (Nippur 12 N 5)


BOWL NO. 36

Present location: Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of Babylonian Antiquities, Jena (HS 3062).
Dimensions: .
Remarks: for the provenance and other information regarding the incantation bowls housed in Jena see
bowl no. 17. A small portion of the bottom section of the bowl is preserved. It was broken into three
parts but the potsherds were correctly glued together. The ink has faded at some points, but on the
whole the letters are legible.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above the plural substantives []yd, dyw (l. 3) and [w]mr
(l. 4).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: four.
Drawings and other signs: at the bottom of the bowl an eight-point star is depicted. The star is
surrounded by a circle, which is in its turn divided into eight sections by eight strokes radiating from
the centre. Both the star and the space between it and the circle are black-spotted.
Clients: yzyddd (quoted in l. 2).
Contents: for the contents of this bowl text, see bowl no. 14. To the best of the authors knowledge this
is the worst preserved text of the series attested in the parallels.
Parallels: bowls nos. 9, 10, 14, 22, 23 in this volume. Bowls nos. MS 1928/16, MS 2055/4, MS 2055/5,
MS 2055/7, MS 2055/31 (Schyen Collection); JNF 230, JNF 231, JNF 232, JNF 237, JNF 240; Wolfe
25, Wolfe 27, Wolfe 28 (private collections to be published by Ford). Parallels in Jewish Babylonian
Aramaic: bowls nos. MS 2053/134, MS 2053/99 (Schyen Collection).
Editions: Mller-Kessler (2005: no. 34).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Mller-Kessler (2005, plate 23 photograph).294

Bowl no. 36 (HS 3062)295


mzmn hn qm l[sywth] [] [ltm]th wnrth dbyt 1 Prepared is this amulet for the healing [] for the
sealing and the protection of this
hydyn dyzyddd br [] qbyr wrz r [] 2 house of yzyddd son of [] is buried and the
mystery of the earth []
[] [d]byt [hydyn] [] [l ]yd wl dyw [] 3 [] of this house [] against demons and against
devils []
[] [wlw]mr wl[] 4 [] and against amulet-spirits and against []

294 This fragment of bowl is displayed in the lower half of plate 23, but its caption is wrong, as it indicates the fragment as Nr.

35 (HS 3039). The captions of this plate have been misplaced. In fact caption Nr. 35 (3039) has been used for the photograph
of bowl no. HS 3062 and vice versa.
295 The reading of the text was carried out on a new series of high-resolution colour pictures shot by Dr. Matthew Morgenstern

(University of Tel Aviv). Reconstructions and new readings are mostly based on Morgensterns excellent photographs.
170 texts

Notes to the text


When the transliteration and translation of this text were in their final draft, the author was fortunate enough to
have the opportunity to check them on the new reading of this bowl then being prepared by Ford and Morgenstern.
On the whole this edition features only a few changes in comparison with that proposed by Ford and Morgen-
stern (in preparation).

lines 12) [ltm]th wnrth dbyt hydyn for the sealing and the protection of this house. Mller-Kessler (2005,
103) read: l[sywt dsqw]pth wrth wbyth fr das Wo[hlergehen der Trschwelle und der Wohnung und des
Hauses. Both in the photograph published by Mller-Kessler and in the new photograph which the author used
to prepare this study, the letters are clear, especially the upper stroke of the , which meets with the circle drawn
at the bottom of the bowl. The demonstrative pronoun hydyn (this) is attested in bowls no. 9: 5 (dbyt hydyn of
this house), no. 25: 3 (bhydyn byt in this house) and no. MS 2055/26: 3 (bhydyn byt in this house). This form
is related to Mandaic hyzyn and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic hydyn.296 Parallel texts with analogous incipit are in
bowls no. 23: 1 ([l]tmt[ w]nr[t] d(by)th for the sealing and the protection of the house), no. MS 2055/7: 12
(ltmt wnrt dbyth for the sealing and the protection of the house) and no. MS 2055/5: 12 (ltmt wnrt dbyth
for the sealing and the protection of the house).

296 For bowl no. MS 2055/26 and relevant literature on hydyn, see Ford (forthcoming a). See also Naveh and Shaked (1985,

128); Drower and Macuch (1963, 119); Sokoloff (2002, 375); Nebe (2006, 255).
bowl no. 36 171

Bowl no. 36 (HS 3062)


BOWL NO. 37

Present location: Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of Babylonia Antiquities, Jena (HS 3066).
Dimensions: .
Remarks: for the provenance and other information regarding the incantation bowls housed in Jena
see bowl no. 17. A small potsherd is the only preserved part of this bowl. A short section of text
is preserved, in the area by the rim. The ink has almost completely disappeared due to both salt
encrustation and fading.
Script: Manichaean.
Text arrangement: the lines were placed around the centre of the bowl like the spokes of a wheel. The
spokes possibly followed each other counter-clockwise (as in bowls nos. 15 and 40).
Number of lines: traces of four lines remain on the potsherd. Mller-Kessler counted 3 lines, while Ford
and Morgenstern (in preparation) count 5 lines. All the remaining traces of text are mostly effaced.297
Drawings and other signs: even though barely visible, some traces of a circle surrounding the text are
found on the rim.
Clients: .
Contents: .
Parallels: .
Editions: Mller-Kessler (2005: no. 37).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Mller-Kessler (2005, plate 25 photograph).

Bowl no. 37 (HS 3066)298


[]t [] 1 []
[] byt 2 [] the house
[]w (d)[] 3 [] () []
[] (zq)[yn] [] 4 [] blast-demons (?) []

Notes to the text


When the transliteration and translation of this text were in their final draft, the author was fortunate enough to
have the opportunity to check them on the new reading of this bowl then being prepared by Ford and Morgen-
stern. On the whole this edition features only a few changes in comparison with that proposed by Ford and
Morgenstern (in preparation).

297 See Mller-Kessler (2005: no. 37).


298 The reading of the text was carried out on a new series of high-resolution colour pictures shot by Dr. Matthew Morgenstern
(University of Tel Aviv). Reconstructions and new readings are mostly based on Morgensterns excellent photographs.
bowl no. 37 173

Bowl no. 37 (HS 3066)


BOWL NO. 38

Present location: Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of Babylonian Antiquities, Jena (HS 3039).
Dimensions: 17.77.7cm.299
Remarks: for the provenance and other information regarding the incantation bowls housed in Jena
see bowl no. 17. The bowl is in a fair state of preservation. It is now made up of three large potsherds
correctly glued together. A small fragment is missing by the rim. The surface does not seem to have
suffered from any abrasion, but the ink has significantly faded on the entire basin and this fading
worsens as the text approaches the rim.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives and adjectives (e.g. wlwt
d tt wtyq t, lines 56). A single dot is marked above the 3rd person feminine singular suffix pronoun
(e.g. dbyt drqwy bt dd, lines 78) and above the final letter of the proper name dd (see preceding
quotation). The script of this bowl is similar to those used in bowls nos. 3 and 5.
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 10. Lines 810 are barely legible due to fading of the ink.
Drawings and other signs: a circle is drawn at the bottom of the basin. It is divided into four quarters
by a cross. In each quarter a cross is depicted. Traces of a circle surrounding the text are visible near
the rim.
Clients: rqwy daughter of dd (quoted in lines 2, 8, 10). rqwy daughter of ddh/ is quoted as the wife
of ddbh son of smndwkt in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowls nos. CBS 9009: 1 (= Montgomery 1913:
no. 12) and CBS 2920: 1 (= Montgomery 1913: no. 16). ddbh son of smndwkt is the client of bowls nos. 3
and 5 in this volume.300
Contents: this bowl text largely parallels bowl no. 3, but some further elements are included, such
as sequences of evil opponents featured also in bowls nos. 6, 16 and 32 (see Notes to the text).
The formula aims at protecting the house and family of the client from sorcery and evil witchcraft
addressed by men and from various misfortunes.
Parallels: bowl no. 3 in this volume.
Editions: Mller-Kessler (2005: no. 35).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Mller-Kessler (2005, plate 23 photograph).301

Bowl no. 38 (HS 3039)302


mzmn hn ks ltmt wnrt dbyt 1 Prepared is this bowl for the sealing and the
protection of the house
wdbn drqwy bt dd dtyzh mn wnzhwn 2 and of the sons of rqwy daughter of dd, that may
she depart from her and may they depart

299 Mller-Kessler (2005, 104).


300 For further details about this family and the bowls they possibly ordered from various scribes, see bowl no. 3: 5.
301 The bowl is displayed in the upper half of the plate, but its caption is wrong, as it indicates it as Nr. 34 (HS 3062). Bowl

no. HS 3062 is in its turn displayed in the lower half of the plate. The captions have been exchanged. Moreover, the published
picture of this bowl has been printed as a mirror image.
302 The reading of the text was carried out on a new series of high-resolution colour pictures shot by Dr. Matthew Morgenstern

(University of Tel Aviv). Reconstructions and new readings are mostly based on Morgensterns excellent photographs.
bowl no. 38 175

mn byt r dmdn wdmrb dgrby wdtymn 3 from her house the sorcery of the east and of the
west, of the north and of the south,
dyhwdy wdrmy dgbr wdn wlwt nydr wqrwt wt 4 of the Jews and of the Aramaeans, of men and of
qll women and the curses, the vows and the
invocations, the outcries, the shames
wbwz yn wmllt nydr wmsgwdt dlh dykr wstrt 5 and the derisions (?), the harms and the words, the
nyq bt wlwt vows and the (evil) worships of male gods and
female goddesses and the curses,
d tt wtyq t ryq t wq rybt wzyn wwsrn wtwk 6 new and old, far and near and the losses and the
wmyskynwt syryn lacks and the harms and the poverty. Bound,
mzrzyn wmrryn mylyn mgnbryn wmtmyn 7 armed, and made strong, made powerful,
wmnryn hlyn [k]s ltmt dbyt strengthened and countersealed and protected are
these bowls for the sealing of the house
drqwy bt dd dl nyrwn dd bwm yh [yhw y]w 8 of rqwy daughter of dd, that they may not untie
nhrbtmws mrs mrmr wt qpwt each other (?). In the name of yh [yhw y]w
Nomina barbara
str mwt yhnh h h h h myn [] +++++++ 9 Nomina barbara Amen [] +++++++ Sealed
nyttym wnytnr and protected may be
byt wn drqwy [bt dd ] [] by myn 10 the house and the people of rqwy daughter of dd
[] evil. Amen.

Notes to the text


When the transliteration and translation of this text were in their final draft, the author was fortunate enough to
have the opportunity to check them on the new reading of this bowl then being prepared by Ford and Morgenstern.
On the whole this edition features only a few changes in comparison with that proposed by Ford and Morgen-
stern (in preparation).

lines 13) The opening sentence of the formula is almost identical to that featured in bowl no. 3: 13. In this text
there is an interpolation, as we here read dtyzh mn wnzhwn mn byt instead of dtyzh mnh wmn byth of bowl no. 3: 3.
l. 1) ltmt wnrt for the sealing and the protection. For these nomina actionis see bowl no. 1: 9.
l. 2) dtyzh that may she depart. For this verbal voice, see bowl no. 1: 6.
lines 34) r dmdn wdmrb dgrby wdtymn dyhwdy wdrmy the sorcery of the east and of the west, of the
north and of the south, of the Jews and of the Aramaeans. For further references to an analogous list in
the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. BM 91771: 6 (British Museum), see Mller-Kessler (2005, 105). See the
text of bowl no. 1: 8, where stn wwry wt wgbl north wind and west wind, south wind and east wind are cited.
For further examples of geographic and ethnographic elements in incantation bowls, see Bohak and Levene (2012a,
6970 Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. BM 1957-9-25.1) and Ford (2011, 262 Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl
no. IM 76107: 6).
lines 45) wlwt nydr wqrwt wt qll wbwz yn wmllt nydr and the curses, the vows and the invocations, the
outcries, the shames and the derisions (?), the harms and the words, the vows. Parallel occurrences of this series
of evil opponents are found in bowls nos. 16: 5 and 32: 34 (with minor variations). For the meaning of bwz, see
bowl no. 14: 11.
l. 5) wmsgwdt dlh dykr wstrt nyq bt and the (evil) worships of male gods and female goddesses. The word
msgwdyt may be interpreted as a variant form of sgdt, which is found also in bowls nos. 14: 11 and 22: 12, and in
the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. 23: 2 (Wolfe Collection).303

303 The bowl was published in Naveh and Shaked (1993, 132). See Ford (forthcoming a, Excursus 3) and literature quoted

there.
176 texts

lines 56) wlwt d tt wtyq t and the curses, new and old. See bowl no. 24: 9, where tyqt instead of Classical
Syriac tyqt is found.
lines 610) The sentence beginning with syryn (l. 6) and ending in byth (l. 10) is paralleled (with the exception of
the clients name) in bowl no. 3: 48.
l. 6) wzyn wwsrn wtwk wmyskynwt and the losses and the lacks and the harms and the poverty. An identical
sequence occurs in bowl no. 6: 12, to which the reader is referred for further information.
l. 8) dl nyrwn dd that they may not untie each other (?). For this translation and various proposals, see bowl
no. 3: 6.
l. 8) bwm yh [yhw y]w nhrbtmws In the name of yh [yhw y]wNomina barbara. Traces of letters and the space
on the basin seem to allow for this reconstruction instead of Mller-Kessler (2005, 104) y [y y y y y y]. See bowl
no. 3: 67.
l. 10) by evil. It may be guessed that the word preceding the adjective is [ylm ], as in the parallel text no. 3: 910.
bowl no. 38 177

Bowl no. 38 (HS 3039)


BOWL NO. 39

Present location: Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of Babylonian Antiquities, Jena (HS 3053).
Dimensions: .
Remarks: for the provenance and other information regarding the incantation bowls housed in Jena see
bowl no. 17. Only four potsherds of the bowl are preserved, two of which were glued together as they
were contiguous in the once complete bowl. All the fragments show traces of abrasion, and the ink
has faded on large sections of the vessel. The largest fragment is that formerly at the bottom of the
basin, while the others were part of the basin next to the rim.
Scripts: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives (e.g. [y]strt wllt, l. 7).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: bearing in mind that the bowl is not preserved in its entirety, it may be guessed that
this bowl contained 1011 lines of text. The preserved sections of lines were all more or less affected
by abrasion and fading of the ink.304
Drawings and other signs: a circle divided into at least two halves was drawn at the bottom of the basin.
A circle surrounding the text was drawn not far from the rim.
Clients: .
Contents: for the contents, albeit fragmentary, of this bowl, see bowl no. 35 and parallel texts nos. 17 and
25.
Parallels: bowls nos. 17, 25, 35 in this volume. Bowls nos. MS 2055/26 (Schyen Collection); JNF 212,
JNF 213, JNF 228, JNF 233, JNF 241, JNF 242; DCG 1 (private collections to be published by Ford).
Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowl no. MS 1929/2 (Schyen Collection).
Editions: Mller-Kessler (2005: no. 33).
Notes: Gzella (2006, 582).
Photographs and facsimiles: Mller-Kessler (2005, plate 21 photograph).

Bowl no. 39 (HS 3053)305


[](h) byth d(m)[] 1 [] the house of []
[] zh d[yw] [] 2 [] depart, devil []
[] mn[] mn dyr[] [] 3 [] from [] from the inhabitants []
[][dy]kr wnyq[bt wllyt dy]kr[] [] 4 [] male and female and the lilith, male []
[][d]ry wtym [btmh dtny]n [][w]tym 5 [] of the lion and sealed is she by the seal of the
b[tm] [] dragon [] and sealed is she by the seal []
[][dz]q wtym btm [] [w]tym bmwbl rb[] [] 6 [] of the blast-demons and sealed is by the seal []
and sealed is by the great load []
[] dkwl [d ] [] [y]strt wllt [] 7 [] so that all demons [] goddesses and liliths []

304 Ford and Morgenstern (in preparation) read nine lines of text.
305 The text is to be read starting with the bottom-fragment, continuing with the large fragment of the basin and ending
with the small one. The very last words of the text are found in the bottom-fragment. The reading of the text was carried out on
a new series of high-resolution colour pictures shot by Dr Matthew Morgenstern (University of Tel Aviv). Reconstructions and
new readings are mostly based on Morgensterns excellent photographs.
bowl no. 39 179

[] bmh lwth dhn by[t] [] qm b[h][] 8 [] by his name at this house [] amulet in it []
[][d]bhn byt r s[yr] [] byzqt [ytyn] [] 9 [] who in this house dwells. Bound is [] by the
signet ring of sixty []
[] mn kwl d[yw] w yd
[] [wm]bklt w[] 10 [] from all devils and demons [] and mevakkaltas
and []

Notes to the text


Although fragmentary, this bowl was effectively collated with parallels by Mller-Kessler, who also singled out
the reading sequence of the potsherds. The reading proposed by Mller-Kessler is nevertheless much based on the
parallels, especially as regards reconstructed passages. Most of her reconstructions have therefore been excluded
from the above transliteration, in order to let the reader clearly appreciate what is written on the preserved
fragments of this bowl. For the same reason reconstructions featured in the edition of this text in preparation
by Ford and Morgenstern were not but a few included in the present study.

lines 56) Even though fragmentary, the sentence clearly recalls the parallel texts, see e.g. bowl no. 17: 57 (syr

bswrh dry wytm bt dtnyn syr bswrh d ybwl w[tym btm d]bwryt syr bswr zq wtym b[t]m dbgdn syr

wtym {m} bmwbl rb dzq Bound is she by the bond of the lion and sealed is she by the seal of the dragon. Bound
is she by the bond of ybwl and sealed is she by the seal of bwryt. Bound is by the bond of the blast-demons and
sealed is by the seal of the bagdanas. Bound and sealed is by the great load of the blast-demons).
l. 8) bmh by his name. Both traces of letters and parallel texts allow for this reading instead of Mller-Kessler
(2005, 96) by{}. The sequence is quoted in parallels in the utterance: kl ny ny bmh every individual by his
name (see e.g. bowl no. 35: 7).
l. 8) [] qm b[h] amulet in it. For this sequence Ford and Morgenstern (in preparation) suggest the following
reading: [dhn] qm bh.
180 texts

Bowl no. 39 (HS 3053) (bottom fragment)


bowl no. 39 181

Bowl no. 39 (HS 3053) (rim fragment)

Bowl no. 39 (HS 3053) (rim fragment)


BOWL NO. 40

Present location: Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of Babylonian Antiquities, Jena (HS 3056).
Dimensions: 15.55.5cm.306
Remarks: for the provenance and other information regarding the incantation bowls housed in Jena,
see bowl no. 17. Only a little more than one half of the bowl has been preserved. The specimen is now
made up of three large fragments correctly glued together. Scratches and abrasions have occurred
throughout the basin, especially in the area near the rim. Fading of the ink has occurred in the same
spots.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above the 3rd person feminine singular suffix pronoun
(bn wbnt, l. 5; wqnyn, l. 6; bwkr, l. 10) and above the 3rd person masculine plural possessive
pronoun (dylhn, l. 14).
Text arrangement: the lines are placed around the centre of the bowl like the spokes of a wheel. The
spokes follow each other counter-clockwise (as in bowls nos. 15 and 33).
Number of lines: 15. The last sections of lines 413 and 15 have mostly disappeared due to scratches and
fading of the ink. Ford and Morgenstern (in preparation) read 17 lines.
Drawings and other signs: a circle is drawn at the bottom of the basin. It is divided into four quarters
by a cross. In each quarter one letter may possibly be detected: a p, a w, a and a l in the Manichaean
script. A line is drawn above line 1, where it perhaps served as a separation between the end and the
beginning of the incantation. Although they are barely visible, some traces of a circle surrounding
the text are found near the rim.
Clients: ty daughter of twny (quoted in line 3).
Contents: protection of the client together with her sons, daughters, house and property.307
Parallels: .
Editions: Mller-Kessler (2005: no. 36).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Mller-Kessler (2005, plate 25 photograph).

