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Original Title: A Study on Oscillation Criteria for Linear and Non-Linear Neutral Delay Differential Equations

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Linear Neutral Delay Differential Equations"

B. Maruthupandi Msc., B.Ed - M Phill (STUDENT)

Prist University Thanjavur -Tamilnadu

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

CHAPTER - I

INTRODUCTION

NON-LINEAR NEUTRAL DELAY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS contains four chapters it is meant

to study the basic concept and various interesting result on oscillation of second order Emden-fowler

nonlinear neutral delay differential equations.

The chapter-1 is meant to recall the basic definition and various well known results relevant to this

dissertation.

In chapter-2, we study about the basic definitions, and the most important results are:

Employing Riccati techniques and the integral averaging method,we establish interval oscillation criteria for

the second-order Emden-Fowler neutral delay differential equation

1

[| ()| ()] + 1 ()|( )|1 ( ) + 2 ()( )=0

Consider the second-order Emden-Fowler neutral delay differential equation

1

[| ()| ()] + 1 ()|( )|1 ( ) + 2 ()|( )|1 ( ) = 0 (1.1)

We assume that

(A1) and are nonnegative constants, , and are positive constants with 0 <<<

(A2) q1, q2 C ([t0, ), R+), R+ = (0, )

(A3) p C ([t0, ), R), and 1 < p0 p(t) 1, p0 is a constant.

For any C ([t0, t0],R), = max{, }, (1.1) has a solution y(t) extendable on [t0,) satisfying the initial

condition y(t) (t) for [t0-, t0]

() + ()|()|1 () = 0, ([0 , ), ) > 0 (1.2)

have been extended to the second order neutral delay differential equation

[() + ()( )] + ()(( )) = 0 (1.3)

Under the assumption that the nonlinear function f satisfies The sub linear condition

0 < 0+ () , 0 < > 0 , as well as the super linear condition

()

0 < ()

, ()

< , > 0.

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

Also it will be of great interest to find some oscillation criteria for special case for (1.3), even for the

Emden-Fowler neutral delay differential equation

[y(t) + p(t)y(t )]'' + q(t)|y(t )|-1y(t-) = 0, > 0. (1.4)

The first beautiful interval criteria in this direction for some interval criteria for the oscillation of the second

order linear ordinary differentia equation

(r(t)y'(t))'(t) + q(t)y(t) = 0 (1.5)

Recently, Kong-type interval criteria to certain neutral differential equations.

In chapter-3, we study about the oscillation criteria for second order nonlinear neutral delay differential

equations.

The oscillation of second order neutral differential equation

(x(t) + p(t)x( (t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0, t t0, (1.6)

Where p,q C([t0,),R), f C(R,R):

Throughout this dissertation, we assume that 0 p(t) p0<+, q(t) 0, and q(t) is not identically zero on

any ray of the form [t*,) for any t* t0, where p0 is a constant, The oscillation of the second-order linear

ordinary differential equation

x''(t) + p(t)x(t) = 0, (1.7)

and used the class of functions as follows: Suppose there exist continuous functions

H, h : D {(t, s) : t s t0 }R such that H(t, t) = 0, t t0,

H(t, s) >0, t > s t0, and H has a continuous and non positive partial derivative on D with respect to

the second variable.

then every solution of Eq. (1.7) oscillates. The oscillation criteria for second order linear equations for

nonlinear analysis, we have

(r(t)x'(t))'+ p(t)x(t) = 0, (1.8)

and used the generalized Riccati substitution and established some new sufficient conditions for oscillation.

If there exists a positive function C1([t0,),R+) such that

1

lim [()()(, )] < ,

(, 0 )

0

1 1

lim ()[(, )() ()2 (, )] = ,

(, 0 ) 4

0

Where a(s) = exp { 0 ()} and (s) = {p(s)+r(s)g2(s)-(r(s)g(s))'}, then every solution of (1.8)

oscillates. Riccati technique to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for non oscillation of (1.8).Every

solution of the equation

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

1 1

( ()) + 3 ()=0 is oscillatory.

An important tool in the study of oscillation is the integral averaging technique. Say a function H = H(t, s)

belongs to a function class H, denoted by

H H, if H C(D,R+ {0}),

Where D = {(t, s) :t0 s t < and R+ = (0,), which satisfies

H(t, t) = 0, H(t, s) >0, for t > s,

and has partial derivatives H/t and H/s on D such that

(,) (,)

= 1 (, )(, )and = 2 (, )(, )

Sun defined another type of function class X and considered the oscillation of the second-order

nonlinear damped differential equation

(r(t)y'(t))'+ p(t)y'(t) + q(t)f(y(t)) = 0, (1.9)

The oscillation of the second-order neutral delay differential equation

[r(t)(y(t) + p(t)y((t)))']'+=1 () (( ())) = 0 (1.10)

()

() = () , () = () + ()(()),

()

The authors established some oscillation criteria for Eq. (1.10).

