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PHILIPPINE ISLAM AND PRE-COLONIAL BORNEO was given to the Sulus,

RELATIONS beginning of their historical right over


- Began w/ the arrival of Arab merchants and Sabah.
Sufis that belong to the Makhdumin section - CHANGE IN POLITICAL LANDSCAPE:
in the Sulu Archipelago (13th Cent). when Malays under the Madjapahit began
- MakhduminsSuhrawardis from Baghdad; to emigrate from the Malay Peninsula to
founded by Shihabud Din Suhrawardi. Manilaformation of Malay settlements in
- TUAN MASHAIKA: first to arrive Luzon.
Makhdum Karim Makhdum Aminullah - ADVENT OF SPANISH COLONIALISM:
- Makhdumin: composed of 7 BROTHERS quasi-trilateral alliance with Brunei
who had a faith-based relationship. TEMPORAL POWER. EVIDENCE: sending
- RAJAH BAGUINDA and ABU BAKR: set of military vintas to Manila by Brunei to help
the stage of SULU ISLAMIZATION the perps of the TONDO CONSPIRACY in
- ABU BAKR: first sultan of Sulu Shariful routing the Spaniards. Was not a success.
Hashim, spread Islam in Maguindanao, first - Raids characterized the Moro-Hispanic
sultan of Maguindanao. War.
- SULTANATE: first Islamic pol. institution in - SIX STAGES OF MORO WARS
the PH; in BUANSA, JOLO. o Arrival of Legaspi and ransacking of
- Sultans had TREATY RELATIONS w/ their Brunei Spanish forces
Asian neighbors + British, French, and o Spanish attempts to make Sulu and
Americans. Maguindanao vassals of Spain
- Sultans in Maguindanao were responsible o Moro raids along the coastlines of
for furthering Islam in Mindanao and Visayas and Luzon
thwarting SPANISH INCURSION o Spanish fortification of Zamboanga
SULTAN KUDARAT. o Re-fortification of Zamboanga by
- Before the Sultanates, there were already Spaniards
relations with Brunei and Chinatrade and o Spanish assault on Sulu
commerce + marriage. - MORO WARS: represented a logical
- Intermarriages in BRUNEI, SULU, MANILA, impulse as an inevitable response to
AND CHINA. foreign aggression
- SULTAN BULKEIAH with PUTRI LELA - Moros were left alone in defending the last
MEN CHANEI; frontier of Islam is SEA. Absence of
- Commercial contact w/ ChinaPADUKE ISLAMIC SOLIDARITY.
PATALA: generation grandson of Philippine o Geographical distance
East King. o Islamic world was in disarray due to
- FORT OF SELALILAbuilt by grandpa of dissolution of Abbasid Caliphateno
Sulayman, Selalila. single center of power in the world of
o Became the life blood of early Islam
Muslim settlements of Manila - SULU ZONE: SULU, BORNEO,
o Served as a watchtower on inner MINDANAO, CELEBES.
settlements of Kingdom of Sapa, - Height of trade and navigation, quasi-
Pasig, Tunduk. regional trade area
BRUNEI-SULU-MANILA ALLIANCE - Included a loosely integrated political
- Rise of Sulu did not begin with the system that encouraged trade to flourish
establishment of the Sultanatewas first from the 18th century to the 189th century.
facilitated by early contact of Sulu with - Restrengthened relations between Sulu in
Bruneiconversion of Madjapahits Rajah China after a fallout for about 300 years.
to Islam Malaccan Empire - Inter and intra-island commercial activities
- Commercial, cultural, familial ties, political also evolved from the coast of Borneo, Jolo
and military alliances were formed and Maguindanao.
assistance of Sulu to Bruneis Sultan, - JOLO-MANILA tradehalf a century worth
helped quell a rebellion. NORTH of trade efforts strengthened by the
establishment of LABUAN-JOLO - Non-committal attitude was caused by the
ENTREPOT TRADE + founding of HISTORICAL ANTAGONISM bet MOROS
Singapore = SINGAPORE-JOLO-MANILA AND INDIOS since the Spanish occupation.
trade. JOLO as EMBARKING CENTER by o Sultan doubted the stamina of
Chinese and Malays to and from Singapore Filipinos in waging war against U.S.
and Manila. o Letters were presumptuous.
- TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP between - US also cut down Moro contacts w/ Islamic
RAJAH SULAYMAN AND MARTIN DE Powers. EVIDENCE: STRAUS (minister to
GOITI. Turkey) said that the Sultan of Turkey
o Premised on the condition that wishes that the Moslems in PH does not
Sulayman was pleased to be the engage in war with the US, nor side w/
friend of Spaniards as long as there insurgents.
are no abuses and their honor was - JOHN BATES vs. SULTAN: sultan said that
not touched. he and his men could not understand how
- H. DELA COSTA1737 PEACE TREATY the Americans had any claim to sov. over
between SULU AND SPAIN: one between sulu or how it was possible for Spain to sell
two sovereign and independent states, or cede their territory without their
each recognized as such by the other. knowledge, but Sultan of Jolo conceded to
- Sultanates were rendered insignificant by due superior weapons of American soldiers.
the 19th until the 20th century due to the o SIGNING OF BATES TREATY:
development of armaments and forced recognition of U.S.
steamboats by the west. Sovereignty.
- CARPENTER AGREEMENT: between - US wanted to penetrate Mindanao by
Jamalul Kiram II and Frank Carpenter contacting the Chinese population in
sovereignty of US in the Sulu Archipelago. Cotabato
- Confluence of external pressures and o PETITION TO THE PROVOST-
internal crisiswithering of influence in MASHAL-GENERAL IN THE
external trade and commerce. PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
PAX AMERICANA - Bates treaty was abrogated U.S. wanted
- Cuba rebellion against Spain became the to rule the Moros under a provincial
grand justification for America to control the governor who was responsible to the civil
PH. governer and the PH commission.
- Ottoman Empire as forerunner of Islamic o GENERAL LEONARD WOOD
caliphate was also rendered insignificant instituted legislative, administrative,
due to the falling to Europe, which then and judicial organizations; ROUGH
acted as centrifugal force in the Islamic RIDER POLICY; launched extensive
world. military operations against Moro
- FRANCE, BRITAIN, AND US began to resistance: BATTLE OF BUD DAJO
control major continents More access to o GENERAL TASKER BLISS
natural resources and boosted their VELVET GLOVE POLICY,
economic interest peacemaker though did not rule out
- TREATY OF PARISBENEVOLENT the use of military force; succeeded
ASSIMILATIONselling, buying a country in recruiting Moros into PH
and a people that Spain did not possess constabulary and used them to
(Corpuz). Distinctness, struggle, law and discipline fellow Muslims
customs did not matter to the U.S. o JOHN PEARSHINGlay down a
- US tried to neutralize the moros. Emilio framework of civil governance and
Aguinaldo attempted to form an alliance economic development, although
with them, by Kiram II did not respond, problems of peace and order
happened again w/ his brother. remained. BATTLE OF BUD
BAGSAK.
- Moros began to be attracted by US policies
FILIPINIZATION - People to people contact of Filipino
- WOODROW WILSON as president, Muslims to the Islamic community around
American policy in the PH changed; geared the world did not cease
towards the ultimate independence of the o Arrival of Arabia, Bokhara, and
Islands. Afghanistan to Cotabato
o FILS were given majority control in o Setting up of pandita schools
the PH COMMISSION supported by WOOD and BLISS, but
o Policy of FILIPINIZATION (Frank not PEARSHING.
Carpenter) to bring Moros and other o NAJEEB SALEEBY: first school
ethnic groups in Mindanao under a superintendent of the Moro
single government. Provincerecommended the
o MORO PROVINCE teacher of Islam and Arabic
DEPARTMENT OF MINDANAO language in Mindanao and Sulu.
AND SULU - Spread of islam in Mindanao: RELIGIOUS
o Received w/ enthusiasm by the PH MISSIONS by MOHAMMED WAJIH,
COMMISSION. SHEIK MUSTAFA AHMAD, SHEIK
- Worked more in favor of the AMS than the ABDURRAHIM ABDULLA, SHEIK ALI
FILS. spread the Mohammedan Faith
- Muslims liked the Americans, so when the - 1926: Establishment of MUSLIM
admin of their affairs would be relinquished ASSOCIATION OF THE PHILIPPINES
to the PH LEGISLATURE, they reacted (MUSAPHIL)became the most influential
negatively. Wanted to be under AMS than Muslim ORG in PH; founded by MAULANA
FILS if they could not govern themselves. ABDUL ALEEM SIDDIQUE AL QADERI.
