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Element Warners Plot Redevelopment: Value $14.

t: Value $14.5m, Floor Project Benaud: Value $25m, Floor area 2,500 m2, 166 Moorhouse Avenue Units 5-9 Strengthening: Detailed Structural Assessment of Colombo and Lyttelton Recreation Centre: Value $3m
area 2200m2, CBD Christchurch. Dunedin Value $1.5m, Floor area 3,230 m2, Christchurch Lowrie Halls, Lincoln University

1 Comprehend My BSc degree (2003) is a formally recognised I completed the structural engineering of this multi-unit
and apply Washington Accord Qualification. I have also obtained building, working with a draughtsperson to produce
knowledge of the MSc degree (2007). I have more than 10 years experience construction drawings, and design features report.
accepted in structural engineering including more than 3 years NZ
principles experience. The clients brief was to strengthen the building to
underpinning 80%NBS. The building is founded on a shallow pad
widely applied I completed the structural engineering of this hotel project, footings combined with posthole footings located
good practice in working with a draughtsman to produce a set of typically on either end of the walls. The geotechnical
professional construction drawings. I acted as design engineer for the investigation by Tonkin & Taylor concluded that the site
engineering design of lateral load-resisting system while overseeing a is prone to liquefaction-induced differential settlement
(Washington graduate structural engineer working on designing the expected in the order of 90 mm for an SLS seismic
Accord level gravity load-resisting system. I was responsible for the event, and 90mm differential settlement with total
degree) overall structural engineering of the project including settlement of 225mm in a ULS seismic event.
preparation of construction documentation, overseeing the
graduate engineers work, attending biweekly design team The existing foundation types were assessed as
meetings and liaison with the wider design team etc. inappropriate for liquefiable soils due to their inability to
cater for differential settlement adequately. Either deep
As the ground floor of the building is meant for retail foundation or raft footing would have been a likely
purposes, the client required ground floor to be open plan foundation system had the building been designed
area, leaving no provision for introducing shear walls today.
except for at the perimeter of the building.
Subsequently the client was made aware of the
The architectural demand imposed big openings (40% of significant cost implications of retrofitting the existing
wall area) in the ground floor perimeter shear walls on foundations to 80%NBS. The client was after a practical
three visible-to-public faces of the building, with the fourth and pragmatic strengthening solution. I proposed to
face to have solid walls. Due to this, the building is strengthen the superstructure only but made the client
classified as irregular in terms of stiffness and required aware of the risk of on-going foundation settlement
careful consideration of the wall sizes at the ground floor. which is due to liquefiable soil conditions rather than
It was challenging to come up with lateral load-resisting lack of structural foundation not being adequate for
member sizing during the concept design phase of the strength demand. The Canterbury earthquakes have
project. provided further evidence that on its own, liquefaction is
unlikely to lead to a risk to life in low rise buildings (less
Although NZ code required an analysis method other than than 3 storeys) that are well tied together and are
equivalent static analysis method to analyse the building, therefore likely to maintain their integrity after significant
however, at concept design phase, ESA method, due to its settlement occurs.
simplicity, was considered appropriate to establish the
preliminary wall sizes. Later during the detailed design of
the building, model response spectrum analysis method
was adopted.

The analysis shows that 600 mm thick walls at ground


floor and 200mm thick above will suffice to cater for
stiffness and strength demands.