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

CHAPTER-II

PRELIMINARIES

Definition: 2.1

An equation involving derivatives or differential of one or more dependent variables with respect to

one or more independent variables is called differential equation.

Examples:

1. = ( + )

4 2

2. + 2 + [ ]5 =

4

2 2 2

3. + 2 + 2 = 0

2

Definition:2.2

A differential equation involving derivatives with respect to single independent variable is called an

Ordinary Differential Equation.

Definition: 2.3

A partial differential equation is an equation which equation contains one or more partial derivatives.

Equation (3) is second order partial differential equation.

Definition: 2.4

A non trivial solution x(t) is said to be oscillatory, if it has arbitrarily large zeros for t t0,

That is, there exist a sequence of zeros {tn}(x(tn)=0) of x(t) such that lim = +

Definition: 2.5

A non trivial solution x(t) is said to be non oscillatory, if there exist a t 1, such that x(t) 0 for all t

t1

Definition: 2.6

Assume that (t, s, l) X: The operator Tn[g,l, t] is

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

defined by

[, , ] = (, , )(),

for n 1, t s l t0and g C([t0,),R).s

Definition: 2.7

The function = (t, s, l) is defined by

(t, s, )

= (, , )(t, s, )

s

It is easy to verify that Tn[;l, t] is a linear operator and that it satisfies

Tn[g', l, t] = -nTn[g; l, t], for g C1([t0,),R).

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

CHAPTER-III

NEUTRAL DELAY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

We start with the following oscillation results.

Theorem:3.1

Assume that (t) (t) for t t0: Further, suppose that there exists a function g C1 ([t0, ), R)such that for

some 1 and some H H, one has

1

lim (, ) [(, )() (1 + 0 ) 4 () ()2 (, )] = (3.1)

0 0 0

Q(t):= min {q(t), q ((t))}, u (t) :=exp {2 ()()}.

0

(x(t) + p(t)x ((t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0, t t0, is oscillatory.

Proof:

Let x be a non oscillatory solution of

(x(t) + p(t)x( (t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0, t t0,.

Without loss of generality, we assume that there exists t1 t0 such that

x(t) >0, x((t)) >0, x((t)) >0, for all t t1: Define

z(t) = x(t) + p(t)x((t)) for t t0, then z(t) >0 for t t1.

From (1.6), we have

z''(t)+q(t)f(x((t)))=0, tt1

then by (b), we have

z''(t)=-q(t)f(x((t)))

z''(t) -kq(t)x((t)) 0, t t1 (3.2)

It is obvious that z''(t) 0 and z(t) >0 for t t1

Implies z'(t) >0 for t t1.

Using (3.2) and the condition (b), there exists t2 t1 such that for t t2,

We get

0 = z''(t) + q(t)f(x((t)))

= z''(t) + q(t)f(x((t))) + p0[z''( (t)) + q( (t))f(x(( (t))))]

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

[z(t) + 0 z( (t))] +k[q(t)x((t)) + p0q( (t))x( ((t)))]

0

[z(t) + 0z( (t))]'' +kQ(t)[x((t)) + p0x(((t)))]

0

0

[z(t) + z( (t))]'' + kQ(t)z((t)). (3.3)

0

()

(t) = u(t)[(()) + ()] (3.4)

Note that (t) t. Then we have z''(t) z'((t)) Differentiating (3.4), Thus, there exists t3 t1 such that for

all t t3,

()

'(t)= u'(t)[(()) +g(t)]

()(()) () (()) ()

+u(t)[ + ()]

[(())]2

() () ()

() (()) () [ ()((()))2 + ()] + () ()

() () 2

'(t)-2'(t)g(t)(t) + u(t){(()) () [ () ()] + ()}

() 2 ()

= () (()) + ()[ ()2 () + ()] () (3.5)

()

(())

(t) = u(t)[ (()) + ()] (3.6)

z'((t)) z'( (t)), then for all sufficiently large t, one has

(()) (()) ()(()) (()) (()) ()

v'(t) = u'(t)[(()) +g(t)]+u(t)[ 2 + ()]

[(())]

(()) () 2

'(t) -2'(t)g(t)(t) + u(t){0 () [() ()] + ()}

(())

