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Experimental results on wool chlorination process

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By

Njuguna1 D, Musoga J and Igadwa J

Department of Textile Engineering, School of Engineering, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900

Eldoret, Kenya

Abstract

Textile industries in Kenya are facing quality and processing problems. Some of the

commonly experienced problems in the wool processing industries include; poor quality

products, lose of market, high cost of production, low production, and environmental

degradation.

Poor quality products are produced when wool products are over or under –treated with

chlorine. Over chlorination leads to yellowing, lose of strength, poor wet fastness properties

and difficulties in dyeing of wool products. Under-chlorination leads to shrinkage and pilling

of wool products. Because of poor quality products, textile mills have lost regular market for

their products. The cost of production of these mills has also been increased as result of

chemical wastage and high energy cost incurred as result of carrying anti-shrink treatment at

low temperature (180C). Chlorination processes leads to the problem of absorbable organo-

halogen (AOX) in the industries effluent. These organo-halogens have led to the effluent

disposal problem as they lead to soil and water pollution. This problem is agreviated by

unnecessary large amounts of dichloroisocyanurate dihydrate (DCCA) used during the anti-

shrink treatment on wool products.

This document gives part of results obtained in the optimization of wool chlorination process.

This research was carried out in order to determine the variability of chlorination time and

concentration of chemicals used with shrinkage of woollen fabrics. The results obtained

showed the most preferable chlorination time and the concentration of chemicals that can be

used in order to eliminate the above problems.

1

WOOL ANTI-SHRINK TREATMENT

From the preliminary results obtained in section 5.3 it was observed that the variation of

concentration of DCCA, Polymer G and chlorination time affected the percentage shrinkage

non linearly more than the other factors hence regression analysis of their combined effect

was carried out to determine the nature of their variability with the shrinkage.

Table 5.4 (a): Anti-shrink treatment by varying a combination of three factors using

universal rotatable method.

SN X1 X2 X3 Y

1 1.8 1.7 48 6

2 4.2 1.7 48 8

3 1.8 4.9 48 3

4 4.2 4.9 48 7.5

5 1.8 1.7 102 4.4

6 4.2 1.7 102 3.8

7 1.8 4.9 102 8.8

8 4.2 4.9 102 4.7

9 3 3.3 120 5

10 3 3.3 30 2

11 3 6 75 7.1

12 3 0.5 75 2.7

13 5 3.3 75 2.4

14 1 3.3 75 4. 9

15 3 3.3 75 8. 9

16 3 3.3 75 8..9

17 3 3.3 75 8. 9

18 3 3.3 75 8. 9

19 3 3.3 75 8. 9

20 3 3.3 75 8. 9

X2 - Polymer G concentration (%)

X3- Chlorination time in minutes.

The results of the regression data analysis showed that first order regression equation was not

significant and hence not statistically valid.

2

From the results of multiple regression data analysis, second order surface was fitted..

Table 5.4 (e): Regression summary output for second order.

SUMMARY OUTPUT

Regression Statistics

Multiple R 0.838455

R Square 0.703007

Adjusted R Square 0.596938

Standard Error 1.629879

Observations 20

ANOVA

df SS MS F Significance F

Regression 5 88.03441 17.60688 6.627833 2.958245

Residual 14 37.19109 2.656507 sign

Total 19 125.2255

ANOVA

df SS MS F F (0.05)

Regression 5 88.03441 17.60688 6.627833 2.958245

Residual 14 37.19109 2.656507 Sign

Lack of fit 9 37.19109 4.132344 0 4.77246

Pure error 5 0 0 Not sign.

Total 19 125.2255

The responses (Y) obtained by varying the variables X1, X2 and X3 are as shown in the table

5.4 (a) .The results obtained were analyzed using regression and the summary of the first

output regression are as shown in the tables 5.4 (b), (c) and (d). The relationship between the

variables and the response was not linear as can be seen from the first output summary table

5.4 (b). From this table the value of R. Square was very small and this showed that the

3

regression equation obtained was not precise. The lack of fit was not significant showing the

fitness of the established regression equation.

The result of multiple regression are given in the table 5.4 (e) and ANOVA tables 5.4 (F) and

(g). From these results the computed F value after multiple regression was found to be greater

than the tabled value F value i.e. it was significant than the tabled value at the pre-assigned

significance level. The null hypothesis was thus rejected and the model was accepted in the

analysis of the data. The computed F value for lack of fit was found to be less than the table

value at 10% probability level and thus the model given below was having fit at that

significant level (95%). Therefore models of order greater than two were not required.

Y =8.8 - 1.4X1X3+1.1X2X3-1.4X12-X22-1.5X32

5.4.1: Effect of treatment time on shrinkage when DCCA and polymer G concentration

are kept constant.

