You are on page 1of 206

STRUCTURE DESIGN CALCULATIONS

OF
MAIN PUMPING STATION

15 MLD MPS & 6 MLD SEWAGE


TREATMENT PLANT
BASED ON SEQUENTIAL BATCH
REACTOR
DESIGN BASIS

Concrete grade : M 30
Steel grade : Fe 500
Density of Concrete = 25 kN/m3

Minimum clear cover to concrete elements:

Surfaces in contact with water : 45 mm

Surfaces not in contact with water : 30 mm

Beams : 45 mm

Columns : 45 mm

Foundations : 50 mm

Water retaining structures have been designed on Limit State design as per clause 4.4 of
IS 3370 2009 (Part 2). It states that the maximum calculated surface width of cracks for
direct tension and flexure shall not exceed 0.2 mm with specified cover. Crack widths have
been calculated as per the methods given in Annexure B of IS 3370 2009 (Part 2).

Page 1
REFERENCES CODES AND STANDARDS

IS 456 2000 :- Code of practice for Plain & Reinforced Concrete

IS 875 Code of practice for design loads for building & structures ( part I to part IV)

IS 1893 Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures.

IS 800 Code of practice for general constructure in steel

IS 13920 Code of practice for ductile detailing for reinforced concrete structures subjected
to seismic forces

IS 3370 Part 1: 2009 :- Code of practice for concrete structure for the storage of Liquids
(General Requirements)

IS 3370 Part 2: 2009 :- Code of practice for concrete structure for the storage of Liquids
(Reinforced concrete structure)

IS 3370 Part4: 1967 :- Code of practice for concrete structure for the storage of Liquids
(Design Tables)

Page 2
DESIGN METHODOLOGY

List of abbreviations along with units :


fck = characteristic cube compressive strength of concrete (N/mm2)
fy = Characteristic strength of steel (N/mm2)
m = modular ratio
a = Height of fill (m)
b = Length of wall (m)
c = Clear cover to reinforcement (mm)
= Dia of bar (assumed in mm)
c' = Nominal cover to reinforcement (mm)
w = Design surface crack width (mm)
s = maximum spacing between adjoining bars (assumed in mm)
cr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (assumed in mm)
k = coefficient of active pressure
k = modified coefficient of active pressure of adjoining wall w.r.t. height of present
wall
= Density of fill (KN/m3)

2.0 Steps followed in design :


1. Calculate the ratio of length of wall (b) and height of fill (a)
2. Depending upon the ratio b/a, we see whether the wall is Cantilever (b/a > 3), Three
Edges Fixed (0.5 < b/a < 3) or Horizontal Spanning Wall (b/a < 0.5).
3. Then b/a for both the fills is equalized so to get moment values at same fraction of
height due to Fill 1 and Fill 2. This helps to compare the calculated reinforcement for
Case 1 (Fill 1 acting; Fill 2 not acting) and Case 2 (Fill 1 acting; Fill 2 not acting) on
both the fills.
4. Vertical moments :
4.1. Coefficient for vertical moment as per IS code.
i. For cantilever wall, the coefficients at different heights are worked out
by the formula wH3/6.
ii. For horizontal spanning wall, bottom h = H/4 or 1 m (whichever is
greater) is designed to act as cantilever and balance height is
designed as horizontal spanning.
iii. For three edges fixed wall, the coefficients are taken from IS 3370
Part IV.

Page 3
4.2. These coefficients are then multiplied by multiplier. Multiplier = k x x H3
for cantilever and three edges fixed wall and k x x H x h2 for horizontal
spanning wall.
4.3. The multiplier is multiplied with coefficient to calculate the vertical bending
moment.
4.4. Additional moments due to walkway etc are added to the vertical moments.
4.5. Then it is checked whether any direct tension due to suspended slab
bottom is there or not. If yes, then modified vertical moments are
calculated.
4.6. Reinforcement is calculated for modified moments and direct tension.
Calculated reinforcement is compared with minimum reinforcement as per
IS 3370-2009.
5. Horizontal moments :
5.1. Coefficient for horizontal moment as per IS code
i. For cantilever wall, coefficients = 0.
ii. For horizontal spanning wall, coefficient = 1/12 at edge and 1/16 at
mid span.
iii. For three edges fixed wall, the coefficients are taken from IS 3370
Part IV.
5.2. These coefficients are then multiplied by multiplier. Multiplier = k x x H3
for three edges fixed and horizontal spanning wall and 0 for cantilever wall.

5.3. The multiplier is multiplied with coefficient to calculate the horizontal


bending moment at the edge and middle of span.
5.4. If there is any adjoining wall, then redistribution of horizontal moments at
edge is done between the two walls based on their moments and their
relative stiffness. Moments at the middle of the span are also corrected as
per the redistribution of moments. Redistribution of moments is optional.
5.5. Redistributed moments are further modified for any direct tension due to
adjoining wall.
5.6. Reinforcement is calculated for modified moments and direct tension at the
edge and for middle span moments. Calculated reinforcement is compared
with minimum reinforcement as per IS 3370-2009.
6. Limit State design for vertical as well as horizontal moments :
6.1. Limit state design is done for both horizontal as well as vertical moments
As per IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009, Annexure B,
6.2. Reinforcement and thickness are assumed and crack width is calculated to
be less than permissible crack width. Stress in reinforcement is limited to
0.8 fy.

Page 4
DESIGN OF WALLS & FOUNDATIONS

Page 5
Design of Wall: W1 Location: Wet well

General Comments, if any

DESIGN DATA

D = Dia of tank (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
Length of wall along its centre line (m) = PI() * (Dia + thickness at bottom)

Dia D: 7.50 BOF: 90.40 GWT: 80.00 Length of Wall (m) : 24.19

BOW: 90.40 TOW: 100.50

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 96.00 5.60 9.48
Fill 2 Earth 99.88 9.48 9.48

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 10.10 Design Height of Wall (m) = 9.48
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 10.10

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side - - - - -

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Notes on Additional moment, if any: - Platform on the fill1 face

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Page 6
DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.E+05 N/mm2


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333
c=
Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=
Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.349


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr r


Fill Type 3
mm mm mm mm mm mm kN/m
Fill 1 Water 0.349 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77 10.5
Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65 18.0

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 10.10 - - Height above BOF = 10.10


Provided thickness 200 200 - - Taper = One side

Average thickness of wall t (mm) = 200


Design Height of Wall H (m) = 9.48

Page 7
2
Thickness of wall to be used for design: Max Thickness H /Dt = 59.914

Designing for Vertical Moments

Vertical moments are calculated for the following two case:


Case 1: Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting
Case 2: Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting

Coefficients for vertical moments are taken from Table 10 of IS 3370 (Part IV) based on value of H^2/Dt
Base is assumed to be fixed for calculating vertical moments

Vertical moment (kN-m/m) = Coefficient * k' * r * H^3


Refer design Parameters for values of k' and r for respective fills, while calculating moments for Case 1 and Case
2.
Vertical moments are calculated for both Case 1 and Case 2.

Case 1 and Case 2 moments are segregated as follows depending on whether these are +ve or -ve.
Case 1 - Fill 1 moments are negative moments. Case 1 - Fill 2 moments are positive moments.
Case 2 - Fill 1 moments are positive moments. Case 2 - Fill 2 moments are negative moments.
Absolute values of Fill 1 and Fill 2 moments are written for both cases.

Envelope Fill 1 moment = Max (Case 1 - Fill 1, Case 2 - Fill 1) moment


Envelope Fill 2 moment = Max (Case 1 - Fill 2, Case 2 - Fill 2) moment

Height Case 1 Unfactored kN-m/m Case 2 Unfactored kN-m/m Envelope


from Case 1 Case 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
Coeff Case 1 Case 1 Fill Case 2 Case 2 Fill
bottom Fill 2 Fill 2 moment moment
moment 1 moment moment 1 moment
m moment moment kN-m/m kN-m/m
10.100
9.480 0.0000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
8.530 0.0000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
7.580 0.0000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
6.640 0.0000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
5.690 0.0000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
4.740 0.0000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
3.790 0.0000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
2.840 0.0000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
1.900 0.0000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.950 0.0004 1.249 0.000 1.249 2.043 2.043 0.000 2.043 1.249
0.000 -0.0023 -7.180 7.180 0.000 -11.745 0.000 11.745 7.180 11.745

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

Page 8
2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.35 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
2
Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Fill 1 reinforcement
Height Moment Moment
Provided 2 Ast for Reinf
from unfactor Mu d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf
Th D Mu required
bottom M Factor
2 2 2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm
10.100 200 350 350
9.480 0.00 0.00 200 147 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
8.530 0.00 0.00 200 147 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
7.580 0.00 0.00 200 147 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
6.640 0.00 0.00 200 147 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
5.690 0.00 0.00 200 147 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
4.740 0.00 0.00 200 147 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
3.790 0.00 0.00 200 147 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
2.840 0.00 0.00 200 147 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
1.900 0.00 0.00 200 147 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
0.950 2.04 3.06 200 147 0.142 0.039 58 350 350
0.000 7.18 10.77 200 147 0.498 0.141 207 350 350

Fill 2 reinforcement
Height Moment Moment
Provided 2 Ast for Reinf
from unfactor Mu d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf
Th D Mu required
bottom M Factor
2 2 2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm
10.100 200 350 350
9.480 0.00 0.00 200 162 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
8.530 0.00 0.00 200 162 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
7.580 0.00 0.00 200 162 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
6.640 0.00 0.00 200 162 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
5.690 0.00 0.00 200 162 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
4.740 0.00 0.00 200 162 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
3.790 0.00 0.00 200 162 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
2.840 0.00 0.00 200 162 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
1.900 0.00 0.00 200 162 0.000 0.000 0 350 350
0.950 1.25 1.87 200 162 0.071 0.020 32 350 350
0.000 11.75 17.62 200 162 0.671 0.191 310 350 350

2
Designing for Hoop Tension H /Dt = 59.914

Hoop tension is calculated for Case 1 (Fill 1 acting, Fill 2 not acting) only
Case 2 (Fill 2 acting, Fill 1 not acting) will cause hoop compression.

Coefficients for hoop tension T1 for triangular loads are taken from Table 12 of IS 3370 (Part IV)
Base is assumed to be hinged for calculating hoop tension

Page 9
Hoop tension T1 (kN/m) = Coefficient * k' * r * H * R R = radius of tank
Refer design Parameters for values of k' and r for respective fills, while calculating hoop tension

Hoop tension T2 is calculated for addl moments as per Table 16 of IS 3370 (Part IV)

Additional moment = Max of (Fill 1, Fill 2) additional moment = -

2
Hoop tension T2 (kN/m) = Coefficient * DM * R/H R = radius of tank

Total Hoop tension T = Hoop tension T1 + Hoop tension T2

Tension due to Addl Tension due to


Height triangular load addl moment Total
from Tension tension
bottom Tension unfcator T
Coeff unfactor Coeff
unfactor T2
T1
m kN/m kN/m kN/m
10.100
9.480 0.0020 0.26 0.2200 0.00 0.26
8.530 0.1000 13.03 0.0700 0.00 13.03
7.580 0.1980 25.79 -0.0800 0.00 25.79
6.640 0.2990 38.95 -0.6400 0.00 38.95
5.690 0.4030 52.49 -1.2800 0.00 52.49
4.740 0.5210 67.86 -1.3000 0.00 67.86
3.790 0.6500 84.66 1.1200 0.00 84.66
2.840 0.7640 99.51 9.6700 0.00 99.51
1.900 0.8590 111.89 24.5300 0.00 111.89
0.950 0.8520 110.98 34.6500 0.00 110.98
0.000 0.0000 0.00 0.0000 0.00 0.00

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored tension ; Load Factor = 1.5

T u = T * 1.5 Tu = Factored tension


2
Permissible stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.87 * fy
Required reinforcement on each face = 0.5 * Tu * 1000 / (0.87 * fy)

Area of reinforcement is also calculated from the point of view of permissible direct tension in concrete
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * 2 * As As = Reinforcement on each faces
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac
Refer clause B-2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for permissible value of direct tension
2
Permissible value of direct tension in concrete sct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Required reinforcement for permissible direct tension = (T * 1000 - sct * 1000 * D)/(2 * (m - 1) * sct)
If reinforcement reqd comes out to be negative, it is taken as zero.

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Tu, Ast for Direct Tension, Min reinforcement)

Page 10
Ast for
Height Tension Reinf
Tension Ast for Provided Direct
from unfactor Min Reinf required
Tu Factor Tu per face Th D Tension
bottom T per face
per face
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm mm mm
10.100 200 350 350
9.480 0.26 0.39 1 200 0 350 350
8.530 13.03 19.54 27 200 0 350 350
7.580 25.79 38.69 54 200 0 350 350
6.640 38.95 58.42 81 200 0 350 350
5.690 52.49 78.74 109 200 0 350 350
4.740 67.86 101.79 141 200 0 350 350
3.790 84.66 127.00 176 200 0 350 350
2.840 99.51 149.27 207 200 0 350 350
1.900 111.89 167.83 232 200 0 350 350
0.950 110.98 166.46 231 200 0 350 350
0.000 0.00 0.00 0 200 0 350 350

Summary of Reinforcement (Provided)

Verical Reinforcement

Fill 1 Reinforcement Fill 2 Reinforcement


Height Height
Ast Reinforcement Ast Reinforcement
from Breaks at from Breaks at
required provided required provided
bottom bottom
2 2
m mm m m mm m
10.100 350 00-000+10-180 10.100 350 00-000+10-180
9.480 350 00-000+10-180 9.480 350 00-000+10-180
8.530 350 00-000+10-180 8.530 350 00-000+10-180
7.580 350 00-000+10-180 7.580 350 00-000+10-180
6.640 350 00-000+10-180 6.640 350 00-000+10-180
5.690 350 00-000+10-180 5.690 350 00-000+10-180
4.740 350 00-000+10-180 4.740 350 00-000+10-180
3.790 350 00-000+10-180 3.790 350 00-000+10-180
2.840 350 00-000+10-180 2.40 2.840 350 00-000+10-180
1.900 350 08-180+10-180 1.900 350 00-000+10-180
0.950 350 08-180+10-180 0.950 350 00-000+10-180
0.000 350 08-180+10-180 0.000 350 00-000+10-180

Reinforcement for Hoop Tension

Height
Ast Reinforcement
from Breaks at
required provided each face
bottom
2
m mm m
10.100 350 00-000+10-150
9.480 350 00-000+10-150
8.530 350 00-000+10-150
7.580 350 00-000+10-150
6.640 350 00-000+10-150 7.50

Page 11
5.690 350 00-000+10-180
4.740 350 00-000+10-180
3.790 350 00-000+10-180
2.840 350 00-000+10-180
1.900 350 00-000+10-180
0.950 350 00-000+10-180
0.000 350 00-000+10-180 0.00

2
Check for Shear H /Dt = 59.914

Coefficient for calculating shear at the base of cylindrical tank is taken from table 11 of IS 3370 (Part IV) for triangular load
2
and value of H /Dt

Shear at base (kN/m) = Coefficient * k' * r * H^2


Refer Design Parameters for values of k' and r for respective fills, while calculating moments for Case 1 and
Shear at base is calculated for both Case 1 and Case 2.
Check for shear is done for larger of the two values.

r H Shear
Case Coeff k' 3
kN/m m kN/m
Case 1 0.134 0.349 10.5 9.48 44.20
Case 2 0.134 0.333 18.0 9.48 72.32

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Nominal Shear
Factored Provided Maximum Check for
Case Shear V d shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
2 72.32 108.47 162 0.670 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 - Fill 1 for vertical moments


(b) Case 2 - Fill 2 for vertical moments
(c) Hoop tension

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a) and (c)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the moments
exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m

Page 12
Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Provided reinf


Moment
from thicknes Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
M
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
10.10
9.48 200 0.00 436 436
8.53 200 0.00 436 436
7.58 200 0.00 436 436
6.64 200 0.00 436 436
5.69 200 0.00 436 436
4.74 200 0.00 436 436
3.79 200 0.00 436 436
2.84 200 0.00 436 436
1.90 200 0.00 716 436
0.95 200 2.04 716 436
0.00 200 7.18 716 436

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Page 13
Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

Height
from
section in bending crack width calculations check
bottom of
wall
fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
m N/mm mm mm N/mm
10.10
9.48 0.0 31.5 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1815 0.0
8.53 0.0 31.5 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1815 0.0
7.58 0.0 31.5 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1815 0.0
6.64 0.0 31.5 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1815 0.0
5.69 0.0 31.5 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1815 0.0
4.74 0.0 31.5 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1815 0.0
3.79 0.0 31.5 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1815 0.0
2.84 0.0 31.5 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1815 0.0
1.90 0.0 38.1 0.0000 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.1062 0.0
0.95 21.3 38.1 0.0001 0.0006 -0.0004 -0.0791 0.8
0.00 74.7 38.1 0.0005 0.0006 -0.0001 -0.0107 2.8
All OK All OK All OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Page 14
Height Overall Provided reinf
Moment
from thicknes Ast Fill 2 Ast Fill
M
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
10.10
9.48 200 0.00 436 436
8.53 200 0.00 436 436
7.58 200 0.00 436 436
6.64 200 0.00 436 436
5.69 200 0.00 436 436
4.74 200 0.00 436 436
3.79 200 0.00 436 436
2.84 200 0.00 436 436
1.90 200 0.00 436 716
0.95 200 1.25 436 716
0.00 200 11.75 436 716

Height
from
section in bending crack width calculations check
bottom of
wall
fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
m N/mm mm mm N/mm
10.10
9.48 0.0 34.5 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1425 0.0
8.53 0.0 34.5 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1425 0.0
7.58 0.0 34.5 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1425 0.0
6.64 0.0 34.5 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1425 0.0
5.69 0.0 34.5 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1425 0.0
4.74 0.0 34.5 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1425 0.0
3.79 0.0 34.5 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1425 0.0
2.84 0.0 34.5 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1425 0.0
1.90 0.0 35.5 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1413 0.0
0.95 19.1 35.5 0.0001 0.0008 -0.0007 -0.1179 0.6
0.00 179.3 35.5 0.0013 0.0008 0.0005 0.0787 5.4
All OK All OK All OK

Checking crack width - Hoop Tension

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Direct Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thicknes Tension Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
10.10
9.48 200 0.26 0.13 0.13 524 524
8.53 200 13.03 6.51 6.51 524 524
7.58 200 25.79 12.90 12.90 524 524
6.64 200 38.95 19.47 19.47 524 524
5.69 200 52.49 26.25 26.25 436 436
4.74 200 67.86 33.93 33.93 436 436
3.79 200 84.66 42.33 42.33 436 436

Page 15
2.84 200 99.51 49.76 49.76 436 436
1.90 200 111.89 55.94 55.94 436 436
0.95 200 110.98 55.49 55.49 436 436
0.00 200 0.00 0.00 0.00 436 436

T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
Since there is no moment in circumferential direction, both T' and T" will be equal.