- ROBERT BACON: created a bill w/ 2 PH o Organized Islamic schools
GOVERNMENTSone in LUZVI and in o FIL-MUSLIM ORGS
MINDA and SULU. o MADRASAH schools
o Complete union of FILS AND - Teaching of Islam in MADARIS invited
MOROS is distasteful to the latter Muslim missionaries abroad to come to the
due to bitter racial and religious PH.
hatreds. - Subsequently, Muslims from Mindanao
- Anti-Muslim Filipinos and Aguinaldo said began to flock as pilgrims to the Middle
that to reverse the Filipinization bill is a East; Muslims youth began to study in Al-
matter of justice and it hurts the Filipino Azhar University and other schools.
feelings. PHILIPPINE DIPLOMACY IN THE ISLAMIC
- Non-identification of the Moros w/ the PH WORLD
govt resulted in difficult Moro-Fil relations - After WWII, PH had to identify with the US.
since 1935. PH deprioritized her peripheral interests.
- Disintegrated socio-political and econ - Relations with the Islamic world was not a
structure of Moro society, influx of settles in priority of the new republic.
Mindanao from the north and the extensive - Turmoil in middle eastproblematized
diplomatic campaign of FIL statesmen in Palestine and Africa.
the US and the collaboration of some Moro - POST NEW DELHI CONFERENCE: PH
leaders with AM authorities CHANGED began to face the need to expand its
THE MOROS ACTIVE RESISTANCE foreign policy in the Middle East.
INTO PASSIVE ACCEPTANCE OF - PRESIDENT QUIRINO: Asian bloc should
FILIPINIZATION include the Middle East. However, no
o Isolated show ambivalence, but Middle Eastern states were invited in the
accepted their fate under the BAGUIO CONFERENCE.
commonwealth. - Despite this, PH knew how important
o Independence of PH gained no Middle Eastern relations were because they
massive reactions from the Muslim have inherited remnants of colonialist trade
populace.
relationsPH had been dependent on oil o Absence of Romulodelegate did
from the Middle East. an ABOUT-FACE on the issue
- AFRICA: PH engaged w/ trade in Egypt voted in favor of the partition which
MALAY NEIGHBORS was DUE TO US PRESSURE THAT
- INDONESIA: first Muslim country in SEA w/ THE AM ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE
the PH strongly identified with TO THE PH DEPENDED ON PH
- PH supported INDOs struggle against the SUPPORT FOR THE PARTITION
DUTCH RESOLUTION.
- Championed INDO to the UNasked UN to o Reciprocated by Daniel LewinUS
stop Dutch police actions in INDO and will not forget
asked for PH to participate in the cease-fire o Turn-around decision reflected
committee. NATIONAL INTEREST
- GEOGRAPHICAL PROPINQUITYPH will o PH was elected in the UNCOP
be affected if INDO will have conflicts. o PH was negotiated w/ the US for
- INDO supported PH w/ Sabah claim against financial and military assistance
Malaysia soft and long term loans for the US,
- PH had a strong historical basis for the w/ QUID PRO QUO for America
claim: Sulu was gifted by the Sultan of signing of the MILITARY BASES
Brunei after helping it quell a rebellion in the AGREEMENT (MAR 14 1947);
17th century. MILITARY ASSISTANCE
- Sultan leased Sabah to BNBC, rental for AGREEMENT
5,300 Malayn dollars annually. - Formal diplomatic relations w/ Middle East
- MALAYSIA: formed the Federation of and Africabegan as early as the PH
Malaya and included Sabah as one of its Independence in 1946.
states. o Hazy spasmodic interactions
o Insisted on the validity of a plebiscite lop sided dependence due to
under the auspices of the UN, evolving PH interest and fluctuating
wherein Sabahans voted in favor of stability in Middle East and other
Malaysia. Islamic lands.
o PH challenged Malaysia to bring the o UN: PH allied w/ the cause of small
issue to a WORLD COURT, but the nations, Asian economic recovery,
latter refusedPH had no political human rights, and the welfare of non
nor legal leg to stand on. Countries self-governing people.