2 Comprehend The project milestone deliverables (concept design, I was responsible for the detailed structural design of I was responsible for carrying out displacement based Project Description from DFR
and apply detailed design etc.) were set per NZCIC documentation this project along with the help of a graduate structural assessment of the building using original construction
knowledge of the guidelines. engineer. drawings to determine the current building seismic I supervised the structural engineering of the project,
accepted capacity. acted as design verifier, reviewed construction
principles Shear walls (doubly reinforced) were detailed keeping in Up to developed design, the project was handled by drawings, worked with the architect to develop the
underpinning mind the recommendations of SESOC Interim Design other engineer. The Colombo and Lowrie Halls comprised of 6 Halls design of new build (part of the building), worked with
good practice in Guidance (March 2013) in addition to NZS 3101 used for student accommodation, designed in 1966. the draughtsperson to develop structural drawings
professional requirements. The building is located off Anzac Avenue in Dunedin. Each hall consists of 4 storeys and is constructed from while the design engineer was away on extended
The structural form is a lightweight steel frame structure reinforced concrete walls located at the tower perimeter leave.
engineering that
is specific to the Hawkins were chosen as the preferred contractor as part combined with single level precast concrete panel and reinforced concrete block walls internally.
jurisdiction in of the ECI (Early Contractor Involvement). They proposed construction. The building consists of a major brewery
to erect the ground floor shear walls first followed by first and public area with a steep pitched roof structure and Due to the larger plan area required for amenities such
which he
practices (NZ) floor, followed by concrete raft foundation and thereafter a secondary warehouse and utilities area with a low as TV lounge, laundry, kitchen and play room at the
construction of first and second floors. The design is pitch roof. There is no seismic separation between the ground floor, the internal masonry walls are supported
carried out to compliment this construction sequence, thus different areas of the building. on a transfer structure consisting of RC beams at the
incorporating the skill base and capability of the local NZ first floor level, which in turn, are supported on external
construction industry and its practices. Along with design actions taken from the analytical walls. The foundation consists of strip footings
model of the building, additional stability checks on underneath the reinforced concrete walls and block
structural shear walls were made using BRANZ Design walls.
Guide Slender Precast Concrete Panels with Low Axial
Loads, G J Beattie (2007). I adopted Non-Linear Static Pushover Procedure as per
NZSEE Red Book Assessment and Improvement of
For doubly reinforced shear walls, anti-buckling ties to the Structural Performance of Buildings in Earthquakes
the vertical reinforcement were provided as April 2012, along with some specifics taken from
recommended by of SESOC Interim Design Guidance Priestley Book.
(March 2013).
Element Warners Plot Redevelopment: Value $14.5m, Floor Project Benaud: Value $25m, Floor area 2,500 m2, 166 Moorhouse Avenue Units 5-9 Strengthening: Detailed Structural Assessment of Colombo and Lyttelton Recreation Centre: Value $3m
area 2200m2, CBD Christchurch. Dunedin Value $1.5m, Floor area 3,230 m2, Christchurch Lowrie Halls, Lincoln University

3 Define, The roof consisted of two levels with a step. This very Further to details as given under Element 2. The cost estimate based on the concept design
investigate and roof step introduced irregular load paths at parts of the indicated that the project is over-budget. I reviewed the
analyse complex building. Also, due to architectural requirements, wall Since the building is founded on shallow strip footing cost estimate report and found out that potential cost
engineering bracings in few elevations had somewhat irregular (12in thick, 3ft wide), I assessed the footing to be savings can be made if structural system of the building
problems in distribution along the height of the building. In order to incapable to act as fully fixed restraint which is typically is modified.
accordance with capture the demand on this irregular lateral load path, I assumed for wall structures. Instead the footing was
good practice for decided to carry out 3D analysis of the building at the modelled as strip with spring support. The Gymnasium part consists of a basketball field and
professional onset of the detailed design phase. Not only the has reinforced block walls at its perimeter. The
engineering adequate load paths were confirmed through analysis, it I modelled the building in ETABS using stick (beam) transverse structural system consisted of steel portal
also made possible to reduce the roof weight through element for walls for both RC walls and block walls. frames with braced gable ends above block walls.
optimising the steel design. I checked the structure for shear limit state, N-M limit During the cost estimate review, I noticed that the portal
state and foundation limit which included maximum soil frames the gymnasium required re-alignment
Recent evidence from building damaged in the
Canterbury Earthquake Series showed that some bearing pressure and foundation strength. It was found (estimated at $250,000) due to earthquake damage.
reidbar bracing system performed poorly. Following that foundations reach their ultimate limit state before Further the portal frames were deemed to require 6 No.
majority of the lateral load-resisting members of the new reinforced concrete ground tie beams (estimated
this, Reids advised to design their bracing system for
ductility of 1.0. Same was adopted for this project. superstructure. Therefore, the final building score at $66,000).
(%NBS) was reported corresponding to the ultimate
limit state of foundations i.e., foundations remain elastic Upon my advice, the roof structural system was
and in an undamaged state. changed by adding new cross bracing in both principle
directions. This took off the demand from the portal
frames and the whole system acted as braced system.
All the roof lateral load is resisted by the roof truss and
then transferred into walls at the perimeter of the
Gymnasium. Ground tie beams were also not required
due to the seismic loads transferred to the walls with
portal columns acting as gravity-only columns.