Bowl no. 40 (HS 3056)308


[mz]mn hn qm[] 1 Prepared is this amulet
[w]sr mhymn 2 and reliable bond
[l]ty bt twny 3 for ty daughter of twny,
d[mn]r hy wbyth 4 who is protected, she and her house,
bn wbnt {wqnyn} 5 her sons and her daughters
wqnyn my[n] [] 6 and her properties. Amen. []
mqwn mq[] 7 magic words (?) []

306 Mller-Kessler (2005, 108).


307 Ford and Morgenstern (in preparation) propose that the bowl contains a historiola concerning a malevolent entity, sqz,
who sexually abuses the children of the client.
308 The reading of the text was carried out on a new series of high-resolution colour pictures shot by Dr Matthew Morgenstern

(University of Tel Aviv). Reconstructions and new readings are mostly based on Morgensterns excellent photographs.
bowl no. 40 183

sqz br [] 8 sqz son of []


dbtnwn lb[] 9 you who flattered them (?) []
dylh bwkr [] 10 her first born ones []
wsyqtnwn l[] 11 and you made them ascend (?) to []
rb dkrwgn w[] 12 the great dkrwgn and []
lhwn mn h(m) [] 13 to them from () []
dylhn dnphwn 14 of their own (?)
[]br w[] 15 [] () []

Notes to the text


Due to the fact that half of the text is missing and that the end of almost all the preserved lines has been scratched
or erased, this formula remains rather obscure, and both the reading and the translation are to be considered
tentative. The reading and translation of this text featured in Ford and Morgenstern (in preparation) were made
available to the present author when this edition was in its last draft. Only some of the readings proposed by Ford
and Morgenstern are included here. Some of the readings featured in Mller-Kessler (2005, 108) are not tenable
according to the traces of letters on the surface of the vessel.

l. 9) dbtnwn you who flattered them (?). Mller-Kessler (2005, 108) read dbt der Verwirrung. Here and in
the following form syqtnwn you made them ascend (?) (l. 11), one may guess that the verbal forms are spelled
with object suffix directly attached to them, which use is not the rule in Classical Syriac, where the 3rd person
masculine plural object suffix is represented by the enclitic form of the pronoun and is not attached to the verbal
form.
184 texts

Bowl no. 40 (HS 3056)


BOWL NO. 41

Present location: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia


(CBS 85-48-899).
Dimensions: 16.85.2cm.309
Remarks: this bowl is part of the Nippur collection housed in Philadelphia, but no information is
provided in the previous edition as regards the campaign when it was excavated. Given that it
has been reconstructed after being found in several pieces, it may be guessed that it is part of
the very first group of bowls unearthed in Nippur, as many of them were damaged or found in
a series of fragments in situ.310 The bowl is now made up of seven potsherds glued together. A
couple of very small fragments are missing by the rim. The inner bottom of the basin has suf-
fered greatly from incrustation and abrasion. The ink has faded almost completely at the bottom,
where incrustation and abrasion occurred most, and it has faded significantly in the area near the
rim.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives (e.g. rmt, l. 9) and above
the 3rd person feminine singular suffix pronoun (bn, l. 2). A single dot is marked above the same
pronoun in byt wpgr (l. 13) and above the verb yt (l. 10).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: 14.311 Lines 17 have suffered greatly from incrustation, abrasion and fading of the ink.
The text is mostly reconstructed on the basis of the parallels. Fading of the ink has also affected
lines 1214 in some spots.
Drawings and other signs: a circle is drawn at the bottom of the basin. It is divided into four quarters
by a cross. A circle surrounding the text is drawn near the rim.312
Clients: wrmyzdwkt daughter of dwty (quoted in lines 3, 13 wrmyzdwkty); byrw son of nywndwkt
(quoted in lines 6, 11). The name wrmyzdwk is found in bowl no. 8: 7, while byrw is the name of one
of the sons of the clients of bowl no. 28: 3, 6, 7, 11.313
Contents: for the contents of this bowl text, see bowl no. 4.
Parallels: bowls nos. 4, 5, 31, 34 in this volume. Parallels in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: bowls nos.
CBS 9010 (= Montgomery 1913: no. 9); IM 142131 (Iraq Museum);314 M11, M50, M59 (Moussaieff Col-
lection); MS 1927/5, MS 1927/39, MS 1929/16, MS 2053/33, MS 2053/150, MS 2053/164, MS 2053/165
(Schyen Collection);315 HS 3046 (Hilprecht Collection).316

309 Mller-Kessler (2005, 35).


310 Mller-Kessler (2005, 2).
311 Mller-Kessler (2005, 35) first stated that the lines are 13, but on the very same page she presented a transliteration

counting 14 lines.
312 No trace of any cross is visible in the quarters. Cf. Mller-Kessler (2005, 35).
313 As for dwty, see Mller-Kessler (2005, 36).
314 Faraj (2010b, 8796). For corrections and a new reading of the text, see Burrafato (2013, 2635).
315 Jewish Babylonian Aramaic parallels in the Schyen Collection are published in Shaked, Ford, and Bhayro (2013) as nos.

JBA 13, JBA 14, JBA 16, JBA 17, JBA 20, JBA 21, JBA 22.
316 Levene (2009, 3537) provides a synopsis of our text no. 4 and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic parallels nos. CBS 9010, M50

and M59. Bowl no. HS 3046 is published in Mller-Kessler (2005, 3234), where she further listed bowls nos. CBS 16062 (+ frag.
CBS 6354) and CBS 16101 as Syriac parallels of the formula dealt with here. As to bowl no. 16062 (+ frag. CBS 6354), the present
author was not able to check the text on a photograph, but bowl no. CBS 16101 (published in Mller-Kessler (2006b, 127128)
and re-edited in the present volume as bowl no. 43) does not present any feature of the formula, except for the name of the
client (dynwy son of yspndrmyd).
186 texts

Editions: Mller-Kessler (2005: no. 8a).


Notes: Morgenstern (2010, 282).
Photographs and facsimiles: .

Bowl no. 41 (CBS 85-48-899)317


mzm[n hn] ks ltmt 1 Prepared is this bowl for the sealing
[dbyt wd][] wdbn wdqnynh 2 of the house and of [] and of the sons and of the
property
[dwrmyzdwkt bt dwty dtyzh] mnh mbklt wlw[t] 3 of wrmyzdwkt daughter of dwty that may depart
from her the mevakkalta and the curses.
[pwr rmyn wqyn bwd] dbyd hwhw ky hw dytyb 4 The lot I cast and I take, magical act that was
performed like it was when
rb [yyw br prhy wktb lyhw]n dstbyr l klhwn yd 5 Rab Joshua bar Peraya sat (in court), and wrote
wdy against them a bill of divorce against all of them:
demons and devils
wsn wllt wlb d[yt bbyth db]yrw br nywndwkt twb 6 and satans and liliths and no-good-ones that are in
ktb lyhwn the house of byrw son of nywndwkt. Again he wrote
against them
dstb[yr] d[ll]m bwm t mdg t twt [twt mn g[w tw]t 7 a bill of divorce that is forever: in the name of the
twt m gylywn mn gw gylywn sign of mdg, the sign of the signs, signs out of signs,
the signs of the name, the blank space out of the
blank space,
dbhnwn ytkby yd wdw wsn wlb dbhnwn ytkby 8 that by virtue of those were pressed demons and
my wr wwr wbhnwn devils and satans and no-good-ones, that by virtue of
those were pressed the heaven and the earth and the
mountains and by virtue of those
ytqr rmt wbhnwn ytmsr r [y]d wdyw wsn 9 were uprooted the heights and by virtue of those
wllt wlb wbhnwn br mn were delivered (for punishment) the sorcery,
demons and devils and satans and liliths and
no-good-ones and through those (they) went out
from
lm wslyq lykwn lmrwm wyt lykwn q ybl byl 10 the world and he ascended against you to
lblwt wpq lpwqwkwn mn byth the heights and he brought against you the
counter-charms: destruction to destroy and
removing to remove you from the house
dbyrw br nywndwkt wmn kwl dyt lh byqytwn bdstbyr 11 of byrw son of nywndwkt and from everything he has.
dsyr tym wmtm ykyn dyd qdmy l kdybw You are divorced by virtue of the bill of divorce:
Bound, sealed and countersealed, as the primeval
demons did not lie

317 The reading of the text was carried out on a new photograph kindly supplied by the University of Pennsylvania Museum

of Archaeology and Anthropology. Both the transliteration and the translation feature few changes in comparison with those
proposed in Mller-Kessler (2005, 3536).
bowl no. 41 187

wn qdmy dywr l hww twb syr tym wmtm hn 12 and the primeval men who evaporated (?), they
dstbyr bwm yh yh yh yh yh yh yh 7 myn myn are not (any longer). Again bound, sealed and
countersealed is this bill of divorce in the name of yh
yh yh yh yh yh yh seven (times?). Amen, amen,
slh nyttym wnytnr byt wpgr dwrmyzdwkty bt 13 selah. May be sealed and may be protected the
dwty mn mbklt wlwt wnydr wr house and the body of wrmyzdwkty daughter of
dwty from the mevakkalta and the curses and the
vows and the sorcery
wmbd wsyp(y) wswy wdlwl(y) myn 14 and the magical acts and the sabres (?) and the
terrors and the frights. Amen.

Notes to the text


For the sentences featured in lines 45 and 7, see bowl no. 4: 34, 6.
l. 1) ltmt for the sealing. For this nomen actionis see bowl no. 1: 9.
l. 3) [dtyzh] that may depart. For this verbal voice, see bowl no. 1: 6.
lines 3, 13) mbklt the mevakkalta. For this evil being, see bowl no. 3: 3.
l. 5) rb [yyw br prhy] Rab Joshua bar Peraya. The text is badly erased here and the reconstruction is based
on the parallel texts. The reconstruction rb[y yw], proposed by Mller-Kessler (2005, 35, 37), does not reflect the
mainly attested sequence, which reads rb yyw. See bowls nos. 5: 3 and 31: 5. Bowl no. 4: 4 has rby yw.
l. 5) dstbyr a bill of divorce. For the meaning of this Iranian loanword, see bowl no. 4: 4.
l. 9) ytqr were uprooted. There is no need to emend (ytqr) this verbal voice, as done by Mller-Kessler (2005,
35), since the parallel texts read ytqr (bowls nos. 4: 7, 5: 8, 31: 8), thus pointing (Morgenstern 2010, 282) to the
common weakening of the pharyngeals in the Syriac bowls.
l. 10) q ybl the counter-charms. For this word see bowl no. 4: 8.
l. 10) lpwqwkwn to remove you. The emendation lpwqwtkwn proposed by Mller-Kessler (2005, 35, 37) seems
unnecessary, as the parallels read lpqkwn (bowl no. 5: 10), lpwqwkwn (no. 31: 10) and, albeit partly reconstructed
according to the traces on the vessel, [lpqt]kwn (no. 4: 8). The /t/ may well have been assimilated by the /k/ in the
phonetic realization and the spelling may have reproduced the phonetic situation ([tk] [kk]). See bowl no. 4: 8
for further details.
l. 12) dywr who evaporated (?). See bowl no. 4: 10.
l. 12) l hww they are not (any longer). This sequence is missing from Mller-Kesslers transliteration and transla-
tion, but it is quite legible on the picture of the bowl at the present authors disposal.
l. 12) yh yh yh yh yh yh yh 7. As for this sequence of seven yhs, see bowl no. 4: 10.
l. 14) wsyp(y) wswy wdlwl(y) and the sabres (?) and the terrors and the frights. This closing sequence is not
attested in the parallel texts. The first word is still uncertain, but the other two are now explained thanks to their
occurrence in bowls nos. 7: 4 and MS 2055/28: 8 (Schyen Collection), to which the reader is referred for further
details.
188 texts

Bowl no. 41 (CBS 85-48-899)


BOWL NO. 42

Present location: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia


(CBS 8826).
Dimensions: .
Remarks: this fragment of bowl is part of the Nippur collection housed in Philadelphia, but no informa-
tion is provided in the previous edition as regards the campaign when it was excavated. Given that it
is fragmentary, it may be guessed that it is part of the very first group of bowls unearthed in Nippur,
as many of them were damaged or found in a series of fragments in situ.318
A small portion of the bottom section of the bowl is preserved. The ink has faded on two thirds of the
preserved surface of the basin.
Script: Manichaean. Seyame dots are marked above two fragmentary words in line 3. A single dot is
marked above the in [t]hw (l. 1).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: three (with scanty traces of the fourth line near the breaks of the sherd). The first
sections of lines 13 are effaced due to fading of the ink.
Drawings and other signs: at the bottom of the basin a flower-shaped drawing with 10 petals is depicted.
It is divided into four quarters by a cross. Analogous drawings are found at the bottom of bowls nos. 27
and 35.
Clients: yyn daughter of yprwrmyz (quoted in lines 12). yyn daughter of gwny is the wife of the
client of bowl no. 22.
Contents: .
Parallels: .
Editions: Mller-Kessler (2006b, 127).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: .

Bowl no. 42 (CBS 8826)319


[t]hw swt ryrt lyyn d[mtqry] [][dw]kt 1 May there be strong healing for yyn, who is called
[][dw]kt,
bt yprwrmyz wtyzh rw[] [] 2 daughter of yprwrmyz and may you depart, spirit
[]
[] [..]wp []lly 3 [] () []

Notes to the text


l. 1) swt healing. Classical Syriac has sywt. For this term in incantation bowls, see bowl no. 14: 12.
l. 2) wtyzh and may you depart. For this verbal voice, see bowl no. 1: 6.

318
Mller-Kessler (2005, 2).
319
The present reading and translation were carried out on a new photograph supplied by the University of Pennsylvania
Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
190 texts

Bowl no. 42 (CBS 8826) (bottom fragment)


BOWL NO. 43

Present location: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia


(CBS 16101 + two fragments).
Dimensions: .
Remarks: these fragments of bowl are part of the Nippur collection housed in Philadelphia, but no
information is provided in the previous edition as regards the campaign when they were excavated.
Given that the bowl they were part of is fragmentary, it may be guessed that it was part of the very first
group of bowls unearthed in Nippur, as many of them were damaged or found in a series of fragments
in situ.320 As the bowl was currently unaccounted for when this study was in preparation and hence
neither new photographs nor drawings could be provided by the Museum, it was necessary to rely on
the editio princeps by Mller-Kessler (2006b, 127128).321
As to the state of preservation of the bowl, only three fragments have remained, one of the bottom
portion and two of the rim section.322
Script: not specified in the editio princeps, but seemingly Manichaean, as is usual in the Syriac incanta-
tion bowls coming from Nippur.323
Text arrangement: .
Number of lines: five in the bottom fragment and three in each of the other two.
Drawings and other signs: .
Clients: dynwy son of yspndrmyd (quoted in line 2 of the bottom fragment). The same client is quoted
in bowls nos. 4 and 7. The name yspndrmyd also occurs in bowl no. 20.324
Contents: .
Parallels: even though very scanty, the traces of text on this bowl may point to parallel occurrences of
sentences of bowls nos. 3: 1, 4, 8 and 38: 1, 7, 9.
Editions: Mller-Kessler (2006b, 127128).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: .

Bowl no. 43 (CBS 16101 + two fragments)325


Bottom fragment (CBS 16101)
[mzmn hn] ks ltmt 1a Prepared is this bowl for the sealing
[wnrt d]byth ddynwy br yspndrmyd 2a and the protection of the house of dynwy son of
yspndrmyd
[]n w[.]rym [] 3a [] () []

320 Mller-Kessler (2005, 2).


321 Information about this bowl as unaccounted for was supplied by Maureen Goldsmith (University of Pennsylvania
Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology) via personal communication (13.03.2012).
322 Mller-Kessler (2006b, 127).
323 Mller-Kessler (2005, 3).
324 See Mller-Kessler (2006b, 127) for further details.
325 The transliteration featured here reproduces Mller-Kessler (2006b, 128). Courtesy Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.
192 texts

[] [m]zrzyn wmr[ryn] [] 4a [] armed and made strong []


[] wby w[] 5a [] and evil and []
Rim fragment (Mller-Kessler no. 2)
[] yd [] 1b [] demons []
[] [m]yn myn [] 2b [] amen, amen []
[]m yn wb[] 3b [] () []
Rim fragment (Mller-Kessler no. 3)
[]m w[] 1c [] () []
[]d bt w[] 2c [] () []
[] [n]ytty[m] [] 3c [] may he be sealed []
BOWL NO. 44

Present location: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia


(CBS 85-48-953 + one fragment).
Dimensions: .
Remarks: these fragments of bowl are part of the Nippur collection housed in Philadelphia, but no
information is provided in the previous edition as regards the campaign when they were excavated.
Given that the bowl they were part of is fragmentary, it may be guessed that it was part of the very first
group of bowls unearthed in Nippur, as many of them were damaged or found in a series of fragments
in situ.326
The two fragments labelled together as CBS 85-48-953 and the fragment successfully assigned to the
same bowl by Mller-Kessler needed restoration at the time when this study was in preparation, and
the present author decided not to choose to proceed with them in order to put bowl no. 9 first in the
restoration waiting-list. This hindered the possibility of having new photographs of the potsherds and
it was therefore necessary to rely on the editio princeps by Mller-Kessler (2006b, 128).
Script: Manichaean.327
Text arrangement: .
Number of lines: five (preserved).
Drawings and other signs: .
Clients: .
Contents: .
Parallels: even though very scanty, the traces of text may point to parallel occurrences of sentences in
bowls nos. 3: 5; 6: 12; 16: 5; 17: 3, 6; 25: 5; 32: 34; 35: 6; 38: 45, 6, 7.
Editions: Mller-Kessler (2006b, 128).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: .

Bowl no. 44 (CBS 85-48-953 + one fragment)328


[] nydr wqrwt[] [] 1 [] the vows and the invocations []
[] []lh dykr w[strt] [] 2 [] male gods and goddesses []
[] wtwk wm[yskynwt] [] 3 [] and the harms and the poverty []
[]n whr [] 4 [] and the sorcery []
[] [mn]ryn hlyn k[s] [] 5 [] protected are these bowls []

326 Mller-Kessler (2005, 2).


327 Mller-Kessler (2006b, 128).
328 The transliteration featured here reproduces Mller-Kessler (2006b, 128). Courtesy Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.
BOWL NO. 45

Present location: Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin (VABab 2813 + VABab 2814).


Dimensions: length (VABab 2813) 13 cm; length (VABab 2814) 10 cm.
Remarks: the two fragments are the only remains of what Mller-Kessler (2006b, 128) described as
vermutlich sehr groen und dickwandigen Schale coming from Babylon. Although fragmentary,
the text on the preserved potsherds is still clear and the ink has not faded significantly.
Script: Estrangela. Seyame dots are marked above the plural substantives sny and bldb by (l. 4b).
Text arrangement: the text ran from the internal bottom to the rim on a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: four on each potsherd. Some letters at the beginning of l. 4a.
Drawings and other signs: a circle surrounded the text.
Clients: mrqywn son of mm (quoted in lines 3a, 4a, 2b), myrrmyz (quoted in line 3b).329 A man called
myrwrmyzd son of mmy is quoted as the client of bowl no. 6.
Contents: .
Parallels: .
Editions: Mller-Kessler (2006b, 128129).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: .

Bowl no. 45 (VABab 2813 + VABab 2814)330


VABab 2813
[] (m) [] 1a []
[]wy wnr byd br[] 2a [] () and he protected by means of []
[]kwy dmtqr mrqywn [] 3a [] () who is called mrqywn []
[][wy d]mtqr mrqywn br mm[] [] 4a [] () who is called mrqywn son of mm []
VABab 2814
[]n () [] 1b []
[] [m]rqywn br m[m] [] 2b [] mrqywn son of mm []
[] wmyrrmyz br br[] 3b [] and myrrmyz son of br[]
wbldb by wn k(d)[]
[] [k]wl sny 4b [] all my enemies and my adversaries. And I []

Notes to the text


The two fragments (VABab 2813 and VABab 2814) were assigned to the same bowl by Mller-Kessler (2006b, 128).
In consideration of script and pottery characteristics, this assignation seems to be correct.

329 For the proper name myrrmyz spelled with instead of h, see Mller-Kessler (2010b, 456n19).
330 The reading and the translation of this bowl have been carried out on two new high-definition photographs supplied
by Vorderasiatisches Museum (Berlin) through Scala Archives photo service. Further pictures and information were kindly
supplied by Dr. Dan Levene (University of Southampton).
bowl no. 45 195

wbldb by all my enemies and my adversaries. Mller-Kessler (2006b, 129) rendered this sequence
l. 4b) [k]wl sny
as die Verhaten und die Feinde. The term bldbby is known to Classical Syriac, as correctly pointed out by Ford
(forthcoming a, Excursus 2), and in this short sequence is coupled with sny, which may well be an alternative to
sn (satans) or nqbl (opponents), usually found in similar contexts in Syriac and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
bowls.331 Note the use of the 1st person singular suffix pronoun in each case.

331 For bldbby see further Healey (2011, 648).


196 texts

Bowl no. 45 (VABab 2813) (rim fragment)

Bowl no. 45 (VABab 2814) (rim fragment)


BOWL NO. 46

Present location: Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin (VABab 4167-I-5).332


Dimensions: .
Remarks: this fragment (the only remaining part of the bowl) comes from Babylon. Half of the text has
been effaced by abrasion.
Script: Estrangela. The ductus and the letters of this bowl show some peculiar characteristics.333
Text arrangement: the text ran from the rim to the internal bottom in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: nine. The number of lines is guessed, as the fragment does not allow for a full
reconstruction of the bowls original dimensions. The space due to be occupied by lines 69 has been
totally erased, and no letters are visible in that area.
Drawings and other signs: the text was surrounded by a circle drawn near the rim.
Clients: .
Contents: the text seems to deal with a demonic egg that harasses the client. The contents may be
related to bowl no. 21 in Naveh and Shaked (1993, 127130), where the story of an evil humanized egg
that runs after humans is presented. A Mandaic bowl in the Schyen Collection (no. MS 2054/124)
apparently contains a variant of this formula.
Parallels: .
Editions: Mller-Kessler (2006b, 129).
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: .

