You are on page 1of 69

FROM WASTE TO PRODUCT; RECYCLING WASTE TYRES

TO SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT

Maorwe Lillian Kathomi

B05/29610/2009

Supervised by Dr. Mwituria Wa Maina

08/02/2013

0
FROM WASTE TO PRODUCT; RECYCLING WASTE TYRES TO SAVE THE
ENVIRONMENT

By

Maorwe Lillian Kathomi

Supervised by Dr. Mwituria Wa Maina

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the


Undergraduate Degree in Bachelor of Arts and Design under the Faculty
of Architecture, Design and Development

Design Department

University of Nairobi

1
DECLARATION
This is my original work and has not been presented in any other university as

partial fulfillment of a degree course to the best of my knowledge

Candidate (Maorwe Lillian Kathomi B05/29610/2009)

Signature

Date

Supervisor

Signature

Date

2
DEDICATION

I would like to dedicate this project to my mother Mrs A. Muiti Maorwe for

making it possible for me to be able to carry out this research project.

3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

In the course of my research, I have received invaluable help from a number of

people without whom I would have floundered about aimlessly. First and

foremost I would like to thank God for keeping me sane and enabling me carry

out the research without many hindrances.

I would like to thank the Jua kali Artisans in Kariokor Market and Garage owners

in Nairobi west for taking their time out of their normal schedules to answer my

questions.

I am highly indebted to my parents for their wisdom, financial support and

encouragement throughout the writing of this paper. Words cannot express the

magnitude of my gratitude to them.

I am also grateful to my supervisor Dr. Maina for providing his knowledge in

guiding me throughout the research process. I am also indebted to my classmates

and friends for the guidance and encouragement.

4
DEFINATIONS
Recycling- this means any recovery operation by which waste materials are reprocessed into

products, materials or substances whether for the original or other purposes. It includes the

reprocessing of organic material but does not include energy recovery and the reprocessing into

materials that are to be used as fuels or for backfilling operations

Pyrolysis- is a process of converting waste plastic and tyres into Pyrolysis oil, Carbon black and

hydrocarbon gas. Pyrolysis is process of molecular breakdown where larger molecules are broken

down into smaller molecules.

Devulcanization - means reverting rubber from its thermoset, elastic state back into a plastic,

moldable state. This is accomplished by severing the sulfur bonds in the molecular structure. With

the proper devulcanization method, a much higher percentage of crumb rubber old tires can be

used as compounding.

5
ABSTRACT
This report analyses the amount of waste tyres produced in Nairobi and then

discarded. The importance of doing this research is to find out ways to recycle the

waste tyres into products to reduce the amount of waste tyres in Nairobi. The

research carried out was in Kariokor Market and Nairobi west.

Recycling provides a sustainable source of materials by processing a priority

waste so that it can enter into a new cycle of life - extending the functional value

of the original resource while reducing the energy required in production.

The research methodology entailed compilation of secondary data as well as field

work so as to collect primary data.

6
CONTENTS
1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 9
1.1 Background of the study........................................................................................................... 10
1.2 Statement of the problem ........................................................................................................ 12
1.4 Objectives ...................................................................................................................................... 12
1.5 hypothesis of the study ............................................................................................................. 13
1.6 Scope of the study ....................................................................................................................... 13
1.7 justification of the study ........................................................................................................... 13
1.8 limitations to the study ............................................................................................................. 13
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................................... 14
2.1 TYRES .............................................................................................................................................. 14
2.1.1 History ..................................................................................................................................... 14
2.2 ECO DESIGN ................................................................................................................................... 16
2.2.1Principles of eco-design ..................................................................................................... 17
2.3 DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT (DfE) ........................................................................................ 22
2.4 DESIGN FOR RECYCLING (DfR) ............................................................................................... 25
2.4.1 Recycling of waste tyres .................................................................................................... 28
2.4.2 Scrap tyre ............................................................................................................................... 30
2.4.3 Problems associated with uncontrolled or illegal scrap tire disposal ............. 31
3.0 RESEASRCH METHODOLOGY....................................................................................................... 41
3.4 Data collection Procedures.................................................................................................. 41
3.4 Data analysis ............................................................................................................................. 42
4.0 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION ......................................................................................................... 43
Case Study 1: Kariokor Market ...................................................................................................... 43
Case study 2. Nairobi west garages .............................................................................................. 46
4.2 RESEARCH FINDINGS ................................................................................................................. 48
5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................................................... 58
5.1Recycling ......................................................................................................................................... 58
5.2 Long-Term Solutions ................................................................................................................. 59
5.2.1 Creation of wrecking yards .............................................................................................. 59

7
5.2.2 Public campaigns ................................................................................................................. 59
5.2.3 Creation of Art Centres for recycling. ........................................................................... 60
BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................................................................................................................................... 61
APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................................. 64

8
1.0 INTRODUCTION

Wastes generally are inevitable products that are generated by every living organism. This extends

from the simple unicellular organism such as amoeba to the complex multi cellular organism such

as man. The volume of waste generated by various organisms is related to their size or complexity.

Before the industrial era, anthropogenic wastes include but not limited to those from physiological

processes, ashes from burning wood, agricultural and animal wastes which are buried in the

ground. However, with increase in population, the volume of waste generated also increases.

The industrial era brought tremendous improvement in the standard of living of man. This was

also accompanied by the introduction of different kinds of waste materials some of which are

detrimental to our lives and the environment. These wastes are in form of solid wastes e.g. waste

tires, broken glass, spent nuclear fuels, plastics; liquid wastes e.g. leachates, general chemical and

gaseous waste such as methane emitted from landfills, carbon monoxide etc. Waste tires has been

classified tires that are bald and worn down to the tread belt or have bulges or sidewall damage and

are not suitable to be retreaded as a result of long usage.

As Rachel Louise Carson (1907-1964) successfully noted in her phrase The human race is

challenged more than ever before to demonstrate our mastery - not over nature but of ourselves,

we are challenged to find ways to produce more energy, reduce our waste production while

minimizing use of limited natural resources.

Recycling of scrap tires until the 1960s in the US can be taken as an example; about half of the

manufactured automobile tires used to be recycled since only synthetic or natural rubber was used

in the tire manufacturing process and tires could have been directly used without major processing.

Recycling of used tires was further encouraged by the fact that these materials were also

9
expensive. The increasing use of the synthetic rubber, however, lowered the manufacturing costs

and reduced need for recycling. Moreover, the development of steel belted tires in the late 1960s

was almost the end of tire recycling since additional processing of tires was needed. Consequently,

by 1995, the rate of rubber recycling fell to only 2%. (Reschner, 2008)

The average motor vehicle will go through several sets of tires in its lifetime. As

the number of vehicles on our roads continues to rise, the problem of scrap tire disposal presents

serious waste management challenges for society. Used tires become waste when worn tires are

replaced and when vehicles reach the end of their life. The industry has been created virtually due

to government regulations enacted to address the environmental concerns about illegally dumped

or stockpiled tires. Governments are also trying to improve the viability of the industry by

providing incentives to end-markets that use scrap tire derived products. The scrap tire recycling

industry is at different stages of development in different countries

1.1 Background of the study

Automotive tires are made of synthetic rubber which is obtained from petroleum. The development

of tires was based on improving the performance of natural rubber which is obtained from the

liquid latex secreted by certain plants. At the beginning, natural rubber was used to produce

waterproof fabrics and to make balls, containers and shoes by Pre- Colombian people in South and

Central America. Until the 18th century, Europeans did not make use of rubber except that they

utilized it for manufacturing elastic bands and pencil erasers. Joseph Priestley, a founder of the

modern study of chemistry, named the substance "rubber" for its use as an eraser. (History:The

strange story of rubber., 2011; Placeholder1)

In the long run this project will aim to produce a culture of sustainable design where every product

produced can be recycled at the end of its life cycle. Sustainable design is defined as the

10
philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the

principles of economic, social and ecological sustainability. Furthermore products made through

sustainable design are intended not to harm the environment either when being created or when

they are being used. These products are also often designed to allow users to feel more connected

or to relate to the natural environment.