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

In this case, both fs and fs' will be equal.

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =

Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')


Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

section in tension crack width calculations check


fs fs' e1 e2 em w fct
2 2 2
N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.2 0.2 0.0000 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.2435 0.0


12.4 12.4 0.0001 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.2202 0.1
24.6 24.6 0.0001 0.0006 -0.0005 -0.1968 0.1
37.2 37.2 0.0002 0.0006 -0.0005 -0.1727 0.2
60.2 60.2 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.1775 0.3
77.8 77.8 0.0004 0.0008 -0.0004 -0.1438 0.3
97.0 97.0 0.0005 0.0008 -0.0003 -0.1069 0.4
114.0 114.0 0.0006 0.0008 -0.0002 -0.0743 0.5
128.2 128.2 0.0006 0.0008 -0.0001 -0.0471 0.5
127.2 127.2 0.0006 0.0008 -0.0001 -0.0491 0.5
0.0 0.0 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1815 0.0
All OK All OK All OK

Page 16
DESIGN OF WALL W2 Location: Screen chamber internal wall

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 5.00 BOF: 91.600 GWT: 80.000

BOW: 91.600 TOW: 100.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 96.000 4.40 4.40 1.14 3 Edges Fixed Wall
Fill 2 Water 96.000 4.40 4.40 1.14 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 8.90 Design Height of Wall (m) = 4.40
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 8.90

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side - - - - -

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: -

Page 17
Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 8.90 - - Height above BOF = 8.90


Provided thickness 400 400 - - Taper = One side

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS

Page 18
3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 1.14
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.90
4.40 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 894.4 0.00 0.00 0.00
3.30 0.0036 0.0011 -0.0061 894.4 3.25 0.98 -5.45
2.20 0.0117 0.0066 -0.0065 894.4 10.49 5.94 -5.85
1.10 0.0069 0.0050 -0.0045 894.4 6.18 4.47 -4.07
0.00 -0.0415 -0.0269 0.0000 894.4 -37.16 -24.07 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.90 400 480
4.40 0.00 0.00 400 0.00 Bending 480
3.30 -5.45 3.25 400 -5.45 Bending 480

Page 19
2.20 -5.85 10.49 400 -5.85 Bending 480
1.10 -4.07 6.18 400 0.00 147 -4.07 Bending 480
0.00 -37.16 0.00 400 0.00 147 -37.16 Bending 480

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 480
4.40 347 0.00 - - 480
3.30 347 8.17 65 - 480
2.20 347 8.78 70 - 480
1.10 347 6.10 0.00 49 - 480
0.00 347 55.74 0.00 453 - 480

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 480
4.40 347 0.00 - - 480
3.30 347 4.88 39 - 480
2.20 347 15.73 126 - 480
1.10 347 9.27 74 - 480
0.00 347 0.00 - - 480

Page 20
DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 1.14
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3
Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.90
4.40 0.0123 0.0025 -0.0240 894.4 10.98 2.28 -21.47
3.30 0.0132 0.0041 -0.0290 894.4 11.79 3.66 -25.94
2.20 0.0141 0.0061 -0.0334 894.4 12.60 5.45 -29.84
1.10 0.0002 0.0045 -0.0222 894.4 0.16 4.07 -19.84
0.00 -0.0081 -0.0055 0.0000 894.4 -7.24 -4.96 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.90 400 480
4.40 -21.47 10.98 400 - 147 -21.47 Bending 480
3.30 -25.94 11.79 400 - 147 -25.94 Bending 480
2.20 -29.84 12.60 400 - 147 -29.84 Bending 480
1.10 -19.84 0.16 400 - 147 -19.84 Bending 480
0.00 0.00 -7.24 400 - 147 0.00 Bending 480
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement

Page 21
Edge - Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 480
4.40 347 32.20 0.00 260 - 480
3.30 347 38.91 0.00 315 - 480
2.20 347 44.76 0.00 363 - 480
1.10 347 29.76 0.00 240 - 480
0.00 347 0.00 0.00 - - 480

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 480
4.40 347 0.00 - - 480
3.30 347 0.00 - - 480
2.20 347 0.00 - - 480
1.10 347 0.00 - - 480
0.00 347 0.00 - - 480

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.90 480 480
4.40 347 0.00 0 480 347 16.47 132 480
3.30 347 0.00 0 480 347 17.69 142 480
2.20 347 0.00 0 480 347 18.91 152 480
1.10 347 0.00 0 480 347 0.24 2 480
0.00 347 10.86 87 480 347 0.00 0 480

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00

Page 22
2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
8.90
4.40 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 894.4 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
3.30 0.0036 0.0011 -0.0061 894.4 3.25 0.98 -5.45 -
2.20 0.0117 0.0066 -0.0065 894.4 10.49 5.94 -5.85 -
1.10 0.0069 0.0050 -0.0045 894.4 6.18 4.47 -4.07 -
0.00 -0.0415 -0.0269 0.0000 894.4 -37.16 -24.07 0.00 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.90 400 480
4.40 0.00 0.00 400 0.00 Bending 480
3.30 3.25 -5.45 400 -5.45 Bending 480
2.20 10.49 -5.85 400 -5.85 Bending 480
1.10 6.18 -4.07 400 0.00 147 -4.07 Bending 480
0.00 0.00 -37.16 400 0.00 147 -37.16 Bending 480
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 480
4.40 347 0.00 - - 480
3.30 347 8.17 60 - 480
2.20 347 8.78 72 - 480
1.10 347 6.10 0.00 48 - 480
0.00 347 55.74 0.00 451 - 480

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Page 23
Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 480
4.40 347 0.00 12 - 480
3.30 347 4.88 36 - 480
2.20 347 15.73 120 - 480
1.10 347 9.27 72 - 480
0.00 347 0.00 12 - 480

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
8.90
4.40 0.0123 0.0025 -0.0240 894.4 10.98 2.28 -21.47
3.30 0.0132 0.0041 -0.0290 894.4 11.79 3.66 -25.94
2.20 0.0141 0.0061 -0.0334 894.4 12.60 5.45 -29.84
1.10 0.0002 0.0045 -0.0222 894.4 0.16 4.07 -19.84
0.00 -0.0081 -0.0055 0.0000 894.4 -7.24 -4.96 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.90 400 480
4.40 -21.47 10.98 400 0.00 147 -21.47 Bending 480
3.30 -25.94 11.79 400 0.00 147 -25.94 Bending 480
2.20 -29.84 12.60 400 0.00 147 -29.84 Bending 480
1.10 -19.84 0.16 400 0.00 147 -19.84 Bending 480
0.00 0.00 -7.24 400 0.00 147 0.00 Bending 480
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 24
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 480
4.40 347 32.20 0.00 254 - 480
3.30 347 38.91 0.00 315 - 480
2.20 347 44.76 0.00 365 - 480
1.10 347 29.76 0.00 242 - 480
0.00 347 0.00 0.00 - - 480

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 480
4.40 347 0.00 - - 480
3.30 347 0.00 - - 480
2.20 347 0.00 - - 480
1.10 347 0.00 - - 480
0.00 347 0.00 - - 480

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.90 480 480
4.40 347 16.47 132 480 347 0.00 0 480
3.30 347 17.69 145 480 347 0.00 0 480
2.20 347 18.91 157 480 347 0.00 0 480
1.10 347 0.24 12 480 347 0.00 0 480
0.00 347 0.00 0 480 347 10.86 84 480

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
8.90 480 480 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
4.40 480 480 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
3.30 480 480 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
2.20 480 480 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
1.10 480 480 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150

Page 25
0.00 480 480 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
8.90 480 480 480 480
4.40 480 480 480 480
3.30 480 480 480 480
2.20 480 480 480 480
1.10 480 480 480 480
0.00 480 480 480 480

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
8.90 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
4.40 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
3.30 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
2.20 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
1.10 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
0.00 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

CHECK FOR SHEAR

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 1.14
Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.90
4.40 Side edge - 0.022 4.53 400 347
3.30 Side edge - 0.148 30.11 400 347
2.20 Side edge - 0.274 55.69 400 347
1.10 Side edge - 0.325 66.11 400 347
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.460 -93.41 400 347
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.261 53.02 400 347

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall.

Page 26
Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)
Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.90
4.40 4.53 6.79 0.020 524 0.15 0.58 3.50 OK
3.30 30.11 45.16 0.130 524 0.15 0.58 3.50 OK
2.20 55.69 83.53 0.241 524 0.15 0.58 3.50 OK
1.10 66.11 99.17 0.286 524 0.15 0.58 3.50 OK
0.00 93.41 140.11 0.404 524 0.15 0.58 3.50 OK
0.00 53.02 79.53 0.229 524 0.15 0.58 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.90
4.40 Side edge - 0.022 7.76 400 347
3.30 Side edge - 0.148 51.61 400 347
2.20 Side edge - 0.274 95.47 400 347
1.10 Side edge - 0.325 113.34 400 347
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.460 -160.13 400 347
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.261 90.89 400 347

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.90
4.40 7.76 11.64 0.034 524 0.15 0.75 3.50 OK
3.30 51.61 77.42 0.223 524 0.15 0.75 3.50 OK
2.20 95.47 143.20 0.413 524 0.15 0.75 3.50 OK
1.10 113.34 170.00 0.490 524 0.15 0.75 3.50 OK
0.00 160.13 240.19 0.692 524 0.15 0.75 3.50 OK
0.00 90.89 136.33 0.393 524 0.15 0.75 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Page 27
Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.90
4.40 400 Bending 0.00 524 524
3.30 400 Bending 5.45 524 524
2.20 400 Bending 10.49 524 524
1.10 400 Bending 6.18 0.00 524 524
0.00 400 Bending 37.16 0.00 524 524

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Page 28
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =

Page 29
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 53.5 0.0000 0.0013 -0.0013 -0.3377 0.0


31.6 53.5 0.0002 0.0013 -0.0011 -0.2893 0.6
60.9 53.5 0.0004 0.0013 -0.0009 -0.2446 1.2
35.9 53.5 0.0002 0.0013 -0.0011 -0.2828 0.7
215.6 53.5 0.0013 0.0013 0.0000 -0.0076 4.2
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.90
4.40 400 Bending 0.00 524 524
3.30 400 Bending 5.45 524 524
2.20 400 Bending 10.49 524 524
1.10 400 Bending 6.18 0.00 524 524
0.00 400 Bending 37.16 0.00 524 524

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 53.5 0.0000 0.0013 -0.0013 -0.3377 0.0


31.6 53.5 0.0002 0.0013 -0.0011 -0.2893 0.6
60.9 53.5 0.0004 0.0013 -0.0009 -0.2446 1.2
35.9 53.5 0.0002 0.0013 -0.0011 -0.2828 0.7
215.6 53.5 0.0013 0.0013 0.0000 -0.0076 4.2
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Page 30
Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.90
4.40 400 Bending 21.47 0.00 524 524
3.30 400 Bending 25.94 0.00 524 524
2.20 400 Bending 29.84 0.00 524 524
1.10 400 Bending 19.84 0.00 524 524
0.00 400 Bending 0.00 0.00 524 524

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

124.6 53.5 0.0007 0.0013 -0.0006 -0.1470 2.4


150.5 53.5 0.0009 0.0013 -0.0004 -0.1073 2.9
173.1 53.5 0.0010 0.0013 -0.0003 -0.0726 3.4
115.1 53.5 0.0007 0.0013 -0.0006 -0.1615 2.2
0.0 53.5 0.0000 0.0013 -0.0013 -0.3377 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.90
4.40 400 Bending 21.47 0.00 524 524
3.30 400 Bending 25.94 0.00 524 524
2.20 400 Bending 29.84 0.00 524 524
1.10 400 Bending 19.84 0.00 524 524
0.00 400 Bending 0.00 0.00 524 524

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

124.6 53.5 0.0007 0.0013 -0.0006 -0.1470 2.4


150.5 53.5 0.0009 0.0013 -0.0004 -0.1073 2.9
173.1 53.5 0.0010 0.0013 -0.0003 -0.0726 3.4
115.1 53.5 0.0007 0.0013 -0.0006 -0.1615 2.2
0.0 53.5 0.0000 0.0013 -0.0013 -0.3377 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 31
DESIGN OF WALL W3 Location: Screen chamber external wall

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 5.00 BOF: 91.600 GWT: 80.000

BOW: 91.600 TOW: 100.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 96.000 4.40 8.28 0.60 3 Edges Fixed Wall
Fill 2 Earth 99.880 8.28 8.28 0.60 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 8.90 Design Height of Wall (m) = 8.28
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 8.90

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 0.80 150.00 2.00 3.00 8.75

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 2.80


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 2.80

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: -

Page 32
Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.282


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 0.282 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 8.90 - - Height above BOF = 8.90


Provided thickness 400 200 - - Taper = One side

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS

Page 33
3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.6
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 0.282
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.90
8.28 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1683.2 0.00 0.00 0.00
6.21 0.0004 0.0000 -0.0014 1683.2 0.70 0.00 -2.38
4.14 0.0032 0.0014 -0.0024 1683.2 5.46 2.38 -4.07
2.07 0.0052 0.0018 -0.0018 1683.2 8.83 3.08 -3.08
0.00 -0.0187 -0.0109 0.0000 1683.2 -31.54 -18.36 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.90 200 240
8.28 0.00 0.00 214 0.00 Bending 257
6.21 -2.38 0.70 260 -2.38 Bending 313

Page 34
4.14 -4.07 5.46 307 -4.07 Bending 368
2.07 -3.08 8.83 353 0.00 124 -3.08 Bending 424
0.00 -31.54 0.00 400 0.00 147 -31.54 Bending 480

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 257
8.28 161 0.00 - - 257
6.21 207 3.57 48 - 313
4.14 254 6.10 67 - 368
2.07 300 4.62 0.00 43 - 424
0.00 347 47.31 0.00 384 - 480

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 257
8.28 176 0.00 - - 257
6.21 222 1.05 13 - 313
4.14 269 8.20 85 - 368
2.07 315 13.25 117 - 424
0.00 362 0.00 - - 480

Page 35
DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.6
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3
Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 0.282
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.90
8.28 0.0022 0.0004 -0.0041 1683.2 3.78 0.70 -6.86
6.21 0.0062 0.0014 -0.0069 1683.2 10.51 2.38 -11.63
4.14 0.0077 0.0018 -0.0123 1683.2 12.90 3.08 -20.74
2.07 0.0064 0.0018 -0.0095 1683.2 10.80 3.08 -15.98
0.00 -0.0038 -0.0024 0.0000 1683.2 -6.45 -4.07 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.90 200 240
8.28 -6.86 3.78 214 - 54 -6.86 Bending 257
6.21 -11.63 10.51 260 - 77 -11.63 Bending 313
4.14 -20.74 12.90 307 - 100 -20.74 Bending 368
2.07 -15.98 10.80 353 - 124 -15.98 Bending 424
0.00 0.00 -6.45 400 - 147 0.00 Bending 480
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement

Page 36
Edge - Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 257
8.28 161 10.29 0.00 180 - 257
6.21 207 17.44 0.00 237 - 313
4.14 254 31.11 0.00 346 - 368
2.07 300 23.97 0.00 223 - 424
0.00 347 0.00 0.00 - - 480

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 257
8.28 176 0.00 - - 257
6.21 222 0.00 - - 313
4.14 269 0.00 - - 368
2.07 315 0.00 - - 424
0.00 362 0.00 - - 480

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.90 257 257
8.28 161 0.00 0 257 176 5.67 90 257
6.21 207 0.00 0 313 222 15.77 199 313
4.14 254 0.00 0 368 269 19.34 201 368
2.07 300 0.00 0 424 315 16.20 143 424
0.00 347 9.67 78 480 362 0.00 0 480

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00

Page 37
2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
8.90
8.28 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3402.6 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
6.21 0.0004 0.0000 -0.0014 3402.6 1.41 0.00 -4.82 -
4.14 0.0032 0.0014 -0.0024 3402.6 11.05 4.82 -8.22 -
2.07 0.0052 0.0018 -0.0018 3402.6 17.85 6.23 -6.23 -
0.00 -0.0187 -0.0109 0.0000 3402.6 -63.76 -37.12 0.00 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.90 200 240
8.28 0.00 0.00 214 0.00 Bending 257
6.21 1.41 -4.82 260 -4.82 Bending 313
4.14 11.05 -8.22 307 -8.22 Bending 368
2.07 17.85 -6.23 353 0.00 139 -6.23 Bending 424
0.00 0.00 -63.76 400 0.00 162 -63.76 Bending 480
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 257
8.28 176 0.00 - - 257
6.21 222 7.22 94 - 313
4.14 269 12.33 124 - 368
2.07 315 9.34 0.00 79 - 424
0.00 362 95.64 0.00 757 - 757

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Page 38
Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 257
8.28 161 0.00 26 - 257
6.21 207 2.12 20 - 313
4.14 254 16.57 182 - 368
2.07 300 26.78 252 - 424
0.00 347 0.00 12 - 480

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
8.90
8.28 0.0022 0.0004 -0.0041 3402.6 7.64 1.41 -13.87
6.21 0.0062 0.0014 -0.0069 3402.6 21.25 4.82 -23.51
4.14 0.0077 0.0018 -0.0123 3402.6 26.07 6.23 -41.93
2.07 0.0064 0.0018 -0.0095 3402.6 21.83 6.23 -32.30
0.00 -0.0038 -0.0024 0.0000 3402.6 -13.03 -8.22 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.90 200 240
8.28 -13.87 7.64 214 0.00 69 -13.87 Bending 257
6.21 -23.51 21.25 260 0.00 92 -23.51 Bending 313
4.14 -41.93 26.07 307 0.00 115 -41.93 Bending 368
2.07 -32.30 21.83 353 0.00 139 -32.30 Bending 424
0.00 0.00 -13.03 400 0.00 162 0.00 Bending 480
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 39
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 340
8.28 176 20.81 0.00 340 - 340
6.21 222 35.26 0.00 462 - 462
4.14 269 62.90 0.00 672 - 672
2.07 315 48.45 0.00 430 - 430
0.00 362 0.00 0.00 - - 480

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.90 257
8.28 161 0.00 - - 257
6.21 207 0.00 - - 313
4.14 254 0.00 - - 368
2.07 300 0.00 - - 424
0.00 347 0.00 - - 480

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.90 257 257
8.28 161 11.47 210 257 176 0.00 0 257
6.21 207 31.88 433 433 222 0.00 0 313
4.14 254 39.10 436 436 269 0.00 0 368
2.07 300 32.74 309 424 315 0.00 0 424
0.00 347 0.00 0 480 362 19.55 150 480

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
8.90 257 257 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
8.28 313 257 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
6.21 368 313 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
4.14 424 368 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
2.07 480 424 12-180+12-180 10-180+12-180

Page 40
0.00 480 757 12-180+12-180 10-180+12-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 2.40 2.40

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
8.90 257 340 257 257
8.28 257 340 257 257
6.21 313 462 433 313
4.14 368 672 436 368
2.07 424 430 424 424
0.00 480 480 480 480

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
8.90 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-160
8.28 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-160
6.21 00-000+12-100 00-000+12-120 00-000+12-100 00-000+12-120
4.14 00-000+12-100 00-000+12-120 00-000+12-100 00-000+12-120
2.07 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-160
0.00 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-160
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 2.40 6.50 2.40 6.50

CHECK FOR SHEAR

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 0.6
Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.90
8.28 Side edge - 0.002 0.42 214 161
6.21 Side edge - 0.079 15.97 260 207
4.14 Side edge - 0.155 31.51 307 254
2.07 Side edge - 0.218 44.22 353 300
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.296 -60.13 400 347
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.162 32.93 400 347

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall.

