You are on page 1of 21

CHOITHRAM SCHOOL

(MANIK BAGH)

PHYSICS INVESTIGATORY PROJECT


BERNOULLIS THEOREM

SESSION: 2016-2017

Submitted to- Submitted by-


Mrs.Kalpana Tiwari Pradeep Singh
Rathour
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that PRADEEP SINGH


RATHOUR is a student of class XI C has
successfully completed the research on the
below mentioned project under the guidance
of Mrs. Kalpana Tiwari (subject teacher)
during year 2016-17 in partial fulfillment of
chemistry practical examination . ofcentral
board of secondary education (CBSE)

PRINCIPAL SUBJECT TEACHER

MR. RAJESH AWASTHI Mrs. Kalpana Tiwari

Page 2 of 21
DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project work


entitled BERNAULLIS PRINCIPLE
submitted to the CHOITHRAM SCHOOL ,
is a record of original work done by me
except of the experiments, which are duly
acknowledged , under the guidance of my
subject teacher Mrs. KALPANA TIWARI
and Mr. Gaurav Tiwari.

Page 3 of 21
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I would like to express my special thanks to
our school CHOITHRAM SCHOOL, principal
sir Mr. RAJESH AWASTHI, to the
management team of our school who gave
me the golden opportunity to do this
wonderful project on the topic
BERNAULLIS PRINCIPLE, which also
helped me in doing a lot of research and
I came to know about so many new
things.

Secondly I would also like to thank my


parents and friends who helped me a lot
in finishing this project within the
limited time.

Page 4 of 21
INDEX
1. PRESSURE
2. Pascals Law
3. Hydraulics
4. Continuity Equation
5. Bernoullis Equation
6. Derivation of Bernoullis Equation
7. Venturi Tube
8. Atomizer
9. Torricelli and his Orifice
10. Derivation of Torricellis Equation

11. Streamlines

12. Aerodynamic Lift

13. Misconceptions of Lift

14. Conclusion

15. Bibliography
Page 5 of 21
PRESSURE
1. Pressure is defined as force per unit
area.
2. Standard unit is Pascal, which is N/m2
3. For liquid pressure, the medium is
considered as a continuous distribution
of matter.
4. For gas pressure, it is calculated as the
average pressure of molecular collisions
on the container.
5. Pressure acts perpendicular on the
surface.
6. Pressure is a scalar quantity pressure
has no particular direction (i.e. acts in
every direction).

Page 6 of 21
Pascals Law
Pf = P0 + gh
1. When there is an increase in
pressure at any point in a confined
fluid, there is an equal increase at
every point in the container.
2. In a fluid, all points at the same depth
must be at the same pressure.
3. Consider a fluid in equilibrium.

Page 7 of 21
Hydraulics

You have to push down the piston on the left far


down to achieve some change in the height of the
piston on the right.

1. Pressure is equal at the bottom of


both containers (because its the same
depth!)
2. P = F2/A2 = F1/A1 and since A1 < A2, F2 >
F1
3. There is a magnification of force, just
like a lever, but work stays the same!
(conservation of energy). W = F1* D1 =
F2 * D2

D1 > D2

Page 8 of 21
Continuity Equation

1. A1v1 = A2v2

2. What comes in comes out.

3. Av= V/s (volume flow rate) =


constant

Page 9 of 21
Bernoullis Equation

P+1/2v*v+gh=constant

Where p is the pressure, is the density, v


is the velocity, h is elevation, and g is
gravitational acceleration

Page 10 of 21
Derivation of Bernoullis
Equation
Restrictions
Incompressible

Non-viscous fluid (i.e. no friction)

Following a streamline motion (no


turbulence)

Constant density

*There exists an extended form of equation


that takes friction and compressibility into
account, but that is too complicated for our
level of study.

Page 11 of 21
Etotal = 1/2mv2 + mgh
W = F/A*A*d = PV

Consider the change in total energy of


the fluid as it moves from the inlet to the
outlet.

