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Paper: Impact of Dynamic Behavior of Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems on Short-Term Voltage Stability

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6, NOVEMBER 2015

Generation Systems on Short-Term Voltage Stability

K. Kawabe, Member, IEEE, and K. Tanaka

AbstractIn this study, we investigate the impact of the dynamic Gain constant in automatic current regulator.

behavior of photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems on short- Time constant in automatic current regulator.

term voltage stability of the transmission system. First, the impact

of the fault ride-through capability of a PV model is studied by set- before voltage sag.

ting several recovery speeds of the active current output when the before voltage sag.

operation of the PV system is interrupted because of a voltage sag.

The results are analyzed by using transient - curves and a sta- Voltage at PV-connected bus before voltage sag.

bility boundary, which has been proposed in our previous research. Time.

Further, we show that the installation of PVs severely impairs the

short-term voltage stability if the PVs shut off after a voltage sag, Fault clearing time.

and its recovery speed is low. Next, two countermeasures to con- Reactive power injected by shunt capacitor.

trol short-term voltage instability phenomena are tested. One is

the operation of the PV system at a leading power factor in the

normal state, and the other is the dynamic reactive power control

by the inverters of the PV system after a voltage sag. Numerical

examples are carried out for a one-load innite-bus power system I. INTRODUCTION

and a ve-machine ve-load power system. The results show that

these countermeasures can play a substantial role in preventing

the voltage instability phenomena caused when a PV system is sud-

denly interrupted because of a fault.

Index TermsInduction motors, photovoltaic system, power

T HE rapid increase in the installed capacity of renewable

power generation systems is a key driving factor in the

move towards sustainable electric power systems. Photovoltaic

system stability, reactive power control. (PV) power generation is one of the promising power sources,

and a large number of PV systems are increasingly installed

as dispersed power generation systems in medium- and low-

NOMENCLATURE voltage transmission networks.

This high penetration of PV systems is expected to have a

Voltage behind electric lter of PV.

signicant impact on power system stability. Several studies

Voltage at PV-connected bus. have been conducted focusing on the impact of PVs on different

Reactance of electric lter. categories of stability such as transient stability [1], [2] and

Active power output of PV. small-signal stability [3]. Nevertheless, few papers have investi-

gated the impact of PVs on the short-term voltage stability. The

Reactive power output of PV.

short-term voltage stability is one of the areas of concern during

Reference value of active power output of PV. the transient period after a large disturbance. Dispersed power

Reference value of reactive power output of PV. generation systems are installed in medium- and low-voltage

Current output of PV. networks and are prone to stop their operation after voltage sags.

This can have an undesirable effect on the short-term voltage

Current rating of PV inverter.

stability of these networks. To ensure the short-term voltage sta-

Gain constant in automatic power regulator. bility even with a large installed capacity of PVs, it is essen-

Time constant in automatic power regulator. tial to study the impact of the dynamic behavior of PV systems

and develop countermeasures for controlling voltage instability

phenomena.

Currently, Japanese grid codes require the PV systems to stay

Manuscript received September 12, 2014; revised November 17, 2014 and

connected to the grid when a fault occurs and to continue sup-

December 29, 2014; accepted January 08, 2015. Date of publication January 22,

2015; date of current version August 03, 2015. This work was supported in part plying power to the grid as soon as possible even if the systems

by the CREST program, Creation of Fundamental Theory and Technology to temporarily stop their operation owing to the fault. The fault

Establish a Cooperative Distributed Energy Management System and Integra-

ride-through (FRT) capability was originally proposed for pre-

tion of Technologies across Broad Disciplines toward Social Application, of

Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). Paper no. TPWRS-01246-2014. venting a cascading frequency drop after a disturbance. The im-

The authors are with the Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Uni- pact of the FRT capability on other instability phenomena has

versity of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

not been fully studied yet. Reactive power control by PV in-

Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. verters is expected to gain traction to provide dynamic voltage

Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPWRS.2015.2390649 support (DVS). The favorable effects of the DVS capability on

0885-8950 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.

See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

KAWABE AND TANAKA: IMPACT OF DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF PV POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS 3417

pers. A dynamic analysis has also been carried out at the distri-

bution network level for improving the short-term voltage sta-

bility using the DVS in several studies [4][7]. Further studies

need to be carried out regarding the impact of PVs on the short-

term voltage stability of the transmission system by consid-

ering components in both transmission and subtransmission net-

works. In particular, it is important to consider the effects of in-

duction motor (IM) loads as well as the impedance between an

extra-high voltage bus and a load center for the analysis of the

short-term voltage stability [8], [9].