Page 41
Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)
Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.90
8.28 0.42 0.63 0.004 808 0.50 1.17 3.50 OK
6.21 15.97 23.95 0.115 1131 0.55 1.10 3.50 OK
4.14 31.51 47.26 0.186 1131 0.45 0.94 3.50 OK
2.07 44.22 66.34 0.221 808 0.27 0.76 3.50 OK
0.00 60.13 90.20 0.260 1257 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK
0.00 32.93 49.39 0.142 1257 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.90
8.28 Side edge - 0.002 0.85 214 176
6.21 Side edge - 0.079 32.28 260 222
4.14 Side edge - 0.155 63.70 307 269
2.07 Side edge - 0.218 89.40 353 315
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.296 -121.56 400 362
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.162 66.56 400 362

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.90
8.28 0.85 1.28 0.007 707 0.40 1.17 3.50 OK
6.21 32.28 48.41 0.218 942 0.42 1.20 3.50 OK
4.14 63.70 95.55 0.355 942 0.35 1.12 3.50 OK
2.07 89.40 134.10 0.425 707 0.22 0.91 3.50 OK
0.00 121.56 182.34 0.504 1065 0.29 1.04 3.50 OK
0.00 66.56 99.85 0.276 1065 0.29 1.04 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Page 42
Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.90
8.28 214 Bending 0.00 628 628
6.21 260 Bending 2.38 628 628
4.14 307 Bending 11.05 628 628
2.07 353 Bending 17.85 0.00 1257 1065
0.00 400 Bending 31.54 0.00 1257 1065

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Page 43
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =

Page 44
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 38.0 0.0000 0.0007 -0.0007 -0.1319 0.0


19.6 43.2 0.0001 0.0008 -0.0006 -0.1395 0.6
73.9 48.0 0.0004 0.0009 -0.0004 -0.0997 1.8
51.2 69.3 0.0003 0.0005 -0.0002 -0.0400 1.6
78.0 75.1 0.0004 0.0005 -0.0001 -0.0179 2.3
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.90
8.28 214 Bending 0.00 628 628
6.21 260 Bending 4.82 628 628
4.14 307 Bending 8.22 628 628
2.07 353 Bending 8.83 0.00 1065 1257
0.00 400 Bending 63.76 0.00 1065 1257

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 41.4 0.0000 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.1041 0.0


37.0 46.3 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0004 -0.0887 1.0
51.9 50.8 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.1015 1.3
28.3 67.7 0.0002 0.0005 -0.0003 -0.0768 0.8
177.3 72.7 0.0010 0.0006 0.0005 0.1103 4.8
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Page 45
Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.90
8.28 214 Bending 6.86 0.00 808 707
6.21 260 Bending 11.63 0.00 1131 942
4.14 307 Bending 20.74 0.00 1131 942
2.07 353 Bending 15.98 0.00 808 707
0.00 400 Bending 0.00 0.00 808 707

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

57.8 41.8 0.0004 0.0005 -0.0001 -0.0258 2.2


54.3 54.3 0.0003 0.0004 -0.0001 -0.0149 2.1
78.5 60.7 0.0005 0.0005 0.0000 0.0016 2.6
70.4 58.2 0.0004 0.0007 -0.0003 -0.0824 1.8
0.0 62.9 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.2121 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.90
8.28 214 Bending 13.87 0.00 707 808
6.21 260 Bending 23.51 0.00 942 1131
4.14 307 Bending 41.93 0.00 942 1131
2.07 353 Bending 32.30 0.00 707 808
0.00 400 Bending 0.00 0.00 707 808

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

121.6 43.5 0.0009 0.0005 0.0003 0.0589 4.3


122.0 54.2 0.0008 0.0004 0.0004 0.0688 4.2
178.6 59.5 0.0011 0.0005 0.0006 0.1267 5.4
154.2 57.7 0.0009 0.0008 0.0001 0.0293 3.7
0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.2135 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at middle

Data for check of crack width

Page 46
Height Overall Provided reinf
from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.90
8.28 214 3.78 707 808
6.21 260 10.51 942 1131
4.14 307 12.90 942 1131
2.07 353 10.80 707 808
0.00 400 0.00 707 808

section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm

33.1 43.5 0.0002 0.0005 -0.0003 -0.0503 1.2


54.6 54.2 0.0004 0.0004 -0.0001 -0.0171 1.9
54.9 59.5 0.0003 0.0005 -0.0002 -0.0364 1.7
51.6 57.7 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.1107 1.2
0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.2135 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at middle

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Provided reinf


from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.90
8.28 214 7.64 808 707
6.21 260 21.25 1131 942
4.14 307 26.07 1131 942
2.07 353 21.83 808 707
0.00 400 0.00 808 707

section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm

64.4 41.8 0.0004 0.0005 -0.0001 -0.0173 2.4


99.2 54.3 0.0006 0.0004 0.0002 0.0447 3.8
98.6 60.7 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0292 3.3
96.1 58.2 0.0006 0.0007 -0.0002 -0.0458 2.5
0.0 62.9 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.2121 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 47
DESIGN OF WALL W4 Location: Receving chamber short wall

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 1.40 BOF: 91.900 GWT: 80.000

BOW: 91.900 TOW: 100.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 96.000 4.10 7.98 0.18 Hor Spanning Wall
Fill 2 Earth 99.880 7.98 7.98 0.18 Hor Spanning Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 8.60 Design Height of Wall (m) = 7.98
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 8.60

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 2.00 150.00 2.00 3.00 8.75

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 17.50


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 17.50

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: -

Page 48
Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.264


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 0.264 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 8.60 - - Height above BOF = 8.60


Provided thickness 300 200 - - Taper = One side

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS

Page 49
Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 2.00

Moment coefficient at bottom = -1/6


Moment coefficients assumed to be same at edge, quarter point and mid-point
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF * (Cantilever Height)^2

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 0.264
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.60
7.98 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
5.99 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
3.99 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
2.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 88.0 -14.67 -14.67 -14.67

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
7.98 0.00 0.00 207 0.00 Bending 249

Page 50
5.99 0.00 0.00 230 0.00 Bending 276
3.99 0.00 0.00 254 0.00 Bending 304
2.00 0.00 0.00 277 0.00 85 0.00 Bending 332
0.00 -14.67 0.00 300 0.00 97 -14.67 Bending 360

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 154 0.00 - - 249
5.99 177 0.00 - - 276
3.99 201 0.00 - - 304
2.00 224 0.00 0.00 - - 332
0.00 247 22.01 0.00 250 - 360

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 169 0.00 - - 249
5.99 192 0.00 - - 276
3.99 216 0.00 - - 304
2.00 239 0.00 - - 332

Page 51
0.00 262 0.00 - - 360

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 2.00

Moment coefficient at edge = -1/12 ; Moment coefficient at mid-span = 1/16


Moment coefficient at bottom of wall = 0 ; Moment coefficients not considered for quarter-point
Multiplier = k' * r * (HOF - h) * b^2 Where h = height of wall from bottom ; b = Length of wall

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 0.264
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.60
7.98 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
5.99 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 10.8 0.68 0.00 -0.90
3.99 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 21.7 1.35 0.00 -1.81
2.00 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 32.5 2.03 0.00 -2.71
0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
7.98 0.00 0.00 207 - 51 0.00 Bending 249
5.99 -0.90 0.68 230 - 62 -0.90 Bending 276
3.99 -1.81 1.35 254 - 74 -1.81 Bending 304
2.00 -2.71 2.03 277 - 85 -2.71 Bending 332
0.00 0.00 0.00 300 - 97 0.00 Bending 360
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Page 52
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 154 0.00 0.00 - - 249
5.99 177 1.35 0.00 21 - 276
3.99 201 2.71 0.00 38 - 304
2.00 224 4.06 0.00 50 - 332
0.00 247 0.00 0.00 - - 360

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 169 0.00 - - 249
5.99 192 0.00 - - 276
3.99 216 0.00 - - 304
2.00 239 0.00 - - 332
0.00 262 0.00 - - 360

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.60 249 249
7.98 154 0.00 0 249 169 0.00 0 249
5.99 177 0.00 0 276 192 1.02 15 276
3.99 201 0.00 0 304 216 2.03 26 304
2.00 224 0.00 0 332 239 3.05 35 332
0.00 247 0.00 0 360 262 0.00 0 360

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 2.00

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Page 53
Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00

2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
8.60
7.98 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
5.99 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
3.99 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
2.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 190.4 -31.73 -31.73 -31.73 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
7.98 0.00 0.00 207 0.00 Bending 249
5.99 0.00 0.00 230 0.00 Bending 276
3.99 0.00 0.00 254 0.00 Bending 304
2.00 0.00 0.00 277 0.00 100 0.00 Bending 332
0.00 0.00 -31.73 300 0.00 112 -31.73 Bending 360
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 169 0.00 - - 249
5.99 192 0.00 - - 276
3.99 216 0.00 - - 304
2.00 239 0.00 0.00 - - 332
0.00 262 47.59 0.00 522 - 522

Page 54
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 154 0.00 27 - 249
5.99 177 0.00 23 - 276
3.99 201 0.00 21 - 304
2.00 224 0.00 19 - 332
0.00 247 0.00 17 - 360

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 2.00

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
8.60
7.98 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
5.99 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 23.4 1.46 0.00 -1.95
3.99 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 46.9 2.93 0.00 -3.91
2.00 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 70.3 4.39 0.00 -5.86
0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middlethickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
7.98 0.00 0.00 207 0.00 66 0.00 Bending 249
5.99 -1.95 1.46 230 0.00 77 -1.95 Bending 276
3.99 -3.91 2.93 254 0.00 89 -3.91 Bending 304
2.00 -5.86 4.39 277 0.00 100 -5.86 Bending 332
0.00 0.00 0.00 300 0.00 112 0.00 Bending 360
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 55
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 169 0.00 0.00 - - 249
5.99 192 2.93 0.00 43 - 276
3.99 216 5.86 0.00 78 - 304
2.00 239 8.79 0.00 105 - 332
0.00 262 0.00 0.00 - - 360

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 154 0.00 - - 249
5.99 177 0.00 - - 276
3.99 201 0.00 - - 304
2.00 224 0.00 - - 332
0.00 247 0.00 - - 360

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.60 249 249
7.98 154 0.00 0 249 169 0.00 0 249
5.99 177 2.20 23 276 192 0.00 0 276
3.99 201 4.39 62 304 216 0.00 0 304
2.00 224 6.59 75 332 239 0.00 0 332
0.00 247 0.00 0 360 262 0.00 0 360

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
8.60 249 249 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
7.98 276 249 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
5.99 304 276 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
3.99 332 304 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
2.00 360 332 12-180+12-180 10-180+10-180

Page 56
0.00 360 522 12-180+12-180 10-180+10-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 2.40 2.40

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
8.60 249 249 249 249
7.98 249 249 249 249
5.99 276 276 276 276
3.99 304 304 304 304
2.00 332 332 332 332
0.00 360 360 360 360

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
8.60 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
7.98 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
5.99 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
3.99 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
2.00 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
0.00 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 2.00

Shear along side edge


Half the length of wall is assumed to contribute towards shear at vertical edge
Shear at and above 1.995 m = 0.5 * L * Pressure of the fill (Coefficient = 0.5*L)
Below 1.995 m, wall is assumed to act as cantilever.
At bottom, MIN(1, 0.5 * L) m length of wall is assumed to contribute towards shear at vertical edge
Shear = MIN(1, 0.5 * L) * Pressure of the fill (Coefficient = MIN(1, 0.5 * L))
Pressure of the fill = k' * r * (HOF - h) ; h = height from bottom, k' and r are for the respective fills
Shear at corner & mid-pt of bottom edge
Shear = 1.0 * k' * r * HOF * H' = 0.5 * H' * Pressure of fill (Coefficient = 0.5 * H')
H' = Height up to which wall is assumed to be cantilever

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 Side edge - 0.700 0.00 207 154

Page 57
5.99 Side edge 5.53 0.700 3.87 230 177
3.99 Side edge 11.06 0.700 7.74 254 201
2.00 Side edge 16.59 0.700 11.61 277 224
0.00 Corner - bottom edge 22.12 -0.998 -22.06 300 247
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 22.12 0.998 22.06 300 247

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall.

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)


Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.60
7.98 0.00 0.00 0.000 524 0.34 1.00 3.50 OK
5.99 3.87 5.81 0.033 524 0.30 0.91 3.50 OK
3.99 7.74 11.61 0.058 524 0.26 0.83 3.50 OK
2.00 11.61 17.42 0.078 524 0.23 0.75 3.50 OK
0.00 22.06 33.09 0.134 1257 0.51 1.00 3.50 OK
0.00 22.06 33.09 0.134 1257 0.51 1.00 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 Side edge - 0.700 0.00 207 169
5.99 Side edge 11.96 0.700 8.37 230 192
3.99 Side edge 23.92 0.700 16.74 254 216
2.00 Side edge 35.87 0.700 25.11 277 239
0.00 Corner - bottom edge 47.83 -0.998 -47.71 300 262
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 47.83 0.998 47.71 300 262

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.60
7.98 0.00 0.00 0.000 524 0.31 1.04 3.50 OK
5.99 8.37 12.56 0.065 524 0.27 0.99 3.50 OK
Page 58
3.99 16.74 25.11 0.116 524 0.24 0.94 3.50 OK
2.00 25.11 37.67 0.158 524 0.22 0.91 3.50 OK
0.00 47.71 71.57 0.273 873 0.33 1.09 3.50 OK
0.00 47.71 71.57 0.273 873 0.33 1.09 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 207 Bending 0.00 628 436
5.99 230 Bending 0.00 628 436
3.99 254 Bending 0.00 628 436
2.00 277 Bending 0.00 0.00 1257 873
0.00 300 Bending 14.67 0.00 1257 873

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53

Page 59
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =

Page 60
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 37.1 0.0000 0.0007 -0.0007 -0.1273 0.0


0.0 40.0 0.0000 0.0007 -0.0007 -0.1435 0.0
0.0 42.6 0.0000 0.0007 -0.0007 -0.1605 0.0
0.0 59.3 0.0000 0.0004 -0.0004 -0.0830 0.0
51.6 62.6 0.0003 0.0004 -0.0001 -0.0212 1.9
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 207 Bending 0.00 436 628
5.99 230 Bending 0.00 436 628
3.99 254 Bending 0.00 436 628
2.00 277 Bending 0.00 0.00 873 1257
0.00 300 Bending 31.73 0.00 873 1257

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 35.9 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1487 0.0


0.0 37.9 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1718 0.0
0.0 39.8 0.0000 0.0010 -0.0010 -0.1957 0.0
0.0 54.5 0.0000 0.0005 -0.0005 -0.1028 0.0
149.6 57.0 0.0009 0.0006 0.0004 0.0817 4.5
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 61
DESIGN OF WALL W5 Location: Receving chamber long wall

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 4.00 BOF: 91.900 GWT: 80.000

BOW: 91.900 TOW: 100.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 96.000 4.10 7.98 0.50 3 Edges Fixed Wall
Fill 2 Earth 99.880 7.98 7.98 0.50 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 8.60 Design Height of Wall (m) = 7.98
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 8.60

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 0.70 150.00 2.00 3.00 8.75

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 2.14


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 2.14

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: -

Page 62
Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.264


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 0.264 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 8.60 - - Height above BOF = 8.60


Provided thickness 300 200 - - Taper = One side

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS

Page 63
3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.5
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 0.264
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.60
7.98 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1408.5 0.00 0.00 0.00
5.99 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0010 1408.5 0.01 0.00 -1.42
3.99 0.0020 0.0010 -0.0020 1408.5 2.84 1.42 -2.82
2.00 0.0040 0.0010 -0.0010 1408.5 5.66 1.42 -1.42
0.00 -0.0150 -0.0080 0.0000 1408.5 -21.19 -11.32 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
7.98 0.00 0.00 207 0.00 Bending 249
5.99 -1.42 0.01 230 -1.42 Bending 276

Page 64
3.99 -2.82 2.84 254 -2.82 Bending 304
2.00 -1.42 5.66 277 0.00 85 -1.42 Bending 332
0.00 -21.19 0.00 300 0.00 97 -21.19 Bending 360

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 154 0.00 - - 249
5.99 177 2.12 33 - 276
3.99 201 4.24 59 - 304
2.00 224 2.13 0.00 26 - 332
0.00 247 31.79 0.00 364 - 364

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 169 0.00 - - 249
5.99 192 0.01 0 - 276
3.99 216 4.26 55 - 304
2.00 239 8.48 99 - 332
0.00 262 0.00 - - 360

Page 65
DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.5
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3
Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 0.264
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.60
7.98 0.0010 0.0000 -0.0020 1408.5 1.43 0.01 -2.85
5.99 0.0050 0.0010 -0.0040 1408.5 7.06 1.42 -5.68
3.99 0.0060 0.0010 -0.0090 1408.5 8.48 1.42 -12.73
2.00 0.0060 0.0010 -0.0070 1408.5 8.46 1.42 -9.90
0.00 -0.0030 -0.0020 0.0000 1408.5 -4.24 -2.82 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
7.98 -2.85 1.43 207 - 51 -2.85 Bending 249
5.99 -5.68 7.06 230 - 62 -5.68 Bending 276
3.99 -12.73 8.48 254 - 74 -12.73 Bending 304
2.00 -9.90 8.46 277 - 85 -9.90 Bending 332
0.00 0.00 -4.24 300 - 97 0.00 Bending 360
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement

Page 66
Edge - Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 154 4.28 0.00 77 - 249
5.99 177 8.53 0.00 134 - 276
3.99 201 19.10 0.00 269 - 304
2.00 224 14.85 0.00 186 - 332
0.00 247 0.00 0.00 - - 360

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 169 0.00 - - 249
5.99 192 0.00 - - 276
3.99 216 0.00 - - 304
2.00 239 0.00 - - 332
0.00 262 0.00 - - 360

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.60 249 249
7.98 154 0.00 0 249 169 2.14 35 249
5.99 177 0.00 0 276 192 10.60 154 276
3.99 201 0.00 0 304 216 12.72 165 304
2.00 224 0.00 0 332 239 12.69 149 332
0.00 247 6.36 72 360 262 0.00 0 360

