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Physics Bernoulis Theorem Project CBSE Class 12 Of GHPS

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You are on page 1of 21

(MANIK BAGH)

BERNOULLIS THEOREM

SESSION: 2016-2017

Mrs.Kalpana Tiwari Pradeep Singh

Rathour

CERTIFICATE

RATHOUR is a student of class XI C has

successfully completed the research on the

below mentioned project under the guidance

of Mrs. Kalpana Tiwari (subject teacher)

during year 2016-17 in partial fulfillment of

chemistry practical examination . ofcentral

board of secondary education (CBSE)

Page 2 of 21

DECLARATION

entitled BERNAULLIS PRINCIPLE

submitted to the CHOITHRAM SCHOOL ,

is a record of original work done by me

except of the experiments, which are duly

acknowledged , under the guidance of my

subject teacher Mrs. KALPANA TIWARI

and Mr. Gaurav Tiwari.

Page 3 of 21

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to express my special thanks to

our school CHOITHRAM SCHOOL, principal

sir Mr. RAJESH AWASTHI, to the

management team of our school who gave

me the golden opportunity to do this

wonderful project on the topic

BERNAULLIS PRINCIPLE, which also

helped me in doing a lot of research and

I came to know about so many new

things.

parents and friends who helped me a lot

in finishing this project within the

limited time.

Page 4 of 21

INDEX

1. PRESSURE

2. Pascals Law

3. Hydraulics

4. Continuity Equation

5. Bernoullis Equation

6. Derivation of Bernoullis Equation

7. Venturi Tube

8. Atomizer

9. Torricelli and his Orifice

10. Derivation of Torricellis Equation

11. Streamlines

14. Conclusion

15. Bibliography

Page 5 of 21

PRESSURE

1. Pressure is defined as force per unit

area.

2. Standard unit is Pascal, which is N/m2

3. For liquid pressure, the medium is

considered as a continuous distribution

of matter.

4. For gas pressure, it is calculated as the

average pressure of molecular collisions

on the container.

5. Pressure acts perpendicular on the

surface.

6. Pressure is a scalar quantity pressure

has no particular direction (i.e. acts in

every direction).

Page 6 of 21

Pascals Law

Pf = P0 + gh

1. When there is an increase in

pressure at any point in a confined

fluid, there is an equal increase at

every point in the container.

2. In a fluid, all points at the same depth

must be at the same pressure.

3. Consider a fluid in equilibrium.

Page 7 of 21

Hydraulics

down to achieve some change in the height of the

piston on the right.

both containers (because its the same

depth!)

2. P = F2/A2 = F1/A1 and since A1 < A2, F2 >

F1

3. There is a magnification of force, just

like a lever, but work stays the same!

(conservation of energy). W = F1* D1 =

F2 * D2

D1 > D2

Page 8 of 21

Continuity Equation

1. A1v1 = A2v2

constant

Page 9 of 21

Bernoullis Equation

P+1/2v*v+gh=constant

is the velocity, h is elevation, and g is

gravitational acceleration

Page 10 of 21

Derivation of Bernoullis

Equation

Restrictions

Incompressible

turbulence)

Constant density

that takes friction and compressibility into

account, but that is too complicated for our

level of study.

Page 11 of 21

Etotal = 1/2mv2 + mgh

W = F/A*A*d = PV

the fluid as it moves from the inlet to the

outlet.

(1/2mv12 + mgh2)

mgh2)

Page 12 of 21

Venturi Tube

1. A2 < A1 ; V2 > V1

2. According to Bernoullis Law,

pressure at A2 is lower.

3. Choked flow: Because pressure

cannot be negative, total flow

rate will be limited. This is

useful in controlling fluid

velocity.

P = /2*(v22 v12)

Page 13 of 21

Atomizer

Venturi effect to spray liquid.

hose flows over the straw, the

resulting low pressure on the top

lifts up the fluid.

Page 14 of 21

Torricelli and his Orifice

that the flow of liquid through an opening

is proportional to the square root of the

height of the opening.

Q = A*(2g(h1-h2)) where Q is flow

rate, A is area, h is height

the opening, different discharge

coefficients can be applied to the

equation

(of course we assume simpler situation

here

Page 15 of 21

Derivation of Torricellis

Equation

1. We use the Bernoulli Equation:

2. In the original diagram A1 [top] is

much larger than A2 [the opening].

Since A1V1 = A2V2 and A1 >> A2, V1 0

3. Since both the top and the opening

are open to atmospheric pressure,

P1 = P2 = 0 (in gauge pressure).

/2 v22 = pg(h1-h2)

1

V22 = 2g(h1-h2)

V2 = (2g(h1-h2))

Q = Av2 = A (2g(h1-h2))

Page 16 of 21

Streamlines

1 A streamline is a path traced out by a

massless particle as it moves with the

flow.

2. Velocity is zero at the surface.

1. As you move away from the surface, the

velocity uniformly approaches the free

stream value (fluid molecules nearby the

surface are dragged due to viscosity).

2. The layer at which the velocity reaches

the free stream value is called boundary

layer. It does not necessarily match the

shape of the object boundary layer can

be detached, creating turbulence (wing

stall in aerodynamic terms).

Page 17 of 21

Aerodynamic Lift

an aircraft in the air.

2. In Bernoulli-an view, lift is

produced by the different

of pressure (faster velocity

on the top, slower velocity in

the bottom)

3. In Newtonian view, lift is

the reaction force that

results from the downward

deflection of the air.

arises from the misapplication of either view.

4. The most accurate explanation would take into

account the simultaneous conservation of mass,

momentum, and energy of a fluid, but that involves

multivariable calculus.

Page 18 of 21

Misconceptions of Lift

encyclopedia, and even textbooks,

Bernoullis Law is used incorrectly to

explain the aerodynamic lift.

#1: Equal transit time

- The air on the upper side of the

wing travels faster because it has to

travel a longer path and must catch up

with the air on the lower side.

The error lies in the specification of

velocity. Air is not forced to catch up

with the downside air. Also, this theory

predicts slower velocity than in reality.

Page 19 of 21

Conclusion

Bernoulli's law states that if a non-viscous fluid is

flowing along a pipe of varying cross section, then

the pressure is lower at constrictions where the

velocity is higher, and the pressure is higher where

the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnate. Many

people find this situation paradoxical when they

first encounter it (higher velocity, lower pressure).

Venturimeter, atomiser and filter pump Bernoullis

principle is used in venturimeter to find the rate

of flow of a liquid. It is used in a carburettor to

mix air and petrol vapour in an internal combustion

engine. Bernoullis principle is used in an atomiser

and filter pump. Wings of Aeroplane Wings of an

aeroplane are made tapering. The upper surface is

made convex and the lower surface is made

concave. Due to this shape of the wing, the air

currents at the top have a large velocity than at

the bottom. Consequently the pressure above the

surface of the wing is less as compared to the

lower surface of the wing. This difference of

pressure is helpful in giving a vertical lift to the

plane.

Page 20 of 21

BIBLIOGRAPHY

www.sceincefare.com

www.mycbsegide.com

Refrenced from H.C.Verma

Refrenced from physics NCERT

Page 21 of 21

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