Bowl no. 46 (VABab 4167-I-5)334


[] t[rn]gl wr b[r trngl] [] 1 [] a white cock son of a cock []
[] ly n bt n [] 2 [] to me: I am an egg []
[] wr dtydlyn [] 3 [] a rod that you rise []
[] pwmyhyn dbryt[] [] 4 [] the entrances of the deserts []
[] mt wytb[h] [] 5 [] the country and its inhabitants []
[] 69 []

Notes to the text


This text appears to be related to the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic bowl no. 21 in Naveh and Shaked (1993), and
especially to the unpublished Mandaic bowl no. MS 2054/124.335 Judging from the correspondences with the latter

332 In the edition by Mller-Kessler (2006b, 129) the fragment is labelled as no. VABab 4167i, which in fact diente ursprnglich

als eine Sammelnummer, unter der alle nicht zugeordneten spten Ostrakafunde aus Babylon subsummiert wurden. Here
the number corresponds to Levenes labelling of the Vorderasiatisches Museums bowls. Levene has been studying the Berlin
collection of incantation bowls for some years, and is currently working towards its publication. Some items have already
appeared, see recently Levene 2013.
333 Due to the peculiar charachteristics of the script of this bowl and the difficulties of its interpretation, the script chart

represents only forms read with absolute certainty.


334 The reading of the text was carried out on a new photograph shot by Dr. Dan Levene (University of Southampton).
335 The parallel of the Schyen Collection is used here for comparison thanks to the kindness of Ford, who, in an act of great
198 texts

bowl, it seems plausible to hypothize that the text begins at the rim. The text of the formula remains rather obscure
(see Contents) and both these transliteration and translation are to be taken as tentative. The present edition
mostly follows the one now in preparation by Ford and due to appear in Levene et al. (in preparation).

l. 1) Cf. trnwl hywr pt trnwl yr[wq] in the Mandaic bowl no. MS 2054/124: 4.
l. 2) Cf. lm mllt w[mr]ly k n byt [n] -ypn wl nqybn in the Mandaic bowl no. MS 2054/124: 7.
l. 3) Cf. w[lyt]lyk hwr -tydly l[y] in the Mandaic bowl no. MS 2054/124: 1112.
l. 4) Cf. mn pwmyhwn -byryt in the Mandaic bowl no. MS 2054/124: 1213.

generosity, put at the authors disposal an earlier draft of his reading of the present bowl to be published in Levene et al. (in
preparation).
bowl no. 46 199

Bowl no. 46 (VABab 4167-I-5) (rim fragment)


BOWL NO. 47

Present location: Iraq Museum, Baghdad (IM 142513).


Dimensions: .
Remarks: as to the provenance of this bowl, Faraj (2010a, 209) stated that we did not find the site
where this bowl comes from; we know where it was acquired from the archive number we have
already given.336 The bowl is well preserved. It has been duly cleaned, and some minor incrustations
are visible only near the rim. The ink has been erased at the bottom of the basin, according to
Faraj (2010a, 209) because of the action of water and clay. Fading of the ink has occurred near the
rim.
Script: Estrangela. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives (e.g. d , l. 4) and above
plural participles bdyn (l. 3) and qymn (l. 6).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: nine. Faraj (2010a, 209) listed 12 lines.337 The first two lines have almost completely
disappeared, and were extensively reconstructed following the parallel bowl no. 48. Fading of the ink
hindered the possibility of a complete reading of line 9.
Drawings and other signs: traces of a circle surrounding the text are visible near the rim. Traces of a
drawing similar to that of bowls nos. 48 and 49 are visible at the bottom of the basin.
Clients: qywm son of yryn (quoted in lines 12, 4, 5, 7, 8 2 times, 9).
Contents: for the contents of this bowl, see bowl no. 48. It must be pointed out that this text is longer
than the text featured in bowl no. 48, as here the formula is repeated twice in its entirety. The seal by
which heaven and earth are sealed is not quoted in this text, whereas it is featured in bowl no. 48: 5.
Parallels: bowl no. 48 in this volume. Bowls nos. MS 1928/10 (Schyen Collection); JNF 216, JNF 218; Wolfe
44; Davidovitz 8 (private collections to be published by Ford).338
Editions: Faraj (2010a, 208210);
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Faraj (2010a, 212, plate 2 photograph).339

Bowl no. 47 (IM 142513)340


[m]zmn h[dyn] qmy lnrt wltmt [dsqw]pt 1 Prepared is this amulet for the protection and for
dqy[wm] the sealing of the threshold of qywm
br yryn wqr mry [lm] lml[k] dqymyn [qd]m[h] 2 son of yryn. And the Lord called the angels who
mykyyl wrwpyyl stand in front of him, Michael and Raphael
wzzyyl wyhbyyl mlk dbdyn rwth dmryhwn wdr 3 and zzyyl and yhbyyl, the angels who do the will of
nwn lmql d wdyw wllyt mwmyn their Lord and He sent them to kill demons and
devils and liliths. I adjure

336 The place where it was acquired is not specified anywhere in the article.
337 In a personal communication (28.02.2011) Ford confirmed that he read nine lines of text in this bowl.
338 The parallels are listed according to references in Ford (forthcoming a), to which the reader must refer for further details.
339 The bowl is wrongly indicated as being represented in picture 3 in Faraj (2010a, 208).
340 The reading of this text was carried out on two new photographs kindly put at the authors disposal by Dr. Ali H. Faraj

(Baghdad University). The underlined sequence in lines 89 could not be checked, because the photographs do not show this
section of the basin.
bowl no. 47 201

lkwn bmylt mry wbtg dbryh dthwwn lh nwr lbyth 4 you by the word of the Lord and by the diadem that
dqywm br yryn dntwn d zny l tqrbwn lbyth is on his head, that you may be for it protectors, for
the house of qywm son of yryn, that you, the
fornicating demons, may not approach his house,
dtmn wmtmn btm dbh kwl yk dm wshr rw 5 because I seal and counterseal (it) with the seal in
pwqdnh dmry nyr lh hdyn qmy lbyth dqywm br which is everything. As the sun and the moon
yryn fulfilled the command of the Lord, may be strong for
it this amulet, for the house of qywm son of yryn
llm lmyn wqr mry lm lmlk dqymn qdmh mykyyl 6 forever and ever. And the Lord called the angels who
wrwpyyl wzzyyl wyhwbyyl mlk dbdyn rwth stand in front of him, Michael and Raphael and
dmryhwn wdr nwn zzyyl and yhwbyyl, the angels who do the will of
their Lord and He sent them
lmql d wdy wllyt mwmy{m}n lkwn bmylt mry 7 to kill demons and devils and liliths. I adjure you by
wbtg dbryh dthwn lh nwr lbyth dqywm br yryn the word of the Lord and by the diadem that is on
dntwn d zny l tqrbwn his head that you be for it protectors, for the house
of qywm son of yryn, that you, the fornicating
demons, may not approach
lbyth dqywm br yryn dtmn lh btm dbh kwl yk 8 the house of qywm son of yryn because I seal it
m ws[hr] rw pwq[dnh d]mry nyr lh hdyn qmy with the seal in which is everything. As the sun and
lbyth dqywm the moon fulfilled the command of the Lord, may be
strong for it this amulet, for the house of qywm
wqywm br yryn w[] 9 and qywm son of yryn and []

Notes to the text


This bowl, first studied by Faraj (2010a), has subsequently been compared with parallels (mainly bowl no. 48),
helping to solve issues and clarifying passages in both texts. The formula in this bowl is repeated twice, providing
elucidations for doubtful readings in the first part of the text, which has almost completely disappeared.341

lines 23) The list of angels featured here and in line 6 is slightly different from that attested to in the parallel bowl
no. 48: 2, which reads: gbryyl mykyyl wrwpyyl wzzyyl.
l. 3) rwth dmryhwn the will of their Lord. For rwth, see bowl no. 48: 3.
l. 8) yk m ws[hr] rw as the sun and the moon fulfilled. The occurrence of yk d- both in line 5 and in bowl
no. 48: 5 allows for considering yk (Classical Syriac where?) a scribal slip.
lines 89) The final sequence, following the verb nyr, is not visible on the photographs at the authors disposal.
The reading here therefore reproduces that proposed by Faraj, except for the d Faraj (2010a, 209) read before the
demonstrative pronoun hdyn (dhdyn).

341 The study of this text has greatly benefited from the sharing between the author and Dr. James Nathan Ford (Bar-Ilan

University) of new readings and notes.


202 texts

Bowl no. 47 (IM 142513) (partial view)


bowl no. 47 203

Bowl no. 47 (IM 142513) (partial view)


204 texts

Bowl no. 47 (IM 142513) (partial view)


BOWL NO. 48

Present location: Bibliothque Centrale de l Universit Saint-Esprit de Kaslik, Kaslik (IBC 2).
Dimensions: 186cm.342
Remarks: for the supposed provenance of this bowl, see bowl no. 49. The bowl is owned at present by
the Bibliothque Centrale de lUniversit Saint-Esprit de Kaslik, Kaslik (Lebanon). The bowl is in a
fair state of preservation. It was broken but has been successfully, albeit not professionally, restored.
It is made up of 7 potsherds crudely glued together, as glue stains are visible in the area where cracks
had occurred. In spite of damage to and restoration of the vessel, its text is well preserved and the ink
is faded only on minor parts of the surface.
Script: Estrangela. Seyame dots are marked above a few plural substantives and one adjective (d zny,
l. 4).
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: six. Some slight fading affected the ink in the last part of line 6. Glue stains obliterated
some letters in the last sections of lines 25.
Drawings and other signs: a human-like head is depicted at the bottom of the basin. Eyes, eyebrows
and nose are clearly distinguishable. The head is surrounded by triangle-shaped rays. The same
figure is depicted at the bottom of bowl no. 49.343 A horizontal line, presumably a false start, is
marked before the name gbryyl (l. 2). Traces of a circle surrounding the text are visible near the
rim.
Clients: prwkzd son of kwmy (quoted in lines 1, 4, 5 pwrkzd, 6). The clients name is similar to the
name prwkdd, attested in bowls nos. 28 and 22 (prwkdd). In fact, although the dotting of r and d in
this bowl is not consistent, in lines 45, where the sequence dprwkzd is much clearer, the d is always
dotted, while the sign we read z is never dotted, thus supporting the present reading.344
Contents: protection for the house and threshold of the client. The formula is intended to invoke
the angels who stand in front of the Lord and to send them to kill evil demons. The angels are
asked to protect the client, and demons are adjured not to approach his house and threshold. The
fornicating demons are quoted, together with the seal in which is everything, and the seal by
which heaven and earth are sealed and the sun and the moon fulfilling the command of the
Lord.
Parallels: bowl no. 47 in this volume. Bowls nos. MS 1928/19 (Schyen Collection); JNF 216, JNF 218; Wolfe
44; Davidovitz 8 (private collections to be published by Ford).
Editions: Abousamra 2010a.
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Abousamra (2010a, 16 photograph).

342 Abousamra (2010a, 2).


343 Apart from Vilozny (2012; 2013), drawings and iconography in incantation bowls were described in Hunter (1998) and
Hunter (2000a, 170176). On the latter see Bhayro (2004, 392).
344 On the considerable number of well executed bowls in possession of this client, see Shaked, Ford, and Bhayro (2013,

1n2).
206 texts

Bowl no. 48 (IBC 2)345


mzmn hn rz wnrt lbyth wlsqwpth dprwkzd wqr 1 Prepared is this mystery and protection for the
mry house and for the threshold of prwkzd and the Lord
called
lm lmlk dqymyn qdmwhy {} gbryyl mykyyl 2 the angels who stand in front of Him: Gabriel,
wrwpyyl wzzyyl mlk dbdyn Michael, and Raphael and zzyyl, the angels who do
rwth dmry wdr nwn lmyql d wdyw wllyt mwmyn 3 the will of the Lord and He sent them to kill demons
lkwn bmylt {b} mry wbtg and devils and liliths. I adjure you by the word of the
Lord and by the diadem
dbryh dthwwn lh nwr lbyth wlsqwpth dprwkzd br 4 that is on his head that you may be for it protectors,
kwmy ntw{w}n d zny mwmyn lkwn bmylt dl for the house and for the threshold of prwkzd son of
tqrbwn kwmy; (that) you, the fornicating demons, I adjure
you by the word that you may not approach
lbyth dpwrkzd br kwmy mwl dtmn lh btm dbh kwl 5 the house of pwrkzd son of kwmy because I seal it
dtym bh my wr wyk dm wshr rw pwq[d]nh with the seal in which is everything, by which
dmry heaven and earth are sealed and as the sun and the
moon fulfilled the command of the Lord,
nr lh hdyn tmt[] wnrt wqymt wzrzt lbyth 6 may be strong for it this sealing and protection and
wlsqwpth dpr[wk]z[d] br kwmy y stability and arming for the house and for the
threshold of prwkzd son of kwmy. y.

Notes to the text


l. 2) The list of angels is slightly different in the parallel text no. 47: 23, where it reads: mykyyl wrwpyyl wzzyyl
wyhbyyl mlk.
l. 3) rwth dmry the will of the Lord. This substantive, which Abousamra (2010a, 89) did not find [] anywhere
in the published magical bowls, was by him correctly referred to the root ry with weaken ayn changed to aleph.
The reading is now confirmed by the parallel bowl text no. 47: 3.
l. 3) wbtg and by the diadem. The integration is confirmed by the parallel text no. 47: 7.
l. 4) nwr protectors. For this translation, see the parallel bowl text no. 47: 4.
l. 4) bmylt dl tqrbwn by the word that you may not approach. This sequence could well witness to a case of
interpolation during the copying of the formula, which is possibly preserved in the original form in bowl no. 47: 7
(dntwn d zny l tqrbwn).
l. 5) btm dbh kwl with the seal in which is everything. This sequence is not translated in Abousamra (2010a, 4),
although it is transliterated.
l. 5) dtym bh my wr by which heaven and earth are sealed. The same seal is featured in bowls nos. 6: 9 and
28: 10.
l. 5) rw pwq[d]nh dmry fulfilled the command of the Lord. Abousamra read mrw, but both parallel texts and
the picture show a in this place.
l. 6) y. Abousamra (2010a, 13) translated this word as verily, in his opinion a liturgical expression corresponding
to silah and Amen in Mandaic and Aramaic and Syriac bowls.

345 The reading of this text was carried out on two new photographs kindly put at the authors disposal by Dr. Gaby

Abousamra (Universit Saint-Esprit de Kaslik).


bowl no. 48 207

Bowl no. 48 (IBC 2)


BOWL NO. 49

Present location: Bibliothque Centrale de l Universit Saint-Esprit de Kaslik, Kaslik (IBC 3).
Dimensions: 167cm.346
Remarks: as regards the provenance of this bowl, Abousamra (2010b, 23) wrote:
aprs la guerre qui a ravag lIraq en 2003, plusieurs objects archologiques provenant de ce pays ont fait leur
apparition sur le march des antiquits au Liban. Parmi ces objects, on compte un lot de coupes magiques
dont celle que je prsente dans ce symposium.
The bowl is owned at present by the Bibliothque Centrale de l Universit Saint-Esprit de Kaslik
(Lebanon). The bowl is fairly well preserved. It has been broken up into at least 18 pieces. It was
successfully restored, but one fragment in the area near the rim is missing, and the item is now
made up of 17 reassembled potsherds. The restoration was not carried out by professionals, as is
demonstrated by the fact that the single pieces are not correctly glued to each other and glue stains
are found on the surface of the vessel.347 In spite of damage and restoration to the bowl, its text is well
preserved as a whole and the ink has not significantly faded.
Script: Estrangela. Seyame dots are marked above some plural substantives (e.g. , l. 2) and adjectives
l. 3), the 3rd person masculine plural suffix pronoun in ly{kw}wn (l. 3) and kbywn (l. 4),
(e.g. qdyst,
the 2nd person masculine singular suffix pronoun in ydk (l. 3) and the plural participle mzd (l. 3).
The script of this bowl is characterized by a considerable inconsistency.
Text arrangement: the text runs from the internal bottom to the rim in a clockwise spiral.
Number of lines: eight.
Drawings and other signs: a human-like head is depicted at the bottom of the basin. Eyes, eyebrows,
nose and mouth are clearly distinguishable. The head is surrounded by triangle-shaped rays.348
Clients: .
Contents: the text has only a couple of parallels among incantation bowls as a whole. Its phraseology
is completely distinct from the usual formulas and utterances found on bowls. In fact it consists of a
prayer, quite complex as for style and content, with direct references to both specific articles of the
Christian faith and features of Christian liturgy. Abousamra (2010b, 24, 28) tried comparing the text
of this bowl with the Maronite breviary, and some similarities were found. While studying this
text one is strongly induced to think that it could well be the copy, slightly readjusted, of a Syriac
liturgical text or of a section of a Syriac prayer-book. The main themes featured in the text are: the
Trinitarian formula, the mention of a physician and living healer who is easily identified with Jesus
and whose hands are filled of mercies and supplied with grace, the interior man, healing from the
external pains of the flesh, the Gospel, a wall against all darts of evil, the name of majesty and divinity.
The alphabet closes the text.
Paralles: bowls nos. JNF 211; Private Collection 7 (private collections to be published by Ford).
Editions: Abousamra 2010b.
Notes: .
Photographs and facsimiles: Abousamra (2010b, 27 photograph).

346 Abousamra (2010b, 25).


347 See Abousamra (2010b, 25).
348 An analogous drawing is featured in bowl no. 48. Apart from Vilozny (2012; 2013), drawings and iconography in incantation

bowls were described in Hunter (1998) and Hunter (2000a, 170176). On the latter see Bhayro (2004, 392).
bowl no. 49 209

Bowl no. 49 (Bibliothque Centrale de lUniversit Saint-Esprit de Kaslik, no. IBC 3)349
qdmyk sy wmsyn y wby [b]t 1 In front of you, physician and living healer and the
one who performs (acts of) goodness,
hw dt {bgz} byzgndwt drwm wyty lbny ny 2 he who came with the announcement of heaven and
brought life to men.
swm ly{kw}wn ydk qdyst kd m(m)l rm wmzd 3 Put on them your holy hands, being they filled of
ybt hb yl mercies and supplied with grace, give strength
lbrn hwn gwy wsywt dmn kwl kbywn {g} bry dbsr 4 to their interior man and healing which is from all
dlbyyn yp nwn external pains of the fleshes which they are dressed
with, dress them
zynyk lhy dmn ymynhwn smlhwn swm bryhwn 5 of your divine arms, in order that they will be on
s[n]wrwt dy dbh {dbh} ntbl ylh dby their right (and) left sides, put on their heads
helmets of life, by means of which it is abolished the
strength of evil
ww[yb]h dwngylywn dytyhy dythy dlm nhw 6 and the preparation of the Gospel which is of peace,
bdmwt wr myl mn kwl gyrwhy dby ws[] wyl may it be in the form of a wall raising against all
darts of evil, and heal and strengthen
wnr wml wqym wbrmyk sg ntb m drbwtk 7 and protect and accomplish and establish and by
wdlhw[t]k mn h wdm llm lmyn myn means of your many mercies may the name of your
majesty and of your divinity be praised from now
and forever and ever. Amen.
bm db wbr wrw dqw[d] bbggdd hh ww zz 8 In the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy
yy kk llm [m nnn] ss pp qqrr tt Spirit. bbggdd hh ww zz yy kk llm [m nnn] ss
pp qqrr tt

Notes to the text


l. 1) msyn healer. Cf. the Classical Syriac orthography msyn /masyn/, with preserved . The weakening of
laryngeal phonemes and the fading of their phonetic status is well attested to in Syriac bowls and sometimes
leads to the dropping of the corresponding grapheme in writing. See Moriggi (2004, 103).
l. 1) by the one who performs. The form by, with loss of final d (byd), recalls Jewish Babylonian Aramaic spelling.
l. 2) {bgz} byzgndwt with the announcement. This bowl attests to some false starts. In this case the scribe began
writing the word yzgndwt after the preposition b, but he made a mistake and thus began again without crossing
the mistake out.350 The word yzgndwt is spelled with n, a variant spelling of Classical Syriac yzgdwt (as for the
dropping of the , see above l. 1). Syriac has two orthographies for the Iranian loanword from which this substantive
derives: yzgd and yzgnd messenger.351
lines 3, 5) swm put. Cf. Classical Syriac sym.
l. 4) {g} bry. Another false start which Abousamra (2010b, 25) singled out correctly:
lauteur a d commencer par crire la premire lettre du mot gwy, mais, se rendant compte quil avait crit
ce terme auparavant, il la laiss inachev et est pass au terme bry.

349 The reading of this text was carried out on two new photographs kindly put at the authors disposal by Dr. Gaby

Abousamra (Universit Saint-Esprit de Kaslik).


350 See Abousamra (2010b, 25). For false starts and dittography in incantation bowls and their significance for the transmis-

sion of the texts, see bowl no. 10: 6.


351 Sokoloff (2009, 3233); Ciancaglini (2008, 105106).
210 texts

l. 4) yp dress. Abousamra (2010b, 25) read this form as une faute par mtathse [] quil faut corriger en
supprimant le yud aprs le te. The present author does not think that the y is to be crossed out, as it is a mark for
the phonetic spelling of the 2nd person masculine singular imperative aph. of the root p (/aep/).
l. 6) dytyhy dythy. The present author is inclined to see in these sequences a couple of false starts for Classical
Syriac dytwhy, which is attested in the parallel bowl no. JNF 221: 6 (private collection to be published by Ford),
where it is read: dytwhy wdlm.
l. 6) gyrwhy his darts. The spelling of this term may mirror the phonetic realization of Classical Syriac gr /ger/.
For y = /e/ in Syriac incantation bowls, see Moriggi (2004, 104107).
l. 8) The doubly written alphabet closing the text is also featured in the Syriac bowl no. MS 2055/1: 12.352 For other
alphabets in Syriac bowls, see nos. 10: 1011 and 14: 13.

