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STRUCTURALSTEELEDUCATIONALCOUNCIL

TECHNICALINFORMATION& PRODUCTSERVICE

AUGUST 1999

Design of Reduced Beam Section


(RBS) Moment Frame Connections

by
Kevin S. Moore, James O. Malley, Michael D. Engelhardt
D E S I G N OF R E D U C E D B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS

ABOUT T H E AUTHORS
KEVIN S. MOORE is a Design E n g i n e e r with Degenkolb E n g i n e e r s in S a n Francisco, Califor-
nia. He e a r n e d his M.S. degree at The University of Texas at A u s t i n w o r k i n g u n d e r th e direc-
tion of Dr. J. A. Y u r a a n d Dr. M. D. E n g e l h a r d t . While c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h , Kevin a s s i s t e d
Dr. E n g e l h a r d t with m a t e r i a l testing for th e '~UT Tests," s o m e of th e first m o m e n t c o n n e c t i o n
tests following t he 1994 Northridge e a r t h q u a k e . He was th e lead e n g i n e e r for a 5-stolry SMF
building utilizing RBS c o n n e c t i o n s c o n s t r u c t e d in S a n F r a n c i s c o a n d is a registered Profes-
sional E n g i n e e r in California.

J A M E S 0. MALLEY is a Senior Principal at Degenkolb E n g i n e e r s in S a n Francisco, Califor-


nia. He is t he Project Director for Topical Investigations of the SAC J o i n t V e n t u r e P a r t n e r s h i p .
The SAC J o i n t V e n t u r e w a s c r e a t e d to develop guideline d o c u m e n t s for t h e design, evaluation,
a n d repair of steel m o m e n t frame bui l d in g s in r e s p o n s e to th e d a m a g e c a u s e d by th e North-
ridge e a r t h q u a k e . J i m h a s b e e n involved with m a n y steel design a n d peer review projects,
i n c l u d i n g t he 5-story SMF building listed above. He is a m e m b e r of th e AISC C o m m i t t e e on
Specifications a n d Chair of t he Seismic S u b c o m m i t t e e a n d h a s a u t h o r e d n u m e r o u s p a p e r s on
steel design a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n t h r o u g h o u t h is career. He is also a r e g i s t e r e d S t r u c t u r a l Engi-
n e e r in California.

MICHAEL D. ENGELHARDT is a n a s s o ciate professor of Civil E n g i n e e r i n g at The University


of Texas at Austin. Mike t e a c h e s c o u r s e s on s t r u c t u r a l steel design at The University of Texas
a n d c o n d u c t s r e s e a r c h on seismic r e s i s t a n t steel framing. His previous w o r k i n c l u d e s m a j o r
c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d validation of eccentrically b r a c e d f r a m e s (EBFs). Mike
h a s b e e n a n active p a r t i c i p a n t in m o m e n t c o n n e c t i o n r e s e a r c h since t h e 1994 Northridge
e a r t h q u a k e a n d h a s w o r k e d extensively on RBS r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h . Mike is a m e m b e r of AISC
T a s k C o m m i t t e e N u m b e r 113 on Seismic Design a n d is a registered Professional E n g i n e e r in
California.
D E S I G N OF REDUCED B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS

CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 1
1.1 DESCRIPTION OF SMF ................................................................................. 1
1.2 BACKGROUND OF RBS ............................................................................... 2
. HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF RBS SMF CONNECTIONS ........................ 3
2.1 INITIAL RESEARCH ....................................................................................... 3
3. SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS .............................................................................. 4
3.1 OVERVIEW OF TEST RESULTS FOR RADIUS CUT RBS SPECIMENS ........... 4
4. RBS DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR SMFS .................................................................. 6
4.1 RBS DESIGN ................................................................................................. 6
4.2 RBS SIZING .................................................................................................. 7
4.3 STEP-BY-STEP PROCEDURE ...................................................................... 10
4.4 ADDITIONAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
o RBS DESIGN EXAMPLE ....................................................................................... 18
6. PROCEDURES FOR ACCEPTANCE OF DESIGN BY BUILDING AUTHORITIES ...21
6. I C O M M U N I C A T I O N ....................................................................................... 21
6.2 METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................... 22
6.3 CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS ................................................................... 22
. FABRICATION AND INSPECTION ISSUES ........................................................... 22
7.1 CUTTING AND GRINDING ........................................................................... 22
7.2 WELDING .................................................................................................... 23
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................... 25
APPENDIX A ......................................................................................................... Ai

LIST OF FIGURES

1.1 PRE-NORTHRIDGE MOMENT CONNECTION DETAIL ................................................. 1


1.2 RADIUS CUT RBS MOMENT CONNECTION ............................................................... 2
2.1 TAPERED CUT RBS MOMENT CONNECTION ............................................................ 3
2.2 E X A M P L E O F L A B O R A T O R Y B E H A V I O R O F R A D I U S C U T R B S T E S T S P E C I M E N ..... 4
(A) DETAIL OF TEST SPECIMEN ........................................................................... 4
(B) RESPONSE OF TEST SPECIMEN ..................................................................... 4
4.1 MOMENT DIAGRAM AND BEAM GEOMETRY FOR RBS ............................................. 7
4.2 GEOMETRY OF RADIUS CUT RBS ............................................................................. 8
4.3 TYPICAL MOMENT FRAME BEAM WITH RBS CONNECTIONS ................................... 8
4.4 B E A M A T M I N I M U M S E C T I O N O F R B S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.5 F R E E B O D Y D I A G R A M B E T W E E N C E N T E R S O F R B S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.6 FREE BODY DIAGRAM BETWEEN CENTER OF RBS
AND FACE OF COLUMN FLANGE ............................................................................ 12
4.7 F R E E B O D Y D I A G R A M F O R C A L C U L A T I O N O F C O L U M N M O M E N T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.8 C O M P A R I S O N O F T E S T R E S U L T S F O R C O V E R P L A T E D A N D R B S C O N N E C T I O N S 17
5.1 RBS DIMENSIONS ................................................................................................... 18
5.2 P O R T I O N O F E X A M P L E B E A M B E T W E E N R B S C E N T E R S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3 CONNECTION DETAIL FOR DESIGN EXAMPLE ....................................................... 21
DESIGN OF REDUCED BEAM SECTION (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS

I. Introduction Recent s t u d i e s by Lee (1997) a n d o t h e r s h a v e


d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t this a s s u m p t i o n is far dif-
ferent from the a c t u a l behavior.
W h e n s u b j e c t e d to a major e a r t h q u a k e , build-
ings designed to m e e t the design require-
m e n t s of typical building codes, s u c h as the
UniI'orm B u i l d i n g ~ C o d e (1997), are expected
to have d a m a g e to both s t r u c t u r a l a n d n o n - ~ ~--~ C.P~.70T-4
s t r u c t u r a l elements. The s t r u c t u r a l design for
large seismic events m u s t therefore explicitly
consider the effects of r e s p o n s e beyond th e
elastic range. The "Special Moment Frame"
l I I : I . 7/8" A325-XBOLTS 1
(SMF) steel building system is designed s u c h
t h a t t he c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n t he f r a m e
beams and columns absorb substantial
energy a n d provide major contributions to the
d i s p l a c e m e n t ductility d e m a n d .

1.1 D e s c r i p t i o n o f SMF

A SMF lateral force resisting s y s t e m is often


Figure 1. I Pre-Northridge
preferred by building o w n e r s a n d a r c h i t e c t s
Moment Connection Detail
b e c a u s e this type of s y s t e m provides large
u n o b s t r u c t e d s p a c e s t h r o u g h o u t the build-
ing plan. This "open" layout offers the m o s t In th e design of SMF c o n n e c t i o n s , t h e
flexibility for p r o g r a m m i n g the spaces as well e n g i n e e r m u s t set objectives for both load
as a r c h i t e c t u r a l a p p o i n t m e n t s . For t he s e rea- a n d d e f o r m a t i o n capacities. Usually, the load
sons, steel buildings with SMF s y s t e m s are c a p a c i t y r e q u i r e m e n t is b a s e d on the plastic
quite c o m m o n in m a j o r c o m m e r c i a l a n d m o m e n t of th e b eam. The c o n n e c t i o n m u s t
instit ut i ona l s t r u c t u r e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e be strong e n o u g h to develop t h e s t r e n g t h of
SMF s y s t e m is c o n s i d e r e d by m a n y to be one the b e a m , t h u s r e d u c i n g th e risk of brittle
of the m o s t ductile steel building s y s t e m s failure in the c o n n e c t i o n . Inelastic deforma-
available to the engineer. For this r e a s o n , tion c a p a c i t y is r e q u i r e d to a s s u r e ductility in
SMF s y s t e m s have b e e n widely u s e d in a r e a s p r e d e t e r m i n e d locations w h e n s u b j e c t e d to
of high seismicity. large d e f o r m a t i o n d e m a n d s .
SMFs are typically c o m p r i s e d of c o n n e c - After some of the p r o b l e m s observed in
tions b e t w e e n wide flange b e a m s a n d SMF c o n n e c t i o n s after the Northridge e a r t h -
c o l u m n s w h e r e b e a m flanges are welded to q u a k e , a c o m m o n p h i l o s o p h y h a s b e e n to
c o l u m n flanges utilizing complete joint pene- design the c o n n e c t i o n to r e m a i n n o m i n a l l y
tration welds. Figure 1.1 s how s a typical elastic at the c o l u m n face, a n d force t h e
u n r e i n f o r c e d design detail for a beam-to-col- inelastic d e f o r m a t i o n of the frame to o c c u r in
u m n c o n n e c t i o n u s e d in SMF s y s t e m s prior a portion of the b e a m , a w a y from th e con-
to the 1994 Northridge e a r t h q u a k e . C o m m o n nection. This p h i l o s o p h y is e x e c u t e d by u s i n g
practice prior to the Northridge e a r t h q u a k e a "capacity design" a p p r o a c h . The plastic
was to either bolt or weld the web to the col- m o m e n t a n d a s s o c i a t e d s h e a r of the b e a m is
u m n s h e a r plate, a n d to weld the b e a m b a s e d on probable s t r e n g t h s of materials.
flanges to the c o l u m n flange u s i n g a com- These m a x i m u m s t h e n b e c o m e t h e design
plete joint p e n e t r a t i o n groove weld. Histori- loads for the co n n ectio n . The c o n n e c t i o n of
cally, de si gne rs have a s s u m e d t h a t b e a m the b e a m to th e c o l u m n flange is t h e n
s h e a r is t r a n s f e r r e d to the c o l u m n by the d e s i g n e d u s i n g n o m i n a l m a t e r i a l properties.
b e a m web c o n n e c t i o n a n d the m o m e n t is Most post-Northridge c o n n e c t i o n d e s i g n s
t r a n s f e r r e d t h r o u g h t h e b e a m flanges. locate t h e plastic h i n g e (where inel as t i c
DESIGN OF REDUCED BEAM SECTION (RBS} MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS
d e f o r m a t i o n s a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d in t h e SMF Following t h e N o r t h r i d g e e a r t h q u a k e , t h e y
b e a m ) a w a y f r o m t h e c o l u m n flange t h r o u g h w a i v e d all p a t e n t a n d c l a i m r i g h t s a s s o c i a t e d
r e i n f o r c i n g a s h o r t p o r t i o n of t h e b e a m n e a r w i t h t h e RBS for t h e benefit of t h e p r o f e s s i o n .
t h e c o l u m n . By i n c r e a s i n g t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e This g r a c i o u s g e s t u r e allowed f u r t h e r devel-
b e a m in t h i s region, a plastic h i n g e will t e n d o p m e n t of t h e c o n c e p t for u s e in p o s t - N o r t h -