This paper describes the impact of the dynamic behavior

of PVs on the short-term voltage stability of the transmission

system with numerical examples. In this study, we focus on PV

systems connected to load centers at medium- and low- voltage

levels and consider the components in both transmission and

subtransmission networks. Section II presents the PV model

used in this study. The model considers the control system

of the inverter and the FRT capability. In Section III, several

recovery speeds of active current output after the clearing of

a fault are modeled for PV systems connected to a one-load Fig. 2. Control system of the PV inverter.

innite-bus power system. The effects of the recovery speed

on the short-term voltage stability are evaluated by an analyt-

ical method using a stability boundary [9] and transient - TABLE I

CONTROL PARAMETERS IN THE CONTROL SYSTEM OF PV INVERTER

curves. In Section IV, two countermeasures are applied to the

PV system in the one-load innite-bus system, and we give a

physical explanation of how the two countermeasures improve

the short-term voltage stability. The rst countermeasure is

to operate the PV system at a leading power factor in the angle of the bus voltage . The subscript represents the axis

normal state, and the other countermeasure involves dynamic lagging behind the axis by 90 . Table I lists the gain and time

reactive power control using the inverters of the PV system constants of the control system that are tuned so that the system

after a voltage sag. Section V veries the effectiveness of the is not unstable in the following numerical examples in terms of

countermeasures for a ve-machine ve-load power system. the small-signal stability.

In the APR, we prioritize the reactive current in the current

II. PV MODEL limiting, although it can be selectable [10], depending on

whether the active or reactive current has the priority owing to

A. Equivalent Circuit

the types of PV systems.

Fig. 1 shows the equivalent circuit of the PV model for the

transient analysis. The PV model consists of a voltage source C. Fault Ride-Through Capability

and the reactance of an electric lter. Here, is set at 0.07 p.u. The FRT capability is a grid interconnection requirement of

on machine base. In the model, we consider the control system the PV system to prevent a cascading frequency drop. Typically,

of the inverter to cover a simulation time frame of several sec- PV inverters shut off during voltage sags to protect themselves

onds in duration with integration time steps of 1 ms. from overcurrent. New FRT requirements have been proposed

in Japan through a Japanese governmental research project [11].

B. Control System of Inverter In general, the FRT capability is dened as the ability to ride

The internal voltage is controlled by an automatic power through voltage sags and frequency variations. In the case of

regulator (APR) and an automatic current regulator (ACR) in a voltage sag, PV inverters are not required to shut off. Even

the control system of the inverter. Fig. 2 shows the block dia- if the operation of the PV system is interrupted, it is preferable

gram of the APR and the ACR that is the general model of a to recover the output of the PV system as soon as possible to

voltage-sourced converter. prevent variations in the power system frequency.

The output of the PV model is assumed to be limited by . In this study, the FRT capability is indicated by setting a

The subscript represents the axis corresponding to the phase threshold voltage for the voltage sag and a recovery

3418 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 30, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2015

TABLE II

SIMULATION CASES

TABLE III

SHUNT CAPACITORS AT EACH NODE

Fig. 4. Test system with the load center and the PV model.

of the PV model stops if the terminal voltage is under

p.u. When the operation stops, the power output recovers by

changing in the APR in Fig. 2 according to (1):

Fig. 5. Voltage at bus 6 in cases A, B, C, and D.

The time constant is set to satisfy an assumed for the the normal state. The simulation cases presented in Table II are

voltage change shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 3 shows the change in carried out for a 3LG fault. Several FRT capabilities are as-

the active power output of the PVs that have two types of FRT sumed for studying the impact of the FRT capability on the

capability, where is 0.2 s and 1.0 s. These values have short-term voltage stability. As the initial power ow condi-

been selected by referring to the technical targets recommended tions are different for the different simulation cases owing to

in the newly proposed Japanese requirements for PVs before the installation of the PVs, the voltages at buses 2, 4, and 6 are

and after 2016 [11]. As can be seen from Fig. 3, the power output set at 1.01 in the normal state by adjusting the reactive power

reaches up to 80% of the terminal voltage within . by varying the shunt capacitors at these buses, as shown in

Table III.

