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A Study of Ampalaya Seeds as a Substitute for Coffee Beans

Glendale School #11 St. Benedict St.Paradise Village Project 8, Quezon City

A Study of Ampalaya Seeds as a Substitute for Coffee Beans

In Partial Fulfillment of the Course Requirement in Research

Presented by:

Joshua Elkanah P. Datu Ernestine Rose P. Estrella Angelito C. Guiterrez Marielle M. Torres

Presented to:

Dr. Marilou Juachon-Panlilio Mr. Arnold Antiporda

Ms. Sherrlene Uy Mr. Gemini Malubay

February 9, 2015

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 

First,

we like

to

thank

Mrs.

Magdadaro for letting us to use their kitchen as a testing ground for o

ur product also their kitchen appliances for the benefit of our first trial

. Second,

we

would

like

to acknowledge Mrs. Torres for the helping

hand and the tools that we used and helped us acquire our desired pro duct. Third, we wish to extend their sincerest appreciation to our Research teacher, Ms. Uy for teaching us the fundamental of research and investigatory writing and for showing a great deal of patience through the times we tend to

be naughty. And lastly to God, for his gift of wisdom and understanding to ua for answering our prayers in times of need.

ABSTRACT

The researchers conducted a study about Amapalaya seeds as a substitute for Coffee beans. This study aims to make a better and cheaper product of coffee. Since coffee is the most known beverage. Both coffee and Ampalaya give many health benefits for brain and body. With our study other individuals or departments may use this as a source for a next study. The goal of this study is first to find out if amapalaya seeds can be used as an alternative for coffee and second to make it a cheaper and a better product than the commercially available coffee. Ampalaya has almost the same characteristics of the commercially

available coffee.It has that bitter and sour smell and taste. Since Ampalaya has more nutrients and benefits for people, it is a better alternative coffee.There is a lot of variety of Ampalaya, it differentiates the taste and appearance of each kind. This product is healthy but easy to do, the audience can either cook or bake the Ampalaya beans by using an oven or pan. The researchers performed two trials and showed that there is no much difference with the commercially available coffee, based on the aroma, taste, appearance and quality. Therefore the researchers conclude that ampalaya seeds can be an alternative source for coffee.

CHAPTER 1:

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Introduction

Coffee is a much known beverage to the majority of the people. It is known for its stimulating effect on the functions of the brain, thus making the drinker active. Variants of coffee flavors were already produced all throughout the world aiming for the discovery of alternative sources for coffee production. The

researchers’ goal is to make an alternative coffee beans using amapalaya

seeds since ampalaya tastes bitter. The researchers also chose this because people nowadays drink coffee at work and when they are in home. This

product is also cheaper than the branded coffees which we can see in supermarkets.

Statement of the Problem/ Objectives

According to region3.dost.gov, coffee is a much known beverage to the majority with the reference to the people especially the

youth. It is known for its stimulating effect on the functions of the brain, thus

making the drinker active. Variants of coffee flavors were already produced all throughout the world aiming for the discovery of alternative sources for coffee production. To create this product, the researchers analyzed if it will give people an impact in their lives. This study intends to know the

importance of bitter gourd seeds as an alternative coffee beans which is rich in antioxidants and vitamins A, B and C.

Bitter gourd is believed to benefit diabetes. Researchers from University of Bologna, Italy, asked 720 herbalists what herbal remedy that they would recommend to those suffered from diabetes. They suggested some herbal remedies and bitter gourd is in the list. Bitter gourd has been recognized as a Chinese herbal medicine for diabetes for centuries. Bitter gourd is more popular in Asia to be used as a natural product for diabetes. Researchers from Natural Standard, MA, consider bitter gourd as an alternative therapy that has primarily been used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. Components of bitter gourd extract appear to have structural similarities to animal insulin. Bitter gourd is also a lipid-lowering activities and its extracts provide benefits for cancers. Bitter gourd is the nearest vegetable that has the same taste of coffee, bitter and sour at the same time. The researchers’ product aims to make people more lively by drinking this kind of coffee because it makes people alive even at night. This product to informal settlers is a big impact because coffee is their main food even for their lunch, and even for babies. This study will

make the people, especially the youth, patronize this product because of the fact that people nowadays drink coffee more often. The goals of this study are the following: 1.) To know if fruit or vegetable seeds can be used to create a new product. 2.) Use bitter gourd seeds in making an alternative coffee beans. 3.) Cheaper and better because of its health benefits unlike the branded ones.