to form j u s t a d j a c e n t to t h e r e i n f o r c e d por- ridge SMF b u i l d i n g s .
tion of t h e b e a m . T h e i n h e r e n t difficulty w i t h T h e s h a p e , size a n d l o c a t i o n of t h e RBS
utilizing a r e i n f o r c e d b e a m - c o l u m n c o n n e c - all h a v e a n effect o n t h e c o n n e c t i o n d e m a n d s
tion is t h e i n c r e a s e d m a t e r i a l a n d l a b o r c o s t s and performance. Various shapes have been
a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s c o n n e c t i o n a n d t h e SMF t e s t e d a n d u s e d in n e w c o n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g
s y s t e m as well as r e q u i r i n g w e l d s t h a t are t h e p a s t several y e a r s . Test p r o g r a m s h a v e
difficult a n d costly to m a k e a n d i n s p e c t . b e e n p e r f o r m e d to investigate s t r a i g h t c u t
(Plumier, 1997), t a p e r c u t (Chen, et.al. 1996)
1.2 Background of RBS a n d r a d i u s c u t ( E n g e l h a r d t 1997; T r e m b l a y ,
et.al. 1997; Popov, et.al. 1998) r e d u c e d b e a m
sections.
A n o t h e r type of c o n n e c t i o n d e v e l o p e d to force T h e RBS forces yielding a n d h i n g e f o r m a -
the inelastic deformation away from the tion to o c c u r w i t h i n t h e r e d u c e d s e c t i o n of
b e a m - c o l u m n i n t e r f a c e is r e f e r r e d to as a t h e b e a m a n d limits t h e m o m e n t t h a t c a n be
" R e d u c e d B e a m Section" c o n n e c t i o n (RBS) or d e v e l o p e d at t h e face of t h e c o l u m n . By
"dogbone". This c o n n e c t i o n relies o n t h e r e d u c i n g d e m a n d s on t h e b e a m flange groove
selective r e m o v a l of b e a m flange m a t e r i a l welds and the surrounding base metal
a d j a c e n t to t h e b e a m - t o - c o l u m n c o n n e c t i o n , r e g i o n s , t h e RBS r e d u c e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of
typically f r o m b o t h top a n d b o t t o m flanges, f r a c t u r e s o c c u r r i n g in this v u l n e r a b l e region.
to r e d u c e t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n a l a r e a of t h e A l t h o u g h t h e RBS e s s e n t i a l l y w e a k e n s t h e
b e a m . This r e d u c t i o n in c r o s s s e c t i o n a l a r e a b e a m , its i m p a c t o n t h e o v e r a l l l a t e r a l
will r e d u c e t h e m o m e n t c a p a c i t y at a d i s c r e t e s t r e n g t h a n d stiffness of a steel m o m e n t
location in t h e b e a m . V a r i o u s s h a p e s of f r a m e is g e n e r a l l y q u i t e small.
c u t o u t s a r e possible, i n c l u d i n g c o n s t a n t c u t , T h e i n e l a s t i c d e f o r m a t i o n f o c u s e d in a n
t a p e r e d c u t , r a d i u s c u t a n d o t h e r s . Figure RBS c o n n e c t i o n r e m a i n s in t h e r e d u c e d
1.2 i l l u s t r a t e s a r a d i u s c u t RBS c o n n e c t i o n . b e a m s e c t i o n , w h i c h c a n be d e s i g n e d a n d
The L u x e m b o u r g - b a s e d steel m a n u f a c - located such that minimal protective meas-
t u r i n g c o m p a n y , ARBED, h e l d a 1992 US u r e s n e e d to be t a k e n at t h e c o n n e c t i o n of
p a t e n t on t h e r e d u c e d b e a m s e c t i o n (RBS). b e a m to c o l u m n . The s m a l l e r m o m e n t g e n e r -
a t e d a t t h e face of t h e c o l u m n for a n RBS
c o n n e c t i o n , in a d d i t i o n to r e d u c i n g s t r e s s
levels on t h e welds, also offers s o m e a d v a n -
' A t a g e s in satisfying s t r o n g c o l u m n - w e a k b e a m
r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d in m i n i m i z i n g c o l u m n
d o u b l e r plate r e q u i r e m e n t s .
F a b r i c a t i o n a n d e r e c t i o n of t h e RBS c o n -
n e c t i o n avoids t h e a d d i t i o n of s t r e n g t h e n i n g
plates and special weldments that are
r e q u i r e d of m a n y p o s t - N o r t h r i d g e m o m e n t
c o n n e c t i o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e RBS c o n n e c -
tion is very c o m p e t i t i v e from a c o s t p e r s p e c -
tive. B e c a u s e of t h e c o m p e t i t i v e c o s t a n d
~L~ - - . .
established performance based on extensive
t e s t i n g a n d a n a l y s i s , t h e RBS c o n n e c t i o n
a p p e a r s to be a c o s t effective, c o n s i s t e n t l y
F i g u r e 1.2 p e r f o r m i n g c o n n e c t i o n for u s e in t h e s e i s m i c
Radius Cut RBS Moment Connection d e s i g n of SMF b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e s .

2
D E S I G N OFF R E D U C E D B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS
. History of the Development m i n i m u m section of the t a p e r e d RBS. These
of RBS SMF Connections c h a n g e s of c r o s s - s e c t i o n i n t r o d u c e s t r e s s
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s t h a t c a n lead to f r a c t u r e
within th e highly s t r e s s e d r e d u c e d section of
A n u m b e r of significant events led to the cur-
the b eam.
r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t s u r r o u n d i n g SMF design
a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n methodologies. C o n c e r n s
over m a t e r i a l properties, c o n n e c t i o n geome-