352 For bowl no. MS 2055/1 see Ford (forthcoming a).


bowl no. 49 211

Bowl no. 49 (IBC 3)


212 texts

Bowl no. 49 (IBC 3) (partial view)


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abousamra, Gaby. 2010a. A Syriac Magic Bowl. The Harp 25: 116.
Abousamra, Gaby. 2010b. Coupe de prire syriaque chrtienne. Parole de lOrient 35: 2334.
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GLOSSARY

This glossary contains only complete words and words reconstructed with certainty. The first column
contains the lemma. Forms that occur in the bowls are listed in the third column. The reference to
Classical Syriac lemmas is usually to Payne Smith ([1903] 1999), although Payne Smith (18791901) and
Sokoloff (2009) were also used when necessary. Words that do not occur in the Syriac dictionaries are
indicated with *. When a word is attested in the Syriac dictionaries but with a different meaning to that
given in Syriac incantation bowls, only the form and/or the meaning attested in the bowls are presented
and the reader is referred to the notes to the texts. Verbs are in the pe. unless specified otherwise.

b n. father, Father 2: 9; 49: 8;


with suffix pron.
2nd p. masc. pl. bwkwn 9: 10; 10: 9; 14: 9; 22: 9; 23: 9;
3rd p. masc. pl. bwhwn 13: 7;
pl.
with suffix pron. 3rd p. masc. pl. byhwn 8: 5, 6;
gm n. pool, marsh 28: 6;
gr vb. to hire pass. ptc.
masc. sg. gyr 13: 10, 13;
masc. sg. with suffix pron. 3rd p. masc. sg. gyryh 13: 10;
gr n. roof pl.
ygr 16: 6; 18: 6; gr 16: 13; gr 32: 5; ygr 32: 9;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. grh 13: 9; ygrh 28: 10;
dms n. diamond, dms 23: 12;
(Payne Smith steel
18791901, 38)
w part. or 12: 2;
wnglywn n. Gospel wngylywn 49: 6;
wspr n. sphere swpyr 18: 8;
(Payne Smith
18791901, 79)
wry* n. west wind 1: 8 (see commentary);
zgd n. messenger pl.
zgnd 10: 4; 14: 5; 23: 5; gnd 22: 5;
zl vb. to go impf.
(pa.) 1st p. sg. zyl 8: 4;
impv.
(pa.) 2nd p. masc. sg. zyl 8: 7;
(pa.) 2nd p. masc. pl. zylw 14: 11; 24: 9, 12;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. zyl 28: 6;
n. brother 10: 8; 14: 8; 22: 8; 23: 8;
pl.
23: 8; 35: 9;
222 glossary

yd n. hand sg.
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. dyh 24: 13;
pl.
yd 29: 6;
with suffix pron.
2nd p. masc. sg. ydyk 49: 3;
3rd p. fem. sg. ydh 6: 13; 7: 11;
in the expression byd 13: 7; 45: 2a;
in the expression lyd 28: 11;
yzgdwt n. yzgndwt 49: 2;
announcement
yk conj. as 6: 4; 14: 12; 24: 11;
in the expression yk d- 6: 4; 28: 6; 47: 5; 48: 5;
in the expression ykyn d- 4: 9; 5: 11; 31: 10; 41: 11;
yln n. tree pl.
yln 6: 5;
ymm n. day ymm 16: 8; ymm 1: 5; 23: 13; 28: 2; 32: 5; mm 24: 4;
yn part. yes 10: 2, 10; 26: 18; 28: 7, 13;
yn interrog./rel. yn 13: 12;
pron. who, in the expression yn d- 13: 10;
what, which
yr n. Iyyar 26: 13;
(month)
yt part. there 4: 5, 9; 5: 5, 11; 6: 7; 14: 4; 15: 16, 29; 23: 4; 26: 12; 31: 6, 10; 41: 6, 11;
is/are yt 24: 6, 10;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. ytyhy, ythy 49: 6;
kl vb. to eat impv.
2nd p. masc. sg. kwl 8: 7;
act. ptc.
kyl 9: 9; 10: 8; 14: 8; 22: 8; 23: 8;
(aph.) mkyl 9: 9; mwkyl 10: 8; 14: 8; 22: 8; 23: 8;
l conj. but yl 28: 5;
lh n. god, God 2: 11; 6: 5; 9: 4; 12: 9 (l); 14: 12; 18: 5, external surface; 28: 12 ( 2), 13;
pl.
lh 9: 11; 14: 9; 17: 3; 22: 9; 23: 9; 32: 4; 38: 5; 44: 2;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. pl. lhwn 12: 6;
lhwt n. divinity, 25: 1;
deity pl.
lhwt 17: 4; 18: 6; 35: 3;
with suffix pron.
2nd p. masc. sg. lhwtk 49: 7;
lhy adj. divine pl.
lhy 49: 5;
m n. mother pl.
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. pl. ymthwn 8: 5, 6;
myn adv. Amen passim
(Heb.)
glossary 223

mn vb. to be true, pass. ptc.


firm (payel) mhymn 17: 1; 40: 2; (pl.) mymn 2: 6;
mr vb. to say, pf.
command 3rd p. masc. sg. mr 6: 4; 8: 3; 27: 3, 4;
impf.
1st p. sg. ymr 9: 5; mr 23: 4;
act. ptc.
with encl. pron. 1st p. sg. mrn 10: 4; 14: 4; 22: 4;
pass. ptc.
masc. sg. myr 7: 9 ( 2);
n pron. I 9: 5; 10: 4; 15: 24; 22: 4; 23: 4; 28: 13; 46: 2 ( 2);
nwn pron. encl. they 2: 6; 12: 2; 47: 3, 6; 48: 3; 49: 4;
(masc. pl.) wn 2: 7 ( 2);
np n. nostril, nose in the expression lnph 27: 5;
(sg.), face (pl.)
n n. man, human sg.
being ny 25: 6 ( 2) (see commentary); 35: 7 ( 2);
pl.
n 4: 10; 5: 12; 10: 8; 14: 8; 19: 6; 31: 11; 41: 12; nyh 28: 10;
with suffix pron. 3rd p. masc. sg. nh 22: 8;
with suffix pron. 3rd p. fem. sg. nh 38: 10;
ntwn pron. you 2: 8; 11: 8; 13: 13; 24: 8; 28: 9; 47: 4, 7; 48: 4;
(masc. pl.)
ntyn pron. you (fem. 14: 10; 22: 10;
pl.)
ntt n. woman, wife 27: 5;
pl.
n 7: 8; 38: 4; ny 12: 2;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. ntth 1: 5, 9, 10; 3: 9; 4: 2, 11; 5: 13; 6: 3, 8, 11; 7: 12; 11: 9; 16: 3, 9, 13; 20: 4, 8, 10;
31: 2, 12; 32: 7;
s vb. to heal (pa.) impf.
(pa.) 3rd p. masc. sg. ns 28: 13;
impv.
(pa.) 2nd p. masc. sg. s 49: 6;
nomen actoris
msyn 49: 1;
swr n. bond 12: 1; 18: 7; 25: 4;
swr 20: 8;
cstr.
swr 32: 10; swr 6: 5, 10; 25: 5; 28: 4; 32: 11; 35: 5;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. swrh 17: 5, 6; 25: 4; 35: 4, 5;
3rd p. masc. pl. swryhwn 1: 8;
sy n. physician, 6: 2, 7; 7: 9; 49: 1;
healer
sywt n. healing, 14: 12; 17: 1, 7; 22: 1; 24: 6; 28: 12; 49: 4;
remedy, cure swt 16: 1; 18: 10; 42: 1;
pl.
swt 15: 8;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. sywth 28: 11; 36: 1;
224 glossary

sqwpt n. threshold 26: 9; 47: 1;


(JBA; cf. Classical sqpt 18: 5;
Syriac skwpt) with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. sqwpth 9: 2; sqwpth 48: 1, 4, 6; syqpth 13: 9;
sr vb. to bind impf.
(etpe.) 3rd p. masc. sg. nytsr 6: 10;
(etpe.) 3rd p. fem. sg. tytsr 6: 13; 7: 11;
(etpe.) 3rd p. masc. pl. ntsrwn 20: 8; lytsrwn 28: 4;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. sr 13: 4, 11; 28: 12;
(pa.) masc. pl. msryn 13: 7;
pass. ptc.
masc. sg. syr 4: 9, 10; 5: 11, 12; 6: 2, 3, 4 ( 2), 5, 6; 16: 13, 14; 17: 4, 6 ( 2); 25: 2, 4 ( 2), 5 (
2), 8; 28: 10 ( 2); 31: 10, 11; 32: 9, 11; 33: 6; 35: 3, 4, 6, 9; 39: 9; 41: 11, 12;
fem. sg. syr 6: 7; 17: 5, 6; 25: 7; 35: 8;
masc. pl. syryn 3: 4; 6: 6; 16: 4; 28: 1; 30: 19; 32: 3, 10; 38: 6;
sr n. bond 2: 2; 17: 1; 40: 2;
cstr.
sr 12: 5;
pl.
syryn 28: 12;
stn n. north wind stn 1: 8 (see commentary);
(Akkadian)
str n. goddess pl.
(Payne Smith strt 1: 9; 10: 5; 14: 11; 22: 5, 9, 11; 38: 5; strt 44: 2; ystrt 7: 8; 9: 6, 11; 14: 9; 23: 5, 9; 25: 6; 28: 9;
18791901, 326) 35: 6; 39: 7;
p conj. also, 8: 7; 14: 10; 22: 10; 28: 9;
moreover
rb num. four rb 16: 10; rb 32: 7;
ry n. lion 17: 5; 25: 4; 35: 4; 39: 5;
rmy n./adj. pl.
Aramaean rmy 38: 4;
r n. earth 4: 7; 5: 8; 6: 5, 6, 9, 11; 10: 3 ( 2); 16: 14; 22: 4 ( 2); 23: 3, 4; 28: 10; 31: 8; 32: 10; 36: 2; 41: 8; 48:
5;
rqnwt* n. rulership, pl.
demonism (cf. rqnwt 18: 5 (see commentary);
Classical Syriac
rkwn)
lmt* n. spell pl.
lmt 7: 4; 14: 11; 22: 12; 24: 9;
p vb. to charm act. ptc.
fem. pl. pn 28: 2;
p n. charm pl.
p 28: 2;
glossary 225

t vb. to come pf.


3rd p. masc. sg. t 35: 4; 49: 2;
3rd p. fem. sg. tt 25: 3;
(aph.) 3rd p. masc. sg. yt 4: 8; 5: 9; 31: 9; 41: 10; yty 49: 2;
impf.
2nd p. masc. pl. tytwn 24: 5;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. t 28: 6;
fem. sg. ty 9: 9; 23: 7; yt 17: 5;
masc. pl. tyn 9: 8; 10: 6; 14: 7; 22: 7; 23: 7;
inf.
with suffix pron. 3rd p. masc. sg. myth 13: 13;
t n. sign cstr.
t 4: 6 ( 2); 5: 6 ( 2); 31: 7 ( 2); 41: 7 ( 2); twt (pl.) 4: 6; 5: 7; 31: 7; 41: 7;
pl.
twt 4: 6 ( 3); 5: 6, 7 ( 2); 31: 7 ( 3); 41: 7 ( 3); twt 7: 9;
tr n. place abs.
tr 24: 10 ( 2);
b- (1) prep. of 1: 8; 2: 6, 8, 9 ( 3); 3: 6; 4: 6 ( 2), 7 ( 2), 8, 9, 10; 5: 6, 7, 8 ( 2), 9, 11, 12; 6: 2 ( 2), 5 ( 2), 6
instrument ( 4), 8 ( 2), 9, 10, 11; 7: 4, 8 ( 2), 9; 12: 4, 6, 9; 13: 4, 5; 14: 12; 15: 7, 31, 32, 34; 16: 10 ( 4), 13,
with, by means 14, 15; 17: 5 ( 2), 6 ( 4), 7; 18: 5, 7, 8, 9, external surface; 19: 3; 20: 8; 24: 5 ( 4), 8, 13; 25: 4
of, by virtue of ( 4), 5 ( 3), 6; 26: 11; 28: 4, 5, 10 ( 3), 11; 29: 4, 5; 30: 6; 31: 7 ( 2), 8 ( 2), 9, 10, 11; 32: 7 (
4), 10 ( 2), 11 ( 2); 35: 4, 5 ( 4), 6 ( 2), 7, 9; 38: 8; 39: 5 ( 2), 6 ( 2), 8, 9; 41: 7, 8 ( 3), 9
( 2), 11, 12; 45: 2a; 47: 4 ( 2), 5, 7 ( 2), 8; 48: 3 ( 2), 4, 5; 49: 2, 7;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. bh 6: 9 ( 2); 8: 6; 28: 10, 11; 49: 5;
b- (2) prep. of 1: 10 ( 2); 2: 4; 4: 5; 5: 5; 6: 7, 8 ( 2), 13 ( 2), 14; 7: 11 ( 2); 8: 5; 9: 4, 9, 10, 11 ( 2); 10: 3 (
place/time in, 2); 12: 5; 13: 6, 7; 14: 3, 8, 9 ( 2), 10; 15: 16, 30; 17: 5; 18: 7; 22: 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 ( 2); 23: 3, 4, 8, 9,
into, at, during, 10 ( 2), 13 ( 2); 24: 11; 25: 2, 3, 7 ( 2); 26: 11, 12, 15; 28: 7; 31: 6; 32: 5 ( 2); 35: 3, 4, 7, 8; 39:
by, among, 9; 41: 6; 47: 4, 7; 48: 4; 49: 5, 6, 8;
against by- 10: 8; bt 24: 9;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. bh 2: 4; 9: 5; 14: 4; 16: 12; 23: 4; 39: 8; 46: 5; 47: 5; 48: 5 ( 2); bwhy 32: 9;
3rd p. fem. sg. bh 6: 14;
3rd p. masc. pl. bhwn 28: 7;
bb n. door (JBA) 16: 12; 32: 9;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. bbh 13: 8; bbh 28: 10;
bwz n. derision pl.
bwz 16: 5; 38: 5; bwz 32: 3 (?); bzywn 14: 11;
bwkr n. first born pl.
with suffix pron. 3rd p. fem. sg. bwkrh 40: 10;
bl vb. to come to pf.
an end (pa.) 3rd p. masc. sg. byl 28: 12;
impf.
(etpa.) 3rd p. masc. sg. ntbl 15: 3; 27: 5; 49: 5;
(etpa.) 3rd p. masc. pl. nytblwn 32: 6; ntblwn 15: 6; 16: 9;
impv.
(etpa.) tbylw 24: 12;
pass. ptc.
(pa.) fem. sg. mblt 6: 13; 7: 11;
(pa.) masc. pl. mblyn 30: 20;
bl adj. abolished, pl.
vain bl 20: 3;
used as pl. substantive bly 30: 3;
226 glossary

byn prep. between, in the expression byn wbyn whether or 15: 1819;
(Payne Smith among
18791901,
469470)
bynt prep. between bynwt 16: 10 (see commentary);
by n. evil, 17: 4; 25: 2; 35: 4; 49: 5, 6;
evil thing, fem.
wickedness byt 14: 12;
pl.
by 16: 11;
by adj. evil sg.
masc. by 7: 10; 10: 2, 6; 14: 7; 15: 3; 20: 2; 22: 6; 23: 6; 28: 4; 32: 8; 43: 5a;
fem. byt 8: 4, 6; 15: 6, 16; 16: 12; 18: 7; 25: 1, 7; 26: 14, 15; 27: 1; 32: 8; 35: 8;
pl.
masc. by 3: 4 ( 2), 10; 4: 3, 11, 12; 6: 12, 13; 7: 11, 12; 19: 4 ( 2), 6; 23: 11; 25: 6 ( 2); 26: 19; 31:
3, 12; 32: 10; 35: 6, 7; 38: 10; byyn 24: 2; 26: 8; byy 12: 2, 4;
fem. byt 14: 5, 10; 15: 26; 17: 4; 20: 6; 22: 11; 35: 3;
bywt n. evil 6: 7;
byt n. house 1: 6; 2: 2, 4, 8 ( 2); 9: 5, 9; 10: 8 ( 2), 10; 14: 8 ( 2); 16: 12; 17: 4, 5; 18: 12 ( 2); 22: 4, 8 ( 2);
23: 4, 8 ( 2); 25: 2, 4, 6, 7; 26: 9; 28: 10; 32: 9; 35: 3, 4, 8; 36: 1, 3; 37: 2; 39: 8, 9;
bt 26: 15;
cstr.
in the expression byt lwl 8: 7;
pl.
bt 25: external surface; bytyn 30: 5;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. byth 1: 5, 9, 10 ( 2); 3: 2, 3, 6, 8, 9; 4: 1, 5, 9, 11; 5: 5, 10, 13; 6: 1, 3, 8, 11; 7: 12; 9:
3; 15: 2, 6, 16, 30; 16: 3, 9, 13; 18: 1 ( 2), 10, 11; 19: 6 ( 2); 20: 3; 22: 1; 23: 10; 31: 2, 6, 10, 12; 32:
7; 35: 1; 39: 1; 41: 6, 10; 43: 2a; 47: 4 ( 2), 5, 7, 8; 48: 1, 4, 5, 6;
bytyh 24: 4;
bythy 32: 1;
3rd p. fem. sg. bytyh 30: 22; byth 2: 3, 5; 7: 2; 18: 2, 11; 38: 1, 3, 7, 10; 41: 2, 13;
3rd p. masc. pl. bythwn 18: 4;
bkt n. weeping 16: 6;
blm vb. to muzzle act. ptc.
masc. sg. blm 13: 12;
bsr n. flesh pl.
bsr 49: 4;
byr n. cattle byr 9: 10; 14: 9; 22: 9; 23: 9; 32: 9; br 10: 9;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. byrh 6: 8; 16: 3; 28: 10; byryh 24: 4; bryh 24: 8;
bldbb n. adversary pl.
with suffix pron. 1st p. sg. bldbby 45: 4b;
bt n. egg 46: 2;
glossary 227

br n. son, child, 2: 9; 13: 10, 13; 49: 8;


Son cstr.
sg. br 46: 1; see list of names of clients;
pl. bn 13: 7;
pl.
bn 8: 6; 13: 7; bny 13: 7; 18: 6;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. bnh 1: 5, 9, 10 ( 2); 3: 9; 4: 2, 11; 5: 13; 6: 3, 8, 11; 7: 12; 9: 2; 11: 9; 13: 10; 14: 12;
16: 3, 9, 13; bnwhy 32: 7; bnyh 24: 6, 10;
3rd p. fem. sg. bnh 2: 3; 7: 2; 8: 7; 18: 11; 22: 3; 24: 14; 28: 4, 6, 7, 11; 29: 7; 38: 2; 40: 5; 41: 2;
bnyh 30: 13;
in the expressions bny n 7: 4, 7; 26: 14; 28: 7; bny ny 49: 2; bnn 29: 6; brnhwn 49: 4;
brn 26: 14;
brz* vb. to pierce impf.
through (JBA) (etpe.) 2nd p. masc. pl. ttbrzwn 15: 26;
bry adj. external, 26: 9;
outer pl.
bry 49: 4;
bryt n. desert 32: 5;
pl.
bryt 46: 4;
brq n. lightning pl.
brq 1: 6 ( 2);
brt n. daughter cstr.
brt 8: 1 ( 2), 2;
pl.
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. bnth 5: 13; 6: 3, 8; 9: 2; 14: 12; 16: 3, 9, 13; bnthy 32: 7; bntyh 24: 6, 10;
3rd p. fem. sg. bnth 2: 3; 18: 11; 28: 4, 6, 7, 11; 40: 5;
brtql n. sound 11: 10; 32: 5;
btql 16: 7;
gbl* n. east wind 1: 8 (see commentary);
gr n. dart pl.
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. gyrwhy 49: 6;
gb n. side 32: 6;
gbr n. man, pl.
husband gbr 7: 7; 38: 4; gbry 12: 2;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. fem. sg. gbrh 2: 3;
gd n. good fortune, 9: 10; 10: 9; 14: 9; 22: 9; 23: 9;
luck cstr.
6: 6;
gw n. the inside, in the expression lgwh 19: 3;
inner part in the expression mn gwt 4: 6; mn gw 4: 6; 5: 7 ( 2); 28: 6; 31: 7 ( 2); 41: 7 ( 2);
in the expression bgwh 17: 4; 25: 2, 7; 35: 3, 7;
gwy adj. interior pl.
gwy 49: 4;
gzr vb. to cut pass. ptc.
masc. pl. gzyryn 16: 4; 32: 2;
gzrdyn n. judgement 1: 7;
gylywn n. blank space 4: 6 ( 2) (see commentary); 5: 7 ( 2); 31: 7 ( 2); 41: 7 ( 2);
228 glossary

gys n. robber pl.