(()) 2 ()

= 0() (()) + ()[ ()2 () + ()] () () (3.7)

p0 u(t) p0

[(t) + (t)] [z(t) + z((t))]"

0 z((t)) 0

p0 2

()2 () p0 (t)2 (t)

+(1 + )()[() () + ()]

0 () 0 u(t)

By (3.3) and the above inequality, we obtain

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

[(t) + (t)] (t) (3.8)

0 () 0 u(t)

Multiplying (3.8) by H(t, s) and integrating from T to t, we have, for any 1 and for all t T t3,

t t

()2 ()

(, )() H(t, s) (s)ds H(t, s)

()

T T

t t

p0 (s)ds

p0 ()2 ()

H(t, s) H(t, s)

0 0 ()

T T

t

H(t, s) ()2 ()

(, )(s)ds = H(t, s)(s)|tT [ (s) + H(t, s) ]

(s) ()

T

t

p0 p0 H(t, s) ()2 ()

H(t, s)(s)|tT [ (s) + H(t, s) ]

0 0 (s) ()

T

Since H(t,t)=0

()2 ()

= (, )() [(, )(, )() + H(t, s) ]

()

t

p0 p0 ()2 ()

+ H(t, T)(T) [h(t, s)H(t, s)(s) + H(t, s) ]

0 0 ()

T

(, ) () ()

= (, )() [ () + (, )]2

() 4 ()

() 2 ( 1) ()(, ) 2

+ (, ) ()

4 () ()

p0 p0 (, ) () ()

+ (, )() [ () + (, )]2

0 0 () 4 ()

p () p0 (1) ()(,) 2

+ 0 4 () 2 (, ) () (3.9)

0 0 ()

From the above inequality and using monotonicity of H, for all t t3, we obtain

p0 p0

[(, )() (1 + ) ()2 (, )] (, 0 )|(3 )| + H(t, t 0 )

0 4 () 0

3

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

p0

[(, )() (1 + ) ()2 (, )]

0 4 ()

0

p0

(, 0 )[ 3|()| + |(3 )| + |(t 3 )|] (3.10)

0 0

By (3.10),

1 p0

lim [(, )() (1 + ) ()2 (, )]

(, 0 ) 0 4 ()

0

p0

3|()| + |(3 )| + |(t 3 )|< . This contradicts to

0 0

1

lim (, ) [(, )() (1 + 0 ) 4 () ()2 (, )] = ,

0 0 0

Corollary: 3.1

Suppose that (t) (t) for t t0.Furthermore, assume that there exists a function g C1([t0,),R)

such that for some integer n >2 and some 1,

lim 1 ( )3 [( )2 ()

0

0 ( 1)2

(1 + ) ()] = ,

0 4 ()

where, (t) := u(t){kQ(t)+(1 + p0/0)['(t)g2(t)-g'(t)]},

Q(t):= min{q(t), q((t))},

u(t) :=exp{2 ()()}.

0

(x(t) + p(t)x((t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0, t t0,

Isoscillatory.

Proof:

By theorem (3.1), we have

1

lim [( )1 ()

( 0 )1

0

p0

(1 + ) 4 () ( 1)2 ( )3 ()],

0

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

(1)2

= lim 1 ( )3 [( )2 () (1 + 0 ) ()] =

0 0 4 ()

Example: 3.2

Consider the second-order neutral differential equation

[x(t) + (3 + sin t)x(t - )]''+ 2 ( ) = 0, t 1, (3.11)

Where , >0

1

Let p(t) = 3 + sin t, q(t) = 2 , f(x) = x, g(t) = 2

Thenu(t) = exp{2 ()}

0

1

= exp{2 }

0 2

= exp(log t)

=t,

p0

(t) = () {() + (1 + ) [()2 () ()]}

0

p0 1 1

= { + (1 + ) [(1) ]}

2 0 4 2 2 2

Taking k=1, p=4 and 0='(t)=1 we have,

(t) = ( 5/4)/t.

1

lim ( )3 [( )2 ()

0

0 ( 1)2

(1 + ) ()]

0 4 ()

5

( )

4

= lim 2 ( )0 [( )2 ]

1

5

( 4)

2 2 2

= lim [( 2 + ) ]

1

2 2

2 5 2

= lim [( 2 + ) ( ) ]1

2 4 2

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

2 5 2 1 5 1

= lim 2 [( 2 2 2 + 2 ) ( 4) 2 ] [( 2 1 2 + 2) ( 4) 2]

= , for >5/4.