The additional bracing in the roof space was estimated


at $66,000 and the cost differential of $244,000
between additional bracing and proposed ground
beams brought the project well within budget.

Guidance was sought from the job director on the frame


verticality issue and it was assessed that the frame
verticality was not an issue for braced structural system
due to negligible P- effects.

4 Design or The original Warners Hotel was a four storey brick building The tank farm foundation is a shallow raft foundation on I have been involved in preparing the scope of works,
develop (demolished after Canterbury earthquakes). The client pre-consolidated ground and supports 16 vessels fee estimation and managing delivery.
solutions to wanted to preserve the external look of the building and containing beer.
complex replicate same sized windows at all levels to the external Discussing the project brief with client was to produce a
engineering elevations of the building. The majority of soils encountered during the strengthening scheme which is economical and causes
problems in investigation were gravels or plastic silts, the risk of minimum disruption to the building tenants where
accordance with In the new proposed development, due to the ground floor cyclic liquefaction is considered to be low. The soils possible.
good practice for being open plan area to be used for retail purposes, there may, however, be susceptible to cyclic softening and
professional was no scope for a structural system like braced frame or general densification under seismic loading. The three options discussed included (1) Replacement
internal shear walls. Moment frames was considered less of select wall panels with new panels, (2) Shotcreting of
engineering
suitable due to potentially excessive drifts and close The silt materials in the hydraulic fill layer would likely to the select walls from outside the building and (3)
proximity of the building with the Novotel Hotel at north be subject to softening under cyclic stress from Installation of braced steel frame inside the building.
side. significant earthquakes. The most significant
consequence of this softening would be a reduction in The client was made aware that option (1) would require
Due to faade of the building being proposed replica of the the undrained shear strength leading to degradation of major disruptions to the running business and is
original building, it was considered best to provide faceade the soil, including a reduction in bearing capacity. expensive, whereas option (3) is economical compared
consisting of precast shear walls to also act as lateral load- to option one but will cause major disruptions to the
resisting system of the building. Due to the risk of cycling softening, the geotechnical running business.
safe bearing capacity for cyclic softening was reduced
Due to large openings at three faces of the building ground to 30 kPa as opposed 75 kPa for no cyclic softening Only option (2) was proposed to be feasible meeting
floor walls, the building was classified as Stiffness Irregular under seismic conditions. client requirements as majority of the wall strengthening
per NZS 1170.5. As a consequent to this, response works (shotcreting) involved carrying out works from
spectrum analysis was carried out. The effect of cyclic softening was studied my modelling outside the building and there was no need to vacate
the foundation of Tank Farm with upper and lower the building where shotcreting was required.
Of particular complexity was the design of interface of bound soil stiffnesses. Due to excessive soil bearing
600mm thick ground floor walls with the side face of raft pressure, the legs location of the Tanks containing beer
foundation. Per contractors preferred method of was optimised such that the load is distributed over a
construction, the ground walls were to act as form for the wider area resulting in less bearing pressures. As a
raft foundation. Due to this, the high axial loads in wall result the raft has to be designed for greater area than
piers acted as shear action on the raft face inducing very required by arrangement of the tanks alone.
high localised shear stresses in raft concrete. To cater for
high shear stresses in the foundation, embedded beams
with stirrup reinforcing were designed. The cast-in inserts
(reid TIMS) were used in two layers at the bottom of the
wall for wall-foundation connection. Successive set of four
reidbars, connected to TIMS, acting as starter bars, were
provided with closely spaced stirrups to act as embedded
beams to cater for high localised shear stresses in
concrete.
Element Warners Plot Redevelopment: Value $14.5m, Floor Project Benaud: Value $25m, Floor area 2,500 m2, 166 Moorhouse Avenue Units 5-9 Strengthening: Detailed Structural Assessment of Colombo and Lyttelton Recreation Centre: Value $3m
area 2200m2, CBD Christchurch. Dunedin Value $1.5m, Floor area 3,230 m2, Christchurch Lowrie Halls, Lincoln University