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00

Page 67
2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
8.60
7.98 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3046.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
5.99 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0010 3046.0 0.02 0.00 -3.06 -
3.99 0.0020 0.0010 -0.0020 3046.0 6.14 3.06 -6.11 -
2.00 0.0040 0.0010 -0.0010 3046.0 12.23 3.08 -3.08 -
0.00 -0.0150 -0.0080 0.0000 3046.0 -45.83 -24.47 0.00 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
7.98 0.00 0.00 207 0.00 Bending 249
5.99 0.02 -3.06 230 -3.06 Bending 276
3.99 6.14 -6.11 254 -6.11 Bending 304
2.00 12.23 -3.08 277 0.00 100 -3.08 Bending 332
0.00 0.00 -45.83 300 0.00 112 -45.83 Bending 360
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 169 0.00 - - 249
5.99 192 4.59 65 - 276
3.99 216 9.16 117 - 304
2.00 239 4.61 0.00 52 - 332
0.00 262 68.74 0.00 760 - 760

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Page 68
Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 154 0.00 27 - 249
5.99 177 0.02 23 - 276
3.99 201 9.21 125 - 304
2.00 224 18.34 226 - 332
0.00 247 0.00 17 - 360

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
8.60
7.98 0.0010 0.0000 -0.0020 3046.0 3.09 0.02 -6.17
5.99 0.0050 0.0010 -0.0040 3046.0 15.28 3.06 -12.29
3.99 0.0060 0.0010 -0.0090 3046.0 18.34 3.08 -27.54
2.00 0.0060 0.0010 -0.0070 3046.0 18.29 3.08 -21.41
0.00 -0.0030 -0.0020 0.0000 3046.0 -9.17 -6.11 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
7.98 -6.17 3.09 207 0.00 66 -6.17 Bending 249
5.99 -12.29 15.28 230 0.00 77 -12.29 Bending 276
3.99 -27.54 18.34 254 0.00 89 -27.54 Bending 304
2.00 -21.41 18.29 277 0.00 100 -21.41 Bending 332
0.00 0.00 -9.17 300 0.00 112 0.00 Bending 360
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 69
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 169 9.25 0.00 149 - 249
5.99 192 18.44 0.00 264 - 276
3.99 216 41.30 0.00 560 - 560
2.00 239 32.12 0.00 374 - 374
0.00 262 0.00 0.00 - - 360

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 154 0.00 - - 249
5.99 177 0.00 - - 276
3.99 201 0.00 - - 304
2.00 224 0.00 - - 332
0.00 247 0.00 - - 360

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.60 249 249
7.98 154 4.64 81 249 169 0.00 0 249
5.99 177 22.91 362 362 192 0.00 0 276
3.99 201 27.51 383 383 216 0.00 0 304
2.00 224 27.44 342 342 239 0.00 0 332
0.00 247 0.00 0 360 262 13.75 144 360

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
8.60 249 249 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
7.98 276 249 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
5.99 304 276 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
3.99 332 304 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
2.00 360 332 12-180+12-180 10-180+10-180

Page 70
0.00 364 760 12-180+12-180 10-180+10-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 2.40 2.40

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
8.60 249 249 249 249
7.98 249 249 249 249
5.99 276 276 362 276
3.99 304 560 383 304
2.00 332 374 342 332
0.00 360 360 360 360

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
8.60 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
7.98 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
5.99 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-120 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-120
3.99 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-120 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-120
2.00 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-120 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-120
0.00 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.20 6.00 1.20 6.00

CHECK FOR SHEAR

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 0.5
Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 Side edge - 0.000 0.00 207 154
5.99 Side edge - 0.064 11.33 230 177
3.99 Side edge - 0.128 22.65 254 201
2.00 Side edge - 0.192 33.94 277 224
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.258 -45.62 300 247
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.141 24.93 300 247

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall.

Page 71
Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)
Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.60
7.98 0.00 0.01 0.000 524 0.34 1.00 3.50 OK
5.99 11.33 16.99 0.096 942 0.53 1.16 3.50 OK
3.99 22.65 33.98 0.169 942 0.47 1.05 3.50 OK
2.00 33.94 50.92 0.228 942 0.42 0.96 3.50 OK
0.00 45.62 68.43 0.277 1257 0.51 1.00 3.50 OK
0.00 24.93 37.40 0.151 1257 0.51 1.00 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 Side edge - 0.000 0.01 207 169
5.99 Side edge - 0.064 24.50 230 192
3.99 Side edge - 0.128 48.98 254 216
2.00 Side edge - 0.192 73.40 277 239
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.258 -98.65 300 262
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.141 53.92 300 262

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.60
7.98 0.01 0.01 0.000 524 0.31 1.04 3.50 OK
5.99 24.50 36.74 0.191 655 0.34 1.09 3.50 OK
3.99 48.98 73.47 0.341 655 0.30 1.04 3.50 OK
2.00 73.40 110.11 0.461 655 0.27 0.99 3.50 OK
0.00 98.65 147.98 0.565 873 0.33 1.09 3.50 OK
0.00 53.92 80.87 0.309 873 0.33 1.09 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Page 72
Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 207 Bending 0.00 628 436
5.99 230 Bending 1.42 628 436
3.99 254 Bending 6.14 628 436
2.00 277 Bending 12.23 0.00 1257 873
0.00 300 Bending 21.19 0.00 1257 873

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Page 73
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =

Page 74
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 37.1 0.0000 0.0007 -0.0007 -0.1273 0.0


13.7 40.0 0.0001 0.0007 -0.0006 -0.1256 0.4
52.4 42.6 0.0003 0.0007 -0.0004 -0.0907 1.5
47.7 59.3 0.0003 0.0004 -0.0001 -0.0191 1.8
74.6 62.6 0.0004 0.0004 0.0000 0.0100 2.7
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 207 Bending 0.00 436 628
5.99 230 Bending 3.06 436 628
3.99 254 Bending 6.11 436 628
2.00 277 Bending 5.66 0.00 873 1257
0.00 300 Bending 45.83 0.00 873 1257

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 35.9 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1487 0.0


39.0 37.9 0.0003 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1226 1.0
69.2 39.8 0.0005 0.0010 -0.0005 -0.1070 1.7
29.4 54.5 0.0002 0.0005 -0.0003 -0.0648 0.9
216.1 57.0 0.0014 0.0006 0.0008 0.1690 6.4
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Page 75
Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 207 Bending 2.85 0.00 524 524
5.99 230 Bending 5.68 0.00 942 655
3.99 254 Bending 12.73 0.00 942 655
2.00 277 Bending 9.90 0.00 942 655
0.00 300 Bending 0.00 0.00 524 524

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

38.2 34.7 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.1059 1.2


37.3 46.8 0.0002 0.0005 -0.0002 -0.0435 1.4
73.5 50.0 0.0005 0.0005 0.0000 -0.0057 2.6
51.0 53.1 0.0003 0.0005 -0.0002 -0.0456 1.7
0.0 43.9 0.0000 0.0010 -0.0010 -0.2393 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 207 Bending 6.17 0.00 524 524
5.99 230 Bending 12.29 0.00 655 942
3.99 254 Bending 27.54 0.00 655 942
2.00 277 Bending 21.41 0.00 655 942
0.00 300 Bending 0.00 0.00 524 524

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

75.2 37.8 0.0005 0.0007 -0.0002 -0.0294 2.3


105.7 44.3 0.0007 0.0006 0.0001 0.0225 3.4
210.3 46.6 0.0014 0.0006 0.0007 0.1428 6.2
147.0 48.9 0.0009 0.0007 0.0002 0.0495 4.1
0.0 46.6 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.2017 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at middle

Data for check of crack width

Page 76
Height Overall Provided reinf
from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 207 1.43 524 524
5.99 230 7.06 655 942
3.99 254 8.48 655 942
2.00 277 8.46 655 942
0.00 300 0.00 524 524

section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm

17.4 37.8 0.0001 0.0007 -0.0006 -0.1006 0.5


60.8 44.3 0.0004 0.0006 -0.0002 -0.0337 1.9
64.8 46.6 0.0004 0.0006 -0.0002 -0.0427 1.9
58.1 48.9 0.0004 0.0007 -0.0003 -0.0660 1.6
0.0 46.6 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.2017 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at middle

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Provided reinf


from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 207 3.09 524 524
5.99 230 15.28 942 655
3.99 254 18.34 942 655
2.00 277 18.29 942 655
0.00 300 0.00 524 524

section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm

41.4 34.7 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.1017 1.3


100.2 46.8 0.0006 0.0005 0.0002 0.0383 3.8
105.8 50.0 0.0007 0.0005 0.0002 0.0371 3.8
94.2 53.1 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0126 3.1
0.0 43.9 0.0000 0.0010 -0.0010 -0.2393 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 77
DESIGN OF WALL W6 Location: Reciving/Screen chamber wall

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 1.60 BOF: 91.900 GWT: 80.000

BOW: 91.600 TOW: 100.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 96.000 4.10 4.10 0.39 Hor Spanning Wall
Fill 2 Water 96.000 4.10 4.10 0.39 Hor Spanning Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 8.60 Design Height of Wall (m) = 4.10
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 8.90

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 2.00 150.00 2.00 3.00 8.75

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 17.50


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 17.50

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: -

Page 78
Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 8.60 - - Height above BOF = 8.60


Provided thickness 300 200 - - Taper = One side

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS

Page 79
Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 1.03

Moment coefficient at bottom = -1/6


Moment coefficients assumed to be same at edge, quarter point and mid-point
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF * (Cantilever Height)^2

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.60
4.10 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
3.08 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
2.05 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
1.03 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 45.2 -7.54 -7.54 -7.54

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
4.10 0.00 0.00 252 0.00 Bending 303

Page 80
3.08 0.00 0.00 264 0.00 Bending 317
2.05 0.00 0.00 276 0.00 Bending 331
1.03 0.00 0.00 288 0.00 91 0.00 Bending 346
0.00 -7.54 0.00 300 0.00 97 -7.54 Bending 360

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 303
4.10 199 0.00 - - 303
3.08 211 0.00 - - 317
2.05 223 0.00 - - 331
1.03 235 0.00 0.00 - - 346
0.00 247 11.31 0.00 128 - 360

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 303
4.10 199 0.00 - - 303
3.08 211 0.00 - - 317
2.05 223 0.00 - - 331
1.03 235 0.00 - - 346

Page 81
0.00 247 0.00 - - 360

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 1.03

Moment coefficient at edge = -1/12 ; Moment coefficient at mid-span = 1/16


Moment coefficient at bottom of wall = 0 ; Moment coefficients not considered for quarter-point
Multiplier = k' * r * (HOF - h) * b^2 Where h = height of wall from bottom ; b = Length of wall

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.60
4.10 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
3.08 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 27.6 1.72 0.00 -2.30
2.05 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 55.1 3.44 0.00 -4.59
1.03 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 82.7 5.17 0.00 -6.89
0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
4.10 0.00 0.00 252 - 73 0.00 Bending 303
3.08 -2.30 1.72 264 - 79 -2.30 Bending 317
2.05 -4.59 3.44 276 - 85 -4.59 Bending 331
1.03 -6.89 5.17 288 - 91 -6.89 Bending 346
0.00 0.00 0.00 300 - 97 0.00 Bending 360
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Page 82
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 303
4.10 199 0.00 0.00 - - 303
3.08 211 3.44 0.00 45 - 317
2.05 223 6.89 0.00 86 - 331
1.03 235 10.33 0.00 123 - 346
0.00 247 0.00 0.00 - - 360

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 303
4.10 199 0.00 - - 303
3.08 211 0.00 - - 317
2.05 223 0.00 - - 331
1.03 235 0.00 - - 346
0.00 247 0.00 - - 360

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.60 303 303
4.10 199 0.00 0 303 199 0.00 0 303
3.08 211 0.00 0 317 211 2.58 34 317
2.05 223 0.00 0 331 223 5.17 64 331
1.03 235 0.00 0 346 235 7.75 92 346
0.00 247 0.00 0 360 247 0.00 0 360

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 1.03

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Page 83
Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00

2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
8.60
4.10 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
3.08 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
2.05 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
1.03 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 45.2 -7.54 -7.54 -7.54 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
4.10 0.00 0.00 252 0.00 Bending 303
3.08 0.00 0.00 264 0.00 Bending 317
2.05 0.00 0.00 276 0.00 Bending 331
1.03 0.00 0.00 288 0.00 91 0.00 Bending 346
0.00 0.00 -7.54 300 0.00 97 -7.54 Bending 360
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 303
4.10 199 0.00 - - 303
3.08 211 0.00 - - 317
2.05 223 0.00 - - 331
1.03 235 0.00 0.00 - - 346
0.00 247 11.31 0.00 136 - 360

Page 84
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 303
4.10 199 0.00 21 - 303
3.08 211 0.00 20 - 317
2.05 223 0.00 19 - 331
1.03 235 0.00 18 - 346
0.00 247 0.00 17 - 360

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 1.03

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
8.60
4.10 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
3.08 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 27.6 1.72 0.00 -2.30
2.05 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 55.1 3.44 0.00 -4.59
1.03 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 82.7 5.17 0.00 -6.89
0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middlethickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
4.10 0.00 0.00 252 0.00 73 0.00 Bending 303
3.08 -2.30 1.72 264 0.00 79 -2.30 Bending 317
2.05 -4.59 3.44 276 0.00 85 -4.59 Bending 331
1.03 -6.89 5.17 288 0.00 91 -6.89 Bending 346
0.00 0.00 0.00 300 0.00 97 0.00 Bending 360
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 85
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 303
4.10 199 0.00 0.00 - - 303
3.08 211 3.44 0.00 39 - 317
2.05 223 6.89 0.00 94 - 331
1.03 235 10.33 0.00 125 - 346
0.00 247 0.00 0.00 - - 360

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 303
4.10 199 0.00 - - 303
3.08 211 0.00 - - 317
2.05 223 0.00 - - 331
1.03 235 0.00 - - 346
0.00 247 0.00 - - 360

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.60 303 303
4.10 199 0.00 0 303 199 0.00 0 303
3.08 211 2.58 39 317 211 0.00 0 317
2.05 223 5.17 56 331 223 0.00 0 331
1.03 235 7.75 89 346 235 0.00 0 346
0.00 247 0.00 0 360 247 0.00 0 360

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
8.60 303 303 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
4.10 317 303 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
3.08 331 317 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
2.05 346 331 12-180+12-180 10-180+10-180
1.03 360 346 12-180+12-180 10-180+10-180

Page 86
0.00 360 360 12-180+12-180 10-180+10-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 2.75 2.75

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
8.90 303 303 303 303
4.40 303 303 303 303
3.38 317 317 317 317
2.35 331 331 331 331
1.33 346 346 346 346
0.30 360 360 360 360

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
8.90 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
4.40 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
3.38 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
2.35 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
1.33 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
0.30 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 1.03

Shear along side edge


Half the length of wall is assumed to contribute towards shear at vertical edge
Shear at and above 1.025 m = 0.5 * L * Pressure of the fill (Coefficient = 0.5*L)
Below 1.025 m, wall is assumed to act as cantilever.
At bottom, MIN(1, 0.5 * L) m length of wall is assumed to contribute towards shear at vertical edge
Shear = MIN(1, 0.5 * L) * Pressure of the fill (Coefficient = MIN(1, 0.5 * L))
Pressure of the fill = k' * r * (HOF - h) ; h = height from bottom, k' and r are for the respective fills
Shear at corner & mid-pt of bottom edge
Shear = 1.0 * k' * r * HOF * H' = 0.5 * H' * Pressure of fill (Coefficient = 0.5 * H')
H' = Height up to which wall is assumed to be cantilever

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
4.10 Side edge - 0.800 0.00 252 199

Page 87
3.08 Side edge 10.76 0.800 8.61 264 211
2.05 Side edge 21.53 0.800 17.22 276 223
1.03 Side edge 32.29 0.800 25.83 288 235
0.00 Corner - bottom edge 43.05 -0.513 -22.06 300 247
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 43.05 0.513 22.06 300 247

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall.

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)


Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.60
4.10 0.00 0.00 0.000 524 0.26 0.83 3.50 OK
3.08 8.61 12.92 0.061 524 0.25 0.79 3.50 OK
2.05 17.22 25.83 0.116 524 0.23 0.75 3.50 OK
1.03 25.83 38.75 0.165 524 0.22 0.72 3.50 OK
0.00 22.06 33.09 0.134 1257 0.51 1.00 3.50 OK
0.00 22.06 33.09 0.134 1257 0.51 1.00 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
4.10 Side edge - 0.800 0.00 252 199
3.08 Side edge 18.45 0.800 14.76 264 211
2.05 Side edge 36.90 0.800 29.52 276 223
1.03 Side edge 55.35 0.800 44.28 288 235
0.00 Corner - bottom edge 73.80 -0.513 -37.82 300 247
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 73.80 0.513 37.82 300 247

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.60
4.10 0.00 0.00 0.000 524 0.26 0.99 3.50 OK
3.08 14.76 22.14 0.105 524 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
Page 88
2.05 29.52 44.28 0.198 524 0.23 0.94 3.50 OK
1.03 44.28 66.42 0.283 524 0.22 0.91 3.50 OK
0.00 37.82 56.73 0.230 873 0.35 1.12 3.50 OK
0.00 37.82 56.73 0.230 873 0.35 1.12 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
4.10 252 Bending 0.00 628 436
3.08 264 Bending 0.00 628 436
2.05 276 Bending 0.00 1257 873
1.03 288 Bending 0.00 0.00 1257 873
0.00 300 Bending 7.54 0.00 1257 873

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53

Page 89
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =

Page 90
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 43.6 0.0000 0.0007 -0.0007 -0.1586 0.0


0.0 44.9 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1676 0.0
0.0 60.7 0.0000 0.0004 -0.0004 -0.0822 0.0
0.0 62.4 0.0000 0.0004 -0.0004 -0.0865 0.0
26.6 64.1 0.0002 0.0004 -0.0002 -0.0523 1.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
4.10 252 Bending 0.00 436 628
3.08 264 Bending 0.00 436 628
2.05 276 Bending 0.00 873 1257
1.03 288 Bending 0.00 0.00 873 1257
0.00 300 Bending 7.54 0.00 873 1257

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 38.5 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.2346 0.0


0.0 39.5 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.2480 0.0
0.0 52.7 0.0000 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.1232 0.0
0.0 54.1 0.0000 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.1297 0.0
37.8 55.4 0.0002 0.0006 -0.0004 -0.0812 1.2
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Page 91
Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
4.10 252 Bending 0.00 0.00 524 524
3.08 264 Bending 2.30 0.00 524 524
2.05 276 Bending 4.59 0.00 524 524
1.03 288 Bending 6.89 0.00 524 524
0.00 300 Bending 0.00 0.00 524 524

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 40.8 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1931 0.0