This recycling goes hand in hand with Design for Environment, which is championed as a more

responsible form of design. Design for Environment (DFE) is a general concept that refers to

variety of design approach that attempts to reduce the overall environmental impact of a product,

process. Or service, where environmental impacts are considered across its life cycle. It is a

product philosophy that aims at generating minimum waste during the products lifecycle during

production, marketing, distribution, use and disposal. .

Design for Environment is the product design philosophy that aims at generating minimum waste

during production, marketing, distribution, use and disposal. It involves the following

considerations:

Non-toxic & production materials. Manufacturing processes and materials used should

contain little if no toxic effluents that may harm the environment of the vicinity.

Minimum energy utilization. The product should be made efficiently without wastage of

power and can be mass-produced even in areas without much energy.

Minimize emissions. The design process should eliminate toxic gases from the

manufacturing process.

11
Minimize waste, scrap & by-products. The manufacturing process must ensure the product

eliminates excessive use of materials and only required amounts of materials are used in

the making of products.

The tire recycling industry is heavily invested in infrastructure specifically designed to recycle

existing tires into products for growing markets. Such investments reflect a studied decision based

on currently available technologies. A lack of forewarning of new products, or the creation of

products that are not easily recycled, could put these investments at risk. Further, without the

exchange of information between manufacturers and recyclers regarding the types of new products

tire manufacturers will introduce into the market place, it is impossible for recyclers to make

appropriate business decisions regarding future investments in equipment for processing such tires

as well as the exploration of new markets and technologies. (Tires international environmental

solutions.)

1.2 Statement of the problem

Even with laws in place, illegal dumping still occurs, presenting negative environmental impacts.

The dumping of tires is a problem in urban areas of Kenya. Most people think that the best way to

dispose scrap tires is to burn them or throw them in dumpsites but this creates environmental

strain. The opportunity to make use of used tires is rarely appreciated.

1.4 Objectives

To establish the magnitude of dumped tires

To explore creative use of scrap tires to provide raw materials usable in design of new

products

12
To create innovative sculptures plastics ceramics glass leather and jewelry products out of

reclaimed tires

To mount an exhibition of ideal designs using used tires as raw materials

1.5 hypothesis of the study

Tyre waste is a problem Nairobi.

1.6 Scope of the study

This study is restricted to Nairobi area due to the availability and accessibility to the problem.

Nairobi has the largest volume of motor vehicles as compared to the rest of the country. The

proposed focus will be on Nairobi west garages and Kariokor market towards how they use tires.

The study will also look into how ceramics, glass, tires can be used in the creation of sculptures,

plastic, leather and jewelry products. This is in line with the academic need of design degree

course of which this proposal is a professional and specialization needed.

1.7 justification of the study

Tires that are simply thrown away are a serious environmental problem. Recycling of scrap tires

on a global scale can drastically reduce waste yards, soil and atmospheric contamination caused by

dump yards and large scale tire fires.

1.8 limitations to the study

Time is a major limitation as most of the research has to be done with the time available.Un co-

operative correspondents. Finances to conduct research also posed a challenge

13
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter examines the root of the problem. Here researcher looks at vehicles in Kenya

generally first then focuses on tyre disposal after they can no longer serve for their intended

purpose. The researcher will also look at different types of tyres and how they are incorporated

into the various recycling design options. The purpose of this paper is to provide resources for

designers creating new building or landscape products made of whole tires or shredded tires.

The sources will be from published and unpublished materials, electronic sourcing and factual

information n formal interviews. This chapter also seeks to compare possible ways and means of

recycling with case studies of recycling with case studies of recycling and the rest of the world.

2.1 TYRES

2.1.1 History

A motor vehicle is a wheeled vehicle whose propulsion is provided by an engine or motor. The

internal combustion engine is the most common motor choice.

During the 19th century, Charles Goodyear studied on making rubber more resistant to various

chemicals. He started his working by mixing rubber with various dry powders, and aimed to find a

way to make natural rubber stickier. In 1839, he achieved to obtain the best product by applying

steam heat under pressure, for four to six hours at 132 Celsius (270 Fahrenheit) degrees (Good

Year Webpage, 2011)

Following the discovery of vulcanization, manufacturers began producing tires from solid rubber

which yielded a strong material to resist cuts and abrasions. Although this was a great progress, the

14
tires were too heavy and rigid. In order to decrease vibration and improve traction, Robert W.

Thomson, first produced the pneumatic rubber tire which consisted of rubber filled in with air. His

idea could not a commercialized since it was introduced too early for its time. John Boyd Dunlop

from Ireland, who did not know about Thomsons earlier invention, once more introduced the

pneumatic tire to the market in 1888. This time, pneumatic tire caught the publics attention

because bicycles were becoming extremely popular and the lighter tire provided a much better ride

(Year, 2011)

The following is a brief discussion about some characteristics of whole and processed waste tires

intended to help designers create new products from them. For most practical purposes, tires and

tire products function as homogeneous mixtures, but processing can impact physical characteristics

as size and shape are altered and as reinforcing wire and fabric are removed.

Therefore, variations are discussed in subsequent sections where they may be important. Some of

the characteristics of le or processed include:

Density: Tires are slightly heavier than water and will sink in water unless entrapped air provides

enough buoyancy to allow them to float. This generally occurs only with whole tires or fine crumb

rubber particles. However, tires and tire products are much lighter than soil or stone. The density

of whole and shredded tires depends upon size, depth, and compaction.

Durability: Tire rubber contains carbon black, antioxidants, and UV stabilizers to enhance

resistance to wear, chemical decomposition, and sunlight, respectively. These characteristics are

independent of particle size. Strength of whole tires is further enhanced by reinforcing wire and

(like nylon or polyester), but this additional strength is lost as wire and fabric are removed from

smaller particles. Abrasion resistance is illustrated by the long life of tires in contact with roads.

15
Tires and shreds are not easily damaged by blunt trauma, but they can be cut or punctured by sharp

objects.

Moisture Absorption: Tires and shreds can trap water on the surface and in irregular contours, but

they are relatively impervious to actual absorption.

Temperature Tolerance: Tire rubber is capable of withstanding a full range of ambient

temperature extremes without undergoing permanent property change. Some propertieslike

flexibilitychange as a function of temperature, but this change is reversible and repeatable.

Flammability: Tire shreds have a reported flash point of 582 F, higher than some other materials

used for architectural purposes such as wood, paper, foam, and fabric. The flash point is the

temperature at which a material will initially ignite, and the temperature to support continuing

combustion (fire point) is even higher. When crumb rubber is combined with a binder, the binder

may control the flammability of the resulting product if the binder has a lower flash point.

Color: Passenger tires are predominantly black, but white pigment is used to provide visible

sidewall lettering. As a result, shreds and crumb rubber made from passenger tires have a mixture

of black and white coloring. Truck tires do not have white pigment, so resulting products are

completely black. Color can be an important performance characteristic. (Baranwal, 2003)

2.2 ECO DESIGN

It is defined as a systematic process that incorporates significant environmental aspects of a

product as well as stakeholders requirements into product design and development (Lee & Park,

2006)

Johansson says its Minimizing a products environmental impact throughout its life cycle by taking

preventive measures during product development (Johansson , 2001)

16
Design which addresses all environmental impacts of a product throughout the complete life cycle

without unduly compromising other criteria like function, quality, cost and appearance (Poyner &

Simon, 1995)

2.2.1Principles of eco-design

Until now, the emphasis in business has been on minimising the effects of own manufacturing

processes or operations; the pressures for eco-design require additional life cycle thinking.

The main life cycle stages are:

Raw material extraction and transport.

Primary material processing and transport.

Product manufacturing and distribution.

Product use.

End-of-life.

The RMA (Rubber Manufacturers Association) defines a scrap tire as a tire that can no longer

serve its original intended purpose. Tire is a thermoset material that contains cross-linked

molecules of sulphur and other chemicals. The process of mixing rubber with other chemicals to

form this thermoset material is commonly known as vulcanization. This makes postconsumer tires

very stable and nearly impossible to degrade under ambient conditions. Consequently, it has

resulted in a growing disposal problem that has led to changes in legislation and significant

researches worldwide. On the other hand, disposal of the waste tires all around the world is

17
becoming higher and higher through time. This keeps on increasing every year with the number of

vehicles, as do the future problems relating to the crucial environmental issues. (Groom, Hanna, &

Tutu, 2005.)