III. IMPACT OF FRT CAPABILITY ON SHORT-TERM Fig. 5 shows the change in the voltage at bus 6. The voltage

VOLTAGE STABILITY drops down to approximately 0.1 p.u. owing to the fault. There-

fore, the PV system stops in cases B, C, and D. It is observed

A. Numerical Example from the comparison between cases A and B that the installa-

Numerical simulations are carried out on the single-load in- tion of the PV system speeds up the voltage recovery if the PV

nite-bus system shown in Fig. 4 to focus on how the integra- system rapidly returns its power output. On the other hand, the

tion of the PV system affects the short-term voltage stability. installation of the PV system causes a voltage instability owing

The extra-high-voltage (EHV) network is represented by the to the stalling of the IM load in cases C and D.

innite bus, and the dynamic characteristics of the generators Figs. 6 and 7 show the change in the current and the active

are neglected to focus on the short-term voltage stability. The power output of the PV system, respectively, in cases B, C, and

load center is modeled by a dynamic load [9] that is connected D. The PV system increases its current output up to its rating

through aggregated transmission and subtransmission lines. The after fault clearing in cases B and C. It is also observed that the

dynamic load consists of a rst-order IM, which is modeled PV system brings its active power back to the reference value in

using the IM equations derived in [12] and a constant impedance case B, but the PV cannot do so because of the voltage instability

(Z), as shown in Fig. 4. The ratio of the IM load to the total load phenomena in case C. In case D, the PV does not restart.

is set at 50%, although the composition of the loads varies with The critical clearing time (CCT) for the IM stalling under

the load center, season, and time of the day. The load center is the 3LG fault is also investigated, and the results for cases

assumed to include both industrial and residential loads. The ag- AD are tabulated in Table IV. As seen from the comparison,

gregated PV system is connected to the load bus. a large-capacity installation of the PV system improves the

A 3LG fault in the EHV network is represented by speci- short-term voltage stability when the output recovery speed

fying the voltage of the innite bus at 0.10 p.u. for 0.10 s. Fault of the PV system is sufciently fast. On the other hand, the

KAWABE AND TANAKA: IMPACT OF DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF PV POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS 3419

Fig. 8. - plane for case A .

TABLE IV

CRITICAL CLEARING TIME

when its FRT capability is low.

B. Discussion on - Plane

Figs. 810 illustrate the change in the operating point of the

dynamic load in the - plane for cases AC under the 3LG

fault for 0.10 s. Here, and represent the active power con- Fig. 10. - plane for case C .

sumption and the magnitude of the terminal voltage of the load,

respectively. The stability boundary, which we have proposed in

[9], divides the - plane into stable and unstable regions. In Fig. 9 shows the results for case B. In this case, the operating

the unstable region at the left side of the boundary, the IM load point at the fault clearing time lies in the unstable

decelerates and causes a voltage instability. The transient - region because the PV system stops; therefore, the - curve

curves indicate the power transmission capability at a given shrinks. Note that the - curve expands with the increase in

time. The overview of the analytical method is explained in the the PV system's current output, as shown in Fig. 6. As a result,

Appendix. In this section, the previously proposed analytical the operating point enters the stable region, implying that the

method is applied to investigate impact of the FRT capability voltage returns to the normal operating range. It should also be

on the short-term voltage stability. noted that the - curve at is wider than that in case

Fig. 8 shows the result for case A. The operating point lying A, indicating that the transmission capability of the system im-

on the stability boundary at jumps to the lower left proves with the increase in the current output up to its rating.

owing to the 3LG fault at . The operating point during This effectively improves the short-term voltage stability, as

the fault is in the unstable region at the left side of the stability demonstrated by the comparison of the CCT in Table IV.

boundary. Therefore, the IM decelerates, and the operating point Fig. 10 illustrates the results for case C. The trajectory of the

further shifts downward. After clearing the fault at , operating point until in case C is the same as

the operating point jumps to the upper right. The operating point that in case B. Nevertheless, it can be seen that the expansion

moves upward along the - curve because it lies in the stable of the - curve in case C is less than that in case B owing

region at the right side of the boundary. to the slower current recovery, which is shown in Fig. 6. As a

3420 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 30, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2015

result, the operating point cannot shift out of the unstable region TABLE V

and moves downward in case C because the IM load largely SIMULATION CASES

decelerates, and its equivalent impedance becomes small.