Significance of the Study

To keep people awake at night, the most commonly beverage to drink is coffee. Coffee, the most widely used beverage. Coffee has many benefits to body's system. According to mayoclinic.org, coffee can protect a person from Parkinson's Disease, Diabetes, and Liver Disease, including Liver Cancer. Although coffee is not adivicable to drink it everyday.

In this study, the researchers aim to create an alternative ingredient to make coffee, which is bitter melon "ampalaya". Our product is beneficial to the following: consumers, Department of Agriculture, unfortunate families, office workers (call center agents, nurse, businessman, etc), college student that often use coffee.

Through this study, the researchers are able to create alternative ingredient as coffee. Since Philippines is rich in growing ampalaya. Consumers can buy a much more cheaper product of a different variety of coffee, ampalaya coffee. Based on debate.org, coffee is beneficial to office workers like are journalists, teachers, policeman, etc. It is a power-up for most people to keep awake at night, to work longer, and to be more productive. The Department of Agriculture, will also have an idea on which commodities can have alternatives. Unfortunate families will benefit from this product since this is cheaper and since coffee is commonly used by these kind of people. For students, it will help to stay awake and continue to finish student's task. This kind of product is processed not by machines but by hands. Nowadays, products are processed by machines that some chemicals go in the product which can harm a person's body. Moreover, this study aims to give opportunity to people to buy a much cheaper yet a healthy product.

Scope and Delimitation

This research focus mainly in the use of ampalaya seed to boost our regular coffee with the nutrients that are present in an ampalaya seed and learning on how long can the researchers stretch the the use of this element. The

researchers found out that the ampalaya seed carries a lot of nutrients that can help the people that consume our product. This product is produced in the process of sun drying the seeds for 1 week then toasting the ampalaya seed and pulverizing it to powder then extracting the juice by boiling it into hot then infusing it in the coffee. This research have been given the budget of 300 pesos (yung week po ng testing ilalagay ko po pag nag start napo yung pag test kung ok na yung product).

CHAPTER TWO:

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES

Components of Ampalaya

Ampalaya is composed of three components. The first component is called Flavanoids. According to Jane Higdon, Ph.D of Oregon State University, it is a large family of polyphenic compounds by plants. This has the ability to modulate cell-signaling tunnels. According to News Medical Net, Flavonoids are found in a variety of fruits and vegetables. It is beneficial for it gives a pigment that attracts pollinating insects. Flavanoids are linked to be as an antioxidant. One of the protection from "free radicals" of the body, Ariefdjohan MW, Savaiano D. The second component is alkaloids. It can control the blood sugar in diabetics. Alkaloids are very bitter and it's extracts are

active. http:www.biology-online.org Alkaloids have many effects on humans and other animals according to Mcdaniel.edu.

Structure of Ampalaya

According to Philippine Herbal Medicine, Ampalaya belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceae. Ampalaya grows up to 20

centimeters. It's leaves are shaped as a heart and grown up to 5- 10 centimeters in diameters. Ampalaya's texture is ribbed and wrinkled.

Variety of Ampalaya

The first variety of Ampalaya is called Karela. Stated by Healthy By Nature, Karela is a thin and vine and a long stalked

leaves that makes yellow flowers. Karela grows in tropical areas such as Amazon,East Africa, Asia, The Caribbean, and South America. The second variety is Japan Green Spindle. It is a medium sized fruit that grows up to 15-20 centimeters. http://forum.xcitefun.net/ The last variety is the Hybrid Indian Baby Doll. This kind of Ampalaya can be found in Thailand. This weight 30 grams.