As a result, tires that can be retreaded or used again are excluded from the scrap tire count.

According to the Waste Tire Working group comprising key stakeholders such as NEMA, Kenya

Revenue Authority, cement manufacturers, tire manufacturers, and dealers, Kenya generates over

one million scrap tires annually. Only a small fraction of the scrap tires is managed in an

environmentally sound manner while the rest continues to pileup in cities and various urban

centers. Currently, scrap tires are stockpiled in consumers yards or continually dumped into the

environment where they become a fire hazard, breeding grounds for snakes, bees and rodents

particularly rats, and human disease vectors such as mosquitoes. This is because appropriate

disposal methods or technologies are lacking. Further, open burning of tires to recover steel wire as

well as burning of tires during riots pollutes the environment with dioxins and furans, posing

serious respiratory risks to human and animal life (NEMA 2009)

The basic principle of eco-design consists of three elements based on the lifecycle of a product

(The first element is the cost of the product, which represents economic value. The second element

is impact, which represents environmental value and the influence on the global environment

through global warming, ozone layer destruction, and depletion of resources. The third is

performance, which represents consumer satisfaction and is related to safety, benefits, and

convenience. The integrated value of an eco-design product is the total of cost, impact, and

performance. A products eco-efficiency is measured by dividing the value of performance by

impact. Until recently, products have only been evaluated against the ratio of their performance

18
divided by cost, which fails to recognize the impact of the product. However, it is a basic principle

of eco-design that we must maximize the value of the ratio of performance divided by the multiple

of cost and impact. (Yamamoto, 1999.)

In applying eco-design to the design process, the product is assessed twice in terms of its

environmental aspects. The first assessment follows completion of the initial product design.

Environmental aspects are assessed a second time after confirmation of product quality and

performance through tests of prototypes. If there is a problem at either assessment stage, the design

process stops and repeats the previous stage. Furthermore, market information on products already

sold in the market is utilized to improve the design of the product. (Yamamoto, 1999.)

Tires not bound for tire recycling pose an environmental risk. These tires may find their way to

illegal tire piles, which pose a combustible risk: an uncontrolled tire fire can burn for days,

releasing toxic elements into the air and groundwater. States, in partnership with tire recyclers and

other stakeholders, have invested considerable time, energy, and other resources into eradicating

many of the tire piles that once were strewn across the nations landscape. Recycling tires from

these piles are typically used in civil engineering applications.

Products are the source of all environmental problems. Major issues such as pollution,

deforestation, species loss, and global warming are all side-effects of the activities that provide

consumers with food, transport, shelter, clothing and the endless array of consumer goods on the

market today. Ecological and social issues are becoming more important than ever before, and a

vital new role is opening up for design. Many beautiful-looking products have an underlying

ugliness that is hidden to the consumer and is often invisible to the designer as well. This site

reveals these environmental and social impacts and shows how they can be designed out to create

19
products that have a "total beauty". Sustainable products are those that are the best for people,

profits and the planet. (Edwin)

Cradle-to-cradle (eco-effectiveness) design and development, or eco-effectiveness can be

described as the next step on from eco-efficiency because it moves beyond simply reducing

environmental impact (less bad) to the creation of products, buildings or systems with beneficial

environmental or social outcomes (McDonough & Braungart, 2002)

Cradle-to-cradle design has also been described as a business strategy that generates ecological and

social, as well as economic prosperity. The cradle-to-cradle concept views population growth as a

benefit not a burden, because of the opportunity for cradle-to-cradle consumption. A cradle-to-

cradle approach to design aims to restore the health of water, soil and the atmosphere. It

eliminates the idea of waste by proposing that waste can equal food. Products and building

components should be 100 per cent biodegradable or 100 per cent recyclable to avoid cross-

contamination of the waste and resource streams. Rather than specifically looking at buildings,

humans or ecosystems. Waste is seen as potential resource. Emphasize on living systems and the

creation of producing and cycling systems. (McDonough & Braungart, 2002)

Kazazian (2005) focuses on eco-conception, which is the process of applying the concepts of

ecodesign. With this approach, the environment is considered to be equal in importance to factors

such as technical feasibility, cost control, and market demand. Eco-conception can lead to three

different levels of eco-design intervention when designing a product: (a) optimization for

environmental impact reduction, (b) more intensive development efforts, such as modifying the

product, and (c) radical intervention, such as substitution of different products or services

(Kazazian T. , 2005)

20
(Boks, 2006) stresses the importance of product designers, emphasizing their unique position and

ability to influence environmental strategies. Designers can have a key impact when they enlarge

the focus of their efforts, giving the environment a prominent position in defining the parameters

of product development. (Karlsson & Luttropp, 2006) note that ecodesign incorporates priorities

related to sustainability into the overall business scenario. The eco in ecodesign can refer to both

economics (reflecting a business orientation) and ecology (reflecting the importance of

environmental aspects)

unusable. Contaminants such as additives, coatings, metal plating of plastics e.t.t. Also have to be

limited.

Drivers for the increasing demand for sustainable building include: lower operating costs;

increased occupant satisfaction and health; increased adaptability of the building; an increased

understanding of the necessity of addressing environmental issues; and a general global trend

towards sustainable building. In this case the cost of materials of decorating a garden or a backyard

can be cut by recycling of tires to make most of the products. This includes planters, backyard

furniture etc.

Reduced environmental impact is a significant benefit and perhaps the main motivation behind

eco-efficiency. Reduced (rather than no) environment impact is useful because it delays

environmental degradation while new methodologies and technologies are devised to remediate or

reverse past environmental damage A functioning and healthy natural environment is vital for

providing the ecosystem goods and services that enable humans to survive and thrive. This will

be further discussed in subsequent sections.

21
2.3 DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT (DfE)

Design for Environment is the process of minimizing the environmental impact of products

without sacrificing function and quality (Allenby, 1991)

Also defined as a design process that must be considered for conserving and reusing the earths

scarce resources; where energy and material consumption is optimized, minimal waste is generated

and output waste streams from any process can be used as the raw materials (inputs) of another

(Billatos, S.B. and Basaly, N.A., , 1997)

Ultimately, Design for Environment can be defined as a methodology directed at the systematic

reduction or elimination of the environmental impacts implicated in the whole life cycle of a

product, from the extraction of raw materials to disposal. This methodology is based on evaluating

the potential impacts throughout the entire course of the design process. In addition to its specific

primary objective and its orientation toward the life cycle, DFE is characterized by two other

aspects

the dual level of intervention, regarding both products and processes

the proactive action of intervention, based on the presupposition of the greater efficacy of

intervening early in the product development process (i.e. in the early design phases (Fabio

Giudice - DIIM Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering - University of

Catania, 2006)

The central theme unifying the various experiences of Design for Environment can be identified in

the common objective of reducing the environmental impact of a product over its entire life cycle,

22
from design to disposal. The concept of reduction of the environmental impact is not, however,

limited to the simple quantification and minimization of direct impacts on the ecosystem. Rather,

in this context it has to be understood in wider terms, as the improvement of the environmental

performance, which includes a more articulated range of aspects:

Reduction of scrap and waste, allowing a more efficient use of resources and a decrease in

the volumes of refuse, and more generally a reduction in the impact associated with the

management of waste materials

Optimal management of materials, consisting of the correct use of materials on the basis of

the performance required, in their recovery at the end of the products life and in the

reduction of toxic or polluting materials

Optimization of production processes, consisting of the planning of processes which are

energetically efficient and result in limited emissions

Improvement of the product, with particular regard to its behavior during the phase of use,

to reduce the consumption of resources or the need for further additional resources during

its operation (Fabio Giudice - DIIM Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering

- University of Catania, 2006)

DFE is implemented in design practice through three successive phases:

