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WOOL ANTISHRINK TREATMENT

By
Njuguna1 D, Musoga J and Igadwa J

Department of Textile Engineering, School of Engineering, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900
Eldoret, Kenya

Abstract
Textile industries in Kenya are facing quality and processing problems. Some of the
commonly experienced problems in the wool processing industries include; poor quality
products, lose of market, high cost of production, low production, and environmental
degradation.
Poor quality products are produced when wool products are over or under –treated with
chlorine. Over chlorination leads to yellowing, lose of strength, poor wet fastness properties
and difficulties in dyeing of wool products. Under-chlorination leads to shrinkage and pilling
of wool products. Because of poor quality products, textile mills have lost regular market for
their products. The cost of production of these mills has also been increased as result of
chemical wastage and high energy cost incurred as result of carrying anti-shrink treatment at
low temperature (180C). Chlorination processes leads to the problem of absorbable organo-
halogen (AOX) in the industries effluent. These organo-halogens have led to the effluent
disposal problem as they lead to soil and water pollution. This problem is agreviated by
unnecessary large amounts of dichloroisocyanurate dihydrate (DCCA) used during the anti-
shrink treatment on wool products.

This document gives part of results obtained in the optimization of wool chlorination process.
This research was carried out in order to determine the variability of chlorination time and
concentration of chemicals used with shrinkage of woollen fabrics. The results obtained
showed the most preferable chlorination time and the concentration of chemicals that can be
used in order to eliminate the above problems.

1 To whom correspondence should be addressed: dgithinji@mu.ac.ke or davidnjugunaus@yahoo.com

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WOOL ANTI-SHRINK TREATMENT

Experiments: Varying a Combination of three factors

From the preliminary results obtained in section 5.3 it was observed that the variation of
concentration of DCCA, Polymer G and chlorination time affected the percentage shrinkage
non linearly more than the other factors hence regression analysis of their combined effect
was carried out to determine the nature of their variability with the shrinkage.

The treatment process gave the following results.


Table 5.4 (a): Anti-shrink treatment by varying a combination of three factors using
universal rotatable method.
SN X1 X2 X3 Y
1 1.8 1.7 48 6
2 4.2 1.7 48 8
3 1.8 4.9 48 3
4 4.2 4.9 48 7.5
5 1.8 1.7 102 4.4
6 4.2 1.7 102 3.8
7 1.8 4.9 102 8.8
8 4.2 4.9 102 4.7
9 3 3.3 120 5
10 3 3.3 30 2
11 3 6 75 7.1
12 3 0.5 75 2.7
13 5 3.3 75 2.4
14 1 3.3 75 4. 9
15 3 3.3 75 8. 9
16 3 3.3 75 8..9
17 3 3.3 75 8. 9
18 3 3.3 75 8. 9
19 3 3.3 75 8. 9
20 3 3.3 75 8. 9

Where X1 – DCCA concentration (%)


X2 - Polymer G concentration (%)
X3- Chlorination time in minutes.

The results of the regression data analysis showed that first order regression equation was not
significant and hence not statistically valid.

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From the results of multiple regression data analysis, second order surface was fitted..
Table 5.4 (e): Regression summary output for second order.
SUMMARY OUTPUT

Regression Statistics
Multiple R 0.838455
R Square 0.703007
Adjusted R Square 0.596938
Standard Error 1.629879
Observations 20

Table 5.4 (f): Given ANOVA from regression analysis.


ANOVA
df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 5 88.03441 17.60688 6.627833 2.958245
Residual 14 37.19109 2.656507 sign
Total 19 125.2255

Table 5.4 (g): Formed ANOVA from regression analysis.


ANOVA
df SS MS F F (0.05)
Regression 5 88.03441 17.60688 6.627833 2.958245
Residual 14 37.19109 2.656507 Sign
Lack of fit 9 37.19109 4.132344 0 4.77246
Pure error 5 0 0 Not sign.
Total 19 125.2255

The responses (Y) obtained by varying the variables X1, X2 and X3 are as shown in the table
5.4 (a) .The results obtained were analyzed using regression and the summary of the first
output regression are as shown in the tables 5.4 (b), (c) and (d). The relationship between the
variables and the response was not linear as can be seen from the first output summary table
5.4 (b). From this table the value of R. Square was very small and this showed that the

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regression equation obtained was not precise. The lack of fit was not significant showing the
fitness of the established regression equation.
The result of multiple regression are given in the table 5.4 (e) and ANOVA tables 5.4 (F) and
(g). From these results the computed F value after multiple regression was found to be greater
than the tabled value F value i.e. it was significant than the tabled value at the pre-assigned
significance level. The null hypothesis was thus rejected and the model was accepted in the
analysis of the data. The computed F value for lack of fit was found to be less than the table
value at 10% probability level and thus the model given below was having fit at that
significant level (95%). Therefore models of order greater than two were not required.

Y =8.8 - 1.4X1X3+1.1X2X3-1.4X12-X22-1.5X32
5.4.1: Effect of treatment time on shrinkage when DCCA and polymer G concentration
are kept constant.