Process of Planting An Ampalaya

There are four steps in planting ampalaya. The first step is climate adaption. The climate that ampalaya can thrive is a cool climate. Cooler climates will result to a fast production of flowers and bigger fruits, as said by Sunstar PH. The second step is land preparation. On the word of Rice Knowledge Bank, Land preparation is very important because it insures that the soil is ready for plantation. The field or soil should be cleaned from debris of other seeds. The third step is plastic mulching. It is the process of covering the soil to make more conditional temperature that will affect 2 factors: plant growth development and beneficial crop production. http://www.agridr.in The fourth step is planting. There are two ways of planting an ampalaya by its seed. It can be either direct seeded or transplanted.

Agricultural and Rural Development said, Direct seeding is a kind of cropping system that goals to improve soil moisture. The seeds are needed to be soaked overnight and wrapped in a moist cloth. The other way of planting is transplanted. This process needs to cut the flower of the ampalaya in half. The flower needs to be shaded in order to recover by University of Illinois Extension.

Proper Care

The seeds need to be fertilized. In accordance to Business Diary, the first step in taking care an ampalaya is to apply fertilizer on

the soil. Add 1 teaspoon of fertilizer on the soil. the second step is vine training. A kind of system that refers to the position of the vine. This aims to minimize the space, quality, and reduce costs of facilitation, According to Plumpton College. The last step is Pest Management. Pest management is a method to keep away of unwanted pests.

http://tmnehs.gov.in/writereaddata/Chap-14.pdf

Benefits of Ampalaya

According to Gourmet Farms, ampalaya leaves and fruits are rich in sources of Vitamin B, calcium, and phosphorus. It is also a rich beta carotene, it has the ability to enhance cells and promote insulin. Ampalaya has the ability to reduce total cholesterol. It also has the ability to lower the blood sugar or the amount of sugar intake by Teddy Brul. As said by Kidney Cares Organization, ampalaya is beneficial in curing kidney stones and helps maintain healthy liver and bladder.

Issues/Side Effects of Ampalaya

According to Nalanda College, ampalaya can make a heartburn and make ulcer worse. Also pregnant women are not allowed to eat or drink any food with ampalaya. It may stimulate the uterus and may cause a premature birth. Taking too much or taking a large doze of ampalaya can cause abortion for pregnant women in accordance with All About Diabetes.

Related Studies

Department of Science And Technology of the Philippines conducted a study on Ampalaya seeds as Coffee. The study shows that ampalaya are capable of having the same taste as coffee, it can be a substitute for coffee. Which is not only cheaper, but also full of healthy benefits. The first process of this is grinding the seed and toasting it until it can be mixed with water like the coffee powder. The weight of the ampalaya seed is 23.3 grams before grinding, after grinding the weight was

11.4 (it is a powdered version) . After the pulverization of the seed, the sample which is the powder is put on a cup with hot water and is tasted. It tasted like a coffee, bitter but without caffeine. They concluded that ampalaya can be a source of coffee.

Common use of ampalaya seeds

According to Rasco, E.T. Jr there are improvement of ampalaya by local plant over the last five years resulted in the commercial.

These new cultivars can result in yield which ten times the average yield and more resistant to diseases.

Origin of ampalaya seeds

herb is a plant that is valued for flavor, scent, or other qualities. Herbs are used in cooking, as medicines, and for spiritual purposes. From ancient days

to now a day, medicinal plants are a potential and useful for the treatment of several diseases and disorders and it actually originated in India and eventually carried to chain during the 14 th century.

Health benefits of ampalaya seeds

Most of the useful health benefits of bitter gourd never come to the forefront at all. For example, did you know that bitter gourd

is a medicinal food for people with liver disorders. One of the prime health benefits of bitter gourd is that, it helps to cleanse the liver and regenerate the liver cells. This healthy vegetable has

beauty

benefits

too.

Coffee Benefits According to www.rd.com or www.readersdigest.com , a

clinical study in Illinois discovered that caffeine has the ability to reduce the swelling of the blood vessels and can lessen the intensity and frequency of headaches. Some subjects were

experimented and 58 percent reported beneficial

relief.