Etotal = Wdone on fluid - Wdone by fluid

Etotal = (1/2mv22 + mgh1) (1/2mv12 + mgh2)

Wdone on fluid - Wdone by fluid = (1/2mv22 + mgh1)


(1/2mv12 + mgh2)

P2V2 - P1V1 = (1/2mv22 + mgh1) (1/2mv12 +


mgh2)

P2 P1 = (1/2 v12 + gh1) (1/2 v12 + gh1)

Page 12 of 21
Venturi Tube

1. A2 < A1 ; V2 > V1
2. According to Bernoullis Law,
pressure at A2 is lower.
3. Choked flow: Because pressure
cannot be negative, total flow
rate will be limited. This is
useful in controlling fluid
velocity.

P2 + 1/2 v12 = P1 + 1/2 v12 ;


P = /2*(v22 v12)

Page 13 of 21
Atomizer

This is an atomizer, which uses the


Venturi effect to spray liquid.

When the air stream from the


hose flows over the straw, the
resulting low pressure on the top
lifts up the fluid.

Page 14 of 21
Torricelli and his Orifice

In 1843, Evangelista Torricelli proved


that the flow of liquid through an opening
is proportional to the square root of the
height of the opening.
Q = A*(2g(h1-h2)) where Q is flow
rate, A is area, h is height

Depending on the contour and shape of


the opening, different discharge
coefficients can be applied to the
equation
(of course we assume simpler situation
here

Page 15 of 21
Derivation of Torricellis
Equation
1. We use the Bernoulli Equation:
2. In the original diagram A1 [top] is
much larger than A2 [the opening].
Since A1V1 = A2V2 and A1 >> A2, V1 0
3. Since both the top and the opening
are open to atmospheric pressure,
P1 = P2 = 0 (in gauge pressure).

The equation simplifies down to:

gh1 = 1/2 v22 + gh2

/2 v22 = pg(h1-h2)
1

V22 = 2g(h1-h2)

V2 = (2g(h1-h2))
Q = Av2 = A (2g(h1-h2))

Page 16 of 21
Streamlines
1 A streamline is a path traced out by a
massless particle as it moves with the
flow.
2. Velocity is zero at the surface.
1. As you move away from the surface, the
velocity uniformly approaches the free
stream value (fluid molecules nearby the
surface are dragged due to viscosity).
2. The layer at which the velocity reaches
the free stream value is called boundary
layer. It does not necessarily match the
shape of the object boundary layer can
be detached, creating turbulence (wing
stall in aerodynamic terms).

Page 17 of 21
Aerodynamic Lift

1. Lift is the fort that keeps


an aircraft in the air.
2. In Bernoulli-an view, lift is
produced by the different
of pressure (faster velocity
on the top, slower velocity in
the bottom)
3. In Newtonian view, lift is
the reaction force that
results from the downward
deflection of the air.

3. Both views are correct, but the current argument


arises from the misapplication of either view.
4. The most accurate explanation would take into
account the simultaneous conservation of mass,
momentum, and energy of a fluid, but that involves
multivariable calculus.

Page 18 of 21
Misconceptions of Lift

1. In many popular literature,


encyclopedia, and even textbooks,
Bernoullis Law is used incorrectly to
explain the aerodynamic lift.
#1: Equal transit time
- The air on the upper side of the
wing travels faster because it has to
travel a longer path and must catch up
with the air on the lower side.
The error lies in the specification of
velocity. Air is not forced to catch up
with the downside air. Also, this theory
predicts slower velocity than in reality.

Page 19 of 21
Conclusion
Bernoulli's law states that if a non-viscous fluid is
flowing along a pipe of varying cross section, then
the pressure is lower at constrictions where the
velocity is higher, and the pressure is higher where
the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnate. Many
people find this situation paradoxical when they
first encounter it (higher velocity, lower pressure).
Venturimeter, atomiser and filter pump Bernoullis
principle is used in venturimeter to find the rate
of flow of a liquid. It is used in a carburettor to
mix air and petrol vapour in an internal combustion
engine. Bernoullis principle is used in an atomiser
and filter pump. Wings of Aeroplane Wings of an
aeroplane are made tapering. The upper surface is
made convex and the lower surface is made
concave. Due to this shape of the wing, the air
currents at the top have a large velocity than at
the bottom. Consequently the pressure above the
surface of the wing is less as compared to the
lower surface of the wing. This difference of
pressure is helpful in giving a vertical lift to the
plane.

Page 20 of 21
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Help from Internet


www.sceincefare.com
www.mycbsegide.com

2. Help from books


Refrenced from H.C.Verma
Refrenced from physics NCERT

3. Help from teachers

Page 21 of 21