gys 32: 4;
gl vb. to reveal pf.
3rd p. masc. pl. glwn 12: 5;
impv.
(aph.) 2nd p. masc. pl. glw 15: 15;
gnbr vb. to be pass. ptc.
powerful, (pa.) masc. pl. mgnbryn 3: 5; 38: 7;
mighty
gnd* n. troop (of pl.
demons) gnd 9: 6; 22: 5; 23: 5;
gs n. side pl.
with suffix pron. 3rd p. masc. sg. gysh 6: 4;
grby n. north 38: 3;
d- (1) genitive marker 1: 6 ( 2), 7 ( 2), 8 ( 2); 2: 2, 3, 5 ( 2), 11; 3: 2 ( 2), 6 ( 2), 9; 4: 1, 2 ( 3), 5, 9, 11 ( 2); 5: 5,
of 10, 13; 6: 1, 2, 3, 7 ( 2), 8 ( 2), 9, 11; 7: 2 ( 5), 4, 7 ( 2), 8 ( 3), 12; 8: 5 ( 2); 9: 4, 5, 6; 10:
10; 11: 8, 9; 12: 1, 2 ( 2), 6, 9; 13: 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9 ( 2), 12; 14: 11, 12 ( 2), 13; 15: 2, 7, 8, 17 ( 2),
30, 34, 35; 16: 2, 5 ( 2), 6 ( 3), 7 ( 4), 8 ( 3), 9, 14, 15; 17: 1, 3, 5, 6 ( 4), 7; 18: 1, 2 ( 2), 4,
5, 6 ( 5), 10, 11 ( 3), 12 ( 5); 22: 1, 2 ( 2), 3, 4, 5; 23: 1 ( 2), 2 ( 2), 4, 5, 10, 12 ( 2); 24: 4
( 3), 6, 8, 10, 12, 13; 25: 2, 4 ( 3), 5 ( 3), 6, external surface ( 2); 26: 9, 12 ( 2), 14; 27: 6;
28: 1, 4, 6, 7 ( 2), 10, 11 ( 2), 12; 29: 6, 7; 30: 5, 22; 31: 2 ( 3), 6, 10, 12; 32: 1, 2, 4 ( 6), 5 (
6), 6, 7, 9, 10 ( 3), 11; 35: 4, 5 ( 3), 6 ( 2), 9; 36: 1, 2, 3; 38: 1, 2 ( 2), 3 ( 4), 4 ( 4), 5, 7, 8,
10; 39: 1, 5 ( 2), 6, 8; 40: 14; 41: 2 ( 4), 3, 6, 7, 11, 13; 43: 2a ( 2); 46: 4; 47: 1 ( 2), 3, 4, 5 (
2), 6, 7, 8 ( 2); 48: 1, 3, 5 ( 2), 6; 49: 2, 4, 5 ( 2), 6 ( 3), 7 ( 2), 8 ( 2);
dy 2: 3, 8; 30: 14;
d- (2) rel. pron. (the 1: 10; 2: 4, 10; 3: 6; 4: 3, 5 ( 2), 9, 10; 5: 2, 5, 6, 11, 12; 6: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9 ( 2), 10; 7: 10; 8: 2, 4 (
one) that, who, 2), 6; 9: 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11 ( 2); 10: 2, 6 ( 2), 7; 11: 10; 12: 2, 4 ( 2), 5, 9; 13: 3, 4, 8, 10 ( 2), 11 (
which, where 2), 13, 14; 14: 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 ( 3), 11, 12; 15: 3, 16, 29, 33; 17: 4; 18: 7; 20: 2, 8; 22: 6 ( 2), 7, 9 ( 2),
10, 12; 23: 4, 6 ( 2), 8, 9, 10; 24: 6 ( 2), 10 ( 3), 11; 25: 2, 3, 7 ( 3); 26: 8, 13 ( 2), 14, 15; 27: 1,
3, 5 ( 2); 28: 2 ( 3), 3 ( 2), 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 ( 2), 11 ( 2), 12; 29: 4, 5, 6; 31: 4, 6, 7, 10, 11; 35: 3,
4, 7, 8; 39: 9; 40: 4, 9; 41: 4, 6, 11, 12; 42: 1; 45: 3a, 4a; 46: 3; 47: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ( 2), 7, 8; 48: 2 (
2), 4, 5 ( 2); 49: 2, 4 ( 2), 5, 6 ( 2);
d- (3) conj. (in order) 1: 10; 2: 3; 3: 3; 4: 2, 4, 6; 5: 3, 7; 6: 5, 9, 13; 7: 3, 6, 9, 11; 8: 4, 6 ( 2); 9: 8; 12: 6; 15: 3; 17: 2; 20: 5;
that, because 21: 2; 23: 2; 25: 5; 28: 2, 3, 4; 31: 3, 4, 7; 32: 10; 35: 6; 38: 2, 8; 39: 7; 41: 3, 4, 8 ( 2); 47: 4 ( 2),
5, 7 ( 2), 8; 48: 4 ( 2); 49: 5;
d- (4) part. introducing 4: 9; 5: 11; 31: 10; 41: 11;
direct speech
db n. wolf 26: 12;
dbr n. open country 32: 5;
dlwl n. fright pl.
dlwl 7: 4; dlwly 41: 14;
dyw n. devil 15: 4; 17: 3; 25: 1, 7; 35: 2; 39: 2;
pl.
dyw 1: 9; 2: 4; 4: 4, 7; 5: 4, 9; 7: 3, 7; 11: 9; 14: 10; 16: 14; 17: 2, 7, 8; 18: 6; 20: 5, 7; 22: 5, 11; 23: 3,
4, 11; 24: 3; 26: 19; 28: 11; 31: 5, 8; 32: 10; 35: 6; 36: 3; 39: 10; 41: 5, 8, 9; 47: 3, 7; 48: 3; dywyn 28:
12;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. dywh 23: 12;
dywnwt n. demoniacal 18: 6;
possession
glossary 229

dyl- possessive part. with suffix pron.


1st p. sg. dyly 2: 2, 8;
3rd p. masc. sg. dylyh 24: 8;
3rd p. fem. sg. dylh 40: 10;
3rd p. masc. pl. dylhwn 40: 14;
dyn conj. then 27: 4; 32: 8;
dyn n. judgement 9: 11; 12: 6; 14: 9; 23: 10;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. dynh 22: 10;
dyr n. dwelling with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. dwrh 4: 11; 6: 2, 8; 23: 10; 31: 12;
dyr n. dweller, cstr.
inhabitant dyry 22: 8;
pl.
dyr 9: 10; 10: 8; 14: 8; 23: 8; 39: 3; dwr 17: 4; dyr 25: 2; 35: 3;
dk vb. to be pure pass. ptc.
fem. sg. dky 23: 12;
dkr adj. male sg.
dykr 15: 18; 17: 5; 25: 3; 39: 4;
pl.
dykr 9: 11; 10: 5; 14: 9, 11; 15: 29; 17: 3, 5; 20: 7; 22: 9, 11; 23: 9; 25: 3; 28: 9; 35: 4; 38: 5; 39: 4; 44:
2; dkr 7: 8;
dl vb. to draw, impf.
draw up, lift 2nd p. fem. pl. tydlyn 46: 3;
act. ptc.
(pa.) mdwly 6: 7;
dm vb. to seem, be ptc.
like (etpe.) masc. sg. mytdm 26: 13;
(etpe.) fem. sg. mytdmy 26: 15;
dm n. blood 26: 14;
dmwt n. form cstr.
dmwt 26: 15; 49: 6; dmw 24: 9;
dstbyr* n. bill of 4: 4, 5, 9, 10 (see commentary); 5: 4, 6, 11, 12; 31: 5, 6, 10, 11; 41: 5, 7, 11, 12;
(Ciancaglini divorce
2008, 153)
drdq n. child pl.
(Payne Smith drdq 9: 10; 10: 8; 14: 8; 22: 8; 23: 8; drq 8: 4;
18791901,
946)
drmn n. medicine 17: 1, 7; 28: 12;
(Payne Smith
18791901, 953)
hd dem. pron. this 6: 14; 7: 6, 10; 18: 5; 25: 7;
(fem.) d 6: 5; 24: 7 ( 3), 11, 13;
hdyn dem. pron. this 2: 4; 10: 10; 12: 7; 17: 5; 22: 4, 6; 23: 4, 6; 32: 9 ( 2), 10; 35: 4; 47: 1, 5; 48: 6; dyn 24: 14;
(Payne Smith (masc.)
18791901, 974)
hdm n. limb, part of pl.
the body hdmy 12: 3;
with suffix pron. 3rd p. masc. pl. hdmwhy 32: 10;
hw pron. he 26: 13; 28: 5; 29: 4, 5, 6; 49: 2;
230 glossary

hw encl. pron. he 2: 10; 27: 5;


hw vb. to be, to pf.
exist 3rd p. masc. sg. hw 4: 4; 5: 2; 31: 4; 41: 4;
3rd p. masc. pl. hww 4: 10; 5: 12; 31: 11; 41: 12;
impf.
3rd p. masc. sg. nhw 16: 10; 23: 8; 49: 6;
3rd p. fem. sg. tyhw 1: 8; thw 14: 12; 28: 7; 42: 1;
2nd p. masc. pl. thwwn 47: 4, 7; 48: 4;
3rd p. masc. pl. nhwwn 32: 7; nywn 24: 6, 10;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. hw 9: 10 ( 3); 10: 8 ( 2), 9; 14: 8 ( 2), 9; 22: 8 ( 2), 9; 23: 8, 9;
masc. sg. with 3rd p. masc. sg. pf. hwhw 4: 3; 5: 2; 31: 4; 41: 4;
masc. pl. hwyn 9: 3; 28: 7;
hy pron. she 8: 2; 27: 1;
hydyn dem. pron. this 9: 5, 7; 25: 3; 36: 2, 3 (see commentary);
(Payne Smith (masc.)
18791901,
1003)
hkn adv. so, thus, in 24: 10; 27: 5; 28: 7;
this way
hlyn dem. pron. 2: 6; 3: 5; 7: 9; 8: 5; 14: 12; 18: 9; 28: 11; 38: 7; 44: 5;
these ylyn 26: 10;
(masc./fem.)
hllwy hallelujah passim
hn dem. pron. this 1: 10; 2: 1, 10; 3: 1, 2, 6, 9; 4: 1, 10; 5: 12, 13; 6: 1, 10; 7: 1; 8: 7; 9: 1; 10: 6; 12: 1; 13: 1; 14: 6; 15: 1; 16: 1;
(masc.) 17: 1, 4; 20: 1; 22: 1; 23: 1; 25: 2, 6, 7 ( 2); 28: 6; 30: 1; 31: 1, 11; 32: 1; 35: 1, 3, 7, 8; 36: 1; 38: 1; 39:
8, 9; 40: 1; 41: 1, 12; 43: 1a; 48: 1;
hnwn pron. they nwn 7: 6 ( 2), 9; 16: 11 ( 2); 32: 8;
hnwn dem. pron. 5: 8 ( 2), 9; 31: 8 ( 2), 9; 41: 8 ( 3), 9 ( 2);
those (masc.) hnhwn 4: 6, 7 ( 2), 8; 5: 7; 31: 7;
hpk vb. to turn, impf.
overturn (etpe.) 3rd p. masc. pl. nythpkwn 28: 5;
impv.
(etpe.) 2nd p. masc. sg. tpyk 8: 1;
pass. ptc.
masc. sg. hpyk 20: 6;
h adv. of time this h 28: 13;
hour, now in the expressions mn h wdm llm lmyn 49: 7; mn ht wllm lmyn 19: 5; ht 27: 4;
w conj. and, or passim
zdnyt* adj. wicked pl.
(JBA and zydnyt 14: 5, 11; zdnyt 18: 7; zdnyt 22: 11 (see commentary);
Mandaic)
zwd vb. to supply pass. ptc.
(pa.) masc. pl. mzwd 49: 3;
zw vb. to shaken ptc.
(etpe.) masc. pl. mtzyn 6: 10 (see commentary);
zyn n. arm, weapon pl.
with suffix pron.
2nd p. masc. sg. zynyk 49: 5;
zyn n. loss pl.
(Payne Smith zyn 6: 12; zyn 38: 6;
18791901, 1118)
glossary 231

zyq n. blast-demon pl.


zq 17: 6, 7 (see commentary); 25: 5 ( 2); 35: 5, 9; 39: 6;
zk vb. to win pf.
(pa.) 3rd p. masc. sg. zky 27: 4;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. zk 9: 11; 14: 9; 22: 10; 23: 10;
zmn vb. to prepare pass. ptc.
(pa.) masc. sg. mzmn 2: 1; 3: 1; 4: 1; 6: 1; 7: 1; 9: 1; 10: 1; 12: 1; 13: 1; 15: 1; 16: 1; 17: 1; 20: 1; 22: 1; 23:
1; 30: 1; 31: 1; 32: 1; 35: 1; 36: 1; 38: 1; 40: 1; 41: 1; 43: 1a; 47: 1; 48: 1;
zny adj./n. pl.
fornicating, masc. zny 47: 4, 7; 48: 4;
the one who
fornicates
zrz vb. to arm pass ptc.
masc. pl. zryzyn 28: 1;
(pa.) masc. pl. mzrzyn 3: 4; 28: 11; 38: 7; 43: 4a;
nomen actionis
zrzt 48: 6;
zr vb. to spread, act. ptc.
scatter seed, masc. pl. zryn 26: 10;
sow
bl vb. to twist, inf.
writhe (?) (aph.) blwt 4: 8 (see commentary); 5: 10; 31: 9; 41: 10;
bl n. destruction 14: 9; 22: 10;
byl 4: 8; 5: 10; 9: 11; 23: 10; 31: 9; 41: 10;
br n. comrade 9: 10; 10: 8; 14: 8; 22: 8; 23: 8;
d n. one, each pl.
dd 3: 6 (each other); 38: 8;
d vb. to be glad, act. ptc.
rejoice masc. sg. d 9: 9; 10: 8; 14: 8; 22: 8; 23: 8;
(pa.) md 9: 9; 10: 8; 14: 8; 22: 8; 23: 8;
dwt n. gladness, joy 26: 15;
dr vb. to go around, impf.
surround 3rd p. masc. sg. with obj. suffix 3rd p. masc. sg. ndrh 23: 11;
act. ptc.
fem. sg. hdr 10: 7 ( 2); dr 14: 7; 22: 7; drh 23: 7;
dr n. circle in the expression drnwhy d- 32: 6;
dt adj. new pl.
masc. dt 25: external surface;
fem. dtt 24: 9; 38: 6;
w vb. to show, act. ptc.
declare (pa.) masc. sg. mw 22: 6; 23: 6;
masc. sg. with encl. pron. 1st p. sg. mwyn 9: 7; 10: 6; mwn 14: 6;
wr n. staff, rod 46: 3;
wlmn n. recovery 28: 12;
wmr n. amulet-spirit pl.
wmr 1: 9; 9: 6; 14: 5, 10 ( 2); 15: 28; 20: 6; 22: 5, 10, 11; 23: 5; 25: 6; 28: 9; 35: 6; 36: 4; hwmr
18: 7;
wmrt 17: 4; 25: 3; 35: 4;
wsrn n. lack pl.
wsrn 6: 12; 38: 6;
232 glossary

wr adj. white 46: 1;


wbn n. reckoning cstr.
yb 16: 12; wbn 32: 8 (see commentary);
zw n. vision pl.
yzwn 16: 8; 24: 4; zw 32: 5;
vb. to sin impf.
(aph.) 3rd p. masc. pl. nwn 1: 10;
y n./adj. sinner, 14: 12;
sinful
yn n. harm (JBA) pl.
yyn 16: 5; yn 17: 3; 32: 3 (see commentary); 38: 5; ywn 14: 11;
y vb. to live impf.
3rd p. masc. pl. nyywn 4: 12; nywn 8: 6;
y n. life (only pl.) 28: 7, 12; 49: 2, 5;
y adj. living 24: 5; 28: 12; 49: 1;
fem. sg. yt 2: 9;
ywt n. animal 28: 7;
(masc. and fem.); pl.
vitality (fem.) ywt 2: 5;
yl vb. to impv.
strengthen (pa.) 2nd p. masc. sg. yl 49: 6;
pass. ptc.
(pa.) masc. pl. mhylyn 3: 5; mylyn 38: 7;
yl n. strength, 8: 4; 49: 3;
power cstr.
6: 2 ( 2); 9: 4;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. ylh 27: 6; 49: 5;
ym n. fat 8: 7 (see commentary);
lm n. dream pl.
lm 4: 3, 11, 12; 6: 12, 13; 7: 11, 12; 24: 3; 31: 3, 12; ylm 3: 4, 9; 23: 2, 11;
l vb. to gird pass. ptc.
oneself masc. pl. lyyn 28: 1;
mr vb. to ferment pf.
2nd p. masc. sg. mrt 27: 3, 4;
n n. bosom 8: 5;
syn adj. powerful 16: 10; 32: 7;
pl.
syn 13: 8;
sm adj. envious sg.
fem. symt 16: 12; smt 32: 8;
smwt n. envy ysmt 35: 8;
b n. jug yb 16: 7;
ql n. field 32: 9;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. qlh 16: 13; 28: 10;
rb n. sword 26: 10;
pl.
rb 9: 8; 14: 7; 22: 7; 23: 7;
glossary 233

rwb adj. wasted abs.


rwb 15: 20;
rm vb. to ban pass. ptc.
masc. pl. rymyn 16: 4; 32: 2;
rm n. banishment abs.
rm 1: 7.
r n. sorcery pl.
r 4: 7; 5: 8; 6: 12, 13; 9: 5; 10: 4; 11: 9; 14: 4; 21: 3; 22: 4; 23: 2, 4, 11; 24: 8; 28: 1, 7; 31: 8; 35: 8;
38: 3; 41: 9, 13; 44: 4; ry 30: 3, 21; ry 12: 2, 3, 4; ryn 12: 8;
rt n. witch pl.
rt 28: 1; 32: 4 (?);
tm vb. to seal pf.
3rd p. masc. sg. with obj. pron. 3rd p. masc. sg. tmh 2: 10; 28: 10;
impf.
3rd p. masc. pl. with obj. pron. 3rd p. fem. sg. ntmwnh 7: 10;
(etpe.) 3rd p. masc. sg. nyttym 3: 8; 4: 11; 5: 13; 6: 11; 23: 10; 31: 12; 38: 9; 41: 13; 43: 3c;
nttym 32: 9;
(etpe.) 3rd p. fem. sg. tyttym 4: 11; 6: 12; 7: 10;
impv.
(pa.) 2nd p. masc. pl. tymw 10: 10;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. with encl. pron. 1st p. sg. tmn 47: 5, 8; 48: 5; tymn 6: 9;
(pa.) masc. sg. with encl. pron. 1st p. sg. mtmn 47: 5;
pass. ptc.
masc. sg. tym 4: 9, 10; 5: 11, 12; 6: 3, 4 ( 2), 5, 6; 16: 13, 14; 17: 6, 7; 18: 1 ( 2), 2, 3 ( 2), 4, 12;
25: 4 ( 2), 5 ( 2), 8; 28: 10 ( 2); 31: 10, 11; 32: 9, 11; 34: 1; 35: 5 ( 3), 6, 9; 39: 6 ( 2); 41: 11,
12;
fem. sg. tym 6: 7; 17: 6; 18: 3, 4, 5; 28: 10; 39: 5 ( 2); 48: 5; ytm 17: 5;
masc. pl. tymyn 1: 8; 6: 9 ( 2); 28: 1, 4, 11 ( 3); 32: 10;
(pa.) masc. sg. mtm 4: 9, 10; 5: 11, 12; 31: 10, 11; 34: 1; 41: 11, 12;
(pa.) masc. pl. mtmyn 3: 5; 38: 7;
inf.
(pa.) twmyn 6: 1 (see commentary);
nomen actionis
tmt 1: 9; 2: 2; 3: 1, 5; 4: 1; 7: 1; 13: 2; 16: 2, 15; 18: 10, 11 ( 2); 23: 1; 28: 12; 31: 1; 35: 1; 38: 1, 7; 41:
1; 43: 1a; 47: 1; 48: 6;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. tmth 18: 12; 36: 1;
3rd p. fem. sg. tmth 18: 12;
tm n. seal 2: 10 ( 2); 6: 8, 9 ( 2), 10; 8: 7; 15: 1; 17: 5, 6 ( 2); 25: 5; 28: 10, 11; 35: 5, 6; 39: 5, 6; 47: 8; 48:
5;
tm 47: 5;
cstr.
sg. tm 16: 13; 32: 10;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. tmh 18: 11; 25: 4; 35: 5; 39: 5;
3rd p. fem. sg. tmh 25: 4;
b adj./n. good, sg.
good thing, b 10: 9; 14: 9; 23: 9; bt 9: 7; 10: 6; 14: 6; 22: 6, 9; 23: 6; 49: 1;
goodness pl.
b 16: 11;
hr n. noon, r 16: 7;
midday in the expression rh blly midnight 32: 5 (see commentary);
wyb n. preparation with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. wybh 49: 6;
234 glossary

wr n. mountain 26: 15;


pl.
wr 4: 7; 5: 8; 6: 5; 14: 12; 31: 8; 41: 8;
ybwt n. grace yb 49: 3;
m adj. unclean, sg.
dirty, impious masc. my 20: 6;
pl.
my 6: 10; 16: 14; 32: 10; myt 18: 6;
np adj. impure pl.
np 16: 14; 32: 10;
yt part. marking 10: 6;
direct obj. with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. yth 9: 7 (see commentary); 10: 6; 14: 6, 7; ytwh 23: 6;
yhb vb. to give pf.
3rd p. masc. sg. yhb 8: 4, 6;
impv.
2nd p. masc. sg. hb 49: 3;
yhwdy adj./n. Jew pl.
yhwdy 38: 4;
ywm n. day 12: 6;
abs.
ywm 19: 5;
in the expression ywmn today 1: 5;
yld vb. to beget, pass. ptc.
generate masc. sg. ylyd 27: 5;
yld n. offspring, pl.
child yld 8: 6;
ym vb. to swear act. ptc.
(aph.) masc. sg. with encl. pron. 1st p. sg. mwmyn 47: 3, 7; 48: 3, 4;
ym n. sea 6: 4 ( ym dswp the Red Sea); 14: 12;
ymyn n. right side with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. pl. ymynwn 49: 5;
yqd vb. to burn act. ptc.
fem. pl. yqdn 10: 9;
yr n. month 26: 13;
yt n. existence of 9: 5; 16: 12; 46: 5;
ytb vb. to sit pf.
3rd p. masc. sg. ytyb 4: 4; 5: 3; 31: 4; 41: 4;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. ytyb 9: 9; 10: 8; 12: 9; 22: 7; 23: 8;
masc. pl. ytybyn 13: 8; ytbyn 14: 8;
kb n. pain pl.
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. pl. kbyhwn 49: 4;
glossary 235

kb vb. to press, pf.