The result of case D is close to that of case C. Although an an-

alytical result in the - plane is not shown here, the trajectory

of the operating point until in case D is the same

as that in case C. In case D, the transient - curve after the

fault remains unchanged because the PV system remains dis-

connected, and a voltage collapse occurs.

The analysis in the - plane reveals the following points. TABLE VI

SHUNT CAPACITORS AT EACH NODE

The integration of the PV system severely impairs the

short-term voltage stability when the PV system shuts off.

This is because the total capacity of the shunt capacitors

connected in the normal state is reduced by the PV system

at the load center, as summarized in Table III, and the shut

off of the PV system degrades the transmission capability

to the load center.

system. The DVS capability applied in this study is modeled by

The improvement in the recovery speed has a large impact

changing in the APR shown in Fig. 2 according to (2):

on short-term voltage stability. If the recovery speed is suf-

ciently fast, the installation of the PV system improves

the voltage stability because the PV system enhances the

transmission capability by increasing current output of the

(2)

PV up to its rating.

The constant determines the rate of change in the reactive

power with respect to the change in the terminal voltage. In this

study, is set at 5 to output the maximum reactive current when

IV. COUNTERMEASURES USING PV INVERTERS the voltage deviation is 0.2 p.u., i.e., is calculated by dividing

the rated current output of 1 p.u by the voltage deviation of

0.2 p.u.

A. Leading Power-Factor Operation and DVS Capability

B. Numerical Example

As shown in the previous section, the installation of a PV

system can adversely affect the short-term voltage stability, es- The effects of the two countermeasures are studied in the

pecially in the case where the PV system remains disconnected power system shown in Fig. 4. A 3LG fault in the EHV net-

after a voltage sag. In this section, we test the two countermea- work is assumed by setting the voltage of bus 1 at 0.01 p.u. for

sures using the inverters of the PV system with respect to the 0.10 s. The simulation cases summarized in Table V are carried

voltage instability phenomena caused when the PV system is out under the 3LG fault. Case I is the base case that is identical

suddenly interrupted because of a fault. to case D in Table II. In case II, the aggregated PV system op-

The capacity of the shunt capacitors connected in the normal erates at a leading power factor of 0.96 in the normal state and

state is reduced by the installation of the PV system. This is one does not have the FRT capability. In case III, the aggregated PV

of the reasons for the deterioration of short-term voltage sta- system operates at the leading power factor, and 50% of the PV

bility, as shown in the previous section. The operation of the system, which is assumed to be a utility-scale PV system, has

PV system at a leading power factor can avoid the reduction FRT and DVS capabilities. The voltages at buses 2, 4, and 6 are

in the capacity of the shunt capacitors. This operation has been set at 1.01 in the normal state by adjusting the reactive power

proposed for ensuring steady-state voltage regulation in distri- with the shunt capacitors at those buses, as summarized in

bution systems in Japan [13] as an economical countermeasure Table VI.

because the operation requires less apparent power capacity of Fig. 11 compares the change in the voltage at bus 6. A voltage

the inverter than the absorbed reactive power. In this paper, we collapse occurs in cases I and II. The leading power-factor op-

verify its effect on the short-term stability improvement. eration does not seem to be effective from this comparison. On

It is also shown in the previous section that the fast increase the other hand, the voltage is restored to the value in the normal

in the active current output of the PV system improves the short- state after the clearing of the fault owing to the DVS capability.

term voltage stability because it enhances the transmission ca- The change in the reactive power output from the PV system

pability to the load. One possible method to further enhance is compared between cases II and III in Fig. 12. It is observed

transmission capability is the injection of reactive current by that 50% of the PV system in case III achieves an increased

the PV inverters. This function is called the DVS. Although it reactive power output after fault clearing, and the reactive power

may not be feasible to equip all PV systems with FRT and DVS output gradually converges to the leading power output.

capabilities because of the cost factor, equipping at least part of The CCT for the IM stalling under the 3LG fault is also

the PV systems with these capabilities may signicantly help in investigated, and the results for cases IIII are tabulated in

maintaining the short-term voltage stability of the entire power Table VII. As seen from the comparison, the PV operation

KAWABE AND TANAKA: IMPACT OF DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF PV POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS 3421

Fig. 13. - plane for case I .

Fig. 12. Reactive power output of the PV system in cases II and III.

Fig. 14. - plane for case II .

TABLE VII

CRITICAL CLEARING TIME

short-term voltage stability.