Scoping, consists of defining the target of the intervention (product, process, resource

flow), identifying possible alternatives, and determining the depth of analysis

Data Gathering, consists of acquiring and evaluating the more significant environmental

data

23
Data Translation, consists of transforming the results from the preliminary analysis data

into tools (from simple guidelines and design procedures to more sophisticated software

systems assisting the design team to apply environmental data in the design process) (Fabio

Giudice - DIIM Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering - University of

Catania, 2006)

These tools, and the issues correlated with them (evaluation of environmental impact of products

and processes, choice of materials and processes, disassembly of the product or subsystems,

extension and optimization of the useful life, recovery at end-of-life through reuse of components

and recycling of materials), are the specific subject of our research activity. However, it should be

noted that these tools are based on a wide-ranging series of suggestions and guidelines for the

designer which can be summarized as follows:

Reducing the use of materials, using recycled and recyclable materials, reducing toxic or

polluting materials

Maximizing the number of replaceable or recyclable components

Reducing emissions and waste in production processes

Increasing energy efficiency in phases of production and use

Increasing reliability and maintainability of the system

Facilitating the exploitation of materials and recovery of resources by planning the

disassembly of components

Extending the products useful life

Planning strategies for the recovery of resources at end-of-life, facilitating reuse,

remanufacturing and recycling, and reducing waste

24
Controlling and limiting the economic costs incurred by design interventions aimed at

improving the environmental performance of the product

Respecting current legal constraints and evaluating future regulations in preparation

Applying these guidelines in relation to the main phases of the products life cycle, as a general

rule it is possible to obtain useful information and to explore the whole set of environmental

opportunities for an eco-efficient intervention in the product design and development process.

(Fabio Giudice - DIIM Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering - University of

Catania, 2006)

(Fiksel , 2011) Defines DfE as a Systematic consideration of design performance with respect to

environmental health, and safety objectives over the full product and process life cycle

2.4 DESIGN FOR RECYCLING (DfR)

Recycling of waste has drawn attention of society based on the slogan There is gold in our

garbage on hand and growing concern about the environmental protection on the other hand. The

main constituent of a tyre is rubber and the largest single application of rubber is vehicle tyres.

Also the requirement of tyre is directly related to growth of automobile. The production of

automobiles is forecast to continue to rise and is indicative of buoyant economic conditions for

tyre industry, but at the same time guarantee and annual discarded scrap tyre volume growing at

the same rate as new tyre manufacture. (Recycling of tyres, 2009)

ISRIs Design for Recycling policy seeks to balance quality control and safety issues with the need

for manufacturers to explore opportunities during product design that might help increase the yield

25
of recoverable materials at end of life so as to maximize opportunities for recycling. To this end,

ISRI seeks to open a dialogue with tire manufacturers and suggest the creation of a working group

that will encourage communication and cooperation between the two industries. (Scrap tire

management council)

Scrap tyres are classified as hazardous waste in Kenya. Their management comprises minimal

environmentally friendly re-use and disposal such as small-scale manufacture of carpet underlay

and sandals, retreading especially in the truck sector and limited use as an alternative fuel.

However more economically viable and environmentally friendly technological options are

available globally and include shredding and using them in civil works (roads-rubber, bitumen,

asphalt mix), processing them into carbon black for UV protection of water tanks and tyres,

processing scrap tyres into drainage sheet lining for sanitary landfills and open oxidation ponds

and use as plant mulching and soil conditioning in agriculture.

Investing in appropriate technologies to handle the available scrap tyre stockpiles and the million

scrap tyres that are generated annually in Kenya should make business sense and the government

should create an enabling environment for investment in these by the private sector. This would

help address the public health and environmental risks and create jobs that would enable the poor

to escape the poverty trap as anticipated by Vision 2030. (NEMA, 2008)

To support design for recyclability, design for disassembly needs to be addressed. Design for

disassembly enhances maintainability or serviceability of a product, and it enables recycling of

materials, components parts, assemblies, and modules. There are a number of principles to

facilitate disassembly: in recycling tires Avoid use of adhesives in order to join parts. Adhesives

make separation of parts difficulty and can lead to breakages thus in some cases, rendering the

product

26
The center for sustainability systems at the University of Michigan recommends guidelines

emphasis such as-

Use recyclable materials

Use recycled materials

Reduce materials diversity within assembly.

Mark parts for simple material identification

Use compatible materials within assembly. (Staudinger & Keoleian, 2001)

Design for disposal & recyclability is the design of product with extendable lifecycles as a result of

usage of materials that can be re used in one form or another. It also involves the following

considerations;

Re-use/ refurbishment of components & assemblies. Components of the products can be

easily got as they are mass produced to facilitate usage of the product for longer

Material selection to enable re-use (e.g. thermoplastics) and minimize toxicity. Some

materials are better suited than others to be used in the creation of a product as they are

easily replaceable and more versatile in their use.

Avoids filler materials in plastics such as fiber glass and graphite. This will ensure the

plastics can be recycled efficiently.

Minimum number of materials/ colors to facilitate separating materials and re use. The

finished product should comprise of a limited number

Recycling of scrap tires on a global scale can drastically reduce waste yards, soil and atmospheric

contamination caused by dump yards and large scale tire fires.

27
2.4.1 Recycling of waste tyres

Recycling of waste tyres is a business like any production process where efficiency is central to

sustainability Environmental consideration is another integral factor, although its not the sole

driver of the initiative. Energy or resource economics might be the determinants of resource

recycling. In the interest of the environment, governments are putting measures to integrate

environmental management into production process of all business initiatives. As a result, reuse

and recycling of resources is not by choice but in the interest of environmental protection.

Consequently recycling of any material in a substantial manner requires the critical consideration

of:

1. Economic growth

2. Environmental protection

Its crucial that a balance between this considerations is attained the use of cost benefit analysis in

environmental policy can be used to strike a balance between economic growth and environmental

management. (Sharma, Fotuna, & Mincarini, 2000)

From an environmental standpoint, the use of a waste material for its originally intended purpose is

the most preferential recycling method. Miscellaneous uses for scrap tires include a wide range of

applications like the ubiquitous silo covers, playground swings, woven door mats from scrap tire

strips, handicrafts, shoe soles, die cut products, etc. When referring to incineration, some people

use the term energy recovery or even thermal recycling. While this sounds more impressive

that incineration or burning, the fact remains that the use of a material for its originally

intended purpose more preferable, both from an environmental and from an economic standpoint.

28
This becomes obvious when we take a closer look at the typical energy consumption to produce

tire rubber and compare it to the energy gained by burning a tire: (Reschner, 2008)

As concern for the environment grows, and tire recycling becomes a larger part of protecting it,

new rules and regulations will be proposed and considered. Its important that these laws protect

the environment, without making it more difficult to recycle tires. An open dialogue with

lawmakers on these issues should occur to make sure that all sides of the issue are considered

before enacting new rules and regulations. Recyclable rubber is a valuable commodity that has

been finding its way into more and more durable goods and products. With the opening of new

markets and opportunities for the use of recyclable rubber, tire recycling will be there to take

advantage of and ensure tires are recycled in a responsible, environmentally friendly way. (Tires

international environmental solutions.)

Benefits of recycling include:

Conserves natural resources such as wood, water and minerals

Saves energy because less energy is used to manufacture brand new products

Produces less greenhouse gases because industries burn fewer fossil fuels

Recycling programs cost less than waste disposal programs

Recycling centers create jobs

Prevents the destruction of natural habitats

Decreases soil erosion associated with mining and logging

Wherever they can, Michelin support the establishment of organizations giving tyre manufacturers

responsibility for the development and management of recycling facilities for worn tyres.