5 Be responsible I acted as Job Manager for this project and am responsible This is further to explanation under Element 2. I acted as Job Manager for this project and am At the outset of the project, I decided to model the shear This is further to explanation under Element 3.
for making for job management activities such as managing delivery, responsible for job management activities such as wall building using stick elements (beam elements) as
decisions on part liaison with the wider design teams when required, billing Majority of the numerical work was undertaken by a managing delivery, liaison with the tenants when opposed to using Shell elements. After concept design was complete, I made the
or all of one or to the client, informing the client of the job progress, graduate structural engineer. I was responsible for the required, billing to the client, informing the client of the decision to amend the structural system of the
more complex raising fee variations, attending biweekly design team correctness of his work. The project was externally peer job progress etc. It was demonstrated through a simplified 2D example Gymnasium part of the building in order to help reduce
engineering meetings etc. reviewed and no major change was proposed as a that stick elements can be used to replicate shear wall the project cost and costing differential between
activities result. Post-design, during the tender stage, I was involved on behaviour by modifying stick element properties. This concept design and amended design showed that the
clients behalf in evaluating the three tenders submitted greatly reduced the numerical effort which would have decision was correct and favoured the client and project
I was responsible for two main structural changes; firstly to the client. been required otherwise to model nonlinear layered requirements.
replacement of steel angle bracing with reidbar bracing shell elements for shear walls. Also interpretation of
system; secondly optimising the rafter sizes from The project is in construction phase and I pay regular results while using shell elements is complex compared (Attach cost estimates and site visit reports)
360UB57 to 310UB40. site visits to inspect site works and I am responsible for to a stick element.
dealing with construction-related queries from different
Before materialising the change in rafter size, I took the parties such as steel fabricator, concrete precaster and Two appropriate references were also given. These
project architect in confidence as this was a major the main contractor. include:
change in terms of drafting, amending required ceiling
heights, re-drafting lower ceiling which was prevalent site visit reports 1. Design of Shear Wall Buildings, CIRIA Report 102.
approximately on half the building footprint. The project
architect liked the idea of significant saving in cost and 2. Shear Wall Analysis New Modelling, Same
improved seismic performance for reduced roof weight. Answers. by Kenneth Arnott, CSC (UK) Ltd, Product
Manager for CSCs S-Frame and Orion.

6 Manage part or I was responsible for overall project management and I was responsible for managing day to day structural My responsibilities included preparing the fee proposal
all of one or delivery. This included liaising with the architect and other engineering activities of the project both during design in accordance with the RFP from the client, preparing
more complex external and internal engineering disciplines including and construction. This included overseeing graduate risk assessment of the job upon grant of commission,
engineering Building Services (external), Civil, Surveying, Geotechnical engineers work, liaison with the wider project design overseeing different stages of the structural design
activities in and Environmental (internal), attending biweekly meetings. team, architect in particular, attending weekly progress along with managing the civil engineering of the job,
accordance with meetings, managing drafting out of Indonesia Office, attending design team meetings during both design and
good I was also responsible that the drawings and other construction queries. construction phases, managing engineering resources,
engineering deliverables were prepared commensurate with Beca controlling financials, liaising with the quantity surveyor
management quality procedures. For instance, in order to ensure that Construction queries, especially, were very fast paced and reporting to the client.
practice drawings meet quality procedures, I had the drawings due to tight construction programme. A maximum of
checked by the head draughtsperson. only two days were allocated to respond to each query; Risk Assessment Report
and out of two days, first day was reserved for me to
I was also responsible for attending biweekly design team respond to structural engineering aspect of the queries Drawings
meetings at the Project Managers Office, and updating while second day was reserved for the architect to
the Beca project team with changes as appropriate. DFR
respond. This was effectively managed by appropriate
resource allocation (of myself and the graduate design
I also attended building consent pre-application meeting engineer) in the section-wide resource plan.
with the wider design team to explain structural design.
This meeting was carried out to help expedite grant of
Building Consent once application is lodged. From
structural documentation view point, the CCC team
suggested that the calculations and drawings should show
clearly the design of the structure for fire. On drawings, it
was clearly marked what structural elements are fire-rated.
The roof was not fire-rated, so the precast shear walls at
that level had to cantilever for after-fire stability;
appropriate calculations were highlighted in the calculation
document and relevant design criteria was added to the
Design Features Report.
Element Warners Plot Redevelopment: Value $14.5m, Floor Project Benaud: Value $25m, Floor area 2,500 m2, 166 Moorhouse Avenue Units 5-9 Strengthening: Detailed Structural Assessment of Colombo and Lyttelton Recreation Centre: Value $3m
area 2200m2, CBD Christchurch. Dunedin Value $1.5m, Floor area 3,230 m2, Christchurch Lowrie Halls, Lincoln University