Note that the leading power factor operation in case II

slightly improves the short-term voltage stability, as summa-

rized in Table VII, although we cannot observe it in Fig. 11.

The stabilizing effect by leading power factor operation can

Fig. 15. - plane for case III .

be physically explained by applying the proposed analytical

method in the - plane, as shown in the next subsection.

normal state owing to the shutoff of the PV system. Neverthe-

C. Discussion on - Plane

less, the - curve at in case II is wider than

Figs. 1315 are the analytical results in the - plane for that in case I. As a result, the operating point at in

cases IIII under the 3LG fault for 0.10 s. The gures explain case II is closer to the stable region than that in case I. Although

the transition of the operating point of the load by using transient a voltage collapse occurs in both cases, this effect due to the

- curves and the stability boundary. leading power-factor operation improves the short-term voltage

The operating point in the normal state lies at the intersection stability, as summarized in Table VII. It is also observed that the

of the stability boundary with the transient - curve in the SEP after fault clearing in case II lies at a higher position than

normal state. The intersection is the stable equilibrium point that in case I. This indicates that the leading power-factor op-

(SEP). The operating point jumps to the lower left owing to the eration has a preferable effect on the steady-state voltage after

3LG fault at . The operating point moves downward fault clearing for a stable case.

during the fault because the operating point is in the unstable A comparison between cases II and III shows the effect of the

region at the left side of the stability boundary. The operating DVS capability with which 50% of the PV system is equipped.

point jumps to the upper right after fault clearing at By injecting reactive power after the restart of the operation,

and moves in different directions in each case. as shown in Fig. 12, we observe that the - curve expands

A comparison between Figs. 13 and 14 show the effect of the in case III, as shown in Fig. 15. This improves the short-term

leading power-factor operation in the normal state. The - voltage stability by shifting the operating point of the load to

curves at in both cases shrink from those in the the stable region. The result shows that the DVS capability of

3422 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 30, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2015

if only part of the PV system in the load center is equipped with

the DVS capability.

Numerical examples are carried out for the ve-machine ve-

load power system shown in Fig. 16. The test system is created

by reference to a test system published in [14]. To analyze the

impact of PV on the short-term voltage stability, the impedance

between the transmission system and the load centers, which are

represented with the lighter color, is newly considered, unlike

conventional test systems used for a transient stability analysis.

The generators are modeled as a fth-order model, and an auto-

Fig. 16. 5-machine 5-load power system.

matic voltage regulator and a governor of the rst-order model

are incorporated in each generator. Each load center consists of

an IM and a constant impedance. The ratio of the IM to the total TABLE VIII

load is set at 50% at L1, L2, L3, and L4 and 20% at L5. SIMULATION CASES

At each load center, we assume the installation of PV sys-

tems of the same capacity and the same generating active power.

Table VIII tabulates the simulation cases and lists the generating

power and current rating of the PV system at each load center.

The total generating power of the PV system is 1.0 p.u. (0.2 p.u.

5), i.e., approximately 20% of the total load shown in Fig. 16.

The three simulation cases are carried out to verify the effect of TABLE IX

the two countermeasures using PV inverters. In case II, the PV CRITICAL CLEARING TIME

systems operate at the leading power factor. In case III, 50% of

each PV system is equipped with the DVS capability in addition

to the leading power-factor operation under the assumption that

the 50% of the PV systems at each load center are utility-scale

PV power plants, and the rest are the small-scale PV systems in

the residential area.

Table IX compares the CCT under 3LG faults at various lo-

cations. The CCT is used as an index for the short-term voltage

stability because a voltage collapse occurs within 3 s when the

system is unstable. The notation represents the 3LG

fault that occurs near bus and is cleared by opening one circuit

of the line . Here, we select fault locations where the CCT

in case I is less than 0.07 sa value that is close to the general

fault clearing time in Japan. As summarized in Table IX, CCTs

are improved by the PV operation at the leading power factor

and by adding the DVS capability. In particular, the DVS capa-

bility signicantly helps in maintaining the stability of the entire

power system.