Throughout the world, numerous industries have elected to use worn tyres as an alternative fuel

source in furnaces in power stations, industrial boilers, incinerators, cement works, etc. In the

29
USA, more than 150 million tyres have been processed and used in the form of energy over the

past 10 years. Worn tyres can also be used in numerous material applications. (Michelin.com,

2012-2013)

According to Gopinath Sekhar of SRI Elastomers, there are three barriers to the widespread use of

treated or de-vulcanised rubber goods in general and tyres in particular. Two of these are

managerial while the other is technical. The main technical issue with treated or de-vulcanised

materials is the shelf life, but the biggest problems are the managerial and branding issues of

professionalism on the one hand, and logistics and volume on the other. (Shaw, 2011)

On the technical side, SRI, like a few other companies, supplies a compounding material which is

based on a treatment applied to granulate. The treatment is claimed to selectively break the sulphur

bonds within the rubber compound. There are a range of treatments which claim to break the

sulphur bonds, but all of them face certain problems. At first glance these treatments lead to fresh

compound, but in reality, the compound contains accelerators, excess curing agents and other

active ingredients. In many of these treated compounds, these chemicals start to react during

storage, leading to substantial reductions in the shelf-life and reducing cure safety margins

dramatically. (Shaw, 2011)

2.4.2 Scrap tyre

Scrap tires can be a valuable commodity. Beneficial end uses for scrap tires can curb illegal tire

dumping while diverting tires from landfill disposal. Creating long-term sustainable uses for scrap

tires can help local governments. Tires are designed and built to last and as such be not naturally

degradable and difficult to treat. This poses a huge problem in recycling them.

30
Though most tires currently in the marketplace are recyclable, some, due to their manufacturing

processes, are not. This raises the concern that future products may also be designed and released

into the marketplace that do not take into consideration resource awareness, societal health and

safety, and end-of-life management. These tires might not be recyclable and essentially will have

been Designated for Landfill. At the end of their useful life they could be rejected by tire

processors due to the problems they pose in scrap processing. These tires might find their way to

landfills or illegal tire piles, or they simply might be discarded without regard to the hazards they

could potentially pose to the environment or to society. A leading industrial organization, the

Institute for Scrap Recycling Industry (ISRI) is concerned that tires Designated for Landfill

could exacerbate an already daunting problem that municipalities are working to alleviate.

Preventing these tires from being landfilled by designing for recycling will preserve the limited

amount of space many municipalites have for material that is truly waste and cannot feasibly be

recycled. Furthermore, the tire manufacturers that embrace Design for Recycling in their

manufacturing process will help promote resource awareness, environmental conservation, and

public and worker health and safety. (Tires international environmental solutions.)

2.4.3 Problems associated with uncontrolled or illegal scrap tire disposal

Waste tyres are considered a problem because they are difficult to get rid of safely through normal

means such as leaving them in a landfill to decay or incinerating them. A tyre by itself is generally

fairly large, but a great deal of that is open space. Their nature does not allow compression or

folding in order to reduce the space occupied during disposal at landfills and they also do not

degrade easily because of the chemical and physical feature. This often causes the following

problems.

31
Land Filing

Waste tyres are bulky and difficult to dispose because of their large size and hollow structure.

Tyres generally do not decay nearly as quickly as other waste in the landfill. This is due to the

process of vulcanization, a method of treating rubber with extreme heat and adding sulfur to make

it extremely durable; because of this, other material around the tyre will decompose and cause the

tyre to rise to the surface of the landfill .Subsequently, many landfills around the world stopped

accepting waste tyres due to the aforementioned problem of size among others where the land

becomes filled quickly.

Shredding of the waste tyres before disposal has been suggested and tried for size reduction before

disposal. The high operational costs of this process made it an unattractive option.

This situation eventually leads to waste tyres becoming litters in the environment, occupying large

size of land. (tyre recycle line , 2010)

Figure 1

Source: Google images

32
Human health problems

Indiscriminate and illegally discarding of waste tyres in the environment make Waste tyres

reservoir of rain water hence providing breeding space for mosquitoes and other vectors of

diseases like malaria, dengue and yellow fever. Other disease carrying pests such as rats c

The composition of tyres include hazardous chemicals like cadmium, lead and chromium which

poses further risk to human health and the environment when disposed of inappropriately into the

environment. This occurs when the waste tyres are indiscriminately combusted. (tyre recycle line ,

2010)

Fire hazard

Figure 2

Source: Google images

Deliberate or unintentional fire problems emanating from tyre can be very difficult to extinguish

especially when the pile is very huge involving about ten million waste tyres. When piles of tyres

ignite, various environmental, health and social problems occur. Significant pollution such as

33
thick, black, foul smelling smog from the burning rubber is produced. The smog from the burning

tyres can cause a number of environmental problems such as:

Air Pollution: Complete combustion of a tyre, will produce carbon dioxide that contribute to

greenhouse effects water vapor and inert residues that may contain sulphur dioxide. Incomplete

combustion release dioxins and noxious gases. Furthermore, the following substances: volatile

organic

compounds and hazardous air pollutants such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),

dioxins, furans, hydrogen chloride, benzene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), arsenic, cadmium,

nickel, mercury, zinc, chromium and vanadium are released into the atmosphere.

Water Pollution: Tyre combustion causes pyrolysis of the rubber, resulting in oily decomposition

waste. The oily discharge can flow into nearby streams, ditches and waterways or can leach into

the ground water. In cases where water is used to put out the fire, chemical compounds like

aromatic liquids and paraffin may be carried by the water. Then the used water needs to be treated,

before it is disposed of, which does not often happen in practice. The situation can pollute nearby

streams or may seep into the ground water.

Soil Pollution: Residues that remain on the soil after a fire can have an impact on

the environment in two ways: Immediate pollution resulting from decomposing liquid products

penetrating the soil. Gradual pollution caused by leaching of ash and unburned residues. Gradual

leaching of oily discharge can occur and the toxic residues of the burnt tyre such as zinc salts can

34
cause harm to fauna and flora It usually takes long time for the contaminated soil to recover unless

remediation and or rehabilitation measures are taken. (tyre recycle line , 2010)

Figure 3

Source: Google images

In response to the environmental problems and health hazards caused the by countless illegal scrap

tire piles around the globe, most industrialized countries have instigated legal guidelines

addressing this issue. Regulations vary from country to country, but the main purpose of these

regulations is to provide for an environmentally safe disposal, limit the amount of tires being

stored at any given location, and to encourage the use of tire derived recycling products. While

grants and subsidies are sometimes instrumental for the implementation of a recycling project, it is

ultimately up to the ingenuity of business community to come up with economically sound and

market driven solutions. The key factors for a long term economic success in this field are:

Sound marketing for the recycled product

Judicious selection of the appropriate recycling technology

Innovative product development

35
A local and national government that is supportive of recycling (Reschner, 2008)

2.4.1.2 Recycling Techniques

1. Whole tyres in engineering and construction applications

Waste tyres can be used for a range of civil engineering applications. Examples are the building of

retaining walls, erosion control, shoring up embankments, and so on. They also have marine

application and can be used in wharf buffers and floating docks. They can also be used for fencing,

curbing and crash barriers.

Techniques have been developed to create wall building blocks. This is achieved by removing the

sidewall of the tyre, creating a structural unit which can be filled with crushed rock, gravel or sand

to create a block. This is apparently cost-competitive with conventional methods, and as a low-

technology solution could be suitable for non-urban areas. Tyres can also be baled, and used in

construction, sea-walls and jetties, and so on. Portable balers are available. (pdf, 2007)

2. Granulated rubber which includes buffing

This is generated from old tyres. The tyres are destroyed by various different technologies, which

result in granulate or rubber powder. This powder varies in many ways, such as composition, size,

surface area and level of impurities.

Composition of the powder would, in an ideal world, be based around the different components of

a tyre so that granulate produced exclusively from truck tyre tread compounds is made from

mixtures of natural rubber, carbon black and various chemicals and accelerators. On the other

hand, granulate produced exclusively from inner liner material would end up being composed of

halobutyl rubber, also mixed with carbon black and some active chemicals.

36
This level of discrimination is not possible at the current state of the art, so in practice, the industry

has three broad types of granulate.

* The basic and most common grade is granulate made from mixed whole tyres.

* Next comes granulate made from exclusively car tyres.

* Next in the scale is granulate made exclusively from truck tyres and

* Finally there is granulate made from tread buffings.