subdue (etpe.) 3rd p. masc. sg. ytkby 4: 6; 5: 7; 31: 8; 41: 8 ( 2); tkb 18: 7; tkby 18: 13;
impf.
(etpe.) 3rd p. masc. sg. nytkby 23: 11, 12; ntkby 23: 12;
(etpe.) 3rd p. masc. pl. ntkbwn 18: 7;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. kby 13: 11;
masc. pl. kbyn 13: 7, 9;
nomen agentis
with suffix pron. 3rd p. fem. sg. kbwh 18: 5;
kb n. press 18: 7;
kyb 2: 1; 12: 1; 16: 15; 35: 1;
kd conj. while 49: 3; kyd 24: 9;
kdb vb. to be false pf.
(pa.) 3rd p. masc. pl. kdybw 4: 9; 5: 11; 31: 11; 41: 11;
kwyl n. ark kywlh 28: 10;
kwkb n. star pl.
kwkb 6: 6;
kwny n. name, title, with suffix pron.
appellation 3rd p. masc. sg. knwnyh 15: 33 (see commentary);
kwrhn n. sickness, pl.
illness kwrhn 28: 4;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. kwrnh 23: 11, 12;
kwrsy n. chair, throne with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. kwrsyh 13: 6;
ky* prep. like (JBA) 4: 4; 5: 2; 31: 4; 41: 4; k- 24: 9;
kl / kwl n. totality abs.
4: 9; 5: 11; 6: 10; 7: 10; 9: 5; 10: 2; 15: 3; 22: 6; 23: 4; 25: 7; 27: 5; 28: 3; 29: 5; 31: 10; 35: 8; 41: 11;
47: 5, 8; 48: 5;
cstr.
1: 9; 2: 4; 6: 8, 9; 7: 7 ( 2); 9: 6 ( 2), 7; 10: 4 ( 2), 5 ( 4); 12: 1, 4; 14: 4, 5 ( 2); 15: 4, 5 ( 2);
16: 4, 14; 17: 4, 7 ( 2); 18: 6 ( 2); 20: 2; 22: 4, 5 ( 3); 23: 5 ( 3), 6 ( 2); 25: 1, 5, 6 ( 2); 26:
8; 27: 5; 28: 12 ( 2); 29: 6; 32: 6, 10; 35: 3, 6, 7 ( 2), 8; 39: 7, 10; 45: 4b; 49: 4, 6;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. fem. sg. kwlh 6: 7; klh 18: 5;
3rd p. masc. pl. klhwn 4: 4; 5: 4; 31: 5; 41: 5;
kl vb. to hinder, impf.
prevent (pa.) 3rd p. masc. pl. nkllwn 32: 8;
with obj. pron. 3rd p. fem. sg. nklwnh 16: 11;
impv.
(etpe.) 2nd p. masc. pl. tklw 24: 12;
kmr* vb. to return impf.
(Mandaic) 2nd p. masc. pl. tkmrwn 14: 11;
3rd p. masc. pl. nkmrwn 16: 8; 32: 5 (see commentary);
ks vb. to cover pf.
3rd p. masc. sg. ksy 27: 2;
236 glossary

ks n. bowl ks 3: 1; 4: 1; 6: 1; 7: 1; 9: 1; 18: 13; 20: 1; 23: 1; 31: 1; 32: 1; 35: 7; 38: 1; 41: 1; 43: 1a;
pl.
ks 3: 5; 38: 7; 44: 5;
kss vb. to blame, act. ptc.
put to shame (pe.) masc. sg. kys 27: 2, 3 (?) (see commentary);
(aph.) masc. sg. mkys 27: 2 (?) (see commentary);
(aph.) masc. pl. mksyn 13: 7
krblt n. crest with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. krblth 26: 12;
krwb n. cherub pl.
krwb 13: 6;
krz vb. to proscribe, impv.
excommunicate (etpa.) 2nd p. masc. pl. tkrzw 14: 11;
(pa.)
ktb vb. to write pf.
1st p. sg. ktbty 28: 13;
3rd p. masc. sg. ktb 4: 4, 5; 5: 3, 6; 31: 5, 6; 41: 5, 6;
(etpe.) 3rd p. masc. pl. tktbw 28: 11;
pass. ptc.
masc. pl. ktybyn 28: 4;
l prep. to, for, at 1: 5 ( 2), 9 ( 2); 3: 1, 5; 4: 1, 5, 8 ( 2); 5: 6, 9, 10 ( 2); 6: 1, 4, 5; 7: 1, 6, 10, 11; 8: 6 ( 2), 7; 9:
3, 10 ( 3); 10: 8 ( 3), 9; 11: 9 ( 3); 12: 1 ( 2), 3 ( 2), 4, 6, 8; 13: 2, 10, 12; 14: 8 ( 3), 9, 12 (
4); 15: 2, 19; 16: 1, 11; 17: 1, 7; 18: 10, 11 ( 6), 12 ( 3); 19: 5; 20: 2, 8; 21: 4; 22: 1, 8 ( 3), 9; 23: 1, 8
( 3), 9; 24: 6 ( 3), 7 ( 2), 8 ( 3), 10; 26: 8, 18; 27: 4, 5 ( 2); 28: 3 ( 4), 4, 6 ( 2), 7 ( 4),
11 ( 2), 12, 13; 29: 5, 7 ( 2); 30: 2, 3; 31: 1, 2, 7, 9 ( 2), 10; 32: 1, 10; 33: 15; 35: 1; 36: 1 ( 2); 38:
1, 7; 40: 3; 41: 1, 7, 10 ( 3); 42: 1; 43: 1a; 47: 1 ( 2), 4 ( 3), 5, 6, 7 ( 3), 8; 48: 1 ( 2), 3, 4 (
2), 5, 6; 49: 2, 4, 7;
with suffix pron.
1st p. sg. ly 8: 3, 4, 6; 46: 2;
3rd p. masc. sg. lh 4: 9; 5: 11; 9: 3; 13: 12 ( 2), 13; 24: 6; 25: 7; 26: 12; 28: 3, 7; 31: 10; 41: 11; 47: 4,
5, 7, 8; 48: 4, 6 ( 2); lyh 24: 6, 10 ( 2);
3rd p. fem. sg. lh 6: 13; 7: 11; 12: 4; lh 12: 4;
2nd p. masc. pl. lkwn 9: 7; 10: 6; 14: 6; 22: 6; 23: 6;
3rd p. masc. pl. lhwn 20: 5; 28: 7; 29: 7;
l with vb. marking 3: 6; 6: 5 ( 2); 7: 6, 10; 13: 12; 23: 12; 27: 2 ( 2), 4; 28: 5, 6 ( 4), 10; 40: 9; 47: 2, 6; 48: 2;
obj. with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. lh 10: 7 ( 2); 13: 12; 14: 7 ( 2); 22: 7 ( 2); 23: 7 ( 2); 28: 5; 47: 8; 48: 5;
3rd p. fem. sg. lh 8: 4;
2nd p. masc. pl. lkwn 47: 4, 7; 48: 3, 4;
3rd p. masc. pl. lhwn 13: 11 ( 2);
l negative part. 1: 5, 10 ( 3); 3: 6; 4: 9, 10; 5: 11, 12; 6: 10 ( 2), 13, 14; 7: 11; 10: 6, 9; 12: 6; 13: 4, 10, 13; 14: 7, 11, 12
no, not, nor ( 2); 20: 5; 22: 6; 23: 6; 25: 7; 28: 4 ( 2), 5 ( 2), 6, 7 ( 2); 31: 11 ( 2); 32: 10; 35: 7; 38: 8; 41:
11, 12; 47: 4, 7; 48: 4;
lb n. heart lyb 32: 8;
pl.
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. pl. lbbyhwn 13: 12;
lb vb. to dress, pass. ptc.
wear masc. sg. lby 26: 12;
masc. pl. lbyyn 49: 4;
glossary 237

lw vb. to curse pass. ptc.


masc. pl. lyyn 14: 11; 22: 12;
lwt n. curse 3: 4, 9; 5: 13;
pl.
lwt 4: 11, 12; 6: 12, 13; 7: 7, 11, 12; 14: 11; 16: 5; 17: 2; 22: 11; 23: 2, 11; 24: 9; 26: 19; 32: 3; 35: 8; 38:
4, 5; 41: 3, 13;
lwt- prep. at, with, 28: 5;
near with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. lwth 25: 6; 35: 7; 39: 8;
l n. (whispered) 16: 7;
incantation
lb* n. no-good-one 17: 3;
(JBA and lb 17: 4; 25: 1, 3, 6; 35: 2, 4;
Mandaic bowls) pl.
lb 1: 7;
lb 4: 5, 7; 5: 5, 9; 6: 9, 10; 17: 7; 31: 6, 9; 35: 6; 41: 6, 8, 9;
lb 14: 10; 22: 11;
lly n. night 16: 8; 32: 5; lyly 24: 4; 28: 2;
llyt n. lilith sg.
llyt 6: 13; 7: 11; 17: 5; 23: 13; 25: 3, 7; 39: 4;
pl.
llyt 1: 10; 4: 5, 7; 5: 5, 9; 9: 7; 10: 5; 11: 9; 14: 10; 15: 5, 28; 17: 2, 8; 22: 6, 11; 23: 3, 6, 11; 25: 6; 28:
9; 31: 6, 9; 35: 7; 39: 7; 41: 6, 9; 47: 3, 7; 48: 3;
lylyt 20: 7;
lm part. scilicet, 47: 2, 6; 48: 2;
namely
lq vb. to gather pass. ptc.
masc. pl. lqyyn 28: 1; 30: 19;
ln n. tongue lyn 16: 12; 32: 8;
pl.
with suffix pron. 3rd p. masc. pl. lnhwn 13: 12;
mgn n. shield pl.
mgyn 16: 11; 32: 8;
mdbr n. desert abs.
mdbr 15: 19;
mdwrt* n. dwelling with suffix pron.
(Mandaic, JBA) 3rd p. masc. sg. mdwrth 22: 2;
mdln n. inspiring pl.
terror, terrible mdln 7: 7;
mdm n. thing, affair mdym 14: 4; 15: 3; mdym 10: 4; mdm 20: 2;
mdn n. east 38: 3;
mwbl n. load 17: 7; 25: 5; 35: 6; 39: 6;
mwmt n. adjuration pl.
mwmt 16: 8;
mwt vb. to die pass. ptc.
myt 27: 4;
mwt n. death abs.
mwt 8: 1;
mzl n. constellation pl.
mzl 6: 6;
238 glossary

m vb. to strike pf.


3rd p. fem. sg. with obj. pron. 3rd p. masc. sg. mth 27: 1;
impf.
3rd p. masc. pl. nmwn 28: 5;
(etpe.) 3rd p. masc. sg. ntm 27: 5;
(etpe.) 3rd p. fem. sg. tytm 27: 1;
mwt n. stroke with suffix pron.
2nd p. masc. pl. mytkwn 2: 8;
ml part. because in the expression mwl d- 10: 9; 48: 5;
my n. water 6: 11; 26: 14; 28: 3;
myr* n. distinction 16: 10;
(JBA)
mkyl adv. henceforth mn kyl 28: 6;
mksynyt* adj. covering pl.
(?) 16: 11; 32: 8 (see commentary);
ml vb. to fill impv.
(shaph.) 2nd p. masc. sg. ml 49: 7;
pass. ptc.
masc. sg. ml 49: 3;
mlk n. angel 2: 6 ( 2); 13: 4; 15: 25, 35; 26: 7, 16; 29: 4, 5, 6;
pl.
mlk 47: 2; mlk 2: 6, 7 ( 2), 8 ( 2); 7: 9; 8: 5; 9: 8; 11: 8; 13: 11, 13; 16: 10; 23: 7; 32: 7; 47: 3, 6
( 2); 48: 2; mlky 12: 5;
mlt n. word, spell 6: 5;
mylt 9: 4; mllt 16: 5; 32: 4;
cstr.
mlt 16: 12; mylt 32: 8; 47: 4, 7; 48: 3, 4;
pl.
ml 9: 8; 22: 6; 23: 7; myl 10: 6, 9; myly 12: 5; mllt 17: 3; 38: 5;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. mlth 6: 6;
mmll n. speech 12: 11;
cstr.
mmll 24: 12;
mn prep. from, by, 1: 5, 10; 2: 4, 5; 3: 3, 9; 4: 8, 9 ( 2), 11, 12; 5: 9, 10, 11, 13; 6: 4, 10, 13; 7: 3, 4, 7 ( 2), 10 ( 2), 12;
against 8: 2, 5, 6, 7 ( 3); 9: 11 ( 2); 10: 2; 11: 9 ( 4); 12: 10; 14: 9 ( 3), 12; 15: 6; 16: 12 ( 3), 14; 17: 4 (
2), 7; 19: 5 ( 2), 6; 20: 3, 4, 7 ( 2); 22: 9 ( 3); 23: 9 ( 3); 24: 4, 10 ( 2), 12; 25: 1, 2; 26: 13, 15;
28: 3, 6, 13 ( 2); 30: 5, 13; 31: 9, 10 ( 2), 12; 32: 6, 8 ( 3), 10; 35: 3 ( 2); 38: 3; 39: 3 ( 2), 10;
41: 9, 10, 11, 13; 49: 4, 5, 6, 7;
m- 30: 22;
myn 16: 12; 24: 12 ( 2);
with suffix pron.
1st p. sg. mny 26: 8;
3rd p. masc. sg mnh 1: 9; 3: 3, 9; 4: 2; 6: 10, 12; 15: 3; 23: 2, 11; 31: 3;
3rd p. fem. sg. mnh 38: 2; 41: 3;
3rd p. masc. pl. mynhwn 12: 6;
mn pron. interrog. with encl. pron. 3rd p. masc. sg. mnw 27: 5;
who
mnrnwt n. protection 7: 6;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. mnrwthy 32: 1;
mskyt* n. glance 16: 12; 32: 8 (see commentary);
glossary 239

msknwt n. poverty myskynwt 6: 12; 38: 6; 44: 3;


msnwkyt 17: 3 (see commentary);
msr vb. to pf.
deliver (for (etpe.) 3rd p. masc. sg. ytmsr 4: 7; 5: 8; 31: 8; 41: 9;
punishment)
mbd n. magical act pl.
mbd 11: 9; 14: 5; 19: 4; 22: 4; 30: 4, 21; 41: 14; mbd 6: 13; 9: 5; 23: 3, 5, 11;
mrb n. west mrb 38: 3;
mr n. lord, Lord mry 18: 5, external surface; 24: 8; 32: 11; 47: 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8; 48: 1, 3 ( 2), 5;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. mrh 14: 12;
3rd p. masc. pl. mryhwn 6: 5; 12: 5; 16: 8; 32: 6; 47: 3, 6; mrhwn 13: 7, 8, 12, 14;
3rd p. fem. pl. mryhyn 15: 8;
mrbyn n. educator 10: 9; 14: 8; 22: 8;
mrwbyn 9: 10; mrwby 23: 9;
mrwm n. height (Heb.) pl.
mrwm 4: 8; 5: 9; 13: 6; 31: 9; 41: 10;
mrkbt n. chariot cstr.
mrkbt 1: 7;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. pl. mrkbthwn 1: 7;
mdrnwt n. (sorcerous) 19: 4;
dispatch
mkn n. tent with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. mkwnth 6: 2;
mmt* n. excom- pl.
munication mmt 16: 8;
(JBA)
mt n. country, mt 46: 5;
native land
ndr vb. to vow act. ptc.
masc. pl. ndryn 28: 3;
ndr n. vow pl.
nydr 4: 11, 12; 6: 12, 13; 7: 4, 7, 11; 16: 5; 22: 12; 23: 2, 11; 32: 3, 4; 38: 4, 5; 41: 13; 44: 1; ndr 7: 12;
14: 11;
nhr n. river nr 28: 3;
nwsy n. attempt pl.
nwsy 16: 6; 22: 12; 32: 4;
nwqy n. libation nqwt 8: 7 (see commentary);
nwr n. fire 6: 11; 9: 11; 10: 7; 13: 6; 14: 7, 10; 22: 7, 10; 23: 7, 10; 24: 11;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. nwrh 10: 9;
nzh* vb. to depart, to impf.
move (JBA nzh 2nd p. fem. sg. tyzh 42: 2;
and nz; Sokoloff 3rd p. masc. sg. nzh 8: 1;
2002, 739) 3rd p. fem. sg. tyzh 3: 3, 9; 4: 2; 6: 12; 23: 2, 11; 31: 3; 38: 2; 41: 3;
3rd p. masc. pl. nyzhwn 1: 9; 2: 5; nzhwn 17: 2; 32: 6; 38: 2;
impv.
2nd p. masc. sg. zh 1: 6 ( 2; see commentary); 17: 3; 25: 1; 35: 2; 39: 2;
2nd p. masc. pl. zw 14: 11; 22: 12;
n n. bronze n 1: 8;
240 glossary

nt vb. to go down, act. ptc.


descend masc. pl. ntyn 25: 8; nt 35: 9;
nwr n. protector, pl.
guardian nwr 16: 11; 32: 7; 47: 4, 7; 48: 4;
nr vb. to protect, pf.
preserve 3rd p. masc. sg. nr 45: 2a;
3rd p. masc. pl. nrw 11: 8;
impf.
3rd p. masc. pl. with obj. pron. 3rd p. fem. sg. nnrwnh 7: 6, 9;
(aph.) 3rd p. masc. pl. nnrwn 32: 8;
with obj. pron. 3rd p. masc. sg. nnrwnh 16: 11;
with obj. pron. 3rd p. fem. sg. nnrwnh 16: 11;
(etpe.) 3rd p. masc. sg. nytnr 3: 8; 4: 11; 5: 13; 6: 11; 7: 12; 23: 10; 24: 6, 7, 10, 13; 31: 12; 38: 9; 41:
13; ntnr 23: 13;
(etpe.) 3rd p. fem. sg. tytnr 4: 11; 6: 12; 7: 3, 10;
(etpe.) 3rd p. masc. pl. nytnrwn 24: 11, 14;
impv.
(pa.) 2nd p. masc. sg. nr 49: 7;
(pa.) 2nd p. masc. pl. nrw 2: 8; 10: 10;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. nr 14: 12;
pass. ptc.
(pa.) fem. sg. mnr 40: 4;
(pa.) masc. pl. mnryn 3: 5; 38: 7; 44: 5;
nomen actoris
mnrn 2: 7;
nomen actionis
nrt 1: 9; 2: 2; 7: 1; 16: 2; 22: 1; 23: 1; 28: 12; 31: 2; 38: 1; 43: 2a; 47: 1; 48: 6; nrt 48: 1;
with suffix pron. 3rd p. masc. sg. nrth 18: 12; 28: 11; 36: 1;
nsb vb. to take, act. ptc.
receive, assume masc. sg. nsyb 28: 2;
np vb. to blow act. ptc.
fem. sg. np 10: 9;
npl vb. to fall impf.
3rd p. masc. pl. nplwn 16: 8; 32: 6;
act. ptc.
fem. sg. npl 10: 7; 14: 7;
fem. pl. npln 22: 7;
npq vb. to go out impf.
2nd p. masc. pl. typqwn 24: 10;
3rd p. masc. pl. nypqwn 1: 9; npqwn 26: 8;
(pa.) 2nd p. masc. pl. npqytwn 24: 9;
(aph.) 1st p. sg. with obj. pron. 2nd p. fem. sg. pqky 8: 6;
impv.
2nd p. masc. sg. pwq 8: 2 ( 2), 6;
2nd p. fem. sg. pwqy 8: 5;
2nd p. masc. pl. pwqw 14: 11; 24: 8;
inf.
(?) (aph.) pq 4: 8; 5: 10; 31: 10; 41: 10;
(?) (aph.) with suffix pron. 2nd p. masc. pl. pqtkwn 4: 8; pqkwn 5: 10; pwqwkwn 31: 10; 41:
10;
act. ptc.
fem. pl. npqn 24: 10;
np n. soul sg.
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. pl. nphwn 40: 14;
glossary 241

nqbt n./adj. woman, sg.