severed diplomatic ties. o EGYPT: treaty of friendship; cultural
- INDO sympathized w/ the OH. agreement; air agreement
PALESTINE PROBLEM o PAKISTAN: air agreement; treaty of
- PH had a fledging status in the world friendship, SEATO, visit of Pakistan
community PM, JOINT COMMUNIQUEPH
- ROMULO displayed exceptional effort to would support UN in all efforts to
make its presence felt in the UN solve any intl dispute
o Championed the cause of the Third o Supported PAK towards Kashmir
World. o MACAPAGAL: PAN-ASIAN Union
o ARAB CAUSEROMULO stood ASSOC OF SEA (ASA) in collab w/
against the Partition of Palestine: not PAK.
the policy of PH govt to serve as an o Two weeks after his visit to PAK, he
instrument of territorial changed his grant Asian vision to a
dismemberment of any country; UN smaller regional ORG
has no precedent for partition. MAPHILINDO.
o PRAGMATISM dominated the - POLICY OF NEUTRALITY in the MidEast
overall stand of the PH on the issue conflict, PH signed a treaty of friendship w/
of partition. Israel in 1963 TREATY ON TECHNICAL
COOPERATION AGREEMENT FOR
COOPERATION IN THE PEACEFUL o Preservation and enhancement of
USES OF ATOMIC ENERGY Islam w/c is the heritage of the entire
- Ambivalent foreign policy thrust towards the FIL people
Islamic world due to an evolving PH policy o Preservation and advancement of
in Asia. Islamic culture and traditions
RELATIONS DURING THE MARCOS o Promotion of well-being of the
PERIOD Muslim communities, including the
- new relations w/ Asia and the Islamic restoration of their rights to their
worldidentified w/ PH FP immediately ancestral lands
after he became President (before, he MIDDLE EAST CONFLICT
scorned Asia for Asians). - crisis in Mideast due to the creation of the
- IRANdiscussed bilateral relations State of Israel war reached peak when
(HORMOZ GHARIB) Egypt and Syria launched a two-front attack
- TURKEYwill open an embassy in MNL w/ on Israel
a resident ambassador (TURGUT UYUG) - MIL ADVANTAGE, ISRAEL
- SAUDI ARABIA (1969), PH ambassador to - POL OBJECTIVE OF ARABS achieved and
Cairo was accredited as non-resident CONTEXT OF CONFRONTATION altered
ambassador to SAUDI. - ARABS exposed the fallacy on w/c
- GUIDELINES IN ADDRESSING PH ISRAELI STRATEGY had been based
POLICY TOWARDS ASIA AND THE since the Six Day War: CONTROL OF
WORLD WIDE BUFFER ZONES TOGETHER W/
o National interest MIL SUPREMACY RENDERED ISRAEL
o Econ development IMMUNE TO ARAB ATTACK
o Increased regional cooperation and - Arabs employed OIL as weapondenied
friendship w/ peace-loving states all supporters of Israel w/ MidEast oil.
- MARTIAL LAW: aggressive FP toward Arab o Overwhelming impact bc most
and MidEast countries countries depende on Arab oil from
- UNEQUIVOCAL POLICYsupport Arab the MidEast
countries in their struggle for a just and o PH as third world country, would be
enduring peace in the MIDEAST hit hard
- SIX MAIN POLICY GUIDELINES OF PH o OIL WEAPON caused the PH to
RELATIONS undertake a redefinition of its
o Intensify relations w/ members of the NEUTRAL POLICY, tilting the
ASEAN balance IN FAVOR OF THE ARABS
o More vigorously pursue the AND THE PALESTINIAN PEOPLE
establishment of diplo relations w/ o PH supported UN GA resos that
Socialist states (PRC and SU) recognized the PLO as the legit
o Seek closer identification w/ 3rd representative of the Palestinians.
World o PLO as an observer in the GA and
o Continue beneficial relationship w/ other organs and specialized
Japan agencies of the UN + intl
o Support Arab countries in their conferences under the auspices of
struggle for a just and enduring the U.N.
peace in the MidEast o ROMULA: NOV 1973VERBAL
o Find new basis, compatible w/ the PROMISE from King FAISAL to
emerging realities in Asia for a supply the countrys oil requirements
continuing healthy relationship w/ the of 100 million barrels per year.