I
try, design p a r a m e t e r s a n d weld quality are
j u s t a few i s s u e s w h i c h b e c a m e a c o n c e r n
after brittle failures were observed in SMF ~ ~= ~
m o m e n t c o n n e c t i o n s after the 1994 North-
ridge e a r t h q u a k e .
SMF s t r u c t u r e s were still being d e s i g n e d
a n d r e q u e s t e d by o w n e r s for all t he r e a s o n s
de sc ri be d earlier. The pre-Northridge con- F i g u r e 2. I
nection detail h a d b e c o m e a driving eco- Tapered Cut RBS Moment Connection
n o m i c factor for t he viability of t he SMF sys-
The r a d i u s c u t RBS a p p e a r s to m i n i m i z e
tem. To redesign m o m e n t c o n n e c t i o n s in a
stress c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g t h e
SMF s y s t e m utilizing expensive c o n n e c t i o n
c h a n c e s of a f r a c t u r e o c c u r r i n g within t h e
r e i n f o r c e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s m a d e this building
r e d u c e d section (Engelhardt, et.al. 1996).
s y s t e m less competitive.
Furthermore, test results indicate that
inelastic d e f o r m a t i o n s d i s t r i b u t e over tl~e
2.1 Initial Research length of t h e r e d u c e d section. The r a d i u s c u t
is also relatively simple to fabricate.
A significant a m o u n t of r e s e a r c h a n d t e s t i n g Figure 2.2 s h o w s a n e x a m p l e of a labora-
on RBS m o m e n t c o n n e c t i o n s h a s a l r e a d y tory test of a r a d i u s c u t RBS s p e c i m e n . The
b e e n c o m p l e t e d , a n d a d d i t i o n a l w o r k is c o n n e c t i o n detail is s h o w n in Figure 2.2(a)
u n d e r w a y . Appendix A provides a listing of a n d t h e m o m e n t v e r s u s p lastic r o t a t i o n
tests on RBS c o n n e c t i o n s . The list i n c l u d e s r e s p o n s e is s h o w n in Figure 2.2(b). As is typ-
key f e a t u r e s of e a c h test, i n c l u d i n g m e m b e r ical of m o s t r a d i u s c u t RBS tests, this speci-
sizes a n d s t r e n g t h s , c o n n e c t i o n details, RBS m e n s h o w e d excellent p e r f o r m a n c e .
size a n d shape, a n d t he plastic rotation As s h o w n in Figure 2.2(a),.it is i m p o r t a n t
achieved by e a c h test assemblage. As indi- to n o t e t h a t m o s t RBS test s p e c i m e n s , in
cated by t he d a t a - i n Appendix A, s u c c e s s f u l addition to i n c o r p o r a t i n g the RBS, also incor-
tests have b e e n c o n d u c t e d on c o n s t a n t cut, p o r a t e d significant i m p r o v e m e n t s in w el d i n g
t a p e r e d c u t a n d r a d i u s c u t RBS s p e c i m e n s . a n d in o t h e r detailing f e a t u r e s as c o m p a r e d
The t a p e r e d cut, s h o w n in Figure 2.1, is to th e p r e - N o r t h r i d g e c o n n e c t i o n . All speci-
i n t e n d e d to allow the section m o d u l u s of th e m e n s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g w e l d i n g elec-
b e a m to m a t c h the seismic m o m e n t g r a d i e n t trodes t h a t exhibit i m p r o v e d n o t c h t o u g h -
in the r e d u c e d region, t h e r e b y p r o m o t i n g n e s s as c o m p a r e d to t h e E70T-4 electrode
more u n i f o r m yielding within t he r e d u c e d c o m m o n l y u s e d p rio r to t h e N o r t h r i d g e
section. This is i n t e n d e d to create a reliable, earthquake.
u n i f o r m hi ngi ng location. However, stress The m a j o r i t y of s p e c i m e n s also incorpo-
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s at t he r e - e n t r a n t c o r n e r s of r a t e d i m p r o v e d p ractices with r e s p e c t to
the flange c ut m a y lead to f r a c t u r e at t h e s e b a c k i n g b a r s a n d weld tabs. In m o s t cases,
locations. After significant p l a s t i c rotation, b o t t o m flange b a c k i n g b a r s were removed,
both the c o n s t a n t c u t a n d t a p e r e d c u t RBS b a c k g o u g e d a n d sealed with a fillet weld, a n d
connections, have experienced fractures top flange b a c k i n g b a r s were seal w e l d e d to
within the RBS in some laboratory tests. th e c o l u m n . Weld ru n -o ff t a b s w e r e r e m o v e d
These fra c t ures have o c c u r r e d at c h a n g e s in in m o s t cases. In a d d i t i o n to w eld in g r e l a t e d
section within t he RBS, for example at the i m p r o v e m e n t s , m o s t s p e c i m e n s also incorpo-

3
DESIGN OF REDUCED BEAM SECTION (RBS} MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS
~ ~ / B.U, bar to remain
---.--~"~J / ~ Remove weld tabs
40000 . '

~ "~'>~. . . . . . . i~'i"" Note: $1:~.~B4 I


i ~ ~ 45 ~ All field welds: E71T-8
r ~ ")(S~if~edd CVN = 20 20.-~
ft-lbs at -20 deg F)

~ ~ \-~W~,lg4

i
~ ~ ~ltS: 1" A325 9" C-C ~
' ~Holes: 1-1/16" DIA. J
E ~8" x 6" x 2'-6" /
~ Z ................. ~
....
~ ~ I k cleaned and ins~cted .,0000
~ R e a v e B.U. bar
IN k Remove ~ l d tabs
~8 i -20000
~oo
" 3'-4" Radius
~ ~ /Grind Smith .30000 I ~ Moment ~nd RotafJonComputed
v,lth Rs~pe~to Faca o~Col,~nn
5/1~ ~/ ~ / Grind Parallel to Beam Flange
/
~ ~ ~ 2.31" ~0000 I I I
.0.0~ .0.114 ,-0.03 -0.02 .0.01 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
Total Plastic Rotation (radian)
~ ,~ ~
9" 27"

(a) Detail of ~ e s t S p e c i m e n (b) R e s p o n s e of T e s t S p e c i m e n

Figure 2.2 E x a m p l e of Laboratory Behavior of Radius Cut RBS Test S p e c i m e n

rated additional detailing improvements. in s a t i s f y i n g t h ~ s e q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t r e q u i r e -