.

Coffee has the ability to lessen the risk of having Alzheimer’s

disease and Parkinson's disease. These two are the most common neurodegenerative disorder in the world. By drinking coffee, the risk of this disease will lessen 32-60 percent in accordance with Authority Nutrition.

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, by drinking coffee this can be prevented. Coffee can lessen the risk of obtaining two types of cancer. According to Authority Nutrition, the two types of cancer are liver cancer and colorectal cancer, liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer while colorectal cancer is the fourth one.

Side Effects

According to Top End Sports, however, although coffee has many god benefits it also has negative side effects. Too much of coffee us bad for the health. Increase amount of caffeine the the body can leady to restlessness, nausea, sleep difficulties, urine production, many more. Excessive of caffeine can lead to dehydration, taking coffee on a hot day weather will result of a lot of fluids in the body

bases on Fit Day. Drinking too much coffee may result to difficulty in absorbing minerals. Based on a study, Coffee disturbs the distribution of minerals in the body.

Components

Caffeine It is a bug killer that stimulates us by blocking neuroreceptors for the sleep chemical adenosine by Wired Magazine.

Quinic Acid Along citric and malic represent an important ingredient of coffee's total acid content. Coffee Chemistry, during roasting quinic acid progressively increases as the levels of chlorogenic acid decrease suggesting that its formation results from the cleavage of the chlorogenic acid moiety

Trigonelline a niacin-related compound, is a natural constituent of coffee accounting for approximately 1% dry matter in roasted

beans.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19710155

Process

Planting According to NCA USA, coffee bean is actually a seed. When it is not yet processed it can be planted it will turn into a coffee tree. Coffee is usually places in a large bed if shades.

After growing into a sprout, the seedling are removes and ti be planted in individual pots and requires bright sunlight. Planting requires a wet season so other plants will be moist and the roots will mature.

Harvesting The Cherries Depending on the kind of coffee bean, it will take estimately 3 to 4 years for the newly planted coffee trees to grow to bear fruit. The bear fruit is called a coffee cherry, it is a bright, deep red when it is ripe and ready to be harvested. Processing The Cherries After the cherries are harvested, the cherries are to be

prevented from spoilage.

There are two ways to prevent this,

the dry method and wet method. The dry method is placing the cherries on a clean mat on a huge surface and letting expose on the sun. The wet method is removing the pulp from the coffee cherry. The skin of the cherry removed by a machine. Drying The Beans Once the beans are processed in the wet method, they are supposed to he dried by exposing it to thr sun. The beans are put on drying tables.

Milling The Beans The beans are need to be process before exportation. Hulling Machines are used to separate the parchment layer of the cherry. Polishing This step is optional only if there are left silver skin on the cherry

Grading and Sorting The beans are sorted by variety of size and shape before exportation.

Exporting The Beans Once the beans are processed carefully it is ready for exportation. These are transported either is sisal bags or jute. Tasting The Coffee For a sure taste and quality it is tested by tasting the coffee. The coffee is roasted and is concentrated on a high temperature. To taste the coffee, the cupper "slurps" a spoonful with a quick inhalation.

Roasting The Coffee The roasting process is controlled by a machine. The roasting machine maintains its temperature which is 550 Fahrenheit. When the beans turn brown they are put in water or air for it to cool down.

Grinding Coffee Grinding coffee turns the beans into a powder version by a machine. The better the powder the easier the preparation it will be.

Countries

According to National Coffee Association, countries that produce coffee are North America, Caribbean, Central America,

South America, Africa, Middle East and Asia.

Coffee Bean

Types of Coffee Bean

Through the studies of coffee bean there are two types of coffee bean the two types of coffee bean is Arabic beans and Robusta bean. These two kinds of beans are used than the other large variety of beans.