US. - PH adopted a neutral policy in the
- FP statement towards the Arabs and MIDEAST conflictrecognized
Islamic World PALESTINE rights to self-determination,
support ISRAELI to exist as a state.
o NEUTRALITY inconsistent, swayed as well as their families and
depending on factors dependents.
o ORIG POSITION: support - Foreign remittances were vital to PH
PALESTINE economy but workers were subjected to
o UNDER US PRESSURE: shifted risks at home and abroad
policy and supported ISRAEL o EFFECT: reconfiguration of social
balance sheet w/ respect to its classes primarily the middle class
Mideastern interest vis--vis the US appeared to emerge since many of
econ assistance weighed heavily in these workers belong the this social
favor of the ltter ladder
o Absence of econ pressure from the o LABOR AGREEMENTS normally
US: show support for PALESTINE entered into on a BILATERAL BASIS
not born out of charity but a RESPONSE TO MNLF DIPLOMACY
CALCULATIVE MOVE at - JOSE INGLES: redefinition of PH FP in the
maintaining the balance of neutrality Islamic world was hastened not only by
on the BASIS OF NATL INTEREST energy crisis but also by the Muslim prob in
DEVELOPMENT DIPLOMACYoil-rich Southern PH.
countries - MNLFwaged a secessionist war and
- SAUDI ARABIA launched a diplomatic campaign against the
- KUWAIT PH in its bid to establish an independent
- UAE state in Mindanao.
- IRAQ - Impact: disastrous on the PH govt,
- IRAN threatened:
INFLUX OF FIL WORKERS o PH sovereignty
- LABOR is another area that underscores o Territorial integrity
PH relations w/ the MidEast countries o PH economy
- 70s: not particularly substantial, overseas - MNLF launched a two-pronged diplomacy
employment not strictly differentiated o Directed to indiv muslim countries
- INFLUX OF WORKERS WAS LARGELY o Directed to OIC
DUE TO THE PROSPECT OF EARNING A - MALAYSIA, LIBYA, SAUDI, AND PAK
HIGHER SALARY extended humanitarian and moral support
- TRIGGERED BY ECON DEVELOPMENT to MNLF
OF OIL-RICH ARAB COUNTRIES - Attacked JOLO, destruction of property,
- Overseas workers: fastest growing industry displacement of war victims and evacuees
in the PH - War boosted the MNLFs diplomatic
- LABOR CODE IN 1974, ACT 2486 campaign in the Muslim world
o Encourage overseas employment - MARCOS GOVT RESPONSE: DOMESTIC
o Increase employment opps and AND INTL CONTAINMENT POLICIES
promote skills devt o LOCAL: PRESIDENTIAL TASK
o Generate additional foreign FORCE FOR THE
exchange RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVT
o Attract foreign investments OF MINDANAObypassed MNLF
o Ease countrys perennial trade deficit hierarchy; began posting Muslims in
o Ensure continuing supply of oil from strategic govt offices, including the
Mideast esp Saudi fielding of Muslim FIL diplomats in
o Enhance countrys intl prestige some MidEast countries
o OEDB + NSB = POEALetter of - AFTER JOLO WAR: MNLF abandoned its
Instruction WELFARE FUND OF bid for independence
OVERSEAS WORKERS: tasked to o ICFM convinced the MNLF to seek
protect and promote the interests for regional autonomy instead.
and well-being of overseas workers o PH Govt agreed to hold talks w/
MNLF in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. No
substantial results were achieved defense and foreign policy among
due to intransigence. others.
o Eventually resulted to the TRIPOLI - TRIPOLI AGREEMENT: framework of
AGREEMENT in Libya. regional autonomy for the thirteen
- MALAY and INDO had a closer provinces in Mindanao
understanding of the MNLF sentiments, but o Implementation problems by the
MNLF bid for an independent state did not Marcos govt.
capture their interest. o NUR MISUARI: sanction PH govt to
o MALAY: Sabah claim reduce capacity to commit more
o INDO: valued their gratitude and crimes and violence against muslim
long-time friendship w/ the PH people and humanity.
- Does not imply that they did not extend y - But cannot impose sanctions because:
assistance towards MNLF, but only gave o Islamic Factor of PH diplomacy
minimal aid. o Support for Palestinian cause
o Served as honest brokers between o PH multilaterial ties w/ OIC member
MNLF and the PH Govt states
o But highly asean unity cannot be o OIC not an economic power,
jeopardized by an otherwise internal dependent on member states only
PH problem. o Arab-Israle conflict > Bangsamoro
- This is the reason why MNLF heeded other question
Mideast countries because they were more o OIC failed to forward bangsamoro
sympathetic towards the MNLF cause. grievance to the UN.