Consequently, although the beam flange m e n t s . A p p e n d i x S of t h e Seismic Provisions
cutouts are the most distinguishing feature for Structural Steel Buildings p r o v i d e s g u i d e -
of t h e R B S c o n n e c t i o n , t h e s u c c e s s of t h i s lines on extrapolating test results beyond the
c o n n e c t i o n in l a b o r a t o r y t e s t s is a l s o likely t e s t e d m e m b e r sizes.
r e l a t e d to t h e m a n y o t h e r w e l d i n g a n d detail- A p p e n d i x A i n c l u d e s l i s t i n g s for 4 3 R B S
i n g i m p r o v e m e n t s i m p l e m e n t e d in t h e t e s t tests. This number does not include tests by
s p e c i m e n s , i.e. t h e u s e of w e l d m e t a l w i t h P l u m i e r (1997), or s h a k i n g t a b l e t e s t s b y
improved notch toughness, improved prac- C h e n , Y e h a n d C h u (1996). A d d i t i o n a l t e s t s
t i c e s w i t h r e s p e c t to b a c k i n g b a r s a n d w e l d h a v e a l s o b e e n c o n d u c t e d o n s p e c i m e n s in
t a b s , u s e of c o n t i n u i t y p l a t e s , etc. w h i c h t h e R B S w a s p r o v i d e d in t h e b o t t o m
f l a n g e o n l y for u s e a s a retrofit m e a s u r e for
3. Summary of Test Results existing moment frame connections. These
RBS r e t r o f i t t e s t s a r e n o t r e p o r t e d in A p p e n -
dix A. I n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e t e s t s is a v a i l a b l e in
T h e t a b l e in A p p e n d i x A p r o v i d e s a l i s t i n g of t h e AISC Steel Design Guide Series Twelve
R B S t e s t d a t a . While t h i s list m a y n o t b e (Gross, et.al. 1999).
e x h a u s t i v e or c o n t a i n e v e r y t e s t p e r f o r m e d
on RBS beam-column subassemblies or
a n c i l l a r y t e s t i n g to s u p p o r t p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e 3.1 Overview of Test Results for
list d o e s p r o v i d e t h e r e a d e r w i t h a s u b s t a n - Radius Cut RBS Specimens
tial a m o u n t of d o c u m e n t e d p e r f o r m a n c e c o n -
d i t i o n s for t h i s c o n n e c t i o n . T h e t a b l e a l s o T h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a n o v e r v i e w of t h e t e s t
i n c l u d e s R B S t e s t s c o m p l e t e d u n d e r t h e SAC d a t a l i s t e d in A p p e n d i x A for r a d i u s c u t R B S
P h a s e 2 r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m a s of m i d - 1 9 9 9 . t e s t s p e c i m e n s . T h e r e a r e 27 r a d i u s c u t R B S
These test results have not been formally t e s t s l i s t e d in t h e table. E x a m i n a t i o n of t h i s
p u b l i s h e d , b u t a r e i n c l u d e d b a s e d o n avail- d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e c o n n e c t i o n s devel-
able test reports. oped plastic rotations ranging from 0.029 rad
T h e AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural to b e y o n d 0 . 0 5 r a d . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t
Steel Buildings (1997) r e q u i r e q u a l i f i c a t i o n that the radius cut RBS connection can
t e s t i n g for S M F c o n n e c t i o n d e s i g n s . T h e t e s t develop large plastic rotations on a consis-
r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d in A p p e n d i x A m a y b e u s e f u l t e n t b a s i s . Also n o t a b l e is t h e fact t h a t a