female nyqbt 15: 19; 17: 5; 22: 9; 25: 3 ( 2);
pl.
nqbt 10: 5; 23: 10;
nyqbt 7: 8; 9: 11; 14: 6, 11; 15: 29; 16: 6; 17: 5; 28: 9; 32: 4; 35: 4; 38: 5; 39: 4; nyqbt 20: 7;
nqbwt 17: 3;
nq* vb. to gather act. ptc.
(JBA) masc. sg. nqy 13: 11 (see commentary);
sn n. enemy pl.
with suffix pron. 1st p. sg. sny 45: 4b;
sgdt n. (evil) 14: 11; 22: 12;
worship pl.
msgwdyt 38: 5 (see commentary);
sgy adj. much, pl.
many sg 49: 7; sgy 26: 14;
in the expression sgy d- 16: 78;
sdn n. anvil 16: 14; 20: 6; 32: 10;
shr n. the moon 6: 6; 15: 23; 47: 5, 8; 48: 5;
swy* n. terror ( pl.
Mandaic syw) swy 7: 4 (see commentary); 41: 14;
swm vb. to put impv.
2nd p. masc. sg. swm 49: 3, 5;
swr* vb. to turn impf.
(JBA) 3rd p. masc. pl. nyswrwn 32: 5;
swrd n. fear pl.
srwdyn 16: 16; srwdt 23: 3, 11;
sn n. adversary, pl.
satan sn 4: 5, 7; 5: 4, 9; 7: 3; 10: 5; 18: 6; 21: 1; 22: 5; 23: 6; 31: 5, 9; 41: 6, 8, 9;
sym n. the placing 12: 10 (?);
syn n. the moon 1: 7;
syp n. sabre pl.
syp 9: 8; 10: 7; 14: 7; 22: 7; 23: 7;
skwr* n. the one who 27: 3 (see commentary);
shuts (?)
sky* n. watching (?) 32: 5;
skl vb. to be stupid, impf.
foolish (aph.) 3rd p. masc. pl. nsklwn 1: 10;
skr vb. to shut pf.
3rd p. masc. sg. with obj. pron. 1st p. pl. skrn 27: 4;
impf.
(pa.) 3rd p. masc. sg. lskr 13: 13;
skr n. bolt, shutting 1: 6;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. pl. skryhwn 1: 7;
slh Selah (Heb.) passim
slq vb. to go up, act. ptc.
ascend masc. pl. slqyn 16: 13; 32: 9; slyqyn 28: 10;
pf.
3rd p. masc. sg. slyq 4: 8; 5: 9; 31: 9; 41: 10;
(aph.) 2nd p. masc. sg. with obj. pron. 3rd p. masc. pl. syqtnwn 40: 11 (see commentary);
242 glossary

sml n. left side with suffix pron.


3rd p. masc. pl. smlhwn 49: 5;
sn adj. bad, sg.
hateful sn 10: 2; 15: 4; 20: 2;
pl.
sny 7: 7; 24: 8; snyn 12: 2;
snwr n. cap, helmet pl.
snwrwt 49: 5;
snqbl* n. (bad) pl.
opponent, snqbl 18: 6 (see commentary);
adversary (
Classical Syriac
sqwbl)
sr n. hair, fur pl.
sr 26: 12;
sr n. visiting-spirit pl.
sr 18: 6 (see commentary);
sqr vb. to look at act. ptc.
with the evil eye (pa.) masc. sg. mqr 6: 10 (see commentary);
srp* n. shutting with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. pl. srpyhwn 1: 6 (see commentary);
bd vb. to do pf.
3rd p. masc. sg. bd 12: 2;
3rd p. masc. pl. bdw 12: 4;
impf.
2nd p. masc. pl. tybdwn 24: 6;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. by 49: 1 (see commentary);
masc. pl. bdyn 12: 4; 13: 8, 14; 28: 7; 47: 3, 6; 48: 2;
(?) (aph.) masc. pl. mbd 24: 8;
(aph.) masc. sg. with encl. pron. 1st p. sg. mbydn 8: 3;
pass. ptc.
byd 4: 3; 5: 2; 12: 6; 31: 4; 41: 4;
nomen actoris
pl. with suffix pron. 3rd p. masc. pl. bdnyhwn 16: 8;
bd n. slave, servant 13: 13; 14: 12;
pl.
bd 13: 7, 8;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. bdh 6: 7; 13: 3, 9;
bwd n. maker, cstr.
performer wbd 12: 8;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. pl. bwdyhwn 32: 6;
bwd* n. magical act 4: 3; 5: 2; 31: 4; 41: 4;
(JBA) pl.
wbdy 12: 2; wbd 24: 13;
bwr n. grain with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. bwrh 16: 13; 28: 10; 32: 9;
br vb. to pass, pass pf.
over, transgress 3rd p. masc. sg. br 4: 8; 5: 9; 31: 9; 41: 9;
impf.
3rd p. masc. pl. nbrwn 28: 4;
glossary 243

br n. stake pl.
br 1: 8;
d adv. until d 12: 6; 13: 13;
dwr n. helper pl.
dywr 32: 7;
dm adv. until, so far, 6: 11; 49: 7;
so that
dr vb. to help impf.
(pa.) 3rd p. masc. sg. ndr 27: 6;
wr vb. to blind impf.
(pa.) (etpa.) 3rd p. fem. sg. tytwr 27: 1;
wn n. strength n 13: 7;
zqt n. signet ring 35: 9; yzqt 28: 10;
cstr.
yzqt 32: 10, 11; 39: 9; zqt 16: 13;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. zqth 16: 15; yzqth 1: 8; 6: 8; 12: 6; 28: 10;
p vb. to turn back, impv.
return (aph.) 2nd p. masc. sg. yp 49: 4;
r vb. to steam, pf.
smoke 3rd p. masc. pl. wr 4: 10 (see commentary); 5: 12; 31: 11; ywr 41: 12;
impv.
2nd p. masc. pl. rw 14: 11;
yn n. eye 16: 12; 27: 1; 32: 8;
yr adj. awake, 17: 4; 25: 1; 35: 2;
watchful
l prep. upon, 1: 6; 4: 4; 5: 4; 6: 10; 8: 4 ( 2); 9: 5 ( 3), 6 ( 4), 7; 10: 4 ( 2), 5 ( 4); 12: 9; 13: 6, 8 ( 2), 9;
on, over, with, 14: 4 ( 2), 5 ( 4); 16: 8 ( 2); 22: 4 ( 2), 5 ( 4); 23: 4 ( 4), 5 ( 6), 6 ( 2); 24: 12; 26: 9, 14,
against 15 ( 2), 16 ( 2); 28: 11; 31: 5; 32: 6; 36: 3 ( 2), 4 ( 2); 41: 5; 49: 3;
with suffix pron.
1st p. sg. ly 27: 2, 3, 4;
2nd p. masc. sg. lk 8: 3;
3rd p. masc. sg. ylwhy 9: 8; lwhy 10: 6, 7; 12: 8; 14: 7 ( 2); 22: 7; lwh 9: 9; 23: 7 ( 2);
3rd p. fem. sg. lh 8: 4;
2nd p. masc. pl. lykwn 1: 7 ( 2); 4: 8 ( 2); 5: 9, 10; 10: 9; 26: 15; 31: 9 ( 2); 41: 10 ( 2);
3rd p. masc. pl. lyhwn 4: 4, 5; 5: 4, 6; 13: 11, 12; 31: 5, 6; 41: 5, 6; 49: 3;
l vb. to raise impf.
(pa.) (aph.) 3rd p. masc. pl. nylwn 6: 10 (see commentary);
act. ptc.
masc. sg. myl 49: 6;
ly adj. high, pl.
superior, ly 13: 6;
supreme
ll vb. to enter act. ptc.
masc. pl. lyn 16: 12; llyn 32: 9; ylyn 28: 10;
lm n. world, 4: 8; 5: 9; 12: 6; 31: 9; 41: 10;
eternity in the expression llm 4: 5; 5: 6; 20: 8; 26: 18; 28: 6, 13; 31: 7; 41: 7;
in the expression llm lm 7: 10;
in the expression llm lmyn 1: 5; 19: 5; 47: 6; 49: 7;
lm prep. l + pron. m 27: 2, 3 ( 2);
why
244 glossary

m prep. with, 7: 6;
together with
qr vb. to uproot pf.
(etpe.) 3rd p. masc. sg. ytqr 4: 7; 5: 8; 31: 8; 41: 9;
impf.
(etpe.) 2nd p. masc. pl. ttqrwn 15: 26;
(etpe.) 3rd p. masc. pl. nytqrwn 24: 2;
rpl n. dark fog pl.
rpl 1: 7;
rq vb. to flee, impv.
escape 2nd p. masc. pl. rwqw 24: 12;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. rq 13: 10, 13;
masc. pl. rqyn 13: 10;
inf.
lmrq 13: 10;
m* n. pl.
wrath-demon m 6: 9 (see commentary);
tq vb. to grow old pass. ptc.
fem. pl. tyqt 38: 6; tyqt 24: 9;
pg n. misfortune pl.
pg 14: 10; 22: 11; pgyn 26: 8, 10;
pgr n. body 12: 3;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. pgrh 6: 7, 11; 23: 2, 10; pgryh 24: 6, 8, 10, 12;
3rd p. fem. sg. pgrh 7: 2; 41: 13;
pwm n. mouth, with suffix pron.
entrance 3rd p. masc. sg. pwmyh 24: 12;
3rd p. masc. pl. pmhwn 13: 13;
3rd p. fem. pl. pwmyhyn 46: 4;
pwqd n. command pl.
pwqdyn 14: 12;
pwqdn n. command with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. pwqdnh 6: 6; 47: 5, 8; 48: 5;
pwr* n. lot (JBA) 4: 3; 5: 1; 31: 3; 41: 4;
pyqd* n. pl.
visitation-spirit pyqd 6: 10 (see commentary);
pkr vb. to tie pass. ptc.
masc. pl. pkyryn 32: 3;
pqd vb. to pf.
command, 3rd p. masc. sg. with obj. pron. 1st p. sg. pqdny 8: 3;
order (etpe.) 3rd p. masc. sg. ytpqyd 7: 6;
prz* vb. to keep impf.
away (Middle 3rd p. masc. pl. nprzwn 32: 8;
Persian phrz) with obj. pron. 3rd p. fem. sg. nprzwnh 16: 11;
przl n. iron 1: 8; 26: 11;
pr vb. to fly, flee impv.
2nd p. masc. pl. prw 14: 11; 22: 12; 24: 8;
act. ptc.
fem. pl. prn 24: 10;
glossary 245

pr vb. to repay, impf.


recompense (etpe.) 3rd p. masc. sg. ntpr 12: 6;
pr vb. to separate, pass. ptc.
divide masc. sg. in the expression bpry 26: 11;
pr vb. to melt, impf.
interpret 3rd p. masc. sg. npr 28: 5;
(dreams), solve act. ptc.
fem. sg. pr 24: 11;
ptgm n. spell 10: 6, 7; 14: 6, 8; 22: 6, 7; 23: 6, 8;
pytgm 9: 7; pytgm 9: 9; 12: 7;
pt vb. to open act. ptc.
masc. sg. pt 29: 5;
ptkr n. idol-spirit pl.
ptkr 1: 9; 7: 8; 10: 4; 14: 11; 15: 5, 27; 16: 5; 25: 6; 28: 9; 32: 4; 35: 6; ptykr 22: 5, 11;
ptkrwt n. idolatry 9: 6; 18: 6; 23: 5;
byn n. will, desire with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. bynh 8: 3; 13: 13;
b n. finger pl.
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. bth 26: 16;
d vb. to be pass. ptc.
deserted, masc. sg. d 15: 19a.
desolated
wt n. outcry pl.
wt 16: 5; 32: 3; 38: 4;
wt vb. to obey impv.
2nd p. masc. pl. ww 10: 9;
ywt n. companion wt 9: 10; 10: 9; 14: 9; 22: 8; 23: 9;
y* n. brightness cstr.
(JBA) yy 12: 9 (see commentary);
mr vb. to be pass. ptc.
pressed (JBA) masc. pl. myryn 32: 3;
pr n. bird pl.
ypr 24: 9;
qbl vb. to accuse; impv.
(pa.) to accept 2nd p. masc. sg. qbyl 9: 10;
2nd p. masc. pl. qblw 14: 9; qbylw 23: 9; qblyw 22: 9;
act. ptc.
(pa.) masc. sg. mqbl 14: 6; mqbyl 9: 7; 10: 6 ( 2); 14: 7, 12; 22: 6 ( 2); 23: 6 ( 2); 28: 2;
qbl* n. (evil) accuser, pl.
opponent (?) qybl 16: 6; qbl 32: 4 (see commentary);
qbr vb. to bury pass. ptc.
masc. sg. qbyr 9: 4; 10: 3 ( 2); 14: 3, 4; 22: 3, 4; 23: 3, 4; 25: 7; 35: 7; 36: 2;
qbr n. grave pl.
qbr 18: 7;
qd vb. to run away impv.
2nd p. masc. pl. qdw 24: 12 (see commentary);
qdy adj. holy pl.
masc. qdy 2: 7; 13: 11, 13; 18: 9; 24: 8;
fem. qdyt 2: 9; 49: 3;
246 glossary

qdm prep. before, in 8: 2; 13: 7, 8, 11;


front of with suffix pron.
1st p. sg. qdmy 8: 6;
2nd p. masc. sg. qdmyk 49: 1;
3rd p. masc. sg. qdmh 6: 10; 22: 7; 47: 2, 6; qdmwhy 10: 7; 14: 7; 23: 7; 48: 2; qdmwh 9: 8; 13:
6;
3rd p. masc. pl. qdmyhwn 8: 5;
in the expression lqdmyhwn 13: 12;
qdmy adj. first, early, sg.
primeval, qdmy 18: 5, external surface; 32: 11;
ancient qmy 16: 15;
pl.
qdmy 4: 9, 10; 5: 11, 12; 31: 11 ( 2); 41: 11, 12;
qd vb. to be pure, act. ptc.
holy (pa.) masc. pl. mqdy 2: 8;
qwbl n. front in the expression lqblh 21: 4; lqyblh 27: 5;
qwd n. holiness 49: 8;
qwm vb. to stand pf.
3rd p. masc. pl. qmw 6: 4;
(aph.) 1st p. masc. sg. qymyt 27: 4;
impf.
3rd p. masc. sg. nqwm 27: 5, 6;
(pa.) 1st p. sg. qym 27: 3;
(etpa.) 3rd p. masc. pl. nytqymwn 4: 12;
impv.
(aph.) 2nd p. masc. sg. qym 49: 7;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. qym 27: 5;
masc. pl. qymyn 6: 6; 9: 8; 10: 7; 14: 7; 22: 7; 23: 7; 47: 2, 6; 48: 2;
nomen actionis
qymt 48: 6;
qwmt n. body with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. qwmthy 32: 10;
qwrbn n. offering, gift 28: 2;
qwrq n. halter pl.
qwrq 1: 8;
qwlt n. murderess 8: 2 ( 2);
ql vb. to kill impv.
(etpe.) 2nd p. masc. pl. tqlw 24: 12;
act. ptc.
fem. sg. ql 8: 4;
masc. pl. qlyn 10: 7; 14: 7; 22: 7; 23: 7;
inf.
lmql 47: 3, 7; lmyql 48: 3;
qr vb. to knot impf.
(etpe.) 3rd p. masc. pl. lytqrwn 28: 4;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. qr 28: 12;
qr n. (magical) pl.
knot qryn 28: 12; qr 32: 4;
qybl* n. 6: 10;
counter-charm pl.
qybl 4: 8 (see commentary); 5: 10; 31: 9; 41: 10;
glossary 247

qym adj. existing 24: 5;


qymt n. stability 28: 12;
ql vb. to burn part.
(etpa.) mytql 9: 11; 14: 9; mtql 22: 10; 23: 10;
qll n. shame pl.
qll 14: 11; 16: 5; 22: 11; 32: 3; 38: 4;
qm vb. to lay fast pass. ptc.
hold of masc. sg. qmy 28: 4;
masc. pl. qmyyn 28: 1;
qm (Sokoloff n. fastening pl.
2009, 1377) qmy 30: 2;
qmy n. amulet qmy 2: 1; 11: 1; 12: 1; 22: 1; 47: 1, 5; qm 6: 10; 16: 1; 17: 1; 35: 1; 36: 1; 39: 8; 40: 1; qmy 30: 1;
pl.
qmy 28: 11;
qny n. reed 28: 6;
qnyn n. possessions, qynyn 32: 9;
property with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. qynyh 1: 5; qnynh 1: 9, 10, 11; 5: 13; 6: 8, 11; 7: 12; 11: 9; 16: 9; 20: 5; 28: 10; 41: 2;
qynynyh 24: 8;
3rd p. fem. sg. qnynh 2: 4; 7: 2; 40: 6;
qr vb. to call pf.
3rd p. masc. sg. qr 47: 2, 6; 48: 1;
act. ptc.
fem. sg. qry 11: 10;
masc. sg. with encl. pron. 1st p. sg. qryn 15: 24;
masc. pl. qryn 8: 4;
masc. pl. with suffix pron. 3rd p. masc. pl. qryhwn 16: 8; qrybyhwn 28: 5; qryywhwn 32: 6;
pass. ptc.
(etpe.) masc. sg. mtqr 10: 9 ( 2); 13: 3; 15: 33; 22: 8, 9; 23: 9 ( 2); 45: 3a, 4a; mytqr 6: 3; 9:
10 ( 2); 14: 8, 9;
(etpe.) fem. sg. mtqry 8: 5; 42: 1;
qrb vb. to approach impf.
3rd p. fem. sg. tqrwb 7: 11; tyqrwb 6: 13;
2nd p. masc. pl. tqrbwn 47: 4, 7; 48: 4;
3rd p. masc. pl. nyqrbwn 20: 5; 25: 7; nqrbwn 32: 10;
qrwt* n. invocation pl.
qrwt 7: 4; 14: 11; 16: 5; 17: 3; 22: 11; 32: 3; 38: 4; 44: 1;
qryb adj. near pl.
fem. qrybt 38: 6;
qrn n. corner pl.
qrnt 16: 7;
qr vb. to glance act. ptc.
scornfully, masc. sg. kr 32: 8;
slander
rz n. mystery 2: 4; 25: 7; 48: 1;
rz 12: 8, 10; 15: 1; rz 13: 1;
cstr.
rz 9: 4; 22: 3, 4; 23: 3 ( 2); 36: 2; rzy 12: 5; rz 10: 2, 3;
pl.
rzy 9: 8; rz 10: 6; 22: 6; rz 23: 7;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. rzh 9: 5; rzh 22: 4; 23: 4;
248 glossary

rb adj. great 6: 9; 16: 15; 17: 7; 18: 5; 24: 8; 25: 5; 28: 11; 32: 7, 11; 35: 6; 39: 6;
rbwt n. majesty with suffix pron.
2nd p. masc. sg. rbwtk 49: 7;
rgl n. foot pl.
rgl 29: 6;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. fem. sg. rglh 6: 13; 7: 11;
3rd p. masc. pl. rglyhwn 13: 11;
rdy vb. to submit act. ptc.
(?) masc. pl. rdyn 6: 5 (see commentary);
rh n. run r 16: 7; 32: 5;
rwgz n. wrath 9: 8; 23: 7;
(Payne Smith with suffix pron.
18791901, 3rd p. masc. sg. rwgzh 27: 5;
3808)
rw n. spirit, Spirit 2: 9; 8: 1 ( 2), 4, 6; 15: 16; 25: 7; 26: 14, 15; 35: 8; 42: 2; 49: 8;
cstr.
rw 18: 7 ( 4);
pl.
rw 11: 9; 14: 5, 10 ( 2); 15: 26; 18: 6; 22: 10, 11; 28: 9;
rwm n. high, top, 49: 2;
heaven cstr. pl. rwmy 1: 6;
rwq n. spittle 20: 6;
rwrb adj. great, grown pl.
up rwrb 14: 12;
ryq adj. far, remote, pl.
distant fem. ryqt 38: 6;
rm vb. to love pass. ptc.
masc. pl. rym 8: 6;
rm n. friend 9: 10; 10: 8; 14: 8; 22: 8; 23: 8;
(Payne Smith
18791901,
3885)
rm n. mercy pl.
rm 49: 3;
with suffix pron. 2nd p. masc. sg. rmyk 49: 7;
rq vb. to remove impf.
(pa.) (etpa.) 3rd p. masc. pl. ntrqwn 32: 6;
rn vb. to murmur, act. ptc.
mumble fem. pl. rnn 28: 2;
rn n. murmur, ryn 28: 2;
mumble
ry n. head cstr.
ry 26: 13;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. ryh 26: 12; 47: 4, 7; 48: 4;
3rd p. masc. pl. ryhwn 49: 5;
rkb vb. to mount, pass. ptc.
ride masc. pl. rkybyn 26: 11; 27: 3 (?) (see commentary);
glossary 249

rm vb. to cast impf.