- MARCOS sent her first lady to Libya to help o Liability to PH and OIC because
resolve the Mindanao problem. most member countries have ties w/
- TRIPOLI AGREEMENT: led the MNLF to the PH.
engage in country-to-country appear for o OIC charter does not have any
muslim countries to impose strong provision to allow the sanction
measures against the govt. o Member countries call the shorts
- Marcos continued to appoint Muslim whether or not they should sanction,
personalities to public office and to field not dependent on OIC but the
Muslim ambassadors, especially in the member countries voting
Mideast. - IMPORTANT FEATURE: OFWs
o 80s: MNLF gained Irans support contribution to economy
o PH did a good job containing MNLF AQUINO GOVERNMENT
diplomatic campaign - new configuration in PH foreign relations
- OIC employed the methods of peaceful o Win recognition and support for new
settlement in the conflict bet the PH govt govt
and the MNLF. o Secure econ assistance
o GOOD OFFICES: urged the ICFM to o Expand trade and econ promotion
create a fund to finance the Muslims. o Intensity regional cooperation
o MEDIATION: speech in 5th IFCM in through ASEAN
Kuala Lumpur: PH govt must find a o Implement new policy on HR and
political and peaceful solution thru civil liberties
negotiation w/ Muslim leaders in o Closer identification w/ the third
order to arrive at a just solution still world
in accordance w/ natl sovereignty o Help locate hidden wealth abroad of
and territorial integrity. the Marcoses
o 1975: MNLF peace talks in Jeddah, - FP lacked articulation towards Arab and
no settlement was reached becayse Islamic Word
they demanded beyond the powers - RAUL MANGLAPUSpromote harmonious
of a unitary and constitutional relations w/ the Arab world and the Third
governmentself-govt, control of World Islam was seen to be an integral,
historic, and outstanding component of our were hastily sent back to the PH.
nationhood. Government taking back their people
o Deplored U.S. bombing of Libya as a made Mideast countries feel that
violation of Intl Law. they could not depend of FIL workers
o Supported self-determination of in their time of need.
Western Saharans against Morocco o Oil supply95% of PH oil come from
and Mauritania. the Mideast, third world would be hit
o PH adopted a neutral policy in the by the crisis; Ramos implemented
Iran-Iraq war chose to deplore austerity measures, contingency
fratricidal conflict and support efforts programs, and oil conservation
for its just and equitable solution. schemes; OVER-REACTION drove
o Condemned South Africa for people to queue in gasoline stations
apartheid policy and Israeli and supermarkets; BLAS OPLE: no
occupation of Arab territories even sense in appealing for calm and
though US voted against them. sobriety while threatening to call up
o Recognition of the Palestinian 250,000 reservists to serve in AFP
state neutralized the continuing insisted on penal sanctions to
nuisance posed by the MNLF which those who will violate law on
wants to claim a status similar to the hoarding and profiteering; govt
of the PLO. should set the example of quiet
o MNLF showed support for the state readiness, pose, confidence and
of Palestine, but Palestine could not equanimity DESERT STORM
break the PH commitment to Israel. cancelled flights to Mideast.
o POLICY OF PRAGMATISM o Linakges of U.S. military bases in PH
continued to rule PH interest in the w/ MideastPH became a launching
Mideast. ground for warinsult to PH
- Welfare fund of OCWs was renamed sovereignty according to Anti-base
OWWA. proponents, but PH adopted an anti-
o Protect interest and promote welfare Hussein policy
of FIL OCWs and depedents o PH-Iraq relationsalleged Iraqi
o Implement Labor code provisions national bombed the Thomas
o Provide social welfare services like Jefferson Cultural Center in Makati
social work assistance and cultural persona non-grata to Iraqi consul
and entertainment services general, MUWAFAK AL-ANI. Some
o Skills development services airlines refused him flight, only
o Studies and researches for the Malaysian airlines helped.
enhancement of their social, econ, - Impact of war on Arab countries proved
and cultural well-being profitable to the US. Arab countries sought
o Develop, support, and finance U.S. military hardware.