4
D E S I G N OF R E D U C E D B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS
large n u m b e r of r a d i u s c u t RBS c o n n e c t i o n s zones. However, s u c h tests will be c o m p l e t e d
have been tested u n d e r a variety of condi- d u r i n g 1999.
tions by a n u m b e r of different investigators, Of the 27 r a d i u s c u t RBS s p e c i m e n s
a n d t h e r e h a s not b e e n a single test with listed in Appendix A, t h e r e are no r e p o r t e d
poor performance. This suggests t he c on n ec- cas es of weld fracture. B e a m flange groove
tion is quite r o b u s t a n d reliable. welds for all r a d i u s c u t RBS s p e c i m e n s have
The d a t a in Appendix A d e m o n s t r a t e s th e b e e n m a d e by t h e self s h i e l d e d flux co red arc
possible u l t i m a t e failure m o d e s for the r a d i u s welding p r o c e s s (SS-FCAW) u s i n g electrodes
cu t RBS connection. In m a n y tests, s p e c i m e n with a m i n i m u m specified CVN t o u g h n e s s of
s t r e n g t h g r a d u a l l y d e t e r i o r a t e d d u e to local 20 ft.-lbs, a t - 2 0 F. Three different electrode
a n d lateral torsional buckling, a n d testing d e s i g n a t i o n s h a v e b e e n u s e d in t h e s e tests:
w a s t e r m i n a t e d d u e to limitations of t he test- E71T-8, E70TG-K2, a n d E70T-6. For one of
ing e q u i p m e n t or test setup. However, a th e r a d i u s c u t RBS s p e c i m e n s , details of t h e
n u m b e r of c o n n e c t i o n s have b e e n loaded well b a c k i n g b a r s were n o t reported. However, for
p a s t the o c c u r r e n c e of local flange b u c k l i n g the r e m a i n i n g 26 s p e c i m e n s in w h i c h back-
within the RBS, a n d u l t i m a t e l y failed by low ing b ar details w e r e reported, th e b o t t o m
cycle fatigue f r a c t u r e of t he RBS. Only one of flange b a c k i n g w a s r e m o v e d a n d t h e top
the 27 r a d i u s c u t RBS s p e c i m e n s experi- flange b a c k i n g w a s left in place. For t h e
e n c e d a f r a c t u r e at t he b e a m - t o - c o l u m n con- majority of t h e s e s p e c i m e n s , th e top flange
nection. This s p e c i m e n , d e s i g n a t e d "DBBW- b a c k i n g w a s seal w e l d e d to t h e face of t h e
C - B e a m 2" in Appendix A, f r a c t u r e d in th e c o l u m n , a l t h o u g h t h e s e seal welds were n o t
b e a m b o t t o m flange b a s e m e t a l a d j a c e n t to provided in four s p e c i m e n s (WG-1 to WG-4).
the groove weld, with t he f r a c t u r e initiating Note t h a t only o n e of t h e 27 r a d i u s c u t RBS
at t he weld a c c e s s hole. However, even this s p e c i m e n s u s e d cover plates at th e b e a m - t o -
c o n n e c t i o n developed 0.038 rad. of plastic c o l u m n c o n n e c t i o n as a s u p p l e m e n t to t h e
rotation prior to fracture. RBS.. The r e m a i n i n g 26 s p e c i m e n s u s e d no
Most of t h e r a d i u s c u t RBS s p e c i m e n s s u p p l e m e n t a l rein fo rcin g m e a s u r e s (cover
h a v e b e e n tested p s e u d o statically, u s i n g a plates, ribs, etc.) at th e c o n n e c t i o n .
loading protocol in w h i c h applied displace- D i m e n s i o n s of th e RBS c u t s for t h e 27
m e n t s are progressively i n c r e a s e d . However, r a d i u s c u t s p e c i m e n s vary over a fairly small
one s p e c i m e n ("S-l") w a s tested m o n o t o n i - range. The d i s t a n c e from t h e face of th e col-
cally to failure. Two s p e c i m e n s ("LS-2" a n d u m n to th e s t a r t of t h e RBS c u t (designated
"LS-3") were tested u s i n g a loading protocol as L 1 in Appendix A) r a n g e d from 50 to 75%
i n t e n d e d to r e p r e s e n t n e a r s o u r c e g r o u n d of th e b e a m flange width. The l e n g t h s of t h e
mot i ons t h a t c o n t a i n a large pulse. Finally, c u t s (designated as LRB S in Appendix A)
two s p e c i m e n s ("S-4" a n d "SC-2") were t e s t e d h a v e varied from 74 to 82% of th e b e a m
dynamically. The r a d i u s c u t RBS s p e c i m e n s depth. The a m o u n t of flange w i d t h r e m o v e d
have pe rforme d well u n d e r all of t h e s e load- at th e m i n i m u m section of th e RBS (desig-
ing conditions. n a t e d as FR in Appendix A) h a s v a r i e d from
A wide r a n g e of b e a m sizes h a v e b e e n 38 to 55%.
tested with t he r a d i u s c u t RBS. The s m a l l e s t Two types of web c o n n e c t i o n details h a v e
b e a m listed in Appendix A is a W530x82 b e e n u s e d for r a d i u s c u t RBS test s p e c i m e n s :
( C a n a d i a n designation) w h i c h is r o u g h l y a welded a n d a bolted detail. In th e w e l d e d
equivalent to a W2 lx50. The heaviest b e a m detail, th e b e a m web is w e l d e d directly to t h e
tested is a W36x300. All c o l u m n s for r a d i u s c o l u m n flange u s i n g a c o m p l e t e j o i n t p e n e -
cut RBS tests have b e e n W14 sections. Most tration groove weld. For th e bolted detail,
of the c o l u m n s have b e e n sized to provide for fully t e n s i o n e d h i g h s t r e n g t h bolts are u s e d .
a very strong p a n e l zone, a l t h o u g h a small Approximately h a l f t h e s p e c i m e n s h a v e u s e d
n u m b e r of tests h a v e i n c l u d e d m o d e r a t e the bolted detail, a n d half t h e w e l d e d detail.
p ane l zone yielding. No tests h a v e b e e n con- The d a t a i n d i c a t e s no significant difference in
d u c t e d on s p e c i m e n s with very w e a k p an el p e r f o r m a n c e for r a d i u s c u t s p e c i m e n s .

5
D E S I G N O F REDUCED B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS

B e a m lateral br a c i ng details h a v e also 4. RBS D e s i g n Procedure for