Hence,

[x(t) + (3 + sin t)x(t - )]''+ 2 ( ) = 0, t 1, is oscillatory for >5/4.

Euler Differential Equation

x''(t) + 2 x(t) = 0, t 1, (3.12)

Then u(t) = t, (t) =( -1/4)/t. Take k =1, p0 = 0.

Applying Corollary 4.1 with n = 3, for any 1,

1 3 2

( 1)2 (1 + 0 )

lim sup ( ) [( ) () ()]

4

0

1 1 ()2

= lim 2 1 [( 4) s] ds = For > .

Hence, x (t) + 2 x (t) = 0, t 1is oscillatory for > .

It may happen that assumption (3.1) is not satisfied, or it is not easy to verify, consequently,

Theorem 3.1 does not apply or is difficult to apply. The following results provide some essentially new

oscillation criteria for equation

(x(t) + p(t)x( (t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0, t t0.

Theorem 3.2

Assume that (t) (t) for t t0, and for some H H,

H(t,s)

0 < inf [ lim inf H(t,t )] . (3.13)

st0 t 0

Further, suppose that there exist functions g C1([t0,),R) and m C([t0,),R) such that for all T t0and

for some >1,

1 p0

lim (,) [(, )() (1 + ) ()2 (, )] (), (3.14)

0 4 ()

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

u(t) =exp{2 ()()}.

0

()+

2 ()

lim = , (3.15)

0 ()

(x(t) + p(t)x((t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0, t t0, Isoscillatory.

Proof:

Assuming, without loss of generality, that there exists a solution x of

(x(t) + p(t)x( (t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0, t t0, such that x(t) >0,

x( (t)) >0, x((t)) >0, for all t t1 .

()

(t) = u(t)[(()) + ()]and

(())

(t) = u(t)[ + ()]

(())

we arrive at the inequality (3.9), which yields for t > T t1, sufficiently large

1 p0

[(, )() (1 + ) ()2 (, )]

(, ) 0 4 ()

1 ( 1) ()(, ) 2 0 0 1 ( 1) ()(, ) 2

() () + () ()

(, ) () 0 0 (, ) ()

1 p0

lim [(, )() (1 + ) ()2 (, )]

(, ) 0 4 ()

0 1 ( 1) ()(, ) 2

() + () lim inf ( ()

0 (, ) ()

0 2

+ ())

0

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

0 1 ( 1) ()(, ) 2 0

() + () () + lim inf ( () + 2 ())

0 (, ) () 0

for all T t1 and for any >1.Consequently, for all T t1, we obtain

(T) + 0(T) m(T), and (3.16)

0

1 ()(, ) 2 0

lim inf ( () + 2 ())

(, 1 ) () 0

1

1 ((1 ) + 0 (1 ) (1 )) < (3.17)

0

()

(2 () + 0 2 ()) < (3.18)

1 () 0

()

(2 () + 0 2 ()) = (3.19)

1 () 0

Assumption

H(t, s)

0 < inf [ lim inf ]

st0 t H(t, t 0 )

Existence of a >0 such that

H(t,s)

inf [ lim inf H(t,t )] > (3.20)

st0 t 0

By (3.20), we have

H(t, s)

lim inf > > 0,

t H(t, t 0 )

and there exists a T2 T1 such that H(t, T1)/H(t, t0) , for all t T2 .

On the other hand, by virtue of (3.19), for any positive number , there exists a T1 t1 such that, for all t

T1,

()

(2 () + 0 2 ()) .

1 () 0

1 (,) ()

Using integration by parts, we conclude that, for all t T1,(, ) (2 () + 0 2 ())

1 1 () 0

1 (, ) () 2 0

= [ ][ ( () + 2 ())]

(, 1 ) () 0

1 1

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

1 (,) (, )

[ ] = (,1) (3.21)

(,1 )

1 1

1 (, ) () 2 0

( () + 2 ()) ,

(, 1 ) () 0

1

1 ()(, ) 2 0

lim inf ( () + 2 ()) = ,

(, 1 ) () 0

1

() 2 () 2

() < , () <

() ()

1 1

2 20

()+2 () ()2 () + ( 0 ) () 2 () + ()()()

0 0

() ()

1 1

2

2 0 2 0 2 2

() ()+( 0 ) () ()+ 0 ()[ ()+ ()]

< ,

1 ()

Choosing H as in Corollary 3.1, it is easy to verify that condition (3.13) is satisfied because, for any s t0,

H(t, s) (t s)n1

lim = lim = 1.

t H(t, t 0 ) t (t t 0 )n1

Corollary:3.2

Suppose that (t) (t) for t t0.Furthermore, assume that there exist functions g C1([t0,),R) and

m C([t0,),R) such that for all T t0, for some integer n >2

and some 1,lim 1 ( )3 [( )2 ()

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

0 ( 1)2

(1 + ) ()] ()

0 4 ()

where u and are as in Theorem 3.1. Suppose further that (3.15) holds, where m+is as in Theorem 3.2. Then

every solution of (x(t) + p(t)x((t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0,

t t0, isoscillatory.