projects for the welfare of FIL OCWs. - Effect on OFWs: Saudi adopted
o Interagency network system SAUDIZATION policy, Saudis were obliged
o Protect the rights of working FIL to work on jobs previously handled by
women in the Mideast. foreign workers. FILS were encouraged to
- Constant increase of OCWs except during go home.
the Gulf War. - War cause the PH govt to take a second
- Opened diplomatic relations w/ Oman, look at its foreign policy in the Mideast
Qatar, and Bahrain. JEDDAH ACCORD
- Increase in maltreated FIL workers. - MNLF continued to exert pressure on
- GULF WAR: invasion of Saddam Hussein Aquino admin
of Kuwait. Affected FILs in four fronts: - Aquino met w/ Misuari at the Carmelite
o OFWs in Iraq and Kuwaitmany convent to push w/ the peace process.
were evacuated, laid off, and some
o Negotiations did not result to positive o End of cold war may have erased
results because once again, MNLF the danger of nuke confrontation but
demands were too much for unitary loosening of BIG-POWER
and constitutional government. TENSIONS make the breaking out of
o Did not only get the 13 provinces in quarrels more likely
accordance w/ the Tripoli agreement o Spirit of bi-partnership
but all 23 provinces. o ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY
o Aquino created a REGIONAL acquired special resonance and vast
CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE to new potentials and renewed urgency
determine the structure and function in view of the sweeping events that
of regional autonomy for Mindanao have dramatically transformed the
o REPUBLIC ACT 6734Created the world in the last few years.
ARMM, joined by 4 muslim ECONOMIC WELL-BEING
provinces. and PEOPLES SECURITY
o OIC pressured PH again, saying that as primary motivation of PH
it failed to honor its commitment to diplomacy and foreign
implement the Tripoli Agreement. relations
- MNLF tried to be a member of the OIC to - DFA had a two-pronged approach
elevant belligerent status and to become o Determine markets or countries so
more influential in the Islamic world. that we do not dissipate out
o Eliminate racial segregation capabilities, resources, and
o Discrimination manpower
o Eradicate colonialism to strengthen o To determine specifically what we
struggle of all Muslim peoples have to promote, sell or secure for
o Safeguard their dignity, those countries
independence, and national rights. o ROBERTO ROMULO: Forge more
- PH Solution: APPLY FOR MEMBERSHIP substantial economic ties w/ Mideast
IN THE OIC. + newly independent states which
- Influential personalities of the OIC did not are seeking economic potentials
consider the MNLF application and PH would do well to join the
indicated that they were prepared to give countries responding to their call.
AQUINO time to prove her sincerity. - PHILIPPINE 2000
- FAILURE of MNLF was due to these o Welfare of FILS overseas
reasons: o Economic diplomacy
o PH Govt moved quickly to promise o National security
to give FIL MUSLIMS autonomy - SUMMIT-LEVEL DIPLOMACY: weaving
o Lack of preparation by OIC together PH agenda of econ diplomacy,
Secretariat to renew MNLF request welfare of OFWs and govts peace process
for membership w/ the MNLF.
o Some muslim countries were not o Enables the PH govt to embark on a
enthusiastic about MNLF comprehensive diplomacy thus
membership in the OIC. accruing greater benefits for the
- OIC: adopted a safe position; MNLF only country
attached itself to OIC because survival was - MEETING W/ KING FAHD IN 1994: not
in view of dwindling grassroots support. only revitalized relations w/ key nation but
RAMOS PRESIDENCY served as a gesture of the FIL peoples
- DIPLOMACY FOR DEVTcenterpiece of appreciation for the support for the Saudi
foreign policy of the Ramos admin. Govt to the peace efforts w/ the MNLF
o Persistent efforts to secure o KSA now co-owns PETRON
continued access to world markets CORPORATION, the largest oil firm
and technology in the country.
- IRAN: MEMORANDUM OF o AL ALA SHARIAH COURT
UNDERSTANDING between Ali Akbar sentenced her to seven years prison
Velayati in 1994. and ordered her to pay the
o Joint commission at the minister lvl ALBALOUSHI FAMILY 1.47 million
for cooperation in econ, agriculture pesos as blood money
and fishery, mining and industry, etc. o PH government worked hard to
- KUWAIT: received a pledge from SHEK rescue Sarah. Plea by MAHATHIR
JABER AL AHMED AL JABER AL SABAH MOHAMMAD to UAE
to support the Zone of Peace and Devt in o WILLIAM GATCHALIAN provided
Mindanao thru more investments and other the blood money to the Albaloushi
forms of assistance KUWAIT FUND FOR family.