3rd p. masc. pl. nrmwn 28: 5;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. with encl. pron. 1st p. sg. rmyn 4: 3; 5: 1; 31: 4; 41: 4;
rmt n. high place, pl.
height rmt 4: 7; 5: 8; 6: 5; 31: 8; 32: 5; 41: 9;
rywt n. charge, will cstr.
rwt 13: 14;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. rwth 47: 3, 6; 48: 3 (see commentary);
d n. demon sg.
yd 25: 7;
pl.
yd 1: 9; 4: 4, 7, 9; 5: 4, 8, 11; 6: 9; 7: 3, 7; 9: 6; 17: 2, 7, 8; 18: 6; 19: 4; 20: 5, 7; 21: 3; 22: 11; 23: 4,
5, 11; 24: 3; 25: 5, 6; 31: 5, 8, 11; 35: 6, 7; 36: 3; 41: 5, 8, 9, 11; 43: 1b; d 2: 4; 14: 10; 22: 5; 28: 11;
39: 7; 47: 3, 4, 7 ( 2); 48: 3, 4; yd 11: 9; 39: 10; dyn 28: 12;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. ydh 23: 12;
l vb. to ask ptc.
(etpa.) masc. sg. mtl 13: 12 (see commentary);
b vb. to praise impf.
(etpa.) 3rd p. masc. sg. ntb 49: 7;
b n. stroke pl.
b 7: 3;
byl n. way pl.
byl 16: 6; 32: 4;
b vb. to swear act. ptc.
(JBA) (aph.) masc. sg. mb 26: 16;
b num. seven 9: 11; 13: 11; 14: 9; 22: 9;
b 1: 6; b 23: 9;
bq vb. to leave, go act. ptc.
away masc. pl. bqyn 13: 10;
pass. ptc.
masc. pl. with encl. pron. 2nd p. masc. pl. byqytwn 4: 9; 5: 11; 31: 10; 41: 11;
b vb. to flatter pf.
(pa.) 2nd p. masc. sg. with obj. pron. 3rd p. masc. pl. btnwn 40: 9 (see commentary);
dr vb. to send pf.
3rd p. masc. sg. dr 47: 3, 6; 48: 3;
3rd p. masc. sg. with obj. suffix 1st p. sg. drny 8: 3;
act. ptc.
(pa.) masc. sing. mdr 24: 9;
nomen actoris
sg. with suffix pron. 3rd p. masc. sg. mdrnyh 24: 12;
pl. with suffix pron. 3rd p. masc. pl. mdrnyhwn 16: 9; 28: 5; 32: 6;
w vb. to be even, act. ptc.
equal; (aph.) to (aph.) masc. sg. mw 9: 11 ( 2); 14: 9 ( 2); 22: 9, 10; 23: 10 ( 2);
lay, prepare
wd n. bribe, gift 28: 2;
w vb. to neglect impf.
2nd p. masc. pl. twwn 10: 9;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. y 6: 10 (see commentary);
250 glossary

wr n. wall 23: 11; 49: 6;


pl.
wr 6: 4;
wt (Sokoloff n. south wind 1: 8 (see commentary);
2009, 1539)
yl n. chain pl.
yln 6: 11;
kb vb. to lie down, pf.
fall asleep (aph.) 3rd p. masc. sg. with obj. suffix 3rd p. masc. sg. kbh 6: 5;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. kb 17: 4; 35: 3; ykb 25: 1;
k vb. to find act. ptc.
(usually with masc. sg. mk 9: 7; 10: 6; 14: 6; 22: 6; 23: 6;
prostetic -: k)
kynt n. Divine with suffix pron.
Presence, Glory 3rd p. masc. sg. kynth 13: 5;
lhbt n. flame 14: 7;
lbyt 9: 9; 10: 7; lbt 10: 7; lhbyt 22: 7; 23: 7;
with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. sg. lbyth 10: 9;
l vb. to send pf.
3rd p. masc. sg. with obj. pron. 1st p. sg. lny 8: 3;
lm n. peace 9: 10, 11 ( 2); 14: 9 ( 2); 22: 9, 10; 23: 9, 10; 49: 6;
pl.
lm 14: 9; 23: 9; lmyn 22: 9;
m n. name 4: 6; 5: 7; 8: 6; 31: 7; 32: 5; 41: 7; 49: 7, 8;
cstr.
wm 2: 6, 9 ( 3); 3: 6; 4: 6, 10; 5: 6, 12; 6: 6; 7: 4, 8, 9; 12: 4, 9; 13: 4, 5; 15: 7, 31, 32; 16: 14; 18: 8,
9; 19: 3; 24: 5 ( 4), 8; 28: 5; 29: 4, 5; 30: 6; 31: 7, 11; 32: 11; 38: 8; 41: 7, 12;
pl.
mht 14: 12; mh 18: 9;
with suffix pron.
2nd p. masc. sg. mk 18: 5, external surface; 28: 12;
3rd p. masc. sg. mh 7: 8; 15: 34; 25: 6; 35: 7; 39: 8; myh 24: 13;
2nd p. masc. pl. mykwn 16: 10; 32: 7;
3rd p. masc. pl. mhthwn 26: 10;
my n. heaven 4: 7; 5: 8; 6: 6, 9, 11; 9: 4 ( 2), 10; 10: 3 ( 2); 14: 3, 9; 16: 13; 22: 3 ( 2), 9; 23: 3 ( 2), 9; 28: 10,
13; 31: 8; 32: 10; 41: 8; 48: 5;
m vb. to listen to, pf.
hear 3rd p. masc. pl. mw 12: 5;
impv.
2nd p. masc. pl. mw 10: 9;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. m 9: 9; m 10: 8; 12: 7; 14: 8; 22: 7; m 23: 8;
m vb. to serve, act. ptc.
minister to (pa.) masc. sg. mm 13: 12;
m n. the sun 6: 6; 15: 22; 47: 5, 8; 48: 5;
my 1: 7;
mt vb. to pass. ptc.
excommunicate (pa.) fem. sg. mmtt 6: 13; 7: 11;
(JBA) (pa.) masc. pl. mmtyn 16: 4; 32: 2;
glossary 251

n vb. to be impf.
displaced, 2nd p. masc. pl. tynwn 24: 10;
depart, migrate impv.
2nd p. masc. sg. ny 8: 2, 7 ( 2);
act. ptc.
(pa.) fem. pl. mnyn 24: 10;
wt n. wax yt 24: 11;
q vb. to give to act. ptc.
drink (aph.) masc. sg. mq 9: 9; 10: 8; 14: 8; 22: 8; 23: 8;
ql vb. to take act. ptc.
masc. sg. with encl. pron. 1st p. sg. qyn 4: 3; 5: 1; 31: 4; 41: 4;
qp vb. to beat pass. ptc.
(pa.) masc. pl. mqpyn 14: 11; 22: 12;
r vb. to loosen, pf.
untie (trans.); 3rd p. masc. sg. r 35: 4;
to lodge, dwell 3rd p. fem. sg. rt 25: 3;
(intrans.) impf.
3rd p. masc. pl. nyrwn 3: 6; 38: 8;
inf.
(pe.) lmr 6: 11;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. r 6: 10; 13: 5; 29: 6; 38: 8;
fem. sg. r 25: 8; 39: 9; ry 17: 5; 25: 7; 26: 14;
masc. pl. ryn 2: 4; 17: 4; 25: 2; 35: 3;
pass. ptc.
masc. pl. ryn 14: 11; 22: 12;
(etpe.) masc. pl. mtryn 13: 10;
ryr adj. strong, firm 2: 11;
fem. ryrt 42: 1;
rr vb. to be strong pf.
(aph.) rw 47: 5, 8; 48: 5;
impf.
3rd p. masc. sg. nyr 47: 5, 8; nr 48: 6;
pass. ptc.
(pa.) masc. pl. mrryn 3: 4; 28: 11; 38: 7; 43: 4a;
t vb. to drink impv.
2nd p. masc. sg. yty 8: 7;
act. ptc.
masc. sg. t 9: 9; 10: 8; 14: 8; 22: 8; 23: 8; t 28: 3;
fem. sg. ty 26: 14;
tyn num. sixty ytyn 32: 10; 35: 9; 39: 9; tyn 28: 1;
tbr vb. to break impf.
3rd p. masc. pl. ntbrwn 6: 10;
tg n. diadem 47: 4; tg 48: 3
twb adv. again 4: 5, 10; 5: 6, 12; 16: 14; 20: 6; 28: 6 ( 2); 31: 6, 11; 41: 6, 12;
twk n. harm pl.
twk 6: 12; 38: 6; 44: 3;
twkn n. harm, loss 28: 2;
tty prep. under tyty 1: 6;
tymn n. south 38: 3;
tkk vb. to harm, act. ptc.
injure, oppress masc. pl. tkyn 28: 2;
252 glossary

tltyn num. thirty 26: 11;


tltm num. three 26: 11; 32: 10;
hundred
tmn num. eight 28: 1;
tmnyn num. eighty tmnn 35: 9;
tnyn n. dragon 17: 6; 25: 4; 35: 5; 39: 5;
tqyp adj. mighty 6: 2; 8: 7; 16: 10; 32: 7;
tqyp 28: 4;
pl.
tqyp 9: 6; 10: 5; 22: 5; 23: 5, 6; tqypt 9: 7; 10: 5; 22: 6; 23: 6;
tqn vb. to be firm, ptc.
established (ethpa.) masc. sg. mtqn 13: 6;
tryn num. two with suffix pron.
3rd p. masc. pl. trwyhwn 6: 4;
trngl n. cock 26: 12; 46: 1 ( 2);
tr n. gate 29: 5;
LIST OF ANGELS, DEITIES, DEMONS, AND OTHER ENTITIES

bwl, 32: 11 mykyyl (Michael), 2: 6; 6: 7 (mkyyl sy); 18: 10 (mkyyl); 47: 2,


bwryt, 17: 6; 25: 5; 35: 5 6; 48: 2
brkss mry tqyp (the mighty Lord Abraxas), 6: 9 (see mmtnyt (the Slayer), 8: 5
commentary) mnryyl, 7: 5
dwm dwny dwmy dwny yh, 13: 12 mpqyyl, 24: 13
dwny (Adonay), 6: 7; 18: 8 mrwby, 23: 3, 11
ybwl, 17: 6; 25: 4; 35: 5 my (Christ), 27: 6
yl dy (El adday), 2: external side of the drawing; 6: 9; 18: 8 (l mmyyl, 13: 12
dy) ns sb, 32: 11
ny tqyp, 6: 2 nbw (Nabu), 8: 3
lypr rb ryy, 28: 5 nw (Noah), 28: 10
srgws, 28: 11 nwryyl (Nuriel), 7: 5
srh gdwl dmtqr syn syn (Asar ha-gadol who is called syn syn), nyryg (Nergal), 8: 3
15: 3233 nny (Nannay), 8: 3
sryyl, 2: 7; 13: 4, 11 nqyyl, 13: 11
prwm syn, 16: 10; 32: 7 nn, 32: 11
rr, 16: 14; 32: 11 shryyl, 18: 10
rywn br znd, 6: 8 sqz br, 40: 8
bgdn (Bagdana; bagdanas), mry bgdn 1: 8 (sg.); 17: 6 (bgdn; syn (Sn), 8: 3
pl.); 25: 5, 8 (bgdn; pl.); 35: 6, 9 (bgdn; pl.) skryyl, 13: 12, 13
bhyl, 26: 7 zzyyl, 47: 3, 6; 48: 2
by (Bl), 8: 3 pgmyyl, 26: 15
blmyyl, 13: 12 pwgdt, 2: 5 (see commentary)
brbb, 26: 16 pwryyl, 24: 13
brqyyl, 2: 7 pyrwn zyw rb qdmy, 28: 5
gbryyl (Gabriel), 6: 7 (gbryyl bdh ddwny); 18: 10; 48: 2 pq pq m pq, 15: 89
dwryb, 8: 4 ptyl, 29: 5
dkrwgn, 40: 12 bwt (ebaot), 12: 9; 18: 8 (bwt), 10 (bwt 3); 24: 5 (bwty
dmy, 32: 11 2)
hwyl, 15: 35 bb, 16: 10; 32: 7
wywy, 32: 5 w, 32: 11
wrwdq, 20: 7 (pl.) wrn, 2: 9
wrywn, 32: 12 qdyyl, 24: 13
lwm, 16: 15 (lwm rb qmy); 32: 11 (lwm rb qdmy) rb (the Great One), 15: 32
mryyl, 7: 8 rb yw br prhy (Rab/Rabbi Joshua bar Peraya), 4: 4 (rby); 5:
nqyt (the Strangler), 2: 5 (see commentary); 8: 4 3 ( yyw); 31: 5 ( yyw); 41: 5 ( yyw)
tmyyl, 2: 8; 7: 5 rwpyyl (Raphael), 2: 6; 6: 7 (rwpyyl mdwly); 18: 10; 47: 2, 6; 48:
yh yhw yw, 38: 8 2
yhw sbhw, 18: 8 rypwn, 26: 11
ywhbyyl, 2: 7; 47: 3 ( yhbyyl), 6 ( yhwbyyl) rmrm, 32: 11
yyw (Jesus), 6: 2 ( yyw sy) wblt (Virgo), 15: 21
kbyyl, 13: 11; 24: 13 ydyyl, 16: 10; 32: 7 (dyyl)
mbklt (mevakkalta), 3: 3, 9; 4: 2, 11, 12; 5: 13; 6: 12 ( 2), 13 ( 2); lyyl (aliel), 7: 5
7: 11 ( 2), 12; 14: 10 (pl. nbklt); 17: 2 (pl.), 8 (pl.); 22: 11 (pl. lymwn (Solomon), 6: 8 (mlk br dwyd); 28: 10
nbklt); 23: 2, 11; 31: 3, 12; 39: 10 (pl.); 41: 3, 13 myz (amiza), 1: 8
mwbdn (the Destroyers), 8: 5 my (ami), 8: 23 (mry my)
mwdzryt rb, 32: 7 ryyl, 7: 8
mw (Moses), 6: 4; 7: 6 tqnws, 15: 24
mzyyl, 7: 5
LIST OF CLIENTS AND ADVERSARIES

brq br hdkt, 18: 2, 45, 11 wrmyz br mlpt (bt nwkr), 13: 3 (wmwyz), 8 (wrmywz), 9
dyb br prdkt, 18: 1, 1011 ( 2)
br prwrmyz, 16: 2, 9, 13, 14 yrwy br qywmt, 31: 23, 6, 10 (yrwy br qywmt), 12
t bt, 15: 17 ywy br rnyndwk, 25: 2; 27: 2, 23, 4 ( 2)
ty bt twny, 40: 3 yzyddd br, 36: 2
ym bt md, 12: 3, 45, 10 kwsrw br qqy, 28: 3, 5, 7, 11
yspndrmyd, 20: 4 mydwkt bt kwmbwy, 7: 23, 67, 10 ( 2), 1112
bby br mhnw, 19: 2 mhgwnzdkt bt nty, 18: 2, 11
bwpry br hdkt, 18: 4, 12 (bpry) mhdwr gwnsp, 22: 3
brwy bt btshd, 6: 12, 14 mbwd, 22: 3
byrw, 28: 3, 6, 7, 11 mlpt, 33: 2
byrw br nywndwkt, 41: 6, 11 mry br qymt, 24: 7
br gdbr, 22: 3 myrwrmyzd br mmy, 6: 1, 3, 7, 1112
brym br zdndwk, 24: 4, 6 (brm), 8, 10, 12 (brm) myr br bwrdwkt, 17: 12, 7 (myr)
br shd br myn, 13: 2, 910 mynsn, 29: 7
brpt br tbw, 24: 7, 11, 1314 (brbt) myrrmyz br, 45: 3b
[] bt mlyk, 29: 7 mrqywn br mm, 45: 3a, 4a, 2b
btryk br mhgwnzdkt, 18: 3, 11 nwry bt gylwy, 2: 3, 5, 89
gwny, 28: 4, 6, 7, 11 nrwy, 24: 7, 11
gwny bt qywmt, 14: 12, 13 shd br myn, 13: 10
gwnsp, 24: 11, 14 pnhqdwk, 24: 11
gnyb br dwdy, 1: 9, 10 ( 2) prwkdd br bwny, 22: 2
ddbh br smndwkt, 3: 2 (ddbyh), 6, 9; 5: 5, 10, 13 prwkdd, 28: 3, 6, 7, 11
ddgdy bt mym, 30: 56 (ddgy), 1415, 22 prwkzd br kwmy, 48: 1, 4, 5 (pwrkzd), 6
[] dwrwk bt nrqys, 20: 4, 8, 10 wl bt mhgwnzdkt, 18: 3, 12
dynwy br yspndrmyd, 4: 2, 5, 9, 11 ( 2); 7: 12; 43: 2a qywm br yryn, 47: 12, 4, 5, 7, 8 ( 2), 9
(yspndrmyd) qmdyn br bwrzkw, 11: 3, 8, 9
dndkt bt zdnnyt, 18: 4, 12 rbyt bt w, 24: 11, 14
hwrmyz br dwktyb, 10: 10 yly br ymdbwh, 32: 2 (ymdbwhy), 6 (yl), 9 ( 2), 10 ( 2)
zrwy br, 9: 3 yyn bt gwny, 22: 2, 3
ztzd br bby, 15: 2, 7, 17, 3031 yyn bt yprwrmyz, 42: 12
wn br kwpyty, 23: 2 (hwn), 10, 12 ( 2) lt bt qywmt, 28: 3, 4, 6 ( 2), 7 ( 2), 11 ( 2)
wrmyzdwk, 8: 7 rqwy bt dd, 38: 2, 8, 10
wrmyzdwkt bt dwty, 41: 3, 13 (wrmyzdwkty)
INDEX

Alphabet Hatran Aramaic


In texts, 66, 82, 140, 210 Script, 1619
Palaeography, 1213, 1617 Heavenly bodies, 23, 2425
Angels Hebrew
Faithful ones, 29 Language, 39, 98
Four, 89, 157
Holy, 29 Jesus, 49, 208
Of wrath, 62, 117 Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
Protector-angels, 30 Language, 9, 2425, 3839, 54, 57, 76, 111, 156157
Seven holy, 74
Who sanctify the house, 28 Mandaic
Amulets Amulets, 50, 57, 82, 88, 105, 135, 140, 154
Syriac, 12, 24, 25, 30, 57, 62, 94, 98, 117, 129 Language, 9, 24, 111
Anvil Matres lectionis
Of the earth, 90, 158 , 117
Arabic y, 122
Language, 25, 117 , 29
Months
Bond Iyyar, 129
Of eternity, 72 Mysteries
Of fire, 4849 Of heaven and earth, 79
Of the blast-demons, 94, 125, 166
Of the lion, 94, 125, 166 North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic, 25, 38
Of the mountains and the heights, 48
Of the sphere, 98 Old Syriac
That is evil and mighty and holding, 139 Language, 9, 98
Which is forever, 105 Script, 12, 19, 81
Ouroboros, 64
Cardinal points, 2425
Cartouche, 146, 161 Persian
Christ, 135, 136 Language, 98, 126, 157
Christians, 3, 30, 47, 74, 208 Pronouns
Classical Syriac Demonstrative, 45, 61, 66, 111, 122, 125, 152, 158, 170
Language, 59 Enclitic, 29, 183
Suffix, 23, 29
Day
In general, 89, 116, 121, 155 Seal
Of Judgement, 72 By which heaven and earth are sealed, 48, 206
Deities By which Noah sealed his ark, 141
Ancient Mesopotamian, 5758 In which is everything, 201, 206
Demons Of the dragon, 94, 125, 166, 179
Murderess, 57 Signs
The one who suffocates the animals, 29 In incantations, 39
The slayer, 58 Signet ring
The strangler, 29, 58 By which heaven and earth are sealed, 140
Desert, 81, 86, 197 Of heaven, 89
Digits, 41, 81 Of amiza, 25
Divorce formula, 39, 82 Of sixty blast-demons brothers and eighty descending (?)
Drawings, 27, 56, 124, 134, 138, 146, 161, 165, 169, 189, 200, 205, bagdanas, 166167
208 Of Solomon, 50, 141
Of the great primeval lwm, 90
Evil Eye, 89, 135, 158, 166 Of the sky, 155

Greek Trinitarian formula, 30, 209


Language, 25, 98, 111
Weakening of laryngeals and pharyngeals, 24, 40, 117, 122, 157
Winds, 2425
SCRIPT CHARTS1

1 Script charts were realized by the present author by means of photographs and drawings. Numbers in script charts

correspond to texts numbers. Script charts of bowls nos. 8, 20 and 21 were made by Hamilton (1971, 37a37b, plates 7, 1819) and
are here reproduced by his kind permission. Due to the lack of images, script charts of bowls nos. 43 and 44 were not realized.
As the transliterations of the texts have been reviewed several times, some discrepancies between letter forms found in the
script charts and letters actually present in the bowls may be found.