The materials made from buffings are composed almost exclusively of natural rubber, carbon

black and active ingredients. Material sourced from whole truck tyres has around 20 percent

synthetic rubber content, including butyl from the innerliner, and SBR and BR from the carcass

and sidewalls. Nevertheless, the polymer in this material is typically around 80 percent natural

rubber. Granulate derived from car tyres is usually around 60-40 synthetic and natural rubber. It

also contains silica and other materials and is less repeatable in terms of content. Crumb made

from mixed tyres may have content ranging from 60 percent synthetic down to less than 10 percent

and is even less likely to be repeatable from batch to batch.

The surface texture of each granule depends on the production process. Cryogenic grinding takes

less energy to break the rubber apart, as the rubber fractures, leaving smooth, glass-like surfaces

whereas ambient grinding rips the rubber apart, leaving rough textures with a high surface area-to

volume ratio. (Shaw, 2011)

The following are notable applications for ground rubber:

Road surfacing, rubberized bitumen and asphalt, incorporation into rubber and plastic products,

molded and extruded rubber products, synthetic turf, Protecting coatings, industrial flooring,

building materials, traffic guide posts, soil conditioner, production of new tyres.

37
3. Pyrolysis

Tyre pyrolysis is a process of converting waste plastic and tyres into Pyrolysis oil, Carbon black

and hydrocarbon gas. Pyrolysis is process of molecular breakdown where larger molecules are

broken down into smaller molecules. Pyrolysis plant is an industry designed to carry out pyrolysis

of waste plastic & tyre. In case of plastic/tyre pyrolysis, long chain polymer is broken down into

smaller chains of Hydrocarbon Gas and Pyrolysis Oil. Heat and catalyst are required for the

reaction.

The scrap tires will decompose when it heated up to a 160C in the reactor. The decomposed tires

transformed into oil gas. Waste gas will be processed in the emissions scrubber transmitted by the

pipe on the top of the cracking reactor, by the processing of emissions scrubber the harmful gas

will changed into clean air then release into the air .

When crude oil get through the gas separate the Impurities will be filtrated, so that crude oil can be

refined .Crude oil get through the depositing tank to the cooling pool for cooling in it, then

transform into liquid. Liquid crude oil will delivered to tanks for store, and the exhaust gas from

the crude oil in the tank will transported to exhaust gas recycle system then transported to The

bottom of the cracking reactor as fuel to heat up the the cracking reactor .

In pyrolysis as a process, the polymer waste is not burned; instead it is broken down into usable

finished products like Pyrolysis Oil, Hydrocarbon Gas and Charcoal. In case of plastic/tyre waste

management, pyrolysis is better alternative compared to incineration or dumping. Incineration is

burning of waste which leads to loss of valuable energy from polymer waste. Dumping of polymer

waste is known to cause land pollution. By pyrolysis of polymer waste, it is possible to recover

38
value from waste in the form of Pyrolysis oil, Hydrocarbon gas and charcoal. (Oracle World Wide,

2010)

3. Devulcanization

In chemical terms, devulcanization means reverting rubber from its thermoset, elastic state back

into a plastic, moldable state. This is accomplished by severing the sulfur bonds in the molecular

structure. With the proper devulcanization method, a much higher percentage of crumb rubber old

tires can be used as compounding.

Traditional devulcanization methods involved exposing cured rubber to elevated temperatures for

an extended period of time. However, this thermal reclaim process not only severs the sulfur

bonds in the polymer matrix, but also breaks the polymer chains, causing a significant decrease in

physical properties. Because of questionable economics and environmental concerns, thermal

devulcanization is rarely used today.

The current price increase of virtually all types of polymers, including natural rubber, means that

for most rubber manufacturers, reprocessing rubber scrap is no longer an interesting alternative,

but an economic necessity. (Reschner, 2008)

4. Use of scrap tyres as a whole or after mechanical processing

Scrap tires can be utilized by making use of their sturdy nature and steel reinforcement inside the

rubber. The steel wires are usually protected inside the rubber if the rubber is not severely cracked

or eroded. Therefore, the tires can survive for long periods of time even under harsh environments

such as a boat bumper in salty sea water, under a paved road

39
5. Whole tyres in making products

Tyres can be used in making products like. The tire swing lives on as a simple recycling project for

a tire. You can hang the tire vertically or horizontally, just make sure to pick a thick branch that

can support the weight of someone swinging wildly on a tire. For the vertical tire swing, attach the

rope from the tree branch to the top of the tire. Also Tire sandals never go out of style as a way to

recycle tires. Draw an outline of each foot on a piece of paper, then draw another outline outside

that one, making it about one-half inch bigger around the sides and toes of your foot. Furniture can

also be made from tyres, planters and many other products.

Summary of the literature review.

Recycling helps to limit the amount of tyre that must be produced. Ads jobs to the economy

slows the consuming of natural resources. You reduce the amount of resources needed to make

the same item compared to making it without recycling

Makes people environmentally aware

promotes scientific advancements in recyclable and biodegradable materials

Makes governments and businesses choose programs and apply policies in consideration of

preserving and respecting the environment.

You can get money for what you recycle

It saves natural resources as it takes less energy to make something with recycled material rather

something new

It saves space in landfills. The items that we recycle are not biodegradable.

Save the earth, save animals and save humanity

40
3.0 RESEASRCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design

The design of my research followed the following procedures that enabled the researcher produce

a well-balanced project paper. A target population was identified first from which information was

got from through observation and interviews. This research focuses on qualitative and quantitative

research procedures. It involves close observations of car dumpsites, recycled products and

initiatives from the point of view of materials and techniques.

3.2 Population

The population of this research was restricted to experts in institutions and individuals who are

either directly or indirectly involved with the automotive industry in Kenya. The researcher

selected 5 garage sites in Nairobi west and 5 people in Kariokor Market due to the major fact that

they are major conduits scrap tires.

3.3 Sample

The researcher used random sampling to conduct the interviews

3.4 Data collection Procedures

Photography

The researcher took pictures of tire dumpsites in Kariokor Market and Nairobi west garages; this

helped the researcher define the different methods of recycling. The researcher also took pictures

of garages in Nairobi west and Kariokor market and how they use their waste tires after they have

exceeded their limit.

41
Observation

The researcher observed various garages in Nairobi west and Kariokor Market and how they

handle their waste tires.

Note taking.

The researcher took notes from time to time during the research on how the respondents were

answering to some of the questions.

Interviews

The researcher wrote a list of themes and questions that were used to do research for people who

are directly affected and indirectly affected by the dumping of tyres. The researcher randomly

interviewed 5 people from Kariokor market and 5 people from Nairobi west.

3.4 Data analysis

3.4.1 Qualitative analysis models

This was done to account for the data collected. Patterns were explored and emergent ideas on tire

waste recycling and the cycles documented. This includes comparison of data collected.

3.4.2 Quantitative analysis mode

This is used later on collection and analysis of structured questions. It includes pie charts, tables

and bar graphs, of responses from the questionnaires.

42
4.0 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Case Study 1: Kariokor Market

Kariokor market is situated at the Eastlands area Nairobi and has established itself as a prime base

dealing jewellery. Kariokor market has and with leather and jewellery. Kariokor has even been

known to supply the famous maasai market with its products. As you enter kariokor market a

dumpsite full of papers and tyre waste. People in the market throw the reminder tyres in the dump

and when its too much they burn the tyres. Garbage collectors also dump waste in the same

dumping site. This is just next to the road as you pass kariokor market towards Eastleigh and

pangani.

Figure 4

Source: Author

43
A large section of the traders are from the Akamba community world renowned for their skills in

the arts. The merchandize is usually sold outside wood sheds, hang on the outside allowing passing

pedestrians and potential customers to have a look at them.

The main products made here are tire sandals commonly known as akala, jewellery for both

genders and leather products e.g. shoes and leather swatches. The main materials used in the akala

designs are rubber tires and leather. However artisans have begun incorporating other materials

into their products in view of diversity and customer preference and ease of use. Akala shoe design

is all tyres. Different parts of the tyre are cut in pieces, this forms the shoe design. The artisans

however have started incorporating beads and plastic ornaments in the shoes.

