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A DETAILED LESSON PLAN IN AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION

FEBRUARY 24, 2017

I. OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to:


a. Define postharvest handling;
b. Identify the various postharvest procedures; and
c. Observe proper postharvest handling to minimize losses.

II. SUBJECT MATTER

Topic: The Postharvest Operations/Handling


References: LANTICAN,R.M.2002. The Science and Practice of Crop
Production.SEARCA UPLB .College, Laguna

http://eagri.tnau.ac.in/eagri50/HORT381/pdf/lec02.pdf

Materials: Visual Aid


Values: Appreciation

III. PROCEDURE

A. PRELIMINARY ACTIVITIES

Teachers Activity Students Activity

a. Prayer
Let us pray first, anyone who wants to lead the prayer? (One student will lead the prayer)

b. Preparation
Good morning class! Good morning Maam!

Please arrange your chairs according to your row. Students arrange their chairs.

You may now take your seat. Thank you Maam!

Miss Secretary may I know who are the absent for ( The Secretary will stand and tell
today? the absentee)

By the way before we are going to start our lesson, let me


introduce myself, I am Jenessa Villanueva- Romanillos
from Braulio E. Dujali, and Ill be your teacher for
Agricultural Crop Production.
B. DEVELPMENTAL ACTIVITIES

Teachers Activity Students Activity


a. Motivation
Okey, are you all ready for our lesson? Yes Maam!

Who among you here have farms? (students will raise their hands)

What crops are planted? Have you tried harvesting (students will raise their hands and
your own planted crops? answer)

So I want You now to enumerate and identify the


steps you perform to your harvested crops.
(students will raise their hands and
(Pick 3 students to answer) answer)

Thank you class all of your answers are correct


because we have different kinds of crops the grain
crops includes the rice and corn, and the perishables
which is the fruits and vegetables belong. So it
requires different steps after harvest to lengthen the
shelf life of that specific commodity

b. LESSON PROPER
Today our topic is all about the POSTHARVEST
OPERATIONS/ HANDLING.
The teacher states the lesson objectives

When you hear the word POSTHARVEST (students listen to the lesson objectives)
HANDLING what comes into your mind?
Anyone? (students will raise their hands and
(Pick 2 students to answer) answer)

Thank you; please listen attentively because after


the discussion we will have our short quiz.

POSTHARVEST HANDLING
Is the specific term used for the
movement of commodities and
operations through which the
commodity undergoes from harvest to
possession to the fixed consumer; this
includes the technological aspects of
marketing and distribution. Different
crops undergo different steps on
postharvest.

Why are postharvest practices done?

Vegetables/fruits are living tissues that


undergo continuous change after harvest
Rapid deterioration can occur
Can affect quality of vegetable/fruits
(Freshness and nutritional)
Safety of the vegetable/fruits (Pesticide
residues)(Microbiological organisms)
THE POSTHARVEST PROCEDURES

POSTHARVEST PROCEDURES

Harvesting Reception

Selection,
Cleaning and Pre-cooling
Disinfection

Drying Grading

packing and
other treatments
Packaging

Storage Transport

Reception or its is either to the packing house or


to the shaded place which is not exposed directly to
the sun and the preparatory steps for storage to
market is done.
Maam removal of the harvested
What is pre-cooling class? produce from the field Maam so that it
will not expose to direct sunlight/ high
Yes, thats right. temperature.

Pre-cooling- Pre-cooling refers to the rapid


removal of field heat shortly after the harvest of a
crop. Field heat can be defined as the difference in
temperature between the temperature of the crop
harvested and the optimal storage temperature of
that product. In general the temperature should be
cooled down till it reaches 88% of the existing
difference in temperature and its optimal storage
temperature. Field heat should be removed as fast
as possible since, for most produce, an hour delay
at field conditions of about 35C will lead to a loss
in shelf-life of about 1 day even at optimal
storage conditions.
Then next is the Selection, cleaning and
disinfection

It means class that in this stage of the commodity


Selection or sorting the process of classifying into
groups designated by the person classifying crops
or commodities the produce either according to set
criteria.

It means class that in this stage of the commodity


Selection or sorting the process of classifying into
groups designated by the person classifying crops
or commodities the produce either according to set
criteria. Sorting is done by hand to remove which is
not suitable to market or storage due to damage by
insects, diseases and mechanical.
Then cleaning before the commodity are marketed
various amounts of cleaning are necessary which
typically involves the removal of soil dust, adhering
debris, insects and pest residue. But we just dont
need to clean it we need to make sure that we used
clean water for washing our commodity.