From Theorem 3.2, we have the following result.

Theorem: 3.3

Assume that (t) (t) for t t0.Further, suppose that H H, there exist functions

g C1([t0,),R) and m C([t0,),R) such that for all T 0 and for some >1,

1 p0

lim (,) [(, )() (1 + ) 4 () ()2 (, )] (), (3.22)

0

Where

(t) = u(t){kQ(t)+(1 + p0/0)['(t)g2(t)-g'(t)]},

Q(t)= min{q(t), q((t))},

u(t) =exp{2 ()()}.

0

Then every solution of (x(t) + p(t)x((t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0, t t0 ,isoscillatory.

Theorem:3.4

Assume that (t) (t) for t t0.Further, assume that

there exists a function X, such that for each l t0, for some n 1,

2 () 2 ()

lim [() (1 + 0 ) ; , ] > 0, (3.23)

4 0 ()

[, , ] = (, , )(), and

(,,)

= (t, s, l) is defined by = (, , )(, , )

(x(t) + p(t)x((t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0, t t0,isoscillatory.

Proof:

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

(x(t) + p(t)x( (t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0, t t0, such that x(t) >0, x( (t)) >0, x((t)) >0, for all t t1.

We define the functions

()

(t) = u(t)[(()) + ()] and

(())

(t) = u(t)[ (()) + ()]

0 ()2 () 0 () 2 ()

[[() + ()] ; , ] [() ; , ].

0 () 0 ()

() 2 () ()2 ()

[(); , ] [() + 0 () 0 ; , ] (3.24)

() 0 0 ()

0 2 0 () 2 ()

[[() + ()] ; , ] [ (1 + ) ; , ]

0 4 0 ()

that is,

2 () 2 ()

[() (1 + 0 ) ; , ] 0,

4 0 ()

2 () 2 ()

lim [() (1 + 0 ) ; , ] 0,

4 0 ()

(t, s, l) = (s)(t - s)(s - l) (3.25)

for , >, and C1([t0,), (0,)), then we have

() (+)+

(, , ) = + ()()

. (3.26)

()

Corollary:3.3

Suppose that (t) (t) for t t0 .Further, assume that for each l t0, there exists a function

C1([t0,), (0,)) and two constants , >,such that for some

n 1,

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

() ( (

2

lim ) ) [()

4

() () (+)+ 2

(1 + 0 ) () ( () + ()()

) ] > 0.

0

Q(t)= min{q(t), q((t))},

u(t) =exp{2 ()()}.

0

(x(t) + p(t)x((t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0, t t0, isoscillatory.

If we choose

(, , ) = 1 (, )2 (, ) (3.27)

(1) (2)

1 1 (,) 2 (,)

(, , ) = 2 ( ), (3.28)

1 (,) 2 (,)

(1) (2)

where1 (, ), 2 (, ) are defined as the following:

1 (,) (1)

= 1 (, )1 (, )and

2 (,) (2)

= 2 (, )2 (, ), (3.29)

Corollary: 3.4

Suppose that(t) (t) for t t0.Further, assume that for each l t0, there exist two functions H1,H2H such

that for some n 1

lim (1 (, )2 (, )) [()

(1) (2) 2

2 0 () 1 (,) 2 (,)

(1 + ) ( ) ] > 0,

16 0 () 1 (,) 2 (,)

Q(t)= min{q(t), q((t))},

u(t) =exp{2 ()()}.

0

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

(x(t) + p(t)x((t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0, t t0,isoscillatory.

In the following, we give some new oscillation results for equation

(x(t) + p(t)x( (t)))''+ q(t)f(x((t))) = 0, t t0,when (t) (t) for t t0.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1]. R. P. Agarwal, S. R. Grace, Oscillation theorems for certain neutral functional differential equations,

Comput. Math. Appl. 38 (1112) (1999) 111.

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Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2017 International Journal Of Innovative Science And Research Technology

[2]. J. Dzurina, I. P. Stavroulakis, Oscillation criteria for second-order delay differential equations,Appl.

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