varied a m o n g t he r a d i u s c u t RBS s p e c i m e n s . SMFs
Of the 27 s p e c i m e n s , seven are r e p o r t e d to
have provided a b r a c e at the RBS. For th e
The following sections co n tain r e c o m m e n d a -
r e m a i n i n g 20 s p e c i m e n s , t he lateral br ace
tions for th e design of n e w r a d i u s c u t RBS
w as typically f u r t h e r a w a y from t he RBS
m o m e n t connections. Bas ed on the suc-
placed n e a r the point of load application.
cesses outlined above, a n d the preference of
Finally, of t h e 27 r a d i u s c u t s p e c i m e n s
e n g i n e e r s designing n e w SMF s t r u c t u r e s , t h e
listed in Appendix A, six were tested with a
design meth o d o lo g y p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n focuses
composite c o n c r e t e floor slab. For S p e c i m e n s
on t h e r a d i u s c u t RBS shape. Globally
"SC-1" a n d "SC-2," a o n e - i n c h gap w a s inten-
i m p o r t a n t design p a r a m e t e r s s u c h as p a n e l
tionally left b e t w e e n the face of t h e c o l u m n
zone participation, b e a m s h e a r a n d overall
a n d the slab, in a n a t t e m p t to minimize com-
frame drift are a d d r e s s e d as p a r t of th e rec-
p o s i t e a c t i on. For S p e c i m e n s "DBBW-C
o m m e n d e d procedure. Many important
B e a m s 1 & 2" a n d "DBWW-C B e a m s 1 & 2,"
a s p e c t s of m o m e n t c o n n e c t i o n design are
no s u c h gap wa s provided. No d e t r i m e n t a l
applicable a n d m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d w h e n
effects of the slab were observed in a n y of
designing SMF RBS connections. The RBS
t h e s e tests. In s o m e tests, the investigators
design meth o d o lo g y s h o u l d be p e r f o r m e d in
n o t e d t h a t t he slab e n h a n c e d overall energy
c o n j u n c t i o n with available test r e s u l t s as
dissipation by delaying b e a m instability. Note
p a r t of th e justification of th e design proce-
t h a t for all composite s p e c i m e n s , no s h e a r
dure.
s t u d s were placed in the region of t he RBS or
The initial p a r t of th e S M F / R B S design is
b e t w e e n t he face of the c o l u m n a n d t he start
to d e t e r m i n e the configuration of th e m o m e n t
of the RBS.
frames, th e typical b ay sizes, p l a n d i m e n -
As d e s c r i b e d above, a r a t h e r wide r a n g e of
sions a n d frame locations. Many of t h e s e
conditions h a s b e e n investigated in RBS test-
r e q u i r e m e n t s are d e t e r m i n e d by o t h e r s ,
ing compl e t e d to-date. Testing of RBS con-
n e c t i o n s is c o n t i n u i n g u n d e r t he SAC pro- (architects, o w n e r s , developers), b u t t h e
engineer s h o u l d influence t h e s e d ecis i o n s
g r a m a n d for specific building c o n s t r u c t i o n
b a s e d on s o u n d design practices. One ex am-
projects. The r e a d e r is e n c o u r a g e d to r e m a i n
ple w o u l d be to c o n s i d e r th e b ay size if a
a b r e a s t of this data, as it b e c o m e s available.
SMF/RBS s y s t e m is to be utilized. B e c a u s e
Even t h o u g h m a n y variables have a l r e a d y
of the high m o m e n t g r a d i e n t ratio a s s o c i a t e d
b e e n investigated in RBS testing, t h e r e are a
with sh o rt bays, m o r e b e a m flange removal
n u m b e r of conditions t h a t have received less
in RBS c o n n e c t i o n s will be r e q u i r e d for s h o r t
attention. These conditions, w h e n t h e y arise
bay f r a m e s t h a n long b ay frames. In addi-
in design, s h o u l d be a p p r o a c h e d with c a u -
tion, b e a m sizes m a y be affected. With proper
tion since d a t a is lacking in t h e s e areas. In
g u id an ce, th e e n g i n e e r c a n s u p p l y informa-
s u c h cases, additional testing m a y be war-
tion t h a t will help th e a r c h i t e c t develop a
r a n t e d . For example, no r a d i u s c u t RBS con-
r a t i o n a l , efficient b u i l d i n g d esig n . U p o n
n e c t i o n s to t he w e a k axis of a wide flange col-
d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the basic s t r u c t u r a l p a r a m -
u m n have b e e n tested, a l t h o u g h d a t a for
eters, the e n g i n e e r c a n begin th e m e m b e r
some ot he r RBS c o n n e c t i o n s to t he c o l u m n
a n d c o n n e c t i o n design process.
w e a k axis a re available (see S p e c i m e n s
"COH-3" a n d "COH-4" in Appendix A). No
s p e c i m e n s with deep c o l u m n s have yet b e e n 4.1 RBS Design
considered. F u r t h e r , no tests on s p e c i m e n s
with very w e a k p a n e l zones have b e e n con- The e n g i n e e r will begin th e design of t h e
d u c t e d . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h is u n d e r w a y to s t r u c t u r e by d e t e r m i n i n g th e force level a n d
a d d r e s s t h e s e a n d other issues. drift limits to be i n c o r p o r a t e d as p a r t of t h e
design. These p a r a m e t e r s are typically set by
a model building code s u c h as th e Uniform
Building Code (1997) or, in the f u t u r e , the

6
DESIGN OF REDUCED BEAM SECTION (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS
International Building Code. O n c e t h e force itly a c c o u n t for t h e RBS, a n d t h e n i n c r e a s e d
level is d e t e r m i n e d b a s e d o n site c o n d t i o n s , b y t h e a m o u n t s n o t e d a b o v e to a c c o u n t for
s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e m , s e i s m i c i t y of t h e region t h e RBS c o n n e c t i o n s . Alternatively, a r e f i n e d
a n d t a r g e t drift limits, t h e e n g i n e e r c a n begin s t r u c t u r a l m o d e l , i n c l u d i n g t h e r e d u c e d stiff-
t h e d e s i g n of t h e s e i s m i c s y s t e m u s i n g t h e n e s s at e a c h c o n n e c t i o n d u e to t h e RBS, c a n
AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel be d e v e l o p e d to c h e c k t h e stiffness of t h e
Buildings {1997). frame.
B a s e d on t h e r e q u i r e d d e s i g n p a r a m e t e r s ,
t h e e n g i n e e r will d e t e r m i n e t h e b e a m a n d 4.2 RBS Sizing
c o l u m n sizes r e q u i r e d to m e e t drift limits,
etc. It is i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e e n g i n e e r r e m e m -
b e r t h a t t h e f r a m e is l e s s stiff d u e to t h e RBS T h e l o c a t i o n a n d size of t h e RBS will d i c t a t e
d e s i g n , t h a n a "typical" n o n - R B S SMF. t h e level of s t r e s s at t h e b e a m f l a n g e - c o l u m n
After p r o p e r b e a m - c o l u m n sizes h a v e flange c o n n e c t i o n . T h e RBS s e i s m i c m o m e n t
b e e n d e t e r m i n e d for t h e f r a m e , t h e RBS d i a g r a m is p r e s e n t e d in F i g u r e 4.1 a n d indi-
d e s i g n p r o c e d u r e s h o u l d b e f o l l o w e d to cates the Nominal Capacity, the Probable
develop t h e p r o p e r flange r e d u c t i o n to pro- D e m a n d , a n d t h e N o m i n a l D e m a n d for t h e
d u c e t h e d e s i r e d p e r f o r m a n c e . M a n y of t h e RBS b e a m . Note t h a t M ' p RBS is t h e m a x i -
design steps a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s parallel m u m m o m e n t e x p e c t e d at l~he face of t h e col-
i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d in r e p o r t s r e f e r e n c e d at u m n flange w h e n t h e RBS h a s y i e l d e d a n d
t h e e n d of t h i s d o c u m e n t . strain hardened under combined earthquake
T h e s t r e n g t h of t h e b e a m at t h e m i n i m u m a n d gravity loads. M' p RBS is d i r e c t l y influ-
s e c t i o n of t h e RBS m u s t satisfy c o d e r e q u i r e - e n c e d b y t h e P r o b a b l e i J e m a n d , a n d t h e loca-
m e n t s u n d e r all a p p l i c a b l e l o a d c o m b i n a - tion of t h e RBS. M' P,RBS is l a t e r r e f e r r e d to
t i o n s i n c l u d i n g gravity, w i n d , a n d o t h e r l o a d s a s Mf in t h i s d o c u m e n t .
a p p r o p r i a t e for t h e s t r u c t u r e u n d e r c o n s i d e r -
ation. B e a m sizes in typical S M F s a r e n o r - r--~
, \ I
r ...... ,~;~,~-~, .............................. i
,
m a l l y g o v e r n e d by c o d e specified drift limits. ~ ~,~as i
Consequently, even with a reduction in b e a m
m o m e n t d u e to t h e a d d i t i o n of t h e RBS, t h e
s t r e n g t h of t h e m o d i f i e d f r a m e will often be
s a t i s f a c t o r y for all l o a d c o m b i n a t i o n s . In ~--~,-,,~o~
Moment Diegrem
s o m e c a s e s , a m i n o r i n c r e a s e in b e a m size
may be needed.
T h e a d d i t i o n of RBS c u t o u t s will r e d u c e
t h e stiffness of a steel m o m e n t f r a m e . This
r e d u c t i o n in stiffness, a l t h o u g h g e n e r a l l y L~
q u i t e small, m a y affect t h e ability of t h e ~am , ~ y

