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CE 537, Spring 2011 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 1/8

Loads on Columns
Axial loads and bending moments both cause normal stresses on the column cross-
section. We analyze the normal stresses from these combined loads in the same way that
we analyze the normal stresses due to bending only in a beam, with two exceptions.
1. The sum of the normal stresses is now equal to the axial load (Pu), instead of equal to
zero, and
2. We sum moments about the centroid of the column cross-section, instead of the
centroid of the compressive stress on the concrete.

Beam Column

Mu
Mu Mu Pu

T
Cs Cc

C 2
Mu 1 3
d a/2 T

Pu Pu
F = 0, -C + T = 0
Mu Mu
M = Mu, T x (d a/2) = Mu

F = Pu, -Cs -Cc + T = Pu

M = Mu, Cs 1 + Cc 2 + T 3 = Mu

We calculate the internal forces in a column at ultimate strength just as we do for a beam:
1. Assume a strain profile for the column cross-section. Ultimate strength of a
column occurs when the compressive strain in the concrete reaches 0.003, just as
for a beam
2. Calculate the stresses in the concrete and steel.
3. Calculate the stress resultants.
4. The sum of the stress resultants is equal to the axial capacity of the column (Pn)
5. The sum of the moments caused by each stress resultant about the centroid of the
column is equal to the moment capacity of the column (Mn).
CE 537, Spring 2011 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 2/8
Loads on Columns
Whereas a beam has only one moment capacity, a column has different axial and moment
capacities for each ratio of Mn / Pn. This ratio is called the eccentricity for the reason
demonstrated in the figure below.

M P
P

=
M=Pe
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Loads on Columns

Column Interaction Diagram. The plot of axial capacity (Pn) vs. moment capacity (Mn)
is called an interaction diagram. Each point on the interaction diagram is associated with
a unique strain profile for the column cross-section. An interaction diagram has three key
points, as shown in the figure below. Each point and each region between the points is
discussed below.

Pure Compression
0.003 s = .003

P 1 Compression-Controlled Failure Balanced Failure

Pn_max Mn, Pn

s = y
0.003

Mn, Pn

Tension-Controlled Failure

3 M

Pure Bending

s >> y

0.003

Point 1: The column is in pure compression. The maximum axial capacity of the column
occurs in this state.
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Loads on Columns
Point 1 to Point 2 (compression-controlled failure): The concrete crushes before the
tension steel (layer furthest from the compression face) yields. Moment capacity
decreases because the steel does not reach its full strength.
Point 2 (Balanced failure): A so-called balanced failure occurs when the concrete
crushes (c = -0.003) at the same the tension steel yields (s = 0.002).
Point 2 to Point 3 (tension-controlled failure): As compression force is applied to the
section, the compression area can increase beyond the area balanced by the tension steel.
Larger compression force leads to larger moment.
Point 3: The column behaves as a beam. The compression area is limited by the area
balanced by the tension steel.
Strength Reduction Factor. The reduced nominal axial capacity ( Pn) and the reduced
nominal moment capacity ( Mn) are obtained by calculating the strength reduction factor
() based on the strain in the tension steel (the layer furthest from the compression face).

Max. Axial Capacity. ACI limits the axial force in a column (section 10.3.6, pg 123) to
Pn ,max = 0.85 [0.85 f c' ( Ag As ) + f y As ] (flat portion at top of Mn, Pn curve)

accounts for accidental eccentricity

Various methods exist for checking the combined normal stresses due to axial and
bending in a column. Two methods are discussed here:
1) Single Pointuseful when checking column for only one set of loads
2) Multi-point (full interaction diagram) useful when checking column for
multiple sets of loads
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Loads on Columns

Capacity Check for One Set of Loads


Mn
Every point on the interaction diagram has a unique ratio of = e . Therefore, if
Pn
Mn Mu
= = e and Mn > Mu and Pn > Pu, then the column is adequate.
Pn pu
Pn
Pn, max M n M u
= =e
Pn Pu

Mn, Pn

Mu, Pu
1
e

Mn

Example
Check a 16" x 16" column with 5 #9 bars in each face to see if it is adequate for Pu =
390k, Mu = 220k-ft. fc = 3000 psi, fy = 60,000 psi.