ARAB ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - REPRESENTS AN INTERWEB OF PH
o Lifted 9-year old ban on the SOCIAL DYSFUNCTION
deployment of Filipino domestics to ENCOMPASSING POVERTY AND
Kuwait INEFFICIENT BUREAUCRACY,
o KUWAIT PH BUSINESS COMPOUNDED BY CULTURAL
COUNCILeffort to reinforce PH DIVERGENCE W/ THE ARAB WORLD.
diplomatic relation through private FINAL AGREEMENT
sector participation. - Resolution of GRP-MNLF dispute
- LIBYA: one of the members of OICs - FINAL PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN
quadripartite committee. THE PH GOVERNMENT AND THE MNLF
o Ramos appreciated the (SEPT 2 1996)hallmark of Ramos
indispensable leadership and diplomacy
support of the Great Jemahiriya for o Ramos was already keen on fixing
peace in Southern Philippines. the problem even before he was
o Meeting w/ Muammar Khaddafy president to boost his chances of
- IRAQ: relations were snail paced after the winning.
gulf war. o JOINT STATEMENT by rebel groups
o RAMOS approved 20-man + MNLF in LIBYA on OCT 4 1992
contingent to Iraqto show PH END OF EXPLORATORY AND
commitment to the UN purpose of INFORMAL OFFICIAL TALKS IN
maintaining international peace and PURSUIT OF A PEACEFUL JUST
security and of dealing w/ AND HONORABLE SOLUTION TO
international humanitarian problems THE CONFLICT IN SOUTHERN PH.
Continued to pay obligation to o SHIFTING VENUE FORMULAheld
Iraq at neutral country to diminish
o PH NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION security issues and so that MNLF
CORPORATIONdid not violate UN can amplify its international image
sanctions because it simply involved o STATEMENT OF
the delivery of basic and non- UNDERSTANDING signed in
embargo commodities like sugar, INDONEISA IN APRIL 16 1993
coconut oil, and medicine; also o Full implementation of the TRIPOLI
concerned w/ OFWs who have no AGREEMENT, w/ other portions of
papers the agreement left for further or later
- PAKISTAN: BENAZHIR BHUTTOgave discussion + transitional
an assurance that PAK does not interfere implementing structure and
with the internal affairs of other countires, mechanism.
including the PH. - FINAL AGREEMENT inked in
- SARAH BALABAGANmaid who was MALACAANG between MANUEL YAN
attempted to be raped by employer at AND NUR MISUARI; took place under the
knifepoint. auspices of the OIC.
- Peace agreement served as a
comprehensive framework for peace and
development in Mindanao.
- SOUTHERN PH COUNCIL FOR PEACE
AND DEVELOPMENTfinal agreement is
envisioned to accelerate the govts
development agenda and to provide
stability and peace and order in Mindanao.
- Still faced w/ problems and challenges
o MNLF complained for the lack of
funds and support
o Major challenge came from extremist
movements and islamist groups.
o Sporadic wars have been sparked
from time to time.
o ISLAMIST ABU SAYYAF GROUP
wreak havoc against the military and
undermined peace and order in the
south; joined other islamist groups
abroad.
o PH congress tried to pass a law on
terrorism but was not well-received
by NGOs and cause-oriented
groups.
CONCLUSION
- Evolved from a deeply rooted history
- Ideological divide gradually transformed
into continuing rapprochement and
understanding
- Islam and its values are continuing to find
solace in other parts of the world.
- SAMUEL HUNTINGTON: Islamic Threat
more of a myth than a reality.
- Pattern of power relationships among
muslim countries has remained relatively
stable.
- No major triggering point of conflict that can
radically disturb the balance of power in the
Muslim world.
- Stable balance of power in the Mideast and
the Islamic world is favorable to the PH.
- MAIN ISSUES
o ARAB OIL
o MINDANAO CONFLICT
o PH EXPORTS
o OVERSEAS FILIPINO WORKERS