7 Identify, As part of on-job compulsory training, I have attended an I was involved in preparing the project risk paper along As part of design verification, I carried out independent
assess and in-house training session on Risk assessment and its with presenting it to the Beca risk committee. Please high level hand calculations to check the correctness of
manage procedure tailored to Beca Quality Management System. refer to the attached risk paper. the computer analysis produced by the design
engineering risk engineer.
I was involved in preparing the project risk paper. Please The building was designed in 1966 and the status of the
refer to the attached risk paper. available structural drawings was not noted on the I was involved in preparing the project risk paper.
drawings. There was a risk that the drawings and on- Please refer to the attached risk paper.
Under the headship of the project manager JLL, Safety in site construction differ. Therefore, before carrying out
Design was also carried out. any numerical work, I thought it prudent to visit the site Please refer to the attached site visit reports 8 and 9 for
to get a feel of the construction and confirm the the following.
As part of the project delivery, I attended the Pre-Tender structural drawings.
Review Meeting with the wider design team consisting of During site visits, I noted two instances which could
Structural engineer, Building services engineers During a walk-around inspection of the building, I found lead to unpleasant incidents. First came up during the
(Aurecon), Architect (architect studio), Client, tenant that the ground floor wall arrangement is significantly inspection of Squash Courts, the area had no lighting
(Crystal Imports) and the Contractor (Hawkins). Useful different compared to drawings for some of the towers. I arrangement at the time of site visit while workers were
comments were exchanged across all parties and noted the differences in construction and site measured still working; identified that the rebars had no caps and
incorporated later in the drawings. the missing wall geometry (refer page 3 of Tower E due to limited space available for man movement, there
calculation). was potential for someone to get an injury. The incident
In order to reduce the risk of design flaws, the verification was reported to the site supervisor.
of structural design was carried out internally. From
quality view point, the structural drawings were reviewed Secondly I spotted that a scaffold board was missing in
by the head draughtsperson to ensure that the drawings the temporary platform used for erection of roof bracing
format is commensurate with Beca Quality Procedures. at a height of about 5m from the floor. The platform was
constructed next to the viewing gallery of the Squash
Courts, and while stepping onto the platform from
viewing gallery, it was very easy to miss the missing
scaffold board as the very first board was missing. The
incident was reported to the site supervisor.

This project has also been internally audited.