Figs. 1719 show the results in each comparative case under

the fault 1115 for 0.07 s. In case I, a voltage collapse occurs

before 1 s owing to the interruption of all the PV systems. The

Fig. 17. Simulation results in case I . (a) Bus voltages. (b) Rotor

voltage collapse causes the step-out of generators. In case II, al- angles.

though every PV system shuts off as it does in case I, voltage

collapses occur at limited load centers (L1, L2, and L3) near the

fault location owing to the effect of the leading-power-factor load bus does not fall below 0.2 p.u. The rest of the PV systems

operation. These voltage collapses lead to the large excursion at these buses and the PV systems at L1 and L2 shut off during

of the rotor angles, but the generators maintain synchronism in the fault and start to control the reactive power after the voltage

case II. The abovementioned instability is avoided in case III recovers subsequent to fault clearing. Although hunting of the

by the dynamic control of reactive power using the inverters. PV systems is not observed in this study, coordination between

Half of the PV system at L3, L4, and L5 triggers reactive power the PV systems should be considered for other instability phe-

injection right after the fault occurs because the voltage at the nomena such as small-signal stability.

KAWABE AND TANAKA: IMPACT OF DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF PV POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS 3423

Fig. 18. Simulation results in case II . (a) Bus voltages. (b) Rotor

angles.

. (b) .

(b) Rotor angles. Figs. 1719) in addition to its effect on the local voltage sup-

port. Because the short-term voltage stability is closely related

to the transient stability [15], reactive power injection by the PV

TABLE X

IMPACT OF LOCATION OF DVS ON CCT inverter tends to be effective for the short-term voltage stability

when the control action simultaneously improves the transient

stability.

VI. CONCLUSION

This study analyses the impact of PV installation on the short-

term voltage stability and tests the effect of two countermea-

sures using PV inverters on the short-term voltage stability. Nu-

merical examples show that the installation of PVs severely im-

pairs the short-term voltage stability of the power generation

system if the PV system shuts off after a voltage sag, and its FRT

capability to return to the specied power output is low. Under

such an unstable condition, operating the PV system at a leading

B. Discussion on Location of DVS

power factor and deploying PV equipment with the DVS capa-

To investigate the impact of the location of the PV system that bility can be effective ways of improving the short-term voltage

has the DVS capability on the effect of the stability improve- stability. The countermeasures are preferable in terms of cost

ment, we compare several simulation cases for the ve-machine because they require less apparent power capacity of the inverter

ve-load power system, as summarized in Table X. Here, we than its controlled reactive power, though the control action can

assume that 50% of the PV system at one of the load centers be taken only at load centers and may not necessarily be effec-

has the DVS capability. The PV systems operate at the leading tive for maintaining the stability of bulk power systems, such as

power factor in every case; therefore, the base case in Table X is transient stability.

identical to case II in Table IX. In our future works, other countermeasures such as emer-

As summarized in Table X, the effect of the DVS capability is gency control of a battery energy storage system will be studied

dependent upon the location of the PV power plant that has the to facilitate the installation of a large amount of PV capacity

DVS capability. For the fault 1115, reactive power injection while simultaneously ensuring transient stability. Coordination

at L1, L2, or L3 is effective between the comparative cases. This between PV systems that have the DVS capability and other

is because reactive power injection at L1, L2, or L3 contributes controllers should also be considered to avoid other instability

to the deceleration of the critical generators such as G1G3 (see phenomena such as small-signal instability.

3424 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 30, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2015

APPENDIX [6] N. Kanao, Development of solar inverter with FRT and DVS capabil-

ities, J. Int. Council Electr. Eng., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 269275, 2013.

The transient - curve that has been proposed in [16] can [7] M. S. E. Moursi, H. H. Zeineldin, J. L. Kirtley, Jr., and K. Alobeidli, A

be depicted for a given time step during the transient period by dynamic master/slave reactive power-management scheme for smart

changing the slip of the IM load over the entire operating range. grids with distributed generation, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 29,

no. 3, pp. 11571167, Jun. 2014.

When we depict the transient - curve for the test system [8] J. A. Diaz de Leon, II and B. Kehrli, The modeling requirements for

shown in Fig. 4, the internal voltage of the PV system is xed short-term voltage stability studies, in Proc. IEEE PES Power Syst.

at the given time step. The transient - curve represents the Conf. Exposition, Oct. 29Nov. 1, 2006, pp. 582588.

[9] K. Kawabe and K. Tanaka, Analytical method for short-term voltage

power transfer to the load at a given time while reecting the stability using the stability boundary in the P-V plane, IEEE Trans.

operating condition of the PV system. Power Syst., accepted for publication.