22.2 42.0 0.0001 0.0009 -0.0008 -0.1720 0.6
42.0 43.1 0.0003 0.0010 -0.0007 -0.1543 1.1
59.7 44.2 0.0004 0.0010 -0.0006 -0.1394 1.5
0.0 45.3 0.0000 0.0010 -0.0010 -0.2379 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
4.10 252 Bending 0.00 0.00 524 524
3.08 264 Bending 2.30 0.00 524 524
2.05 276 Bending 4.59 0.00 524 524
1.03 288 Bending 6.89 0.00 524 524
0.00 300 Bending 0.00 0.00 524 524

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 40.8 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1931 0.0


22.2 42.0 0.0001 0.0009 -0.0008 -0.1720 0.6
42.0 43.1 0.0003 0.0010 -0.0007 -0.1543 1.1
59.7 44.2 0.0004 0.0010 -0.0006 -0.1394 1.5
0.0 45.3 0.0000 0.0010 -0.0010 -0.2379 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 92
DESIGN OF WALL W6A Location: Reciving/Screen chamber wall

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 1.15 BOF: 91.900 GWT: 80.000

BOW: 91.900 TOW: 100.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 96.000 4.10 7.98 0.14 Hor Spanning Wall
Fill 2 Earth 99.880 7.98 7.98 0.14 Hor Spanning Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 8.60 Design Height of Wall (m) = 7.98
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 8.60

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 2.00 150.00 2.00 3.00 8.75

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 17.50


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 17.50

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: -

Page 93
Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.264


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 0.264 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 8.60 - - Height above BOF = 8.60


Provided thickness 300 200 - - Taper = One side

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS

Page 94
Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 2.00

Moment coefficient at bottom = -1/6


Moment coefficients assumed to be same at edge, quarter point and mid-point
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF * (Cantilever Height)^2

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 0.264
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.60
7.98 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
5.99 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
3.99 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
2.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 88.0 -14.67 -14.67 -14.67

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
7.98 0.00 0.00 207 0.00 Bending 249

Page 95
5.99 0.00 0.00 230 0.00 Bending 276
3.99 0.00 0.00 254 0.00 Bending 304
2.00 0.00 0.00 277 0.00 85 0.00 Bending 332
0.00 -14.67 0.00 300 0.00 97 -14.67 Bending 360

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 154 0.00 - - 249
5.99 177 0.00 - - 276
3.99 201 0.00 - - 304
2.00 224 0.00 0.00 - - 332
0.00 247 22.01 0.00 250 - 360

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 169 0.00 - - 249
5.99 192 0.00 - - 276
3.99 216 0.00 - - 304
2.00 239 0.00 - - 332

Page 96
0.00 262 0.00 - - 360

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 2.00

Moment coefficient at edge = -1/12 ; Moment coefficient at mid-span = 1/16


Moment coefficient at bottom of wall = 0 ; Moment coefficients not considered for quarter-point
Multiplier = k' * r * (HOF - h) * b^2 Where h = height of wall from bottom ; b = Length of wall

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 0.264
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.60
7.98 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
5.99 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 7.3 0.46 0.00 -0.61
3.99 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 14.6 0.91 0.00 -1.22
2.00 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 21.9 1.37 0.00 -1.83
0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
7.98 0.00 0.00 207 - 51 0.00 Bending 249
5.99 -0.61 0.46 230 - 62 -0.61 Bending 276
3.99 -1.22 0.91 254 - 74 -1.22 Bending 304
2.00 -1.83 1.37 277 - 85 -1.83 Bending 332
0.00 0.00 0.00 300 - 97 0.00 Bending 360
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Page 97
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 154 0.00 0.00 - - 249
5.99 177 0.91 0.00 14 - 276
3.99 201 1.83 0.00 25 - 304
2.00 224 2.74 0.00 34 - 332
0.00 247 0.00 0.00 - - 360

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 169 0.00 - - 249
5.99 192 0.00 - - 276
3.99 216 0.00 - - 304
2.00 239 0.00 - - 332
0.00 262 0.00 - - 360

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.60 249 249
7.98 154 0.00 0 249 169 0.00 0 249
5.99 177 0.00 0 276 192 0.69 10 276
3.99 201 0.00 0 304 216 1.37 18 304
2.00 224 0.00 0 332 239 2.06 24 332
0.00 247 0.00 0 360 262 0.00 0 360

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 2.00

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Page 98
Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00

2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
8.60
7.98 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
5.99 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
3.99 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
2.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 190.4 -31.73 -31.73 -31.73 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
7.98 0.00 0.00 207 0.00 Bending 249
5.99 0.00 0.00 230 0.00 Bending 276
3.99 0.00 0.00 254 0.00 Bending 304
2.00 0.00 0.00 277 0.00 100 0.00 Bending 332
0.00 0.00 -31.73 300 0.00 112 -31.73 Bending 360
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 169 0.00 - - 249
5.99 192 0.00 - - 276
3.99 216 0.00 - - 304
2.00 239 0.00 0.00 - - 332
0.00 262 47.59 0.00 522 - 522

Page 99
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 154 0.00 27 - 249
5.99 177 0.00 23 - 276
3.99 201 0.00 21 - 304
2.00 224 0.00 19 - 332
0.00 247 0.00 17 - 360

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 2.00

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
8.60
7.98 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
5.99 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 15.8 0.99 0.00 -1.32
3.99 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 31.6 1.98 0.00 -2.64
2.00 0.0625 0.0000 -0.0833 47.4 2.97 0.00 -3.95
0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middlethickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.60 200 240
7.98 0.00 0.00 207 0.00 66 0.00 Bending 249
5.99 -1.32 0.99 230 0.00 77 -1.32 Bending 276
3.99 -2.64 1.98 254 0.00 89 -2.64 Bending 304
2.00 -3.95 2.97 277 0.00 100 -3.95 Bending 332
0.00 0.00 0.00 300 0.00 112 0.00 Bending 360
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 100
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 169 0.00 0.00 - - 249
5.99 192 1.98 0.00 22 - 276
3.99 216 3.95 0.00 58 - 304
2.00 239 5.93 0.00 70 - 332
0.00 262 0.00 0.00 - - 360

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.60 249
7.98 154 0.00 - - 249
5.99 177 0.00 - - 276
3.99 201 0.00 - - 304
2.00 224 0.00 - - 332
0.00 247 0.00 - - 360

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.60 249 249
7.98 154 0.00 0 249 169 0.00 0 249
5.99 177 1.48 23 276 192 0.00 0 276
3.99 201 2.97 42 304 216 0.00 0 304
2.00 224 4.45 56 332 239 0.00 0 332
0.00 247 0.00 0 360 262 0.00 0 360

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
8.60 249 249 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
7.98 276 249 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
5.99 304 276 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
3.99 332 304 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
2.00 360 332 12-180+12-180 10-180+10-180

Page 101
0.00 360 522 12-180+12-180 10-180+10-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 2.00 2.00

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
8.60 249 249 249 249
7.98 249 249 249 249
5.99 276 276 276 276
3.99 304 304 304 304
2.00 332 332 332 332
0.00 360 360 360 360

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
8.60 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
7.98 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
5.99 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
3.99 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
2.00 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
0.00 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Wall to be designed as cantilever upto height = 2.00

Shear along side edge


Half the length of wall is assumed to contribute towards shear at vertical edge
Shear at and above 1.995 m = 0.5 * L * Pressure of the fill (Coefficient = 0.5*L)
Below 1.995 m, wall is assumed to act as cantilever.
At bottom, MIN(1, 0.5 * L) m length of wall is assumed to contribute towards shear at vertical edge
Shear = MIN(1, 0.5 * L) * Pressure of the fill (Coefficient = MIN(1, 0.5 * L))
Pressure of the fill = k' * r * (HOF - h) ; h = height from bottom, k' and r are for the respective fills
Shear at corner & mid-pt of bottom edge
Shear = 1.0 * k' * r * HOF * H' = 0.5 * H' * Pressure of fill (Coefficient = 0.5 * H')
H' = Height up to which wall is assumed to be cantilever

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 Side edge - 0.575 0.00 207 154

Page 102
5.99 Side edge 5.53 0.575 3.18 230 177
3.99 Side edge 11.06 0.575 6.36 254 201
2.00 Side edge 16.59 0.575 9.54 277 224
0.00 Corner - bottom edge 22.12 -0.998 -22.06 300 247
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 22.12 0.998 22.06 300 247

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall.

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)


Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.60
7.98 0.00 0.00 0.000 524 0.34 1.00 3.50 OK
5.99 3.18 4.77 0.027 524 0.30 0.91 3.50 OK
3.99 6.36 9.54 0.048 524 0.26 0.83 3.50 OK
2.00 9.54 14.31 0.064 524 0.23 0.75 3.50 OK
0.00 22.06 33.09 0.134 1257 0.51 1.00 3.50 OK
0.00 22.06 33.09 0.134 1257 0.51 1.00 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 Side edge - 0.575 0.00 207 169
5.99 Side edge 11.96 0.575 6.88 230 192
3.99 Side edge 23.92 0.575 13.75 254 216
2.00 Side edge 35.87 0.575 20.63 277 239
0.00 Corner - bottom edge 47.83 -0.998 -47.71 300 262
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 47.83 0.998 47.71 300 262

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.60
7.98 0.00 0.00 0.000 524 0.31 1.04 3.50 OK
5.99 6.88 10.31 0.054 524 0.27 0.99 3.50 OK
Page 103
3.99 13.75 20.63 0.096 524 0.24 0.94 3.50 OK
2.00 20.63 30.94 0.130 524 0.22 0.91 3.50 OK
0.00 47.71 71.57 0.273 873 0.33 1.09 3.50 OK
0.00 47.71 71.57 0.273 873 0.33 1.09 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 207 Bending 0.00 628 436
5.99 230 Bending 0.00 628 436
3.99 254 Bending 0.00 628 436
2.00 277 Bending 0.00 0.00 1257 873
0.00 300 Bending 14.67 0.00 1257 873

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53

Page 104
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =

Page 105
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 37.1 0.0000 0.0007 -0.0007 -0.1273 0.0


0.0 40.0 0.0000 0.0007 -0.0007 -0.1435 0.0
0.0 42.6 0.0000 0.0007 -0.0007 -0.1605 0.0
0.0 59.3 0.0000 0.0004 -0.0004 -0.0830 0.0
51.6 62.6 0.0003 0.0004 -0.0001 -0.0212 1.9
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.60
7.98 207 Bending 0.00 436 628
5.99 230 Bending 0.00 436 628
3.99 254 Bending 0.00 436 628
2.00 277 Bending 0.00 0.00 873 1257
0.00 300 Bending 31.73 0.00 873 1257

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 35.9 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1487 0.0


0.0 37.9 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1718 0.0
0.0 39.8 0.0000 0.0010 -0.0010 -0.1957 0.0
0.0 54.5 0.0000 0.0005 -0.0005 -0.1028 0.0
149.6 57.0 0.0009 0.0006 0.0004 0.0817 4.5
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 106
DESIGN OF WALL W7 Location: Pipe gallery long wall

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 7.60 BOF: 98.500 GWT: 80.000

BOW: 98.500 TOW: 100.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 99.500 1.00 1.38 5.51 Cantilever Wall
Fill 2 Earth 99.880 1.38 1.38 5.51 Cantilever Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 2.00 Design Height of Wall (m) = 1.38
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 2.00

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


m mm kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side - - - - -

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


T Load = Total Load / m2 = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: -

Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS
Page 107
fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05
N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m 3) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.525


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 0.525 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 2.00 - - Height above BOF = 2.00


Provided thickness 150 150 - - Taper = One side

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS

Cantilever Wall -

Moment coefficient at bottom and other reference points = -1/6


Moment coefficients assumed to be same at edge, quarter point and mid-point
Multiplier = k' * r * (HOF - Ht of ref point from bottom)^3

r for Fill 1 (kN/m3) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 0.525


Page 108
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
2.00
1.38 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
1.04 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.2 -0.04 -0.04 -0.04
0.69 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 1.8 -0.30 -0.30 -0.30
0.35 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 6.1 -1.02 -1.02 -1.02
0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 14.5 -2.42 -2.42 -2.42

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm 2
2.00 150 180
1.38 0.00 0.00 150 0.00 Bending 180
1.04 -0.04 0.00 150 -0.04 Bending 180
0.69 -0.30 0.00 150 -0.30 Bending 180
0.35 -1.02 0.00 150 0.00 22 -1.02 Bending 180
0.00 -2.42 0.00 150 0.00 22 -2.42 Bending 180

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
Page 109
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd 2 is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Tension T' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T'u M1u T'u
wall Unfactor
Factored Factored Factored
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm2 mm2 mm2
2.00 180
1.38 97 0.00 - - 180
1.04 97 0.06 2 - 180
0.69 97 0.45 13 - 180
0.35 97 1.53 0.00 44 - 180
0.00 97 3.62 0.00 105 - 180

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd 2 is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm2 mm2 mm2
2.00 180
1.38 112 0.00 - - 180
1.04 112 0.00 - - 180
0.69 112 0.00 - - 180
0.35 112 0.00 - - 180
0.00 112 0.00 - - 180

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

Cantilever Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


r for Fill 2 (kN/m3) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00

Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m 2) = k' * r * hs = 0.00


Page 110
Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2
where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
2.00
1.38 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
1.04 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.2 -0.04 -0.04 -0.04 -
0.69 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 2.0 -0.33 -0.33 -0.33 -
0.35 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 6.6 -1.11 -1.11 -1.11 -
0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 15.8 -2.63 -2.63 -2.63 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm 2
2.00 150 180
1.38 0.00 0.00 150 0.00 Bending 180
1.04 0.00 -0.04 150 -0.04 Bending 180
0.69 0.00 -0.33 150 -0.33 Bending 180
0.35 0.00 -1.11 150 0.00 37 -1.11 Bending 180
0.00 0.00 -2.63 150 0.00 37 -2.63 Bending 180
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Page 111
Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Tension T' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T'u M1u T'u
wall Unfactor
Factored Factored Factored
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm2 mm2 mm2
2.00 180
1.38 112 0.00 - - 180
1.04 112 0.06 37 - 180
0.69 112 0.49 37 - 180
0.35 112 1.66 0.00 37 - 180
0.00 112 3.94 0.00 113 - 180

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm2 mm2 mm2
2.00 180
1.38 97 0.00 43 - 180
1.04 97 0.00 43 - 180
0.69 97 0.00 43 - 180
0.35 97 0.00 43 - 180
0.00 97 0.00 43 - 180

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
2.00 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
1.38 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
1.04 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.69 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.35 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.00 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
2.00 180 180 180 180
1.38 180 180 180 180
1.04 180 180 180 180
0.69 180 180 180 180
0.34 180 180 180 180
0.00 180 180 180 180

Page 112
Provided horizontal reinforcement
Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
2.00 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
1.38 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
1.04 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.69 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.34 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.00 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Cantilever Wall -

Shear along side edge


1 m length of wall is assumed to contribute towards shear at vertical edge
Shear = 1 * Pressure of the fill (Coefficient = 1)
Pressure of the fill = k' * r * (HOF - h) ; h = height from bottom, k' and r are for the respective fills
Shear at corner & mid-pt of bottom edge
Shear = 0.5 * k' * r * HOF^2 = 0.5 * HOF * Pressure of fill (Coefficient = 0.5 * HOF)

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d = D
of fill
wall h - c'
m kN/m2 kN/m mm mm
2.00
1.38 Side edge - 1.000 0.00 150 97
1.04 Side edge 1.90 1.000 1.90 150 97
0.69 Side edge 3.80 1.000 3.80 150 97
0.35 Side edge 5.71 1.000 5.71 150 97
0.00 Corner - bottom edge 7.61 -0.690 -5.25 150 97
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 7.61 0.690 5.25 150 97

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall.

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)


Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc

m kN/m kN/m N/mm2 mm


2
N/mm
2
N/mm
2

2.00
1.38 0.00 0.00 0.000 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK
Page 113
1.04 1.90 2.85 0.029 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK
0.69 3.80 5.71 0.059 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK
0.35 5.71 8.56 0.088 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK
0.00 5.25 7.88 0.081 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK
0.00 5.25 7.88 0.081 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d = D
of fill
wall h - c'
m kN/m2 kN/m mm mm
2.00
1.38 Side edge - 1.000 0.00 150 112
1.04 Side edge 2.07 1.000 2.07 150 112
0.69 Side edge 4.14 1.000 4.14 150 112
0.35 Side edge 6.20 1.000 6.20 150 112
0.00 Corner - bottom edge 8.27 -0.690 -5.71 150 112
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 8.27 0.690 5.71 150 112

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2
2.00
1.38 0.00 0.00 0.000 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
1.04 2.07 3.10 0.028 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.69 4.14 6.20 0.055 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.35 6.20 9.31 0.083 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.00 5.71 8.56 0.076 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.00 5.71 8.56 0.076 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm2
2.00
Page 114
1.38 150 Bending 0.00 279 279
1.04 150 Bending 0.04 279 279
0.69 150 Bending 0.30 279 279
0.35 150 Bending 1.02 0.00 279 279
0.00 150 Bending 2.42 0.00 279 279

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Page 115
Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =

Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')


Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm 2) = 0.8 * fy = 332
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm 2) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm 2) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm2 mm N/mm2

0.0 21.8 0.0000 0.0013 -0.0013 -0.2182 0.0


1.5 21.8 0.0000 0.0013 -0.0013 -0.2163 0.0
12.0 21.8 0.0001 0.0013 -0.0012 -0.2030 0.4
40.7 21.8 0.0003 0.0013 -0.0010 -0.1670 1.3
96.4 21.8 0.0007 0.0013 -0.0006 -0.0968 3.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 116
DESIGN OF WALL W8 Location: Pipe gallery short wall

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 6.25 BOF: 98.500 GWT: 80.000

BOW: 98.500 TOW: 100.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 99.500 1.00 1.38 4.53 Cantilever Wall
Fill 2 Earth 99.880 1.38 1.38 4.53 Cantilever Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 2.00 Design Height of Wall (m) = 1.38
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 2.00

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


m mm kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side - - - - -

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


T Load = Total Load / m2 = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: -

Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS
Page 117
fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05
N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m 3) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.525


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 0.525 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 2.00 - - Height above BOF = 2.00


Provided thickness 150 150 - - Taper = One side

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS

Cantilever Wall -

Moment coefficient at bottom and other reference points = -1/6


Moment coefficients assumed to be same at edge, quarter point and mid-point
Multiplier = k' * r * (HOF - Ht of ref point from bottom)^3

r for Fill 1 (kN/m3) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 0.525


Page 118
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
2.00
1.38 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
1.04 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.2 -0.04 -0.04 -0.04
0.69 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 1.8 -0.30 -0.30 -0.30
0.35 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 6.1 -1.02 -1.02 -1.02
0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 14.5 -2.42 -2.42 -2.42