The beans in the coffee are one of the concerns of average people who drink coffee. The Coffea Arabica bush is grown all around the world and is the bean that over seventy percent of all coffee beverages are made from. The Arabica bean is a highly flavorful bean that contains less caffeine than the Canephor coffee bean. The different growing regions of the Arabic bean create different flavors in the bean.info stated in here can be found inhttp://www.coffee.org/types-of- coffee-bean

Differences

But the two types of bean have 6 difference between each other There are two kinds of coffee beans that are used in production, Arabica and Robusta. They differ in taste and where they are grown. The most preferred beans is Arabica while Robusta are commonly used in blends. First, their flavor the Arabica bean is mostly used in the 3 n 1 packets of sachet we see in stores but the Robusta bean is described as much more richer bean but it has a much more stronger and contain a higher level of caffeine than Arabica beans has a much more milder aromatic taste. When it comes to their difference in shape, Arabica beans are flat and elongated while Robusta beans have a more obvious rounded shape. In color the Arabica beans have a darker shade of green.

Proper Care

The

Robusta

bean

but

when

it

comes

to

proper care

and temperature of cultivating Arabica beans are cultivated in more subtropical climates and can only be grown in higher climates in places such as Central and South America. Robusta beans on the other hand can be cultivated at lower altitudes and require little rainfall to grow, making them more

common to places in Central and West Africa and South East Asia. based on this sitehttp://www.coffeebeansblog.co.uk/6- differences-between-arabica-and-robusta-coffee-beans/

Origin

Based

on

http://www.coffeeresearch.org/coffee/history.htm, There is a legend about coffee. This is how the story goes. An arabaian sheperd names Kaldi found his goats hapoy around a bold green nature with bright red cherries in the southern tip of the Arabian

Peninsula.Kaldi tasted the red cherries to know it's effect. He learned it was the reason why his sheeps were acting that way. This amazing effect was a used by monks at a local monastery to keep people awake during praying activites and extend praying hours around the world.but beacause os recent research evidence seggested a different type of coffee bean origin. This evidence indicates that the history of the coffee bean beagan on the plateaus of central Ethiopia and somehow it has been brought to yemen where it was cultured since the 6th century upon the first rising of varius coffee shop in Cairo and Mecca that have been a passion rather than a stimulant.

CHAPTER THREE:

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Coffee is a much known beverage to the majority of the people. It is known for its stimulating effect on the functions of the brain, thus making the drinker active. Variants of coffee flavors were already produced all throughout the world aiming for the discovery of alternative sources for coffee production. The

researchers’ goal is to make an alternative coffee beans using amapalaya

seeds since ampalaya tastes bitter. The researchers also chose this because people nowadays drink coffee at work and when they are in home. This product is also cheaper than the branded coffees which we can see in supermarkets.

Materials Amapalaya seeds Mortar and Pestle Baking pan (for roasting) Pan (for roasting)

Ladle

Knife

Chopping board

Procedure In making Ampalaya Coffee Beans, you only need one ingredient and two tools. The ingredient that you need is ampalaya seeds, the two tools are mortar and pestle or something that can break an object into pieces. This method is needed to be done by an adult to be safe. Be careful in cooking the seeds in order to achieve the goal. 1. Ready your whole and fresh ampalaya. Cut it into half and get the seeds inside.

  • 2. Peel the cover of the ampalaya seeds.

  • 3. Dry the seeds with a dry cloth or with a tissue paper.

  • 4. You can either roast it in a pan until its color turns black or

bake them in an oven in a medium temperature (250 degrees) for

10-15 minutes. But if you want to be sure, you better do both until you achieve the exact taste and color. 5. Crush the roasted/toasted ampalaya seeds using mortar and pestle until it looks like powder (pulverized). Do not crush the ampalaya seeds completely, leave bits of solid ampalaya seeds for comparison taste. 6. Put the powder in a secure container in order for the aroma of the powder to stay. 7. Now, the product is complete. This product can be more tastier by putting the right amount of sugar and/or creamer. Timetable:

Time Table of Activities

-Chapter One:

October 9:Statement Of Objective

October 12:Significance of the study

October 14:Scopes and Delimitations -Chapter Two November 25:Review of Related Literature and Studies