On the other hand, the stability boundary that we have pro- [10] WECC Renewable Energy Modeling Task Force, Generic Solar

Photovoltaic System Dynamic Simulation Model Specication, Sep.

posed in [9] enables us to distinguish the sign of the time deriva- 2012, Power World Corporation. Champaign, IL, USA [Online].

tive of the IM speed in the - plane. Given that the con- Available: http://www.powerworld.com/les/WECC-Solar-PV-Dy-

ductance of the induction motor load takes the maximum value namic-Model-Specication-September-2012.pdf

[11] H. Kobayashi, Fault ride through requirements and measures of dis-

when the rotor speed is equal to , the stability boundary is tributed PV systems in Japan, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. General

depicted for two operating ranges, as shown in Fig. 20. The sta- Meeting, 2012.

bility boundary in Fig. 20(a) divides the region above the load [12] H. C. Stanley, An analysis of the induction machine, AIEE Trans.,

vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 751757, Dec. 1938.

characteristic curve at into two areas. The left side of [13] M. Ishimaru and S. Komami, Positive effect of PV's constant leading

the region represents the unstable region where the induction power-factor operation in power system, J. Int. Council Electr. Eng.,

motor decelerates, whereas the other side represents the stable vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 276282, 2013.

[14] N. Uchida and T. Nagao, Oct. 1981, A Method for Construction

region. The stability boundary for the operating range of of Power System Dynamic Equivalents by Modal Analysis (Part

also denes the stable and unstable regions, as shown in I), Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. Tokyo,

Fig. 20(b). In this paper, the stability boundary for the operating Japan [Online]. Available: http://criepi.denken.or.jp/jp/kenkikaku/re-

port/download/8KxdPJ3Z4tQxeO6Pg2CjNFGado2WoV33/report.pdf

range of is shown in the numerical examples be- [15] K. Kawabe and A. Yokoyama, Study on short-term voltage stability

cause the unstable equilibrium point (UEP) for a voltage insta- improvement using batteries on extra-high voltage network, in Proc.

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The analytical method using the transient - curves and Austria, 1990, pp. 12021209.

stability boundary has been applied to a single-load innite bus

system which neglects dynamic characteristics of synchronous

generators in [9]. The analytical method should be developed K. Kawabe (M12) received the B.S. degree from

for multi-machine systems to make it applicable to a practical Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, in 2007 and the

network analysis, evaluation, and control in our future works. M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of

Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, in 2009 and 2012, respectively.

So far, a related fundamental study have been carried out in He has been with the Graduate School of Science

[15] where the method to depict the transient - curves for and Engineering, University of Toyama, since 2012

a multi-machine system is proposed. as a visiting assistant professor and teaches power

system engineering.

REFERENCES

[1] S. Eftekharnejad, V. Vittal, G. T. Heydt, B. Keel, and J. Loehr, Impact

of increased penetration of photovoltaic generation on power systems,

IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 893901, May 2013.

[2] B. Tamimi, C. Canizares, and K. Bhattacharya, System stability im-

pact of large-scale and distributed solar photovoltaic generation: The K. Tanaka received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D.

case of Ontario, Canada, IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 4, no. 3, degrees in engineering from the Graduate School of

pp. 680688, Jul. 2013. Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, in 1974, 1976,

[3] S. Eftekharnejad, V. Vittal, G. T. Heydt, B. Keel, and J. Loehr, Small and 1996, respectively.

signal stability assessment of power systems with increased penetra- He joined the Central Research Institute of Elec-

tion of photovoltaic generation: A case study, IEEE Trans. Sustain. tric Power Industry (CRIEPI) in 1976 and served as

Energy, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 960967, Oct. 2013. a visiting researcher at the University of Texas, Ar-

[4] R. Yan and Y. K. Saha, Investigation of voltage stability for residential lington, TX, USA, from 1981 to 1982. He served as a

customers due to high photovoltaic penetrations, IEEE Trans. Power visiting professor at Tohoku University from 2006 to

Syst., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 651661, May 2012. 2009. He has been with the Graduate School of Sci-

[5] R. K. Varma, S. A. Rahman, V. Sharma, and T. Vanderheide, Novel ence and Engineering, University of Toyama, since

control of a PV solar system as STATCOM for preventing instability 2012 as a visiting professor and teaches power system engineering.

of induction motor load, in Proc. 25th IEEE CCECE, Apr. 29May 2, Dr. Tanaka received the Outstanding Paper Award of the IEE of Japan in

2012, pp. 15. 1993.

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