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm 2
2.00 150 180
1.38 0.00 0.00 150 0.00 Bending 180
1.04 -0.04 0.00 150 -0.04 Bending 180
0.69 -0.30 0.00 150 -0.30 Bending 180
0.35 -1.02 0.00 150 0.00 22 -1.02 Bending 180
0.00 -2.42 0.00 150 0.00 22 -2.42 Bending 180

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
Page 119
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd 2 is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Tension T' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T'u M1u T'u
wall Unfactor
Factored Factored Factored
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm2 mm2 mm2
2.00 180
1.38 97 0.00 - - 180
1.04 97 0.06 2 - 180
0.69 97 0.45 13 - 180
0.35 97 1.53 0.00 44 - 180
0.00 97 3.62 0.00 105 - 180

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd 2 is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm2 mm2 mm2
2.00 180
1.38 112 0.00 - - 180
1.04 112 0.00 - - 180
0.69 112 0.00 - - 180
0.35 112 0.00 - - 180
0.00 112 0.00 - - 180

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

Cantilever Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


r for Fill 2 (kN/m3) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00

Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m 2) = k' * r * hs = 0.00


Page 120
Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2
where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
2.00
1.38 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
1.04 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.2 -0.04 -0.04 -0.04 -
0.69 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 2.0 -0.33 -0.33 -0.33 -
0.35 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 6.6 -1.11 -1.11 -1.11 -
0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 15.8 -2.63 -2.63 -2.63 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm 2
2.00 150 180
1.38 0.00 0.00 150 0.00 Bending 180
1.04 0.00 -0.04 150 -0.04 Bending 180
0.69 0.00 -0.33 150 -0.33 Bending 180
0.35 0.00 -1.11 150 0.00 37 -1.11 Bending 180
0.00 0.00 -2.63 150 0.00 37 -2.63 Bending 180
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Page 121
Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Tension T' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T'u M1u T'u
wall Unfactor
Factored Factored Factored
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm2 mm2 mm2
2.00 180
1.38 112 0.00 - - 180
1.04 112 0.06 37 - 180
0.69 112 0.49 37 - 180
0.35 112 1.66 0.00 37 - 180
0.00 112 3.94 0.00 113 - 180

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm2 mm2 mm2
2.00 180
1.38 97 0.00 43 - 180
1.04 97 0.00 43 - 180
0.69 97 0.00 43 - 180
0.35 97 0.00 43 - 180
0.00 97 0.00 43 - 180

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
2.00 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
1.38 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
1.04 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.69 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.35 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.00 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
2.00 180 180 180 180
1.38 180 180 180 180
1.04 180 180 180 180
0.69 180 180 180 180
0.34 180 180 180 180
0.00 180 180 180 180

Page 122
Provided horizontal reinforcement
Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
2.00 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
1.38 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
1.04 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.69 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.34 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.00 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Cantilever Wall -

Shear along side edge


1 m length of wall is assumed to contribute towards shear at vertical edge
Shear = 1 * Pressure of the fill (Coefficient = 1)
Pressure of the fill = k' * r * (HOF - h) ; h = height from bottom, k' and r are for the respective fills
Shear at corner & mid-pt of bottom edge
Shear = 0.5 * k' * r * HOF^2 = 0.5 * HOF * Pressure of fill (Coefficient = 0.5 * HOF)

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d = D
of fill
wall h - c'
m kN/m2 kN/m mm mm
2.00
1.38 Side edge - 1.000 0.00 150 97
1.04 Side edge 1.90 1.000 1.90 150 97
0.69 Side edge 3.80 1.000 3.80 150 97
0.35 Side edge 5.71 1.000 5.71 150 97
0.00 Corner - bottom edge 7.61 -0.690 -5.25 150 97
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 7.61 0.690 5.25 150 97

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall.

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)


Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc

m kN/m kN/m N/mm2 mm


2
N/mm
2
N/mm
2

2.00
1.38 0.00 0.00 0.000 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK
Page 123
1.04 1.90 2.85 0.029 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK
0.69 3.80 5.71 0.059 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK
0.35 5.71 8.56 0.088 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK
0.00 5.25 7.88 0.081 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK
0.00 5.25 7.88 0.081 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d = D
of fill
wall h - c'
m kN/m2 kN/m mm mm
2.00
1.38 Side edge - 1.000 0.00 150 112
1.04 Side edge 2.07 1.000 2.07 150 112
0.69 Side edge 4.14 1.000 4.14 150 112
0.35 Side edge 6.20 1.000 6.20 150 112
0.00 Corner - bottom edge 8.27 -0.690 -5.71 150 112
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 8.27 0.690 5.71 150 112

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2
2.00
1.38 0.00 0.00 0.000 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
1.04 2.07 3.10 0.028 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.69 4.14 6.20 0.055 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.35 6.20 9.31 0.083 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.00 5.71 8.56 0.076 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.00 5.71 8.56 0.076 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm2
2.00
Page 124
1.38 150 Bending 0.00 279 279
1.04 150 Bending 0.04 279 279
0.69 150 Bending 0.30 279 279
0.35 150 Bending 1.02 0.00 279 279
0.00 150 Bending 2.42 0.00 279 279

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Page 125
Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =

Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')


Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm 2) = 0.8 * fy = 332
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm 2) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm 2) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm2 mm N/mm2

0.0 21.8 0.0000 0.0013 -0.0013 -0.2182 0.0


1.5 21.8 0.0000 0.0013 -0.0013 -0.2163 0.0
12.0 21.8 0.0001 0.0013 -0.0012 -0.2030 0.4
40.7 21.8 0.0003 0.0013 -0.0010 -0.1670 1.3
96.4 21.8 0.0007 0.0013 -0.0006 -0.0968 3.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 126
Foundation for Wall: W1 Location: Wet well

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m 3) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 90.40 BOF: 90.40 NGL: 99.50

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill Case
m kN/m3 kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 5.60 10.5 Case 1 7.18
Fill 2 Earth 9.48 18.0 Case 2 11.75

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 50.5 Length LW (m) = 24.19

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.100 G2 = 0.100

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2
N/mm N/mm2 N/mm2

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 127
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m 2) = 80


Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 9.3

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 248.3 kN/m2
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m3

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Earth


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat Bottom
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of 250 250
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 250 0.70 0.60 150
information only. - -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.70 250 250 0.60 250 150

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 1.50

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

Page 128
GF1 = 0.350 m GF2 = 0.325 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 4.38 kN/m WF2 = 3.00 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.200 m WCF = 1.25 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 7.18
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 41.16 1.15 -47.33
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 4.38 1.15 -5.03
d = LB - GF1

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 0.33 -0.98
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 1.25 0.70 -0.88
d = 0.5 * LCF

Page 129
V = Refer design data
Self weight of wall 50.50 0.70 -35.35
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 7.18


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 89.57
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 12.47

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 100.29 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 82.39 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.82 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = Net mome

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.82 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) -0.07 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
Base Pressure at P (kN/m 2) 85.98 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m 2) 68.13 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at R (kN/m 2) 63.03 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at S (kN/m 2) 47.73 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 53.94 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.36 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) 3.67 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 33.23 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.29 Using formulae as given earlier

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)


Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 8.68
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

Page 130
V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Bottom 8.40 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 30.23 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 7.18
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -11.75 -11.75
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 41.16 0.35 1.15 14.41
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 102.38 1.20 122.86 0.30 122.86
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 4.38 0.35 1.53 1.15 1.53
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 1.18 3.53 0.33 3.53
Self weight of central portion of footing 1.25 0.80 1.00 0.70 1.00
Self weight of wall 50.50 0.80 40.40 0.70 40.40
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.70 0.00 0.80 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.90 0.00 0.60 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.80 0.00 0.70 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 11.75 11.75


Total resisting moments 169.32 190.90
Check for overturning 14.42 16.25

Total vertical load (kN/m) 161.51 202.67


Net moment (kN-m/m) 157.57 179.16
Distance resultant from respective point 0.98 0.88
Distance of resultant from S 0.52 0.62
Eccentricity 0.23 0.13
Base Pressure at P 10.50 OK 62.70 OK
Base Pressure at Q 101.19 OK 130.29 OK
Base Pressure at R 127.11 OK 149.60 OK
Base Pressure at S 204.85 OK 207.53 OK

Total base pressure P-Q 39.09 67.54


CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.26 0.31
Moment at Q (base) 8.45 4.94
Total base pressure R-S 99.59 107.14
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.32 0.32
Moment at R (base) 0.67 2.34

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

Page 131
V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 34.72 Q 3 Bottom 22.01
R 2 Bottom 5.80 R 3 Bottom 1.75

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 3.67 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 8.45 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 0.67 Earth 38 53
kN-m/m Base 8.68 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.35 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
Min reinforcement (mm2) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd2 % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm2 mm2 mm2
Q - Top 3.67 5.51 250 197 0.142 0.040 78 438 438
Q - Bot 8.45 12.67 250 212 0.282 0.079 168 438 438
R - Top 0.67 1.00 250 212 0.022 0.006 13 438 438
R - Bot 8.68 13.03 250 212 0.290 0.081 172 438 438

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

Page 132
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.7 m ; 250 - 250 mm 0.6 m ; 250 - 150 mm


08-180+10-180 00-000+10-180
716 436
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Earth
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160
P 491 491 Q R 491 491 S
438 438 Top 438 438
10-160 491 Distribution 350 491 10-160
438 438 Bottom 438 438
00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160
491 491 491 491
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
Q 2 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
Q 3 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 1 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 2 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 3 Bottom Earth 250 38 212

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2
Q-1 8.40 12.61 212 0.059 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK
Q-2 34.72 52.08 212 0.246 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK
Q-3 22.01 33.01 212 0.156 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK
R-1 30.23 45.34 212 0.214 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK
R-2 5.80 8.70 212 0.041 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK
R-3 1.75 2.63 212 0.012 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Page 133
Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm2
Q - Top 250 3.67 Water 53 38 0.2 250 491 491
Q - Bot 250 8.45 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 491 491
R - Top 250 0.67 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 491 491
R - Bot 250 8.68 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 491 491

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

Page 134
e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm 2) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
N/mm2 mm mm N/mm2
Q - Top 40.6 38.1 0.0003 0.0010 -0.0007 -0.1523 1.0
Q - Bot 86.8 41.0 0.0006 0.0009 -0.0003 -0.0584 2.2
R - Top 6.9 41.0 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0008 -0.1604 0.2
R - Bot 89.2 41.0 0.0006 0.0009 -0.0003 -0.0552 2.3
All OK All OK All OK

Page 135
Foundation for Wall: W2 Location: Screen chamber internal wall

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m 3) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 91.60 BOF: 91.60 NGL: 99.50

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill Case
m kN/m3 kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 4.40 10.5 Case 1 37.16
Fill 2 Water 4.40 10.5 Case 2 37.16

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 89 Length LW (m) = 5.40

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.200 G2 = 0.200

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2
N/mm N/mm2 N/mm2

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 136
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m 2) = 80


Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 8.2

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 226.7 kN/m2
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m3

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Water


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat T & B
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of 250 250
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 250 0.40 0.40 250
information only. - -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.40 250 250 0.40 250 250

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 1.20

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

Page 137
GF1 = 0.200 m GF2 = 0.200 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 2.50 kN/m WF2 = 2.50 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.400 m WCF = 2.50 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 37.16
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 18.48 1.00 -18.48
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 2.50 1.00 -2.50
d = LB - GF1

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 0.20 -0.50
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 2.50 0.60 -1.50
d = 0.5 * LCF

Page 138
V = Refer design data
Self weight of wall 89.00 0.60 -53.40
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 37.16


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 76.38
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.06

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 114.98 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 39.22 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.34 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = Net mome

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.34 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.26 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
Base Pressure at P (kN/m 2) -28.21 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m 2) 54.47 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at R (kN/m 2) 137.16 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at S (kN/m 2) 219.85 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 5.25 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) -0.01 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -4.25 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 71.40 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.22 Using formulae as given earlier

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)


Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 14.88
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

Page 139
V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Top 15.73 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 68.90 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 37.16
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -37.16 -37.16
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 18.48 0.20 1.00 3.70
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 18.48 1.00 18.48 0.20 18.48
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 2.50 0.20 0.50 1.00 0.50
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 1.00 2.50 0.20 2.50
Self weight of central portion of footing 2.50 0.60 1.50 0.60 1.50
Self weight of wall 89.00 0.60 53.40 0.60 53.40
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.40 0.00 0.80 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.80 0.00 0.40 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.60 0.00 0.60 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 37.16 37.16


Total resisting moments 76.38 117.24
Check for overturning 2.06 3.15

Total vertical load (kN/m) 114.98 133.46


Net moment (kN-m/m) 39.22 80.08
Distance resultant from respective point 0.34 0.60
Distance of resultant from S 0.86 0.60
Eccentricity -0.26 0.00
Base Pressure at P 219.85 OK 111.22 OK
Base Pressure at Q 137.16 OK 111.22 OK
Base Pressure at R 54.47 OK 111.22 OK
Base Pressure at S -28.21 OK 111.22 OK

Total base pressure P-Q 71.40 44.49


CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.22 0.20
Moment at Q (base) 14.88 4.70
Total base pressure R-S 5.25 44.49
CG of base pressure R-S from R -0.01 0.20
Moment at R (base) -4.25 4.70

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

Page 140
V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 68.90 Q 3 Bottom 23.51
R 2 Top 15.73 R 3 Bottom 23.51

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 4.25 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 14.88 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 4.25 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 14.88 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
Min reinforcement (mm2) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd2 % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm2 mm2 mm2
Q - Top 4.25 6.37 250 197 0.164 0.046 90 300 300
Q - Bot 14.88 22.32 250 212 0.497 0.140 298 300 300
R - Top 4.25 6.37 250 197 0.164 0.046 90 300 300
R - Bot 14.88 22.32 250 212 0.497 0.140 298 300 300

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

Page 141
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.4 m ; 250 - 250 mm 0.4 m ; 250 - 250 mm


00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
524 524
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Water
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
P 707 707 Q R 707 707 S
300 300 Top 300 300
10-160 491 Distribution 300 491 10-160
300 300 Bottom 300 300
00-000+12-140 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-140
808 808 808 808
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Top Water 250 53 197
Q 2 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
Q 3 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 1 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 2 Top Water 250 53 197
R 3 Bottom Earth 250 38 212

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2
Q-1 15.73 23.59 197 0.120 707 0.36 0.95 3.50 OK
Q-2 68.90 103.35 212 0.488 808 0.38 0.97 3.50 OK
Q-3 23.51 35.26 212 0.166 808 0.38 0.97 3.50 OK
R-1 68.90 103.35 212 0.488 808 0.38 0.97 3.50 OK
R-2 15.73 23.59 197 0.120 707 0.36 0.95 3.50 OK
R-3 23.51 35.26 212 0.166 808 0.38 0.97 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Page 142
Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm2
Q - Top 250 4.25 Water 53 38 0.2 250 707 808
Q - Bot 250 14.88 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 808 707
R - Top 250 4.25 Water 53 38 0.2 250 707 808
R - Bot 250 14.88 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 808 707

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

Page 143
e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm 2) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
N/mm2 mm mm N/mm2
Q - Top 33.0 43.9 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0004 -0.0953 1.0
Q - Bot 94.3 49.9 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0221 3.1
R - Top 33.0 43.9 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0004 -0.0953 1.0
R - Bot 94.3 49.9 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0221 3.1
All OK All OK All OK

Page 144
Foundation for Wall: W3 Location: Screen chamber external wall

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m 3) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 91.60 BOF: 91.60 NGL: 99.50

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill Case
m kN/m3 kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 4.40 10.5 Case 1 31.54
Fill 2 Earth 8.28 18.0 Case 2 63.76

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 66.75 Length LW (m) = 5.40

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.156 G2 = 0.244

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2
N/mm N/mm2 N/mm2

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 145
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m 2) = 80


Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 8.2

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 226.7 kN/m2
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m3

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Earth


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat Bottom
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of 250 250
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 250 1.00 0.60 150
information only. - -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
1.00 250 250 0.60 250 150

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 2.00

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

Page 146
GF1 = 0.500 m GF2 = 0.325 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 6.25 kN/m WF2 = 3.00 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.400 m WCF = 2.50 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 31.54
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 46.20 1.50 -69.30
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.25 1.50 -9.38
d = LB - GF1

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 0.33 -0.98
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 2.50 0.80 -2.00
d = 0.5 * LCF

Page 147
V = Refer design data
Self weight of wall 66.75 0.84 -56.37
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 31.54


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 138.02
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 4.38

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 124.70 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 106.48 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.85 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = Net mome

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.85 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.15 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
Base Pressure at P (kN/m 2) 35.01 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m 2) 62.35 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at R (kN/m 2) 73.28 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at S (kN/m 2) 89.69 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 48.68 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.45 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -4.16 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 48.89 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.31 Using formulae as given earlier

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)


Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 14.33
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

Page 148
V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Top 3.77 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 45.89 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 31.54
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -63.76 -63.76
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 46.20 0.50 1.50 23.10
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 89.42 1.70 152.02 0.30 152.02
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.25 0.50 3.13 1.50 3.13
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 1.68 5.03 0.33 5.03
Self weight of central portion of footing 2.50 1.20 3.00 0.80 3.00
Self weight of wall 66.75 1.16 77.13 0.84 77.13
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 1.40 0.00 0.60 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 1.16 0.00 0.84 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 63.76 63.76


Total resisting moments 240.30 294.95
Check for overturning 3.77 4.63

Total vertical load (kN/m) 167.92 214.12


Net moment (kN-m/m) 176.54 231.18
Distance resultant from respective point 1.05 1.08
Distance of resultant from S 0.95 0.92
Eccentricity 0.05 0.08
Base Pressure at P 71.03 OK 81.47 OK
Base Pressure at Q 83.96 OK 107.06 OK
Base Pressure at R 89.13 OK 117.30 OK
Base Pressure at S 96.89 OK 132.65 OK

Total base pressure P-Q 77.50 94.27


CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.49 0.48
Moment at Q (base) 34.55 18.78
Total base pressure R-S 55.81 74.98
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.30 0.31
Moment at R (base) -10.68 -4.70

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

Page 149
V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 71.25 Q 3 Bottom 41.82
R 2 Top 36.62 R 3 Top 17.44

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 4.16 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 34.55 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 10.68 Earth 38 53
kN-m/m Base 14.33 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
Min reinforcement (mm2) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd2 % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm2 mm2 mm2
Q - Top 4.16 6.24 250 197 0.161 0.045 88 300 300
Q - Bot 34.55 51.82 250 212 1.153 0.335 710 300 710
R - Top 10.68 16.02 250 212 0.356 0.100 212 300 300
R - Bot 14.33 21.50 250 212 0.478 0.135 286 300 300

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

Page 150
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

1 m ; 250 - 250 mm 0.6 m ; 250 - 150 mm


12-180+12-180 10-180+12-180
1257 1065
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Earth
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
P 707 707 Q R 707 707 S
300 300 Top 300 300
10-160 491 Distribution 240 491 10-160
710 710 Bottom 300 300
00-000+12-140 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-140
808 808 808 808
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Top Water 250 53 197
Q 2 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
Q 3 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 1 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 2 Top Earth 250 38 212
R 3 Top Earth 250 38 212

