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Loads on Columns

Axial loads and bending moments both cause normal stresses on the column cross-

section. We analyze the normal stresses from these combined loads in the same way that

we analyze the normal stresses due to bending only in a beam, with two exceptions.

1. The sum of the normal stresses is now equal to the axial load (Pu), instead of equal to

zero, and

2. We sum moments about the centroid of the column cross-section, instead of the

centroid of the compressive stress on the concrete.

Beam Column

Mu

Mu Mu Pu

T

Cs Cc

C 2

Mu 1 3

d a/2 T

Pu Pu

F = 0, -C + T = 0

Mu Mu

M = Mu, T x (d a/2) = Mu

M = Mu, Cs 1 + Cc 2 + T 3 = Mu

We calculate the internal forces in a column at ultimate strength just as we do for a beam:

1. Assume a strain profile for the column cross-section. Ultimate strength of a

column occurs when the compressive strain in the concrete reaches 0.003, just as

for a beam

2. Calculate the stresses in the concrete and steel.

3. Calculate the stress resultants.

4. The sum of the stress resultants is equal to the axial capacity of the column (Pn)

5. The sum of the moments caused by each stress resultant about the centroid of the

column is equal to the moment capacity of the column (Mn).

CE 537, Spring 2011 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 2/8

Loads on Columns

Whereas a beam has only one moment capacity, a column has different axial and moment

capacities for each ratio of Mn / Pn. This ratio is called the eccentricity for the reason

demonstrated in the figure below.

M P

P

=

M=Pe

CE 537, Spring 2011 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 3/8

Loads on Columns

Column Interaction Diagram. The plot of axial capacity (Pn) vs. moment capacity (Mn)

is called an interaction diagram. Each point on the interaction diagram is associated with

a unique strain profile for the column cross-section. An interaction diagram has three key

points, as shown in the figure below. Each point and each region between the points is

discussed below.

Pure Compression

0.003 s = .003

Pn_max Mn, Pn

s = y

0.003

Mn, Pn

Tension-Controlled Failure

3 M

Pure Bending

s >> y

0.003

Point 1: The column is in pure compression. The maximum axial capacity of the column

occurs in this state.

CE 537, Spring 2011 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 4/8

Loads on Columns

Point 1 to Point 2 (compression-controlled failure): The concrete crushes before the

tension steel (layer furthest from the compression face) yields. Moment capacity

decreases because the steel does not reach its full strength.

Point 2 (Balanced failure): A so-called balanced failure occurs when the concrete

crushes (c = -0.003) at the same the tension steel yields (s = 0.002).

Point 2 to Point 3 (tension-controlled failure): As compression force is applied to the

section, the compression area can increase beyond the area balanced by the tension steel.

Larger compression force leads to larger moment.

Point 3: The column behaves as a beam. The compression area is limited by the area

balanced by the tension steel.

Strength Reduction Factor. The reduced nominal axial capacity ( Pn) and the reduced

nominal moment capacity ( Mn) are obtained by calculating the strength reduction factor

() based on the strain in the tension steel (the layer furthest from the compression face).

Max. Axial Capacity. ACI limits the axial force in a column (section 10.3.6, pg 123) to

Pn ,max = 0.85 [0.85 f c' ( Ag As ) + f y As ] (flat portion at top of Mn, Pn curve)

Various methods exist for checking the combined normal stresses due to axial and

bending in a column. Two methods are discussed here:

1) Single Pointuseful when checking column for only one set of loads

2) Multi-point (full interaction diagram) useful when checking column for

multiple sets of loads

CE 537, Spring 2011 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 5/8

Loads on Columns

Mn

Every point on the interaction diagram has a unique ratio of = e . Therefore, if

Pn

Mn Mu

= = e and Mn > Mu and Pn > Pu, then the column is adequate.

Pn pu

Pn

Pn, max M n M u

= =e

Pn Pu

Mn, Pn

Mu, Pu

1

e

Mn

Example

Check a 16" x 16" column with 5 #9 bars in each face to see if it is adequate for Pu =

390k, Mu = 220k-ft. fc = 3000 psi, fy = 60,000 psi.