-Chapter Three: Methodology December 21:Procedure Timetable Materials Introduction

-Chapter Four: Presentation and Analysis of Data January 10:Table of Trials

Findings

Analysis

Chapter Five: Conclusions and Recommendations January 10: Conclusions Recommendations

Bibliography: January 13

Appendices: January 15 Appendix A: Document Procedure Appendix B: Planning Documents

January 19: Cover Page Acknowledgements Abstract Table of Contents

CHAPTER FOUR:

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSES OF DATA

Trial

Materials

Observation

Results

1

Ampalaya seeds, pan, strainer, mug, mortar and pestle.

The seeds are not fully cooked/roasted. The seeds are not bitter as the commercially available coffee. There are some solids of seeds left

Based on the observations, we did not get the desired product for trial 1. Further trials are to be done

   

uncooked and dry.

 

2

Ampalya seeds, pan, strainer, mug, mortar and pestle and oven tray.

The seeds were fully roasted. The aroma of the seeds smelled and tasted like the commercially available coffee. Without adding cream and sugar.

The researchers obtained the desired product of ampalaya coffee. The seeds turned into a powder look but still bits of ampala seeds are left. The coffee tastes and smellslike the commercially available coffee.

Trial 1

On the first trial, the materials used are ampalaya seeds, pan, strainer, mug, mortar and pestle. The result was not the desired one that the researchers are looking for. The result of the ampalya seeds were dry, bits of seeds are left uncooked. When the powder is poured on a hot water, it is not fully dissolved. The powder did smell like the commercially available coffee but did not taste as it.

On the second trial Same materials were used but instead the researchers cooked and baked the seeds. The researchers got the desired product. The product smelled and tasted like the commercially available coffee. The aroma was bitter as same with the taste.

CHAPTER FIVE:

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusion/s

We, the researchers, therefore conclude that ampalaya seed can be an effective alternative for coffee beans because of the following:

1. Aroma - The aroma of the seeds smelled like the commercially available coffee. Just smelling the powder, it would be hypothesized it is coffee.

  • 2. Taste - Because it is our final product actually tastes like the commercially available coffee.

  • 3. Appearance - Between the product that the researchers made and the commercially available coffee, there were a slight difference with the appearance. The commercially available

coffee is pure powder unlike the product the researchers made,

bits of seeds are still uncooked.

  • 4. Quality - When the powder is poured into a hot water not all

of the powder is fully dissolved. As said, some bits are left uncooked.

Recommendation

1. Materials

- The researchers recommend to use a grinder and toast to fully break the seeds into pieces.

- the researches also recommend to find other alternative seeds that are bitter like amapalaya seeds. 2. Procedure - The researches recommend to cooked the crushed ampalay seeds before baking for it to be easily baked. Cooking it will affect the texture, to be smooth just like the commercially available coffee.

-

The

researchers

recommend

to

bake

the

crushed

seeds

to

obtain

the

aroma

of

a

commercially

available

coffee.

Bibliography

Angelo, G.(2012).Flavanoids and Skin Health.Retrieved from ipi.oregonstate.edu on December 2014. Brul, T.(2013).Ampalaya.Retrieved from alagad.com.ph on December 2014 Clinton, A et al.(-).Trigonelline Is a Novel Phytoestrogen in Coffee Beans.Retrieved from repository.tamu.edu on December 2014. Green, M.(1999).Direct seeding systems.Retrieved from www.i.agric.gov.ab.ca on December 2014. Gunnars, K.(-).13 proven health benefits of Coffee.Retrieved from authoritynutrition .com on December 2014. Harani, K et al.(2010).Momorcida Charantia.Retrieved from globalresearchonline.net on December 2014. Justo, P.(-).What's inside a cup of Coffee.Retrieved from archive.wired.com on December 2014. Maheswari, R.(2014.Momorcida Charantia.Retrieved from ijrbs.com on Deceember 2014. Rasco, E.(-)Improved cultivars of Ampalaya.Retrieved from agris.fao.org on December 2014. Rivera, J.(2014).Unlocking Coffee's chemical composition.Retrieved from coffeechemistry.com on December 2014. Robertson, S.(2006).What are Flavonoids?.Retrieved from news.medical-net on

December 2014

Tacio, H.(2011).Growing Ampalaya.Retrieved from sunstar.ph on December

2014.