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2
Q-1 3.77 5.65 197 0.029 707 0.36 0.95 3.50 OK
Q-2 71.25 106.87 212 0.504 808 0.38 0.97 3.50 OK
Q-3 41.82 62.73 212 0.296 808 0.38 0.97 3.50 OK
R-1 45.89 68.84 212 0.325 808 0.38 0.97 3.50 OK
R-2 36.62 54.93 212 0.259 707 0.33 0.92 3.50 OK
R-3 17.44 26.16 212 0.123 707 0.33 0.92 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Page 151
Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm2
Q - Top 250 4.16 Water 53 38 0.2 250 707 808
Q - Bot 250 34.55 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 808 707
R - Top 250 10.68 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 707 808
R - Bot 250 14.33 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 808 707

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

Page 152
e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm 2) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
N/mm2 mm mm N/mm2
Q - Top 32.3 43.9 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0005 -0.0962 1.0
Q - Bot 218.9 49.9 0.0015 0.0005 0.0009 0.1801 7.2
R - Top 77.0 47.5 0.0005 0.0006 -0.0001 -0.0151 2.4
R - Bot 90.8 49.9 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0177 3.0
All OK All OK All OK

Page 153
Foundation for Wall: W4 Location: Receving chamber short wall

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m 3) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 91.90 BOF: 91.90 NGL: 99.50

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill Case
m kN/m3 kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 4.10 10.5 Case 1 14.67
Fill 2 Earth 7.98 18.0 Case 2 31.73

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 53.75 Length LW (m) = 1.70

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.127 G2 = 0.173

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2
N/mm N/mm2 N/mm2

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 154
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m 2) = 80


Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 7.8

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 221.3 kN/m2
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m3

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Earth


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat Bottom
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of 250 250
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 250 0.60 0.60 150
information only. - -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.60 250 250 0.60 250 150

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 1.50

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

Page 155
GF1 = 0.300 m GF2 = 0.325 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 3.75 kN/m WF2 = 3.00 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.300 m WCF = 1.88 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 14.67
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 25.83 1.20 -31.00
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 3.75 1.20 -4.50
d = LB - GF1

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 0.33 -0.98
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 1.88 0.75 -1.41
d = 0.5 * LCF

Page 156
V = Refer design data
Self weight of wall 53.75 0.77 -41.57
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 14.67


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 79.44
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 5.41

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 88.21 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 64.77 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.73 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = Net mome

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.73 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.02 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
Base Pressure at P (kN/m 2) 55.12 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m 2) 58.07 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at R (kN/m 2) 59.54 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at S (kN/m 2) 62.49 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 33.96 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.30 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) 1.22 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 36.61 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.30 Using formulae as given earlier

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)


Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 10.25
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

Page 157
V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Bottom 4.38 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 33.61 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 14.67
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -31.73 -31.73
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 25.83 0.30 1.20 7.75
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 86.18 1.20 103.42 0.30 103.42
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 3.75 0.30 1.13 1.20 1.13
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 1.18 3.53 0.33 3.53
Self weight of central portion of footing 1.88 0.75 1.41 0.75 1.41
Self weight of wall 53.75 0.73 39.06 0.77 39.06
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.60 0.00 0.90 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.90 0.00 0.60 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.73 0.00 0.77 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 31.73 31.73


Total resisting moments 148.54 170.96
Check for overturning 4.68 5.39

Total vertical load (kN/m) 148.56 174.39


Net moment (kN-m/m) 116.81 139.23
Distance resultant from respective point 0.79 0.80
Distance of resultant from S 0.71 0.70
Eccentricity 0.04 0.05
Base Pressure at P 84.67 OK 93.76 OK
Base Pressure at Q 96.17 OK 111.76 OK
Base Pressure at R 101.91 OK 120.76 OK
Base Pressure at S 113.41 OK 138.75 OK

Total base pressure P-Q 54.25 61.66


CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.29 0.29
Moment at Q (base) 14.81 9.08
Total base pressure R-S 64.60 77.85
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.31 0.31
Moment at R (base) -6.96 -2.78

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

Page 158
V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 50.50 Q 3 Bottom 32.08
R 2 Top 24.59 R 3 Top 11.33

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 1.22 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 14.81 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 6.96 Earth 38 53
kN-m/m Base 10.25 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
Min reinforcement (mm2) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd2 % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm2 mm2 mm2
Q - Top 1.22 1.84 250 197 0.047 0.013 26 300 300
Q - Bot 14.81 22.21 250 212 0.494 0.140 296 300 300
R - Top 6.96 10.44 250 212 0.232 0.065 138 300 300
R - Bot 10.25 15.37 250 212 0.342 0.096 204 300 300

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

Page 159
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.6 m ; 250 - 250 mm 0.6 m ; 250 - 150 mm


12-180+12-180 10-180+10-180
1257 873
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Earth
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160
P 491 491 Q R 491 491 S
300 300 Top 300 300
12-160 707 Distribution 240 707 12-160
300 300 Bottom 300 300
10-180+10-180 10-180+10-180 12-180+12-180 12-180+12-180
873 873 1257 1257
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
Q 2 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
Q 3 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 1 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 2 Top Earth 250 38 212
R 3 Top Earth 250 38 212

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2
Q-1 4.38 6.56 212 0.031 873 0.41 1.01 3.50 OK
Q-2 50.50 75.75 212 0.357 873 0.41 1.01 3.50 OK
Q-3 32.08 48.12 212 0.227 873 0.41 1.01 3.50 OK
R-1 33.61 50.41 212 0.238 1257 0.59 1.17 3.50 OK
R-2 24.59 36.88 212 0.174 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK
R-3 11.33 17.00 212 0.080 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Page 160
Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm2
Q - Top 250 1.22 Water 53 38 0.2 250 491 873
Q - Bot 250 14.81 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 873 491
R - Top 250 6.96 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 491 1257
R - Bot 250 10.25 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1257 491

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

Page 161
e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm 2) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
N/mm2 mm mm N/mm2
Q - Top 13.5 38.1 0.0001 0.0010 -0.0009 -0.1884 0.3
Q - Bot 87.1 51.3 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0209 3.0
R - Top 71.6 42.4 0.0005 0.0009 -0.0004 -0.0763 1.9
R - Bot 42.4 59.4 0.0003 0.0003 0.0000 -0.0056 1.8
All OK All OK All OK

Page 162
Foundation for Wall: W5 Location: Receving chamber long wall

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m 3) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 91.90 BOF: 91.90 NGL: 99.50

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill Case
m kN/m3 kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 4.10 10.5 Case 1 21.19
Fill 2 Earth 7.98 18.0 Case 2 45.83

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 53.75 Length LW (m) = 4.30

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.127 G2 = 0.173

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2
N/mm N/mm2 N/mm2

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 163
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m 2) = 80


Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 7.8

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 221.3 kN/m2
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m3

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Earth


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat Bottom
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of 250 250
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 250 0.70 0.60 150
information only. - -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.70 250 250 0.60 250 150

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 1.60

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

Page 164
GF1 = 0.350 m GF2 = 0.325 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 4.38 kN/m WF2 = 3.00 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.300 m WCF = 1.88 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 21.19
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 30.14 1.25 -37.67
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 4.38 1.25 -5.47
d = LB - GF1

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 0.33 -0.98
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 1.88 0.75 -1.41
d = 0.5 * LCF

Page 165
V = Refer design data
Self weight of wall 53.75 0.77 -41.57
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 21.19


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 87.09
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 4.11

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 93.14 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 65.89 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.71 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = Net mome

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.71 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.09 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
Base Pressure at P (kN/m 2) 38.02 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m 2) 55.69 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at R (kN/m 2) 63.26 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at S (kN/m 2) 78.40 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 32.80 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.33 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -1.32 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 42.50 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.31 Using formulae as given earlier

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)


Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 12.38
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

Page 166
V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Top 1.71 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 39.50 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 21.19
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -45.83 -45.83
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 30.14 0.35 1.25 10.55
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 86.18 1.30 112.04 0.30 112.04
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 4.38 0.35 1.53 1.25 1.53
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 1.28 3.83 0.33 3.83
Self weight of central portion of footing 1.88 0.85 1.59 0.75 1.59
Self weight of wall 53.75 0.83 44.43 0.77 44.43
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.70 0.00 0.90 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.60 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.83 0.00 0.77 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 45.83 45.83


Total resisting moments 163.42 195.16
Check for overturning 3.57 4.26

Total vertical load (kN/m) 149.18 179.32


Net moment (kN-m/m) 117.60 149.33
Distance resultant from respective point 0.79 0.83
Distance of resultant from S 0.81 0.77
Eccentricity -0.01 0.03
Base Pressure at P 97.35 OK 98.30 OK
Base Pressure at Q 93.75 OK 110.35 OK
Base Pressure at R 92.21 OK 115.52 OK
Base Pressure at S 89.13 OK 125.85 OK

Total base pressure P-Q 66.88 73.03


CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.35 0.34
Moment at Q (base) 22.02 12.99
Total base pressure R-S 54.40 72.41
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.30 0.30
Moment at R (base) -10.45 -4.65

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

Page 167
V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 62.51 Q 3 Bottom 38.52
R 2 Top 34.78 R 3 Top 16.77

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 1.32 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 22.02 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 10.45 Earth 38 53
kN-m/m Base 12.38 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
Min reinforcement (mm2) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd2 % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm2 mm2 mm2
Q - Top 1.32 1.98 250 197 0.051 0.014 28 300 300
Q - Bot 22.02 33.04 250 212 0.735 0.210 445 300 445
R - Top 10.45 15.68 250 212 0.349 0.098 208 300 300
R - Bot 12.38 18.57 250 212 0.413 0.116 247 300 300

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

Page 168
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.7 m ; 250 - 250 mm 0.6 m ; 250 - 150 mm


12-180+12-180 10-180+10-180
1257 873
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Earth
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
P 707 707 Q R 707 707 S
300 300 Top 300 300
10-160 491 Distribution 240 491 10-160
445 445 Bottom 300 300
00-000+12-140 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-140 00-000+12-140
808 808 808 808
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Top Water 250 53 197
Q 2 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
Q 3 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 1 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 2 Top Earth 250 38 212
R 3 Top Earth 250 38 212

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2
Q-1 1.71 2.57 197 0.013 707 0.36 0.95 3.50 OK
Q-2 62.51 93.76 212 0.442 808 0.38 0.97 3.50 OK
Q-3 38.52 57.78 212 0.273 808 0.38 0.97 3.50 OK
R-1 39.50 59.24 212 0.279 808 0.38 0.97 3.50 OK
R-2 34.78 52.17 212 0.246 707 0.33 0.92 3.50 OK
R-3 16.77 25.16 212 0.119 707 0.33 0.92 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Page 169
Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm2
Q - Top 250 1.32 Water 53 38 0.2 250 707 808
Q - Bot 250 22.02 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 808 707
R - Top 250 10.45 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 707 808
R - Bot 250 12.38 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 808 707

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

Page 170
e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm 2) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
N/mm2 mm mm N/mm2
Q - Top 10.2 43.9 0.0001 0.0007 -0.0006 -0.1254 0.3
Q - Bot 139.5 49.9 0.0009 0.0005 0.0004 0.0795 4.6
R - Top 75.4 47.5 0.0005 0.0006 -0.0001 -0.0172 2.3
R - Bot 78.4 49.9 0.0005 0.0005 0.0000 0.0020 2.6
All OK All OK All OK

Page 171
Foundation for Wall: W6 Location: Reciving/Screen chamber wall

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m 3) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 91.60 BOF: 91.90 NGL: 99.50

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill Case
m kN/m3 kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 4.10 10.5 Case 1 7.54
Fill 2 Water 4.10 10.5 Case 2 7.54

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 56 Length LW (m) = 1.90

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.128 G2 = 0.172

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2
N/mm N/mm2 N/mm2

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 172
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m 2) = 80


Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 8.2

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 226.7 kN/m2
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m3

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Water


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat Bottom
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of 250 250
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 250 0.60 0.60 150
information only. - -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.60 250 250 0.60 250 150

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 1.50

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

Page 173
GF1 = 0.300 m GF2 = 0.325 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 3.75 kN/m WF2 = 3.00 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.300 m WCF = 1.88 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 7.54
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 29.07 1.20 -34.88
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 3.75 1.20 -4.50
d = LB - GF1

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 0.33 -0.98
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 1.88 0.75 -1.41
d = 0.5 * LCF

Page 174
V = Refer design data
Self weight of wall 56.00 0.77 -43.25
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 7.54


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 85.02
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 11.28

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 93.70 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 77.48 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.83 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = Net mome

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.83 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) -0.08 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
Base Pressure at P (kN/m 2) 81.69 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m 2) 66.31 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at R (kN/m 2) 58.62 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at S (kN/m 2) 43.24 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 44.40 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.31 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) 3.94 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 30.56 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.28 Using formulae as given earlier

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)


Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 7.88
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

Page 175
V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Bottom 11.58 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 27.56 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 7.54
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -7.54 -7.54
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 29.07 0.30 1.20 8.72
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 29.07 1.20 34.88 0.30 34.88
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 3.75 0.30 1.13 1.20 1.13
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 1.18 3.53 0.33 3.53
Self weight of central portion of footing 1.88 0.75 1.41 0.75 1.41
Self weight of wall 56.00 0.73 40.75 0.77 40.75
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.60 0.00 0.90 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.90 0.00 0.60 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.73 0.00 0.77 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 7.54 7.54


Total resisting moments 81.69 97.95
Check for overturning 10.84 12.99

Total vertical load (kN/m) 93.70 122.77


Net moment (kN-m/m) 74.15 90.41
Distance resultant from respective point 0.79 0.74
Distance of resultant from S 0.71 0.76
Eccentricity 0.04 -0.01
Base Pressure at P 52.13 OK 86.29 OK
Base Pressure at Q 60.40 OK 82.73 OK
Base Pressure at R 64.53 OK 80.95 OK
Base Pressure at S 72.80 OK 77.40 OK

Total base pressure P-Q 33.76 50.71


CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.29 0.30
Moment at Q (base) 8.75 5.47
Total base pressure R-S 41.20 47.51
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.31 0.30
Moment at R (base) 3.06 4.60

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

Page 176
V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 30.01 Q 3 Bottom 17.89
R 2 Bottom 9.13 R 3 Bottom 15.44

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 3.94 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 8.75 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 3.06 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 7.88 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
Min reinforcement (mm2) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd2 % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm2 mm2 mm2
Q - Top 3.94 5.90 250 197 0.152 0.042 84 300 300
Q - Bot 8.75 13.13 250 212 0.292 0.082 174 300 300
R - Top 3.06 4.59 250 197 0.118 0.033 65 300 300
R - Bot 7.88 11.82 250 212 0.263 0.074 156 300 300

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

Page 177
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.6 m ; 250 - 250 mm 0.6 m ; 250 - 150 mm


12-180+12-180 10-180+10-180
1257 873
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Water
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160
P 491 491 Q R 491 491 S
300 300 Top 300 300
12-160 707 Distribution 240 707 12-160
300 300 Bottom 300 300
00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160
491 491 491 491
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
Q 2 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
Q 3 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 1 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 2 Bottom Earth 250 38 212
R 3 Bottom Earth 250 38 212

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2
Q-1 11.58 17.37 212 0.082 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK
Q-2 30.01 45.01 212 0.212 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK
Q-3 17.89 26.83 212 0.127 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK
R-1 27.56 41.33 212 0.195 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK
R-2 9.13 13.69 212 0.065 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK
R-3 15.44 23.15 212 0.109 491 0.23 0.79 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Page 178
Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm2
Q - Top 250 3.94 Water 53 38 0.2 250 491 491
Q - Bot 250 8.75 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 491 491
R - Top 250 3.06 Water 53 38 0.2 250 491 491
R - Bot 250 7.88 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 491 491

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

Page 179
e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm 2) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
N/mm2 mm mm N/mm2
Q - Top 43.5 38.1 0.0003 0.0010 -0.0007 -0.1484 1.1
Q - Bot 89.9 41.0 0.0006 0.0009 -0.0003 -0.0543 2.3
R - Top 33.8 38.1 0.0002 0.0010 -0.0007 -0.1613 0.9
R - Bot 80.9 41.0 0.0005 0.0009 -0.0003 -0.0658 2.1
All OK All OK All OK

Page 180
Foundation for Wall: W7 Location: Pipe gallery long wall

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m 3) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 98.50 BOF: 98.50 NGL: 99.50

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill Case
m kN/m3 kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 1.00 10.5 Case 1 2.42
Fill 2 Earth 1.38 18.0 Case 2 2.63

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 7.5 Length LW (m) = 7.75

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.075 G2 = 0.075

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2
N/mm N/mm2 N/mm2

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 181
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m 2) = 80


Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 1.2

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 100.7 kN/m2
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m3

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Earth


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat T & B
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of 150 150
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 150 0.40 0.30 150
information only. - -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.40 150 150 0.30 150 150

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 0.85

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

Page 182
GF1 = 0.200 m GF2 = 0.150 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 1.50 kN/m WF2 = 1.13 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.150 m WCF = 0.56 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 2.42
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 4.20 0.65 -2.73
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 1.50 0.65 -0.98
d = LB - GF1

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 1.13 0.15 -0.17
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 0.56 0.38 -0.21
d = 0.5 * LCF

Page 183
V = Refer design data
Self weight of wall 7.50 0.38 -2.81
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 2.42


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 6.90
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.86

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 14.89 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 4.48 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.30 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = Net mome

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.30 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.12 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
Base Pressure at P (kN/m 2) 2.19 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m 2) 16.61 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at R (kN/m 2) 22.02 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at S (kN/m 2) 32.84 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 3.76 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.15 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -0.58 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 8.23 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.16 Using formulae as given earlier

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)


Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 1.15
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

Page 184
V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Top 1.94 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 7.10 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 2.42
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -2.63 -2.63
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 4.20 0.20 0.65 0.84
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 7.45 0.70 5.22 0.15 5.22
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 1.50 0.20 0.30 0.65 0.30
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 1.13 0.70 0.79 0.15 0.79
Self weight of central portion of footing 0.56 0.48 0.27 0.38 0.27
Self weight of wall 7.50 0.48 3.56 0.38 3.56
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.40 0.00 0.45 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.55 0.00 0.30 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.48 0.00 0.38 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 2.63 2.63


Total resisting moments 10.13 13.39
Check for overturning 3.86 5.10

Total vertical load (kN/m) 18.14 22.34


Net moment (kN-m/m) 7.51 10.76
Distance resultant from respective point 0.41 0.48
Distance of resultant from S 0.44 0.37
Eccentricity -0.01 0.06
Base Pressure at P 23.01 OK 15.74 OK
Base Pressure at Q 21.44 OK 25.66 OK
Base Pressure at R 20.85 OK 29.38 OK
Base Pressure at S 19.67 OK 36.82 OK