M u 220 k ft

e= = k

= 0.564 ft

Pu 390

2. Use a spreadsheet to calculate to determine the strain profile that results in a ratio of

flexure strength to axial strength with the same eccentricity (e) as the loads.

M n

= e = 0.564

Pn

The strain profile (a straight line) is specified with two parameters:

Strain at compression face = c = 0.003

Depth from compression face to neutral axis = yt

CE 537, Spring 2011 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 6/8

Loads on Columns

After trial and error with the spreadsheet , it is seen that yt = 10.54" for

M n

= e = 0.564 ft

Pn

d'=2.44 s' = 0.00231 Cs

"

yt = 10.54" a

Cc

d=13.56" h=16"

T

s = 0.000861

b=16"

Cc = -0.85 f'c a b = 0.85(3ksi).85(10.54")16" = -365k

Cs = -As (fy - .85f'c) = -(5)1.00in2 (60ksi - .85(3ksi)) = -287k (fs' = fy since s' > y)

T = As fs = 5.00in2(0.000861)29,000ksi = 125k

Pn = F =-365k + -287k + 125k = -528k (take compressive forces as -'ve)

Mn =

k 16" .85 10.54" k 16" k 16" 1

ft

k ft

365 ( ) 287 ( 2 . 44" ) + 125 ( 13 . 56" ) 12 in = 298

2 2 2 2

= 0.65 since s < 0.002

Pn = 0.65 (528 k ) = 343 k

M n = 0.65 (298 k ft ) = 194 k ft

M n 194 k ft M

e= = = 0.564 ft = u ,

Pn 343 k

Pu

3. Check that the axial and flexure strengths are greater or equal to the axial force and

bending moment.

Mn = 194k-ft < 220k-ft = Mu, NG

Pn = 343k < 390k = Pu, NG

CE 537, Spring 2011 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 7/8

Loads on Columns

The capacity of a column with several sets of loads (e.g. from different load

combinations) can most easily be checked by generating a column interaction diagram.

Pn

s = -0.003

1

2

Pn, max

3

M LC II

,P LC II Mn, Pn

u u

4

M uLC I , PuLC I s = 0.002

6 Mn

s = 0.010

A point on the column interaction diagram can be calculated by assuming a strain profile

in the column and calculating the resulting Mn, Pn. The strain profiles are known for

Point 1 (s = -0.003) and Point 4 (s = y). Point 6 can typically be calculated using s = 5

y = 0.01. Ideally, Point 2 should be just slightly greater than Pn_max, and Point 3 and

Pont 5 midway between adjacent points.

CE 537, Spring 2011 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 8/8

Loads on Columns

Example: Pt. 5

Let s = 0.005

f'c = 3 ksi, 5 #9 bars in each face

tension = +'ve

d'=2.44 s' =- 0.00156 Cs

yt = 5.085 a

Cc

d=13.56" h=16"

T

s = 0.005

b=16"

= , y t = 5.085"

yt 13.56

s' 0.003

= , s ' = 0.00156

5.085"2.44 5.085"

a = b1 yt = 0.85 (5.085") = 4.32"

Cc = -0.85 f'c a b = -0.85(3ksi) 4.32"(16") = -176k

fs' = 29,000ksi (-0.00156) = -45.3ksi , > -60ksi, OK

Cs = As' [fs' (-.85f'c)]= (5)1.00in2 [-45.3ksi + .85(3ksi)] = -214k

T = As fs = 5.00in2(60,000ksi) = 300k since s > y

Pn = F =-176k + -214k +300k = -90k

Mn =

1

ft

k 16" k 16" .4.32" k 16" k ft

214 ( 2 . 44" ) + ( 176 )( ) + 300 ( 13 . 56" ) 12 in = 324

2 2 2 2

= 0.90 since s = 0.005

Pn = 0.90(90k ) = 81k

M n = 0.90(324k ft ) = 291k ft

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