From the regression surface (equation), when these two parameters were kept constant, a

graph defined by equation Y = 8.8-1.5X32 was obtained as shown in the figure 5.4 (a).

-10000

Y

-20000

-30000

X3

From the figure 5.4 (h) it was seen that as variable X3 was increased the response Y

decreased non-linearly. Therefore the regression analysis confirmed the results obtained in

section 5.3 which showed that the shrinkage decreased as the chlorination time was

increased. This regression analysis was necessary in order to determine the nature of

variability of woollen fabric shrinkage with chlorination time. From the results obtained, the

shrinkage was found to vary non-linearly with time according to the following equation.

Y = 8.8-1.5X32

4

5.4.2: Effect of DCCA concentration on shrinkage when Polymer G concentration and

chlorination time are kept constant.

From the regression surface (equation), when these two parameters were kept constant, a

graph defined by equation Y = 8.8-1.4X12 was obtained as shown in the figure 5.4 (b).

10

5

0

-5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Y

-10

-15

-20

-25

-30

X1

From the figure 5.4 (i) it was seen that as variable X1 was increased the response Y decreased

non-linearly. Therefore the regression analysis confirmed the results obtained in section 5.3

which showed that the shrinkage decreased as the concentration of DCCA was increased.

This regression analysis was necessary in order to determine the nature of variability of

woollen knitted fabric shrinkage with the concentration of DCCA. From the results obtained,

the shrinkage was found to vary non-linearly with the concentration of DCCA according to

the following equation,

Y = 8.8-1.4X12

5.4.3: Effect of Polymer G concentration on shrinkage when DCCA concentration and

chlorination time are kept constant.

From the regression surface (equation), when these two parameters were kept constant, a

graph defined by equation Y = 8.8-X22 was obtained as shown in the figure 5.4 (c).

5

R EN SPON SE Y VER SUS VAR IAB LE X2

15

10

5

0

-5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Y

-10

-15

-20

-25

-30

X2

From the figure 5.4 (j) it was seen that as variable X2 was increased the response Y decreased

non-linearly. Therefore the regression analysis confirmed the results obtained in section 5.3

which showed that the shrinkage decreased as the concentration of polymer G was increased.

This regression analysis was necessary in order to determine the nature of variability of

woollen knitted fabric shrinkage with the concentration of polymer G. From the results

obtained, the shrinkage was found to vary non-linearly with the concentration of polymer G

according to the following equation,

Y = 8.8-X22

6

CONCLUSION

The Research project entitled: a study of anti-shrink treatment on woolen knitted product

based on chlorine-resin method was carried out with the main aim of studying the nature of

variability of shrinkage with either DCCA concentration, polymer G concentration and the

treatment time.

The result obtained showed that shrinkage was affected by all three factors involved

according to the following regression surface equation.

Y =8.8- 1.4X1X3+1.1X2X3-1.4X12-X22-1.5X32

From the findings it was observed that the shrinkage varied non-linearly with the

concentration of the DCCA according to the following regression model equation.

Y = 8.8-1.4X12

The increase in the concentration of the DCCA resulted to a decrease in the percentage

shrinkage. The higher the concentration of the DCCA the lower the percentage shrinkage

obtained. This was due to more wool fibres’ scales destruction and as a result their

movement was hindered and thus the felting shrinkage.

From the findings it was observed that the shrinkage varied non-linearly with the

concentration of the polymer G. according to the following regression model equation.

Y = 8.8-X22

The increase in the concentration of the polymer G resulted to a decrease in the percentage

shrinkage. The higher the concentration of the polymer G the lower the percentage shrinkage

obtained. This was due more wool fibres’ scales masking and bonding and as a result the

fibers movement was greatly hindered and thus the felting shrinkage.

From the findings it was observed that the shrinkage varied non-linearly with the chlorination

time according to the following regression model equation.

Y = 8.8-1.5X32

The increase in the chlorination time resulted to a decrease in the percentage shrinkage. The

higher the chlorination time the lower the percentage shrinkage obtained. This was due more

wool fibres’ scale damage, masking and bonding and as result their movement was greatly

hindered and thus the felting shrinkage.

7

The three factors chosen in this project were combined in all possible ways using universal

rotatable method. The combined effect of the other factors involved in the wool chlorination

treatment was not studied because their variability with the shrinkage was not significant. The

increase of their concentration gave little or no variability of shrinkage.

From the finding of this project the most preferable concentration of all chemicals and time

used in the anti-shrink treatment were found to be as follows,

• DCCA concentration –2.5%

• Polymer G concentration- 1.5%

• Sodium sulphite concentration- 4%

• Hydrogen peroxide concentration-1.2%

• Chlorination time –50 minutes

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