Total base pressure P-Q 8.89 8.28


CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.20 0.18
Moment at Q (base) 1.50 0.38
Total base pressure R-S 6.08 9.93
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.15 0.16
Moment at R (base) -0.38 0.26

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

Page 185
V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 7.39 Q 3 Bottom 2.58
R 2 Top 2.50 R 3 Bottom 1.35

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 0.58 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 1.50 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 0.38 Earth 38 53
kN-m/m Base 1.15 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
Min reinforcement (mm2) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd2 % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm2 mm2 mm2
Q - Top 0.58 0.87 150 97 0.092 0.026 25 180 180
Q - Bot 1.50 2.25 150 112 0.179 0.050 56 180 180
R - Top 0.38 0.58 150 112 0.046 0.013 14 180 180
R - Bot 1.15 1.72 150 112 0.137 0.038 43 180 180

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

Page 186
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.4 m ; 150 - 150 mm 0.3 m ; 150 - 150 mm


00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
279 279
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Earth
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
P 279 279 Q R 279 279 S
180 180 Top 180 180
08-180 279 Distribution 180 279 08-180
180 180 Bottom 180 180
00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
279 279 279 279
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Top Water 150 53 97
Q 2 Bottom Earth 150 38 112
Q 3 Bottom Earth 150 38 112
R 1 Bottom Earth 150 38 112
R 2 Top Earth 150 38 112
R 3 Bottom Earth 150 38 112

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2
Q-1 1.94 2.91 97 0.030 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK
Q-2 7.39 11.08 112 0.099 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
Q-3 2.58 3.87 112 0.035 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
R-1 7.10 10.66 112 0.095 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
R-2 2.50 3.75 112 0.033 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
R-3 1.35 2.03 112 0.018 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Page 187
Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm2
Q - Top 150 0.58 Water 53 38 0.2 250 279 279
Q - Bot 150 1.50 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279
R - Top 150 0.38 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279
R - Bot 150 1.15 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

Page 188
e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm 2) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
N/mm2 mm mm N/mm2
Q - Top 23.1 21.8 0.0002 0.0013 -0.0011 -0.1890 0.7
Q - Bot 51.7 24.6 0.0004 0.0011 -0.0007 -0.0978 1.6
R - Top 13.2 24.6 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.1437 0.4
R - Bot 39.6 24.6 0.0003 0.0011 -0.0008 -0.1123 1.2
All OK All OK All OK

Page 189
Foundation for Wall: W8 Location: Pipe gallery short wall

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m 3) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 98.50 BOF: 98.50 NGL: 99.50

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill Case
m kN/m3 kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 1.00 10.5 Case 1 2.42
Fill 2 Earth 1.38 18.0 Case 2 2.63

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 7.5 Length LW (m) = 6.40

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.075 G2 = 0.075

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 415 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2
N/mm N/mm2 N/mm2

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 190
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m 2) = 80


Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 1.2

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 100.7 kN/m2
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m3

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Earth


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat T & B
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of 150 150
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 150 0.40 0.30 150
information only. - -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.40 150 150 0.30 150 150

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 0.85

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

Page 191
GF1 = 0.200 m GF2 = 0.150 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 1.50 kN/m WF2 = 1.13 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.150 m WCF = 0.56 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 2.42
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 4.20 0.65 -2.73
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 1.50 0.65 -0.98
d = LB - GF1

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 1.13 0.15 -0.17
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 0.56 0.38 -0.21
d = 0.5 * LCF

Page 192
V = Refer design data
Self weight of wall 7.50 0.38 -2.81
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 2.42


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 6.90
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.86

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 14.89 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 4.48 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.30 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = Net mome

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.30 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.12 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
Base Pressure at P (kN/m 2) 2.19 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m 2) 16.61 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at R (kN/m 2) 22.02 Interpolated between P and S OK
Base Pressure at S (kN/m 2) 32.84 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 3.76 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.15 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -0.58 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 8.23 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.16 Using formulae as given earlier

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)


Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 1.15
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

Page 193
V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Top 1.94 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 7.10 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 2.42
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -2.63 -2.63
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 4.20 0.20 0.65 0.84
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 7.45 0.70 5.22 0.15 5.22
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 1.50 0.20 0.30 0.65 0.30
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 1.13 0.70 0.79 0.15 0.79
Self weight of central portion of footing 0.56 0.48 0.27 0.38 0.27
Self weight of wall 7.50 0.48 3.56 0.38 3.56
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.40 0.00 0.45 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.55 0.00 0.30 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.48 0.00 0.38 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 2.63 2.63


Total resisting moments 10.13 13.39
Check for overturning 3.86 5.10

Total vertical load (kN/m) 18.14 22.34


Net moment (kN-m/m) 7.51 10.76
Distance resultant from respective point 0.41 0.48
Distance of resultant from S 0.44 0.37
Eccentricity -0.01 0.06
Base Pressure at P 23.01 OK 15.74 OK
Base Pressure at Q 21.44 OK 25.66 OK
Base Pressure at R 20.85 OK 29.38 OK
Base Pressure at S 19.67 OK 36.82 OK

Total base pressure P-Q 8.89 8.28


CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.20 0.18
Moment at Q (base) 1.50 0.38
Total base pressure R-S 6.08 9.93
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.15 0.16
Moment at R (base) -0.38 0.26

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

Page 194
V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 7.39 Q 3 Bottom 2.58
R 2 Top 2.50 R 3 Bottom 1.35

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 0.58 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 1.50 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 0.38 Earth 38 53
kN-m/m Base 1.15 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
Min reinforcement (mm2) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd2 % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm2 mm2 mm2
Q - Top 0.58 0.87 150 97 0.092 0.026 25 180 180
Q - Bot 1.50 2.25 150 112 0.179 0.050 56 180 180
R - Top 0.38 0.58 150 112 0.046 0.013 14 180 180
R - Bot 1.15 1.72 150 112 0.137 0.038 43 180 180

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

Page 195
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.4 m ; 150 - 150 mm 0.3 m ; 150 - 150 mm


00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
279 279
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Earth
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
P 279 279 Q R 279 279 S
180 180 Top 180 180
08-180 279 Distribution 180 279 08-180
180 180 Bottom 180 180
00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
279 279 279 279
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Top Water 150 53 97
Q 2 Bottom Earth 150 38 112
Q 3 Bottom Earth 150 38 112
R 1 Bottom Earth 150 38 112
R 2 Top Earth 150 38 112
R 3 Bottom Earth 150 38 112

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm2 mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2
Q-1 1.94 2.91 97 0.030 279 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK
Q-2 7.39 11.08 112 0.099 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
Q-3 2.58 3.87 112 0.035 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
R-1 7.10 10.66 112 0.095 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
R-2 2.50 3.75 112 0.033 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
R-3 1.35 2.03 112 0.018 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Page 196
Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm2
Q - Top 150 0.58 Water 53 38 0.2 250 279 279
Q - Bot 150 1.50 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279
R - Top 150 0.38 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279
R - Bot 150 1.15 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

Page 197
e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm 2) = 0.8 * fy = 332
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
N/mm2 mm mm N/mm2
Q - Top 23.1 21.8 0.0002 0.0013 -0.0011 -0.1890 0.7
Q - Bot 51.7 24.6 0.0004 0.0011 -0.0007 -0.0978 1.6
R - Top 13.2 24.6 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.1437 0.4
R - Bot 39.6 24.6 0.0003 0.0011 -0.0008 -0.1123 1.2
All OK All OK All OK

Page 198
DESIGN OF SLABS AND BEAMS

Page 199
Design of Slab: S1 Location: Top of MPs TOC: 100.500
Final Slab Group: S1
Slab will be designed as Simply supported slab

Load Factor = 1.50 Lx = 2.30 Ly = 7.30 Assumed th (mm) 150

Wall at short edge 0.00 Tension X 0.0 Wall at long edge 0.00 Tension Y 0.0

Self weight kN/m2 = 3.75


Imposed Load kN/m2 = DL 2.00
Imposed water Load kN/m2 = WL 0.00
Imposed Load kN/m2 = LL 3.00
Total Load kN/m2 = 8.75

Load distribution along short and long span


Ly / Lx = 3.17 One way slab
kx = 0.999
ky = 0.001
Moment - Top 3.85
Short span
Moment coeff - Top 12 Moment - Bottom 5.78
Moment coeff - Bottom 8 Moment - Top 0.00
Long span
Moment - Bottom 0.01

Additional moment , if any Short span Top 0.00 Bottom 0.00

Long span Top 0.00 Bottom 0.00

Total moment - Top 3.85


Short span
Total moment - Bottom 5.78
Total moment - Top 0.00
Long span
Total moment - Bottom 0.01

fck = 30 fy = 415 m= 9.33 Es = 2.E+05 N/mm2

c f c' d w s acr sc sct


45 12 51 99 0.2 250 129.00 13.5 3.6

Area of steel calculation by limit state design method and checking by limit state of serviceability
Ref SP-16 and IS 456-2000 Cl G-1.1 for sections without compression reinforcement
Ref IS 3370-2009 (Part 2) Appendix B

Limiting moment of resistance kN-m = 40.58 Min reinforcement mm2 = 180

M T Modified M Section Mu Ast Tu Ast


Top 3.85 0.0 3.85 Bending 5.78 166 0.0 0
Short span
Bottom 5.78 5.78 Bending 8.67 252 0.0 0
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00 Bending 0.01 0 0.0 0
Long span
Bottom 0.01 0.01 Bending 0.01 0 0.0 0

p% fst fsc es e1 e2 em
Top 0.5289 81.7 4.08E-04 6.96E-04 6.69E-04 2.63E-05
Short span
Bottom 0.5289 122.5 6.12E-04 1.04E-03 6.69E-04 3.74E-04
Top 0.3385 0.1 6.28E-07 1.04E-06 1.06E-03 -1.06E-03
Long span

Page 200
Long span
Bottom 0.3385 0.2 9.42E-07 1.56E-06 1.06E-03 -1.06E-03

w fc fct
Top 0.004 3.21
Short span
Bottom 0.061 4.82
Top -0.177 0.00
Long span
Bottom -0.177 0.01

Ast Asc Ast and % (required) Ast and % (provided)


Top 180 180 180 0.182 00-000+10-150 524 0.529
Short span
Bottom 252 180 252 0.254 00-000+10-150 524 0.529
Top 180 180 180 0.182 00-000+08-150 335 0.338
Long span
Bottom 180 180 180 0.182 00-000+08-150 335 0.338

Check for Shear

Additional shear force , if any 0.00

Design Shear (kN) = 9.63 Factored shear force (kN) = 14.44 Shear stress (N/mm2) = 0.146

% of reinforcement = 0.529 Max shear stress = 3.500


Ref IS 456-2000 Table 20 Cl 40.2.3

Ref IS 456: 2000 Cl 40.2.1.1, Table 19


Permissible shear stress in slabs = k tc = 0.663 [ k = 1.3 ] N/mm2

tv < 0.5*tc,max ; tv < ktc Check for Shear OK

Check for Deflection


Ref IS 456-2000 Cl 23.2.1,Cl 24.1

Type of fy span d pt req. pt prov. pc MFt MFc


slab N/mm2 mm mm % % % Fig. 4 Fig.5
Simply supported 415 2300 99 0.254 0.529 0.529 2.00 1.16

l/d l/d Result


prov Cl 23.2.1 Cl 23.2.1
23.23 46.35 OK

Load from Slab on beams

Load on beam along short span = 6.7 kN/m Load on beam along long span = 10.1 kN/m

Page 201
Design of Beam: B-I Location: Top of MPS TOC: 100.500
Final Beam Group: B1
Beam will be designed as Simply supported beam Load Factor = 1.50

Assumed size (mm) Width = 300 Depth = 600 Span (m) = 7.30

Self weight kN/m = 4.50


Imposed Load kN/m = DL 10.06
Imposed Load kN/m = LL 0.00
Total load = 14.56

Moment coeff - Hogging 12 Moment due to UDL - Hogging 64.67


Moment coeff - Sagging 8 Moment due to UDL - Sagging 97.00

Additional moment , if any Hogging 0.00 Sagging 0.00

Total moment - Hogging 64.67


Total moment - Sagging 97.00

fck = 30 fy = 415 m= 9.33 Es = 2.E+05 N/mm2

c f c' d w s acr
45 8 49 551 0.2 150 85.59

Area of steel calculation by limit state design method


Ref SP-16 and IS 456-2000 Cl G-1.1 & G1.2 for sections with or without compression reinforcement

Limiting moment of resistance kN-m = 377.07

Min reinforcement mm2 = 339 Max reinforcement mm2 = 7200

M Mu SR/ DR Mu/bd2 d'/d % & Ast (required)


Hogging moment 64.67 97.00 SR 1.065 0.308 510
Sagging moment 97.00 145.51 SR 1.598 0.474 783

Ast and % (provided) r


Hogging moment 0-00 + 3-16 603 0.365 0.00365
Sagging moment 3-16 + 2-16 1005 0.608 0.00608

Checking for limiting state of serviceability


Ref IS 456-2000 Appendix F and IS 3370-2009 (Part 2) Appendix B

M x z fs e1 e2 em w
Hogging moment 64.67 126.24 508.92 210.67 0.0012 0.0004 0.0007 0.1615
Sagging moment 97.00 156.97 498.68 193.50 0.0011 0.0002 0.0008 0.1823

M x fs As fc sc
Hogging moment 64.67 126.24 210.67 603 6.71 13.50
Sagging moment 97.00 156.97 193.50 1005 8.26 13.50

Page 202
Check for Shear

Reaction due to UDL = 53.15313

Additional shear force , if any 0.00

Design Shear (kN) = 53.15 Factored shear force (kN) = 79.73

% of reinforcement = 0.608

Shear stress (N/mm2) = 0.482 Permissible shear stress = 0.540


Ref IS 456:2000 Table 19

Max shear stress = 3.500


Ref IS 456-2000 Table 20 Cl 40.2.3

Shear to be resisted by reinf Vus (kN) = 0.00 Provide min shear reinforcement

Design of shear reinf. - vertical stirrups by limit state method of design


Ref SP 16-1980 Table 62 & IS 456-2000, Cl 40.4 a

Value of fy for design of shear stirrups = 415 N/mm2

stirrup Vus/d Vus/d


stirrup dia no. of stirrup
spacing kN/mm kN/mm
mm legs
mm provided required

Minimum shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups


Ref IS 456:2000 Cl 26.5.1.6

stirrup Provide
stirrup dia no. of stirrup Max
spacing spacing
mm legs spacing mm
mm mm
8 2 302 300 150

Check for Deflection


Ref IS 456-2000 Cl 23.2.1,Cl 24.1

Type of fy span d pt req. pt prov. pc MFt MFc


beam N/mm2 mm mm % % % Fig. 4 Fig.5
Simply supported 415 7300 551 0.474 0.608 0.365 1.44 1.11

l/d l/d Result


prov Cl 23.2.1 Cl 23.2.1
13.25 31.95 OK

Load from beam on columns

Shear at end R1 = 53.2 kN Shear at end R2 = 53.2 kN

Hogging moment = 64.7 kN-m

Page 203
Design of Beam: B-II Location: Top of MPS TOC: 100.500
Final Beam Group: B1
Beam will be designed as Simply supported beam Load Factor = 1.50

Assumed size (mm) Width = 300 Depth = 600 Span (m) = 7.70

Self weight kN/m = 4.50


Imposed Load kN/m = DL 0.00
Imposed Load kN/m = LL 6.13
Total load = 10.63

Moment coeff - Hogging 12 Moment due to UDL - Hogging 52.50


Moment coeff - Sagging 8 Moment due to UDL - Sagging 78.74

Additional moment , if any Hogging 0.00 Sagging 0.00

Total moment - Hogging 52.50


Total moment - Sagging 78.74

fck = 30 fy = 415 m= 9.33 Es = 2.E+05 N/mm2

c f c' d w s acr
45 8 49 551 0.2 150 85.59

Area of steel calculation by limit state design method


Ref SP-16 and IS 456-2000 Cl G-1.1 & G1.2 for sections with or without compression reinforcement

Limiting moment of resistance kN-m = 377.07

Min reinforcement mm2 = 339 Max reinforcement mm2 = 7200

M Mu SR/ DR Mu/bd2 d'/d % & Ast (required)


Hogging moment 52.50 78.74 SR 0.865 0.248 410
Sagging moment 78.74 118.12 SR 1.297 0.379 627

Ast and % (provided) r


Hogging moment 0-00 + 3-16 603 0.365 0.00365
Sagging moment 3-16 + 2-16 1005 0.608 0.00608

Checking for limiting state of serviceability


Ref IS 456-2000 Appendix F and IS 3370-2009 (Part 2) Appendix B

M x z fs e1 e2 em w
Hogging moment 52.50 126.24 508.92 171.01 0.0010 0.0004 0.0005 0.1130
Sagging moment 78.74 156.97 498.68 157.07 0.0009 0.0002 0.0006 0.1379

M x fs As fc sc
Hogging moment 52.50 126.24 171.01 603 5.45 13.50
Sagging moment 78.74 156.97 157.07 1005 6.71 13.50

Page 204
Check for Shear

Reaction due to UDL = 40.90625

Additional shear force , if any 0.00

Design Shear (kN) = 40.91 Factored shear force (kN) = 61.36

% of reinforcement = 0.608

Shear stress (N/mm2) = 0.371 Permissible shear stress = 0.540


Ref IS 456:2000 Table 19

Max shear stress = 3.500


Ref IS 456-2000 Table 20 Cl 40.2.3

Shear to be resisted by reinf Vus (kN) = 0.00 Provide min shear reinforcement

Design of shear reinf. - vertical stirrups by limit state method of design


Ref SP 16-1980 Table 62 & IS 456-2000, Cl 40.4 a

Value of fy for design of shear stirrups = 415 N/mm2

stirrup Vus/d Vus/d


stirrup dia no. of stirrup
spacing kN/mm kN/mm
mm legs
mm provided required

Minimum shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups


Ref IS 456:2000 Cl 26.5.1.6

stirrup Provide
stirrup dia no. of stirrup Max
spacing spacing
mm legs spacing mm
mm mm
8 2 302 300 150

Check for Deflection


Ref IS 456-2000 Cl 23.2.1,Cl 24.1

Type of fy span d pt req. pt prov. pc MFt MFc


beam N/mm2 mm mm % % % Fig. 4 Fig.5
Simply supported 415 7700 551 0.379 0.608 0.365 1.74 1.11

l/d l/d Result


prov Cl 23.2.1 Cl 23.2.1
13.97 38.61 OK

Load from beam on columns

Shear at end R1 = 40.9 kN Shear at end R2 = 40.9 kN

Hogging moment = 52.5 kN-m

Page 205