Figure 5

Source: Author

The tires produced at the market from respective dealers who get them from garages or

independent sellers. The dealers process the tyres into strips of varying length and type to sell them

44
whole. There are two types that are got from tires to make the shoes. These are hard sole and soft

sole. Hard sole is the inner part of the tyre and is the lighter of the two. Soft sole is the outer ring

that usually has the tread and is heavier. The middle part of the tyre is thrown away. This is the

part that mostly in the dumpsite. Sandals meant for leisure and simpler activities use the former

sandals meant for more strenuous walking and activities use the latter.

Figure 6

Source: Author Akala Shoes

Figure 7

Source: Author Akala Shoes

45
Leather is sold at the market depending on foot (lengthwise) or per kilogram. Per kilogram method

is usually done in the case of small pieces of leather while per foot method applies to large

swatches of leather. Artisans usually use the latter as it makes their work much easier and enables

mass production as more templates can be cut from a swathe. This leads to faster production as

compared to piecing small pieces of leather together which is a time consuming process.

The other materials are also in reach of the artisans. Paper cartoon sheets sack cloth, plastic foam

either produce sheets, and jeans are procured at the market or at Gikomba. They are sold in sheet

form whilst materials like sack cloth are sold in kilogram form.

The carton sheets acts as to stiffen the sandal in between the tyre foam leather. The plastic foam

makes the sandal soft allowing the wearers foot to easily curve the sandal when walking and acts

as a cushion from the hard tire sole and ground. The tire basis of the shoe provides grip on the

ground as the treads provide the necessary traction. The leather and jeans alternative of outside

covering appeal to different tastes.

4.2 Case study 2. Nairobi west garages

In Nairobi west there are a few garages along langata road and others inside the Nairobi west

shopping centre. One of the garages that I was privileged to interview was at Ben Auto Repair

garage located at Langata /Rongai Bus station. The location of this garage is an advantage because

most motorists get to see it as they pass.

Bens auto repair garage mostly handles spare parts. When it comes to tyres most of the customers

use second hand tyres. A second hand tyre at this shop goes from 3000kshs to 5000kshs

46
Waste tyres in this shop are a problem because theyve taken up most of the storage facility. They

even store them at the backyard of the shop because the garage is full and the customers leave all

there old tyres at the garage.

Figure 8

Source: Author

47
4.2 RESEARCH FINDINGS

Table 1

MAIN SOURCE OF TYRE WASTE

FREQUENCY PERCENT

Customers who come to replace old tyres with new ones hence
7 63.64
they end up pilling up

Garages from different places 1 9.09

From companies 2 18.18

From garages 1 9.09

Total 11 100.00

Source: Author

For most garages the main source of waste tyre is from customers who come to exchange old tyres

when they want new ones for their cars. They end up leaving the old tyres in the garages hence the

garages have a heap in their storage. Hence the 63%of the waste tyres that turns up in garages.

Most garages in Nairobi west have so many tyres in store that can no longer be used in cars or

sometimes are sold to people who cant afford new tyres; a new tyre that hasnt been used may

cost 7000kshs. For an average person living in Kenya it may be hard to acquire a single tyre for

700kshs. But a second hand tyre may go for 2000kshs or at most 3000kshs. Once the tyres are

worn out the customers go to exchange and buy a new pair hence the tyres keep piling up.

In Kariokor most garages get their tyres from companies who own garages. For example Mash

Auto. Such companies have customers that range from the Kenyan middle class Kenyans to the

upper class Kenyans. Most of these customers dont use second hand tyres. Once the tyres is not

up to standards this customers go to get new ones from such companies. His companies sell the

48
tyres to garages who then sell them to the Kenyans who cant afford a new tyre. This tyres end up

pilling up in their garages.

Source: Author

Chart 1

In Nairobi west most people working in garages did not think of tyre as a problem. Some however

did not like the fact that waste tyres were filling up their garage and not generating any money.

The ones who saw the tyres as a problem in the area suggested that sometimes throwing the tyres

away helped ease the amount in the garage, the ones who thought tyre waste was not a problem in

the area mostly sell the old tyres to workshops who have dedicated themselves to collecting the

49
waste old tyres and selling them to garages when they need second hand tyres or even to individual

customers. Trouble is after the product life cycle the tyres end up in the garages again.

Figure 9

Source: Author

In kariokor most individuals viewed tyre waste as a problem in the area. Although most of them

said that the tyres are recycled into shoes but then again theres a lot of waste generated at the end

of making the akala shoes. The waste tyre remaining is thrown in the dumpsite just outside the

market and the only way to reduce it is to burn it.

50
Figure 10

Source: Author

Table 2

REASONS FOR SEEING TYRE WASTE AS A PROBLEM

FREQUENCY PERCENT

They are a burden to the mechanics since they fill up the garage 3 27.27

Existence of a dumping site for tyres in Kariokor 1 9.09

No response 1 9.09

Not Applicable 6 54.55

Total 11 100.00

Source: Author

Most of the people in Nairobi west who thought that tyre waste was a problem in the area said that

the tyres pile up and they are a burden to them. In other words they fill up the garage and when

vendors come to buy them so they can go to sell in kariokor they sell them at a very low price and

51
do not generate any profits. So sometime they opt to throw them away and keep a new stock

instead of waiting on the vendors to come and get them. What most people dont know in the area

is that most garages in the area have their very own small dumpsite where they throw them away

and burn them. Some garages leave the tyres lying around the streets and in the evening the

women who cook along the streets use the tyres as a stepping stone for their jikos. Most of them

dont know the risk at hand.

In Kariokor Market the dumpsite lying just beside the road is evidence enough of tyre waste as a

problem in the area. The dumpsite has also become a place where companies who collect garbage

can dump waste. Mostly the dumpsite is filled with tyre waste that remains after cutting out the

parts for making the akala shoes have been removed the remaining bit of the tyre is thrown in the

dump and later on burned which pollutes the air

The market is densely populated and most of the people who work in the market work with tyres.

The waste deduced in the process of making the shoes, goes to the dumpsite beside the road. This

increases the rate at which the dump fills up.

52
Chart 2

Most people in both areas are aware of the environmental pollution caused by tyres but still choose

to dump the tyres or burn them. Some are not aware at all of the pollution caused by tyres so even

if the dump them in a dumpsite or burn them for them its a way of creating more spaces in their

garages.

Some are aware of the environmental pollution caused by tyres but are ignorant to addressing the

issue. Some have a clue but they are not sure what exactly the problem is if one throws away a

tyre or burns it.

53
Figure 11

Source: Author

Table 3
METHODS OF DISPOSING OLD USED TYRES

FREQUENCY PERCENT

Throwing them, Selling to akala shoe makers & Individuals who


1 9.09
recycle

Selling them to akala shoe makers 7 63.64

Selling to customers & Akala shoe makers 1 9.09

Selling to people from Kariokor market & To akala people 2 18.18

Total 11 100.00

Source: Author 2013

In Nairobi west they mostly sell the waste tyres to artisans who make the akala shoes in kariokor

market. The tyres that get to kariokor are not used sometimes instead some of them end up in the

dumping site.

54
Graph 1

55
Chart 3

56
Chart 4

57
5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1Recycling

Recycling and industrial design go hand in hand In a new world that will want to produce products

that are environmental friendly, safe and compliant, this means that the products should not cause

health problems and any aspects of the product that could harm the user will be taken in

consideration.

Industrial design ensures that all the areas pertaining to environmental conservation are

incorporated into the design process. Proper measures must be taken to ensure products can be

recycled or have benefits even after the end of their end product life cycle. This problem has been

prevalent in the disposal of paper waste. Initiatives were started to ensure plastic bags could be

recycled and people were urged to make more use of them instead of discarding or burning them

after use.

A designer has to incorporate anaesthetics practically and materials into the overall design of a

product. Since technology is not yet at the desired state in Africa, crafts are being encouraged to

make new products out of recyclable arts in this case tyres. The researcher aims to make products

using waste tyres, fashion products inspired by tyres or their use.