From the regression surface (equation), when these two parameters were kept constant, a
graph defined by equation Y = 8.8-1.5X32 was obtained as shown in the figure 5.4 (a).

RESPONSE Y VERSUS VARIABLE X3

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140


-10000
Y

-20000

-30000

X3

Figure 5.4 (a): variability of X3 with Y


From the figure 5.4 (h) it was seen that as variable X3 was increased the response Y
decreased non-linearly. Therefore the regression analysis confirmed the results obtained in
section 5.3 which showed that the shrinkage decreased as the chlorination time was
increased. This regression analysis was necessary in order to determine the nature of
variability of woollen fabric shrinkage with chlorination time. From the results obtained, the
shrinkage was found to vary non-linearly with time according to the following equation.
Y = 8.8-1.5X32

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5.4.2: Effect of DCCA concentration on shrinkage when Polymer G concentration and
chlorination time are kept constant.

From the regression surface (equation), when these two parameters were kept constant, a
graph defined by equation Y = 8.8-1.4X12 was obtained as shown in the figure 5.4 (b).

RESPONSE Y VERSUS VARIABLE X1

10
5
0
-5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Y

-10
-15
-20
-25
-30

X1

Figure 5.4 (b): variability of X1 with Y

From the figure 5.4 (i) it was seen that as variable X1 was increased the response Y decreased
non-linearly. Therefore the regression analysis confirmed the results obtained in section 5.3
which showed that the shrinkage decreased as the concentration of DCCA was increased.
This regression analysis was necessary in order to determine the nature of variability of
woollen knitted fabric shrinkage with the concentration of DCCA. From the results obtained,
the shrinkage was found to vary non-linearly with the concentration of DCCA according to
the following equation,
Y = 8.8-1.4X12
5.4.3: Effect of Polymer G concentration on shrinkage when DCCA concentration and
chlorination time are kept constant.

From the regression surface (equation), when these two parameters were kept constant, a
graph defined by equation Y = 8.8-X22 was obtained as shown in the figure 5.4 (c).

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R EN SPON SE Y VER SUS VAR IAB LE X2

15
10
5
0
-5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Y

-10
-15
-20
-25
-30

X2

Figure 5.4 (c): variability of X2 with Y


From the figure 5.4 (j) it was seen that as variable X2 was increased the response Y decreased
non-linearly. Therefore the regression analysis confirmed the results obtained in section 5.3
which showed that the shrinkage decreased as the concentration of polymer G was increased.
This regression analysis was necessary in order to determine the nature of variability of
woollen knitted fabric shrinkage with the concentration of polymer G. From the results
obtained, the shrinkage was found to vary non-linearly with the concentration of polymer G
according to the following equation,
Y = 8.8-X22

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CONCLUSION

The Research project entitled: a study of anti-shrink treatment on woolen knitted product
based on chlorine-resin method was carried out with the main aim of studying the nature of
variability of shrinkage with either DCCA concentration, polymer G concentration and the
treatment time.
The result obtained showed that shrinkage was affected by all three factors involved
according to the following regression surface equation.
Y =8.8- 1.4X1X3+1.1X2X3-1.4X12-X22-1.5X32

From the findings it was observed that the shrinkage varied non-linearly with the
concentration of the DCCA according to the following regression model equation.
Y = 8.8-1.4X12
The increase in the concentration of the DCCA resulted to a decrease in the percentage
shrinkage. The higher the concentration of the DCCA the lower the percentage shrinkage
obtained. This was due to more wool fibres’ scales destruction and as a result their
movement was hindered and thus the felting shrinkage.

From the findings it was observed that the shrinkage varied non-linearly with the
concentration of the polymer G. according to the following regression model equation.
Y = 8.8-X22
The increase in the concentration of the polymer G resulted to a decrease in the percentage
shrinkage. The higher the concentration of the polymer G the lower the percentage shrinkage
obtained. This was due more wool fibres’ scales masking and bonding and as a result the
fibers movement was greatly hindered and thus the felting shrinkage.
From the findings it was observed that the shrinkage varied non-linearly with the chlorination
time according to the following regression model equation.
Y = 8.8-1.5X32
The increase in the chlorination time resulted to a decrease in the percentage shrinkage. The
higher the chlorination time the lower the percentage shrinkage obtained. This was due more
wool fibres’ scale damage, masking and bonding and as result their movement was greatly
hindered and thus the felting shrinkage.

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The three factors chosen in this project were combined in all possible ways using universal
rotatable method. The combined effect of the other factors involved in the wool chlorination
treatment was not studied because their variability with the shrinkage was not significant. The
increase of their concentration gave little or no variability of shrinkage.

From the finding of this project the most preferable concentration of all chemicals and time
used in the anti-shrink treatment were found to be as follows,
• DCCA concentration –2.5%
• Polymer G concentration- 1.5%
• Sodium sulphite concentration- 4%
• Hydrogen peroxide concentration-1.2%
• Chlorination time –50 minutes