8 Conduct The project was externally peer reviewed by a The building was strengthened to 80%NBS excluding Reporting on seismic assessment is a good deal of
engineering Chartered Professional Engineer. Constructive criticism foundations. The structural walls were founded on a responsibility, knowing that the conclusions and
activities to an was made by the reviewer. As a result, few additional mixture of foundations on liquefiable of soils; walls on recommendations given form the basis of major
ethical standard calculations/clarification were provided to the reviewer pad footings on either end of the wall; walls with nominal decisions for the building owners and tenants
at least where asked and useful comments accepted and connection with slab on grade only with local thickening associated with the building. An over-conservative
equivalent to the incorporated in the final design. Please refer to the of the slab under the wall. assessment resulting in a low building score might have
relevant code of attached peer review comments. caused the evacuation of the accommodation halls. On
ethical conduct The existing foundation types were assessed as the contrary if the building strength is over stated,
Grad mentoring inappropriate for liquefiable soils due to their inability to peoples lives may be unknowingly at a higher risk.
cater for differential settlement adequately. Either deep Therefore before finalising the building score, all the
foundation or raft footing would have been a likely assumptions were thoroughly discussed with the Design
foundation system had the building been designed Verifier and project director. After their review, a need
today. was felt that the foundation limit state should be
discussed with another subject specialist. As a result,
At the outset of the project, the client was made aware this was discussed with an expert (Rob Jury) out of
of the significant cost implications of retrofitting the Beca Wellington office.
existing foundations. The client was after a practical and
pragmatic strengthening solution. I proposed to The advice was taken around whether Ultimate
strengthen the superstructure only but made the client Geotechnical Bearing Capacity (UGBC) should be used
aware of the risk of on-going foundation settlement for the assessment of existing structures or the Ultimate
which is due to liquefiable soil conditions rather than Safe Bearing Capacity (0.5 UGBC).
lack of structural foundation not being adequate for
strength. The Canterbury earthquakes have provided
further evidence that on its own, liquefaction is unlikely
to lead to a risk to life in low rise buildings (less than 3
storeys) that are well tied together and are therefore
likely to maintain their integrity after significant
settlement occurs.

9 Recognise the The new development was proposed at location where As broadly defined in Element Five. The project objectives included upgrading the general
reasonably original Warners hotel existed. The original Warners hotel aesthetic appeal of the site, improve the visual impact
foreseeable was a brick building and incurred extensive damage during The rafter design was economised from 360UB57 to of the site from the street approaches, improve the
social, cultural the Canterbury earthquake sequence. 310UB40, and heavy equal angle roof bracing were reception area functionality and aesthetic.
and replaced with relatively lighter and economical reidbar
environmental The original building had a historic Porte Cochere on the bracing system. This not only saved some cost to the For the new entry part of the building, I proposed steel
effects of west elevation of the building. This historic structure has project but also improved seismic performance due to frame structure. This allowed to have big windows
professional been proposed to be restored an integrated at the request being relatively lightweight. between steel columns and helped lift the face of the
engineering of the Christchurch City Council into new development. community centre.
activities
The end result would be a structure replicating the original
generally
building, successfully blending into the surrounding as
before.
Element Warners Plot Redevelopment: Value $14.5m, Floor Project Benaud: Value $25m, Floor area 2,500 m2, 166 Moorhouse Avenue Units 5-9 Strengthening: Detailed Structural Assessment of Colombo and Lyttelton Recreation Centre: Value $3m
area 2200m2, CBD Christchurch. Dunedin Value $1.5m, Floor area 3,230 m2, Christchurch Lowrie Halls, Lincoln University

10 As a good practice, a design features report (or structural As structural lead design engineer, I was responsible Please refer to the attached email communication with
Communicate design criteria) has been prepared to provide the design for attending weekly meetings with the wider design the client informing him of the cost implications of
clearly with other summary. This report makes it easier to hand a project team, coordinating the design with other disciplines, strengthening the foundations.
engineers and over to someone else or if any further work is carried out in communicating changes to the structural design,
others that he is future. incorporating changes in structural design effected by I was responsible for providing progress updates to the
likely to deal with other disciplines. client during the design phase and monitoring
in the course of As a Job Manager on this project, I was responsible for construction later on, addressing contractors queries,
his professional attending biweekly design team meetings at JLL offices I was also responsible for liaising with our drafting office reviewing shop drawings, addressing any comments
engineering and present work progress. I was also responsible for in Jakarta to get the drawings prepared. from the building consent officer.
activities updating my project team consisting of geotechnical,
surveying, civil and environmental. I was also responsible for mentoring a graduate The construction drawings were outsourced out of
engineer on the project. Nelson. I was responsible for instructing the
draughtsperson and overall drawing preparation.

