You are on page 1of 2

Inspection Process

The inspection of engine parts during overhaul is divided into three categories:
1. Visual
2. Structural NDT
3. Dimensional

Visual Inspection
Visual inspection should precede all other inspection procedures. Parts should not
be cleaned before a preliminary visual inspection, since indications of a failure may often be
detected from the residual deposits of metallic particles in some recesses in the engine.
Several terms are used to describe defects detected in engine parts during
inspection. Some of the more common terms and definitions are:
1. Abrasionan area of roughened scratches or marks usually caused by foreign matter between
moving parts or surfaces.
2. Brinellingone or more indentations on bearing races, usually caused by high static loads or
application of force during installation or removal. Indentations are rounded or spherical due to
the impression left by the contacting balls or rollers of the bearing.
3. Burningsurface damage due to excessive heat. It is usually caused by improper ft, defective
lubrication, or over-temperature operation.
4. Burnishingpolishing of one surface by sliding contact with a smooth, harder surface.
Usually no displacement nor removal of metal.
5. Burra sharp or roughened projection of metal usually resulting from machine processing.
6. Chafnga condition caused by a rubbing action between two parts under light pressure that
results in wear.
7. Chippingbreaking away of pieces of material, that is usually caused by excessive stress
concentration or careless handling.
8. Corrosionloss of metal by a chemical or electrochemical action. The corrosion products are
easily removed by mechanical means. Iron rust is an example of corrosion.
9. Cracka partial separation of material usually caused by vibration, overloading, internal
stresses, defective assembly, or fatigue. Depth may be a few thousandths, to the full thickness of
the piece.
10. Cutloss of metal, usually to an appreciable depth over a relatively long and narrow area, by
mechanical means, as would occur with the use of a saw blade, chisel, or sharp-edged stone
striking a glancing blow.

11. Denta small, rounded depression in a surface usually caused by the part being struck with a
rounded object.
12. Erosionloss of metal from the surface by mechanical action of foreign objects, such as grit
or fine sand. The eroded area is rough and may be lined in the direction that the foreign material
moved relative to the surface.
13. Flakingthe breaking loose of small pieces of metal or coated surfaces, that is usually
caused by defective plating or excessive loading.
14. Frettinga condition of surface erosion caused by minute movement between two parts
usually clamped together with considerable unit pressure.
15. Gallinga severe condition of chafng or fretting in which a transfer of metal from one part
to another occurs. It is usually caused by a slight movement of mated parts having limited
relative motion and under high loads.
16. Gouginga furrowing condition in which a displacement of metal has occurred (a torn
effect). It is usually caused by a piece of metal, or foreign material, between close moving parts.
17. Groovinga recess, or channel, with rounded and smooth edges usually caused by faulty
alignment of parts.
18. Inclusionpresence of foreign or extraneous material entirely within a portion of metal.
Such material is introduced during the manufacture of rod, bar, or tubing by rolling or forging.
19. Nicka sharp-sided gouge or depression with a V-shaped bottom, that is generally the result
of careless handling of tools and parts.
20. Peeninga series of blunt depressions in a surface.
21. Pick up or scuffinga buildup or rolling of metal from one area to another, that is usually
caused by insufficient lubrication, clearances, or foreign matter.
22. Pittingsmall hollows of irregular shape in the surface, usually caused by corrosion or
minute mechanical chipping of surfaces.
23. Scoringa series of deep scratches caused by foreign particles between moving parts or
careless assembly or disassembly techniques.
24. Scratchesshallow, thin lines or marks, varying in degree of depth and width, caused by
presence of fine foreign particles during operation or contact with other parts during handling.
25. Staina change in color, locally, causing a noticeably different appearance from the
surrounding area.

26. Upsettinga displacement of material beyond the normal contour or surface (a local bulge
or bump). Usually indicates no metal loss.