The researcher will create functional sculpture, incorporating different media and inspirations from

tyres. Most of the products will aim a predominantly female crowd. The researcher will also

incorporate leather, glass, plastics and other materials in coming up with different designs of

products. The researcher will create a setting whereby tyre will be used as a whole to avoid

unnecessary waste. This will include a few pieces of furniture made from tyres.

58
Ceramics will provide both a utilitarian and sculptural purposes in their designs. The research will

incorporate a particular aesthetic element that will be appealing.

5.2 Long-Term Solutions

Despite the innovations that industrial design can help bring to the table a lot more has to be done

in order for this problem To be fully tackled awareness has to be created about the impending

crisis that may result to a tyre waste crisis in a few years considering more and more people are

buying cars. The government municipal council is in charge of the tyres in the CBD and can

provide solutions in the following ways:

5.2.1 Creation of wrecking yards

A wreck yard, salvage yard, breakers yard (sometimes known as a scrapheap) is the location of a

dismantling business where wrecked or decommissioned vehicles are brought, their usable parts

are sold and the unusable metal parts known as scrap metals sold to metal recycling companies. A

sector should be set aside for tyres. Tyres should be arranged in groups of tyres that can be sold for

re-treading, for recycling, and for second hand sales. Many salvage yards operate on a local level

in industrialized countries. When the tyres are beyond second hand selling the owner may sell

them to the junkyard or exchange them for new ones. Most yards have computerized inventory

systems which allow customers to phone in and get spare tyres or spare parts from the junkyard.

5.2.2 Public campaigns

Sensitizing the public on environmental awareness on the dumping of tyre waste and the pollution

the waste tyres cause on different situations. People should be aware that waste tyres are harmful

to the environment.

59
The government should also introduce a class on environmental pollution in the 844 system so

that as kids grow up they learn more about environmental pollution.

5.2.3 Creation of Art Centres for recycling.

There should be art centres which practice recycling and other types of arts. These centres will also

be able to create employment and other opportunities for people in the communities.

60
BIBLIOGRAPHY
(n.d.).

(n.d.).

Recycling of tyres. (2009). Retrieved 9 13, 2012, from Technology information focus and assesment council
(TIFAC):
http://www.tifac.org.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=676&Itemid=205

History:The strange story of rubber. (2011).

Abdulmoula, & saaticioglu,M. (n.d.). Concrete columns confined with scrap tires . Retrieved October 2012

Allenby, B. R. (1991). Design for Environment: A Tool Whose Time has Come. SSA Journal, 5.

Bandivadekar, A. P., Kumar, V., Gunter, K. L., & Sutherland, J. W. (2004). A model for material flows and
economic exchanges. Retrieved from U.S Automotive life cycle.

Baranwal, D. K. ( 2003, Apri 29). Akron Rubber Development Laboratory. ASTM Standards & Testing of
Recycle Rubber. San Fransisco.

Billatos, S.B. and Basaly, N.A., . (1997). Green Technology and Design for the Environment. Washington,
DC.

Boks, C. (2006). The soft side of ecodesign. Journal of Cleaner Production.

Das, s. C., T, R. R., & Schexynayder, S. M. (1995). Automobile Recycling in United States. Energy
impacts,waste generation,resources,conservation, & recycling.

Edwin. (n.d.). The total beauty if sustainable products. Retrieved 1 31, 2013, from Consultancy & training
on sustainable design: http://www.biothinking.com/bio.htm

Fabio Giudice - DIIM Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering - University of Catania. (2006).
Design for environment. Retrieved 1 20, 2013, from Product design for the environment,italy:
http://www.productdesignenvironment.info/concepts2.htm

Fiksel , J. (2011). Design for the Environment. : A Guide to Sustainable Product Development (2nd ed.).

61
Groom, R. E., Hanna, J. A., & Tutu, O. ( 2005.). New Products incorporating Tire Materials. Northern
Ireland:.

Johansson , G. (2001). Environmental Perfomance Requirements in roduct development, Doctoral Thesis


Linkoping university. Department of Mechanical engineering Linkoping.

Karlsson, R., & Luttropp, C. (2006). Ecodesign: Whats happening? An Overview of the subject. Journal of
Cleaner Production.

Kazazian, T. (. (n.d.).

Kazazian, T. (2005).

Lee, K. M., & Park, P. J. (2006). ECO DESIGN best practice of ISO/TR South Korea. Korea Eco Product
Research institute(ERI)- Aju University.

McDonough, & Braungart. (2002). Cradle to Cradle.

Michelin.com. (2012-2013). Recycling Management. Retrieved 1 9, 2013, from Michelin; A better way
forward.: http://www.michelinearthmover.com/eng_gb/Welcome/About-
us/Environment2/Recycling-management

Mojtowicz, M. A., & Serio, M. A. (2005). Pryolysis of scrap tires. Retrieved from
http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/recycling/awareness/facts/tires/rubberis.htm

NEMA. (2008). hEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT. Nairobi.

Oracle World Wide. (2010). Recycling pyrolysis plant. Retrieved from pyrolysis tyre recycling plant.

pdf. (2007, March ). Retrieved from p2pays: http://www.p2pays.org/ref/34/33662.pdf, March 2007

Poyner, J., & Simon, M. (1995). Integration of DFE Tools with Product Development. The International
Conference on Clean Electronics and Technology(CONCEPT). Edinburgh.

Reschner, k. (2008). Asummary of prevalent disposal & recycling methods. Retrieved 10 2, 2012, from
Scrap Tire Recycling: http://www.entire-engineering.de/Scrap_Tire_Recycling.pdf

Rubber Manufactures Association. (2005). Scrap tires & the enviroment. Retrieved 10 3, 2012, from Scrap
tires: http://www.rma.org/scrap_tires/scrap_tires_and_the_environment/

62
Scrap tire management council. (n.d.). Environmental Problem Associated with Waste Tire . Retrieved 1 17,
2013, from infohouse: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/11/10504/html/intro/ploblems.htm

Sharma, V. F., Fotuna, F., & Mincarini, M. (2000). Dispposal of Wate Tyres for Energy Recovery and Safe
Environment. Applied Energy.

Shaw, D. (2011). Why is recycled rubber not used in tyres. European rubber Journal.

Staudinger, J., & Keoleian, G. A. (2001). A Summary of Prevalent Disposal and Recycling Methods. Design
for Recycling.

Tires international environmental solutions. (n.d.). Tires International commitment Towards preventing
environmental hazards. Retrieved 12 17, 2012, from preventing-environmental-hazards:
http://www.tireinternational.net

tyre recycle line . (2010, 12 24). Cleanliness For environment, value for clients. Retrieved 2013, from Waste
tyre related problems.: http://www.tyrerecycleline.com/info-222.html

weborglodge. (2010). Furniture Made from Recycled Tires: Benefits, Types & Process. Retrieved 2012, from
brighthub.: http://www.brighthub.com/environment

Yamamoto, R. (1999.). Eco-design-Best Practice 100 (in Japanese). Tokyo: Diamond Co.

Year, G. (2011). Good Year Webpage. In G. Year, History: The strange story of rubber.

63
APPENDICES

Appendix 1 Questionnaire

UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

SCHOOL OF THE ARTS AND DESIGN

RESEARCH PROJECT; FROM WASTE TO PRODUCT: RECYCLING


WASTE TYRES TO SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT.
Declaration: This questionnaire meant for academic purposes only and the information
obtained will remain confidential.

RESPONDENTS DETAILS.

1. Name of respondent (Optional)

2. Date of interview.

3. Age..

4. Sex: (1) Male (2) Female

PART B

1. What is your main source of tyre waste?

............................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................

2. Do you see tyre waste as a problem in this area? Yes No

B. If yes, give reasons.

............................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................

64
3. Are you aware of environmental pollution caused by tyre waste?

............................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................

4. How do you dispose old used tyres?

...............................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................

5. Approximately, how many waste tyres do you generate in a month?

............................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................

6. Do you recycle waste tyres? Yes No

B. If yes, do you know any techniques?

............................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................

7. Do you think waste tyre utilization and recycling will reduce environmental pollution?

............................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................

APPENDIX 2- Maps

Kariokor market

Nairobi west

65
66
67
MabB
68