There are several types of cleaning:


1.Washing dunking, spraying, wiping.
2. Dry brushing no water, just brush.
3. Dont wash washing/extra handling can
cause damage, decreasing quality. and because
washing is not enough disinfection needed to apply
to the commodity.

Chlorine in fresh water is often used to disinfect to


wash the commodity.

After that Drying to the excess moisture caused by


washing will be removed then grading will be the
next step it is the process of classifying into groups
to a set recognized criteria of quality and size, each
group bearing an acceptable name and size
grouping.
Then some of the commodities undergo other
treatments like CURING, WAXING.

Then after which the Packing or it is the act of


putting commodities in a container.
The packaging is the process to ensure adequate
protection and safe delivery of the product from the
ultimate consumer.

Pay attention at the grocery store and at farmers At the Grocery Maam since it was pack
markets class to how produce is displayed, what properly compared to the Farmers market
looks good to you? that was displayed directly without
packaging.
Yes that is right and did you know if our
commodity is directly exposed/ displayed it is Yes Maam
subject to pathogen and microorganism that can
contribute to the deterioration of our produce so it
means, it will affect the farmers income, right
class?

Storage is the next it is the process of keeping crops


in structure designed to protect to stored products
from inclement weather and pest for a short or
longer period of time to await processing or
transport to other location. In the case of fruits and
vegetables it should be stored in specific
temperature since it perishables crops have a short
shelf life compare to the grain crops.

Lastly is the Transport during this step we need to


consider on how it is transported. Is the vehicle
clean and cool? We need to see to it that we should
not load our commodity with a very warm vehicle it
will affect the shelf life of our commodity.

c. Application

So now I will group you into 3 groups. Then


answer the following question IN 5 MINUTES

You will identify the cause of losses at the different (Students will have their group activity)
points of the system

For Group 1: During Packing

For Group 2: during STORAGE.


(Students present their answers on the
postharvest losses during the movement
For Group 3: during Transport of the commodity from packaging,
storage and transport)
ok class times up

The first to present is the group 1 followed by the


group 2 the last is the group 3

Thank you class. All that you mention was


correct. There is a big losses on our produce during
that time.

During the PACKING;

Improper postharvest handling


Delays
Physical (large packaging
bags),(inappropriate packing materials)
mechanical (Inappropriate technologies)
physiological damage
During STORAGE;

Physical
physiological damage caused by rough
handling,bacteria,fungus, insects, rodents
and other environmental factors

During TRANSPORT;

Delays caused Environmental conditions


Physical (overloading).(poor road
condition), Yes Maam
mechanical
physiological damage

So, Am I understood?

IV. GENERALIZATION

Teachers Activity Students Activity

I know you have learned a lot from this days (Students raise their hands)
discussion, so anyone who can summarize the
lesson?

Call 2 students to summarize the topic.

thank you
POSTHARVEST HANDLING specifically
involves the movement and the operations that
commodities undergo from harvest to the time
immediately before meal preparation
It main concern is to keep commodities in an
acceptable state from harvest until it reaches
the consumer since most commodities are
transported in their perishable state.
In addition, postharvest handling aims to
minimize losses at the least possible cost.
The existing postharvest environment requires
appropriate technologies to maintain quality of
commodities.
Poor handling of agricultural commodities can
result in quality deterioration and losses.

Is everything clear class? Yes Maam!


V. EVALUATION
Please get 1/4 sheet of paper for our short quiz. And answer the following questions.

1. It is the rapid removal of the field heat to the commodity._____________________


2-3 give at least 2 reasons why postharvest is done?
4. Is the stage of crop production immediately following harvest, including cooling, cleaning,
sorting and packing.
5. The main reason for this step is for the appearance of the commodity that will be attractive to
the consumer.
6-15 for 10 points what are the procedures in postharvest.

Ok Class pass your paper in front.

Answer Key:
1. Pre-cooling
2-3 Rapid deterioration can occur
Can affect quality of vegetable/fruits (Freshness and nutritional)
Safety of the vegetable/fruits
4. Postharvest HANDLING
5. Packaging
6-15 harvest-reception-precooling-selection, cleaning and disinfection-drying, grading,-other
treatments-packing and packaging-storage-transport

VI. ASSIGNMENT

Teachers Activity Students Activity


For your assignment please research on THE
STORAGE PEST AND DISEASES.
Write it in a 1 whole sheet of paper.

Thats all for today. See you all again next


meeting!

Class dismissed. Good Bye Class! Good bye and Thank you Maam!

PREPARED BY: Jenessa V. Romanillos