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A SEMINAR

ON
MATERIAL SELECTION
PRESENTED BY

MD SHAHID
&
MD FASI UR RAHMAN
OVERVIEW
Materials Selection
Why Materials Selection ???
Product Analysis
Product function and interdependent
Design limiting material properties
Stress strain diagram for material
Fundamental properties
Classification of materials
Flow chart of material selection
Ashby chart
Examples LEAF SPRINGS, HELMET,
VACCUM CLEANER, DRINKS CONTAINER
Materials Selection
Material selection is a step in the process of designing
any physical object. In the context of Product Design, the
main goal of material selection is to minimize cost while
meeting product performance goals

The designer of any product must get involved with


material selection.

Only occasionally will the exact grade of material be


specified by the customer.

Even then the designer must understand the material


to be able to design the product.
IN ORDER TO STAY COMPETITIVE IN TODAYS
MARKETPLACE, A COMPANY MUST
UNDERSTAND ITS CUSTOMERS' WANTS AND
NEEDS AND DESIGN PROCESSES TO MEET
THEIR EXPECTATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS.
Decisions, decisions!
So many materials, so much information.

How do we decide?
How do we begin to choose?

First we need to look at the function of the


product product analysis
Product Analysis
Just what it says analyse the product!
What does it do?
How does it do it?
Where does it do it?
Who uses it?
What should it cost?
Product function is
interdependent

Material
Properties

Product
Function

Manufacturing Product
Processes Geometry
Material properties
Mechanical properties
quantities that characterize the
behavior of a material in response to
external, or applied forces

Physical properties
quantities that characterize the
behavior of a material in response to
physical phenomena other than mechanical forces
(e.g. such as heat, electricity, radiation)
Mechanical properties
F
stress
F/A
A
ductile ?
S ut
L L L

Sy

brittle
elastic plastic
y f L L
strain
L

stiffness ? E

Strength = stress at failure = (failure)
Mechanical properties
Fundamental properties
Characteristic Behavior Property Units
Strength strong, weak ultimate strength MPa (ksi)
Elastic strength elastic then plastic yield strength MPa (ksi)
Stiffness flexible, rigid modulus of elasticity MPa (Mpsi)
% elongation,
Ductility draws, forms easily dimensionless
% area reduction
Hardness resists surface Brinell No. MPa (ksi)
indentation
Corrosion resistance resists chemicals, galvanic series activity
oxidation number
Fundamental properties
Characteristic Behavior Property Units
Fatigue resistance endures many load cycles endurance limit MPa (Mpsi)
thermal
Conductivity conductivity (Btu/hr) / (F-ft),
conducts, insulates
(heat, electric) electrical Mhos
conductivity
Creep resistance time dependent creep strength MPa (ksi)
stretching
Impact resistance shock, impact loads Charpy energy N-m, (ft-lbs)
Density (mass) mass density kg/m3, (slugs/ft3)
heavy, light
Density (weight) weight density N/m3, (lbs/ft3)
Temperature tolerance softens, or melts easily melting point degrees C, F
Property profiles by family
Material families / sub-
families
Materials

Metals Plastics Ceramics Composites Family


(Ashby)

Ferrous Thermoplastics

Non-ferrous Thermosets Sub-family

Elastomers
Material sub-families /
classes
Materials

Metals
Family

Ferrous
Sub-family

Cast iron
Carbon steel
Alloy steel Classes
Stainless steel
Metals
Metals

Ferrous Non-ferrous
cast iron aluminum
carbon steel brass
alloy steel bronze
stainless steel copper
lead
magnesium
nickel
tin
titanium
tungsten
zinc
Polymers Natural and
synthetic rubbers

Polymers

Thermoplastics Thermosets Elastomers

ABS alkyd butyl


acetal epoxy fluorocarbon
acrylic melamine neoprene
nylon phenolic nitrile
polycarbonate polyester polysulfide
polyethylene urethane rubber
polypropylene silicone
polystyrene
vinyl
Materials selection
prospective
materials and processes

functional? rejected
screening materials and processes
manufacturable?
feasible
materials and
processes
relative
rating
performance?

best
material(s) and processes
Screening: How do we choose a
material?
Product function depends upon
material, manufacturing process, geometry

We have to consider all three

Do we select a few feasible materials first


then select the specific mfg process?

or
Do we select a few feasible mfg processes
then select the specific material?
Screening: Materials first approach
Application Information

1. Applied loads
magnitude
cyclic nature (steady, fatigue)
rate (slow, impact)
duration (creep)
2. Ambient conditions
temperature
moisture
sunlight
chemical liquids/vapors
3. Safety
4. Cost
Screening:
Manufacturing process first approach
Part Information

1. Production volume
2. Part size (overall)
3. Shape capability (features)
boss
holes
undercuts (internal/external)
uniform walls
cross sections (uniform /regular)
rotational symmetry
captured cavities
ASHBY
CHART

How
can we
use it?
EXAMPLE 1
Given conditions
Result
EXAMPLE 2
EXAMPLE 3
Drink Container