11 Maintain the Driven strongly by the effects of the recent Canterbury At one location (grid 7+), the 3.5m high x 6m long brick Per Section 3 (updated 2013) of Assessment and Further to explanation as given under Elements 2 and
currency of his earthquakes, there have been numerous documents veneer was supported on a steel angle which was Improvement of Structural Performance of Buildings in 5.
professional developed and issued by the industry as recommended bolted to the side of a PFC beam, inducing torsion due Earthquakes, it was recommended that on its own,
engineering methods of analysis and design with respect to earthquake to eccentric brick load. NZS 3404 does not explain liquefaction is unlikely to lead to a risk to life in light- On this project, extensive use has been made of
knowledge and damaged buildings and new buildings in Canterbury area. torsion design in great detail. weight timber buildings or other low rise (less than 3 NZSEE redbook and Priestelys book particularly to
skills For example these include NZSEE redbook, various DBH storeys) buildings that are well tied together and are define the material laws and assessing the %NBS of the
(MBIE) guides, SESOC guides. Due to space restrictions and bolting requirement of therefore likely to maintain their integrity after significant existing building.
steel angle section to PFC (main supporting member), settlement occurs.
On this project, particular use has been made of SESOCs use of closed section was not an option. I used From analytical modelling perspective, economical
Interim Design Guidance (March 2013) in addition to Eurocode 3, which explains the steel torsion design in The building had sustained damage as result of modelling strategy (stick modelling) has been employed
NZS 3101 requirements for detailing the shear walls. good detail, to design the PFC for torsional action Canterbury earthquake sequence. Beca has previously based on the appropriate references (given above).
effects. completed an earthquake damage assessment report
on the building. The floor level survey carried out
The project was externally peer reviewed by a suggested that the building has undergone a maximum
Chartered Professional Engineer. Constructive criticism uniform settlement in the order of 221mm with a
was made by the reviewer. As a result, few additional maximum differential settlement in the order of 120mm
calculations/clarification were provided to the reviewer across the building footprint.
where asked and useful comments accepted and
incorporated in the final design. Considering the recommendation of the NZSEE
technical guidance and keeping in mind the evidence of
the performance of the subject building during
earthquakes, I suggested the client to strengthen the
superstructure only, leaving the foundation as it is.

12 Exercise Further to details as given under Element 3. There were discussions with the client regarding the At the outset of the project, I proposed to model the Further to details as given under Element 3.
sound optimal strengthening solution which best suits client shear wall building using stick elements (beam
professional At the start of the detailed design, I noticed there were requirements, has minimum effect on business elements). It was demonstrated through a simplified 2D I proposed to introduce alternate load path turning
engineering quite a few relatively not so clearly defined roof load continuity of already tenanted building. example that stick elements can be used to replicate moment resisting steel frames into braced frame. This
judgement paths due to shear wall behaviour. This greatly reduced the was acknowledged to have reduced the construction
The three options discussed included numerical effort which would have been required to cost and programme.
- roofs having multiple levels,
model nonlinear layered shell elements for shear walls.
- roof segments having pitches orthogonal to - Replacement of select wall panels with new Two appropriate references were also given. These
each another and panels include
- at places discontinuity of the wall bracing - Shotcreting of the select walls from outside
along the height of the building. the building 1. Design of Shear Wall Buildings, CIRIA Report 102.
- Installation of braced steel frame inside the
To investigate the roof load path in detail, I decided to building. 2. Shear Wall Analysis New Modelling, Same
carry out a 3D analysis. A 2D analysis would not have Answers. by Kenneth Arnott, CSC (UK) Ltd, Product
captured the tricky load path. Opting 3D analysis also Option one would have required major disruptions to the Manager for CSCs S-Frame and Orion.
resulted in optimizing steel member sizes including running business, and so would option three. Only
down sizing of rafters and selection of reid bracing option two was proposed to be feasible meeting client
system over steel angle bracing. requirements as majority of the strengthening works
involved carrying out works outside the building.