1. Compute eccentricity of loads:

M u 220 k ft
e= = k
= 0.564 ft
Pu 390

2. Use a spreadsheet to calculate to determine the strain profile that results in a ratio of
flexure strength to axial strength with the same eccentricity (e) as the loads.
M n
= e = 0.564
Pn
The strain profile (a straight line) is specified with two parameters:
Strain at compression face = c = 0.003
Depth from compression face to neutral axis = yt
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Loads on Columns

After trial and error with the spreadsheet , it is seen that yt = 10.54" for
M n
= e = 0.564 ft
Pn

The calculations for Pn and Mn are shown below.

0.003 .85 f'c


d'=2.44 s' = 0.00231 Cs
"
yt = 10.54" a
Cc
d=13.56" h=16"

T
s = 0.000861
b=16"

d' = 1.5" + 3/8" + 9/16" = 2.44" (assume #3 ties)


Cc = -0.85 f'c a b = 0.85(3ksi).85(10.54")16" = -365k
Cs = -As (fy - .85f'c) = -(5)1.00in2 (60ksi - .85(3ksi)) = -287k (fs' = fy since s' > y)
T = As fs = 5.00in2(0.000861)29,000ksi = 125k
Pn = F =-365k + -287k + 125k = -528k (take compressive forces as -'ve)
Mn =
k 16" .85 10.54" k 16" k 16" 1
ft
k ft
365 ( ) 287 ( 2 . 44" ) + 125 ( 13 . 56" ) 12 in = 298
2 2 2 2
= 0.65 since s < 0.002
Pn = 0.65 (528 k ) = 343 k
M n = 0.65 (298 k ft ) = 194 k ft
M n 194 k ft M
e= = = 0.564 ft = u ,
Pn 343 k
Pu

3. Check that the axial and flexure strengths are greater or equal to the axial force and
bending moment.
Mn = 194k-ft < 220k-ft = Mu, NG
Pn = 343k < 390k = Pu, NG
CE 537, Spring 2011 Analysis of Combined Axial and Bending 7/8
Loads on Columns

Capacity Check for Multiple Load Sets


The capacity of a column with several sets of loads (e.g. from different load
combinations) can most easily be checked by generating a column interaction diagram.

Pn
s = -0.003
1
2
Pn, max

3
M LC II
,P LC II Mn, Pn
u u

M uLC III , PuLC III


4
M uLC I , PuLC I s = 0.002

6 Mn
s = 0.010

A point on the column interaction diagram can be calculated by assuming a strain profile
in the column and calculating the resulting Mn, Pn. The strain profiles are known for
Point 1 (s = -0.003) and Point 4 (s = y). Point 6 can typically be calculated using s = 5
y = 0.01. Ideally, Point 2 should be just slightly greater than Pn_max, and Point 3 and
Pont 5 midway between adjacent points.
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Loads on Columns

Example: Pt. 5
Let s = 0.005
f'c = 3 ksi, 5 #9 bars in each face
tension = +'ve

-0.003 .85 f'c


d'=2.44 s' =- 0.00156 Cs
yt = 5.085 a
Cc
d=13.56" h=16"

T
s = 0.005
b=16"

0.003 0.003 (+0.005)


= , y t = 5.085"
yt 13.56

s' 0.003
= , s ' = 0.00156
5.085"2.44 5.085"
a = b1 yt = 0.85 (5.085") = 4.32"
Cc = -0.85 f'c a b = -0.85(3ksi) 4.32"(16") = -176k
fs' = 29,000ksi (-0.00156) = -45.3ksi , > -60ksi, OK
Cs = As' [fs' (-.85f'c)]= (5)1.00in2 [-45.3ksi + .85(3ksi)] = -214k
T = As fs = 5.00in2(60,000ksi) = 300k since s > y
Pn = F =-176k + -214k +300k = -90k
Mn =
1
ft
k 16" k 16" .4.32" k 16" k ft
214 ( 2 . 44" ) + ( 176 )( ) + 300 ( 13 . 56" ) 12 in = 324
2 2 2 2
= 0.90 since s = 0.005

Pn = 0.90(90k ) = 81k
M n = 0.90(324k ft ) = 291k ft