Unknown.(2006).Health benefits of Cocoa Flavonoids.Retrieved from eufic.org on December 2014. Unknown.(-).Alkaloid.Retrieved from biology-online.org on December 2014. Unknown.(-).Alkaloids:contain N-containing Heterocylce.Retrieved from www2. mcdanieledu on December 2014.

Unknown.(2005).Herbal medicine:Ampalya.Retrieved from philippinesherbalmedicine .org on December 2014. Unknown.(2011).Karela.Retrieved from healthbynature.co.uk on December 2014. Unknown.(2012).Bitter Melon:types and benefits.Retrieved from forum.xcitefun.net on December 2014. Unknown.(-).How to prepare the rice field for planting.Retrieved from knowledgebank .irri.org on December 2014. Unknown.(-).Plastic Mulching for crop production.Retrieved from agridir.in on December 2014. Unknown.(-).Planting and transplanting.Retrieved from illinois.edu on December

2014.

Unknown.(2014).How to grow Ampalaya for business.Retrieved from businessdiary .com.ph on December 2014. Unknown.(-).Vine training systems.Retrieved from wineskills.co.uk on December

2014.

Unknown.(2011).Snippets on Ampalaya.Retrieved from gourmet.com.ph on

December 2014.

Unknown.(2014).Is Ampalaya good for high Creatine level people.Retrieved from kid neycares.org on December 2014. Unknown.(2014).Ampalaya and Kidney Disease.Retrieved from allaboutdiabetes.net on December 2014. Unknown.(-).Insect pest management.Retrieved from tmnehs.gov.in on December

2014.

Unknown.(-).13 suprising uses for Coffee.Retrieved from rd.com on December 2014.

Unknown.(-).Are multiple cups of coffee a day bad for you health.Retrieved from fitday.com on December 2014. Unknown,(2011).6 differences between Arabica and Robusta Coffee Beans. Retrieved from coffeebeansblog.co.uk on December 2014. Unknown.(-).Coffee History.Retrieved from coffeeresearch.org on December 2014. Unknown.(-).Ten steps to Coffee.Retrieved from ncausa.org on December 2014. Wood, C.(-).Caffeine-good or bad.Retrieved from topendsports.com on December

2014.

Appendix A

Unknown.(-). Are multiple cups of coffee a day bad for you health. Retrieved from fitday.com on

Cut the ampalaya in half to get the seeds.

Once you get the seeds, remove their soft coating to get the real hard covered seeds.

Once you get the seeds, remove their soft coating to get the real hard covered seeds.

Once you get the seeds, remove their soft coating to get the real hard covered seeds.

Roast the seeds in a frying pan in medium heat or bake them in 250 degrees for 10-15 minutes or until you get your desired color and taste of your seeds

Crush the roasted seeds using mortar and pestle and strain them using a strainer to get

Crush the roasted seeds using mortar and pestle and strain them using a strainer to get the pulverized seeds.

Complete your coffee by putting creamer or sugar. Appendix B Time Table of Activities -Chapter One:

Complete your coffee by putting creamer or sugar.

Appendix B Time Table of Activities

-Chapter One:

October 9:Statement Of Objective

October 12:Significance of the study

October 14:Scopes and Delimitations -Chapter Two November 25:Review of Related Literature and Studies

-Chapter Three: Methodology December 21:Procedure Timetable Materials Introduction

-Chapter Four: Presentation and Analysis of Data January 10:Table of Trials Findings Analysis

Chapter Five: Conclusions and Recommendations January 10: Conclusions Recommendations

Bibliography: January 13

Appendices: January 15 Appendix A:Document Procedure Appendix B:Planning Documents

January 19:Cover Page Acknowledgements Abstract Table of Contents