f r a m e to satisfy c o d e specified drift limits. A


r e c e n t s t u d y b y G r u b b s (1997) e v a l u a t e d t h e F i g u r e 4. I M o m e n t D i a g r a m a n d
r e d u c t i o n in elastic l a t e r a l stiffness of steel B e a m G e o m e t r y for R B S
m o m e n t f r a m e s d u e to t h e a d d i t i o n of r a d i u s
c u t RBS c o n n e c t i o n s . T h i s s t u d y s h o w e d T h e overall goal i n sizing t h e RBS c u t is to
t h a t over a w i d e r a n g e of f r a m e h e i g h t s a n d limit t h e m a x i m u m b e a m m o m e n t t h a t c a n
c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , t h e a v e r a g e r e d u c t i o n in stiff- develop at t h e face of t h e c o l u m n to v a l u e s i n
n e s s for a 50 p e r c e n t flange r e d u c t i o n w a s on t h e r a n g e of a b o u t 85 to 100 p e r c e n t of t h e
t h e o r d e r of 6 to 7 p e r c e n t . For a 40 p e r c e n t beam's actual plastic moment. This
flange r e d u c t i o n , t h e r e d u c t i o n in elastic a p p r o a c h , in effect, l i m i t s t h e a v e r a g e m a x i -
f r a m e stiffness w a s o n t h e o r d e r of 4 to 5 per- m u m s t r e s s at t h e b e a m flange groove w e l d s
cent. If t h i s r e d u c t i o n in stiffness is a con- to v a l u e s o n t h e o r d e r of t h e a c t u a l yield
c e r n , drift c a n be c o m p u t e d in t h e u s u a l s t r e s s of t h e b e a m . E x p e r i m e n t s h a v e s h o w n
m a n n e r u s i n g a m o d e l t h a t d o e s n o t explic- t h a t c o n n e c t i o n s d e t a i l e d in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h

7
D E S I G N OF REDUCED B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS} MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS

the recommendations provided below are The procedure also assumes the minimum
c a p a b l e of s a f e l y r e s i s t i n g t h i s level of s p e c i f i e d yield s t r e s s of t h e b e a m is 50 k s i or
m o m e n t . As a p o i n t of c o m p a r i s o n , t e s t s o n l e s s (Gr. 50 b e a m s ) , a n d t h a t t h e m i n i m u m
pre-Northridge moment connections without s p e c i f i e d yield s t r e s s of t h e c o l u m n is 50 k s i
RBS cutouts often show maximum moments or g r e a t e r (Gr. 50 or Gr. 65 c o l u m n s ) .
at t h e face of t h e c o l u m n of a b o u t 125 p e r - F i g u r e 4 . 2 s h o w s t h e g e o m e t r y of a r a d i u s
c e n t of M~ or g r e a t e r (Popov, S t e p h e n 1972; c u t RBS, a n d F i g u r e 4 . 3 s h o w s t h e e n t i r e
Tsai, PopoPv 1988; E n g e l h a r d t , H u s a i n 1993). moment frame beam. The key dimensions
C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e a d d i t i o n of t h e R B S
c u t o u t s in t h e b e a m r e s u l t s in a s u b s t a n t i a l R = radius of cut
4c~+ d

r e d u c t i o n in m o m e n t a t t h e face of t h e col- 8c
umn.
M u c h of t h e d e s i g n p r o c e d u r e p r e s e n t e d
below follows recommendations of t h e
Interim Guidelines: Evaluation, Repair, Modi-
fication and Design of Welded Steel Moment
Frame Structures (FEMA 267) (1995) a n d t h e C

~1
Interim Guidelines Advisory No. 1, Supple- I~ ~1 ~ --1
a b
ment to FEMA 2 6 7 (FEMA 267A) (1997), w i t h
s e v e r a l e x c e p t i o n s . M o s t s i g n i f i c a n t of t h e s e
e x c e p t i o n s is t h a t FEMA 2 6 7 A p l a c e s a limit Figure 4.2
o n t h e m a x i m u m s t r e s s p e r m i t t e d a t t h e face Geometry of Radius Cut RBS
of t h e c o l u m n e q u a l to n i n e t y p e r c e n t of t h e
m i n i m u m s p e c i f i e d yield s t r e s s of t h e col- t h a t m u s t b e c h o s e n b y t h e d e s i g n e r a r e a,
u m n . F o r t h e c a s e of a n A 9 9 2 (A572 Gr. 50) t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e face of t h e c o l u m n to
c o l u m n , t h i s r e s u l t s in a l i m i t of 4 5 ksi. T h i s t h e s t a r t of t h e R B S c u t , b, t h e l e n g t h of t h e
l i m i t w a s e s t a b l i s h e d to a d d r e s s c o n c e r n s RBS c u t , a n d c, t h e d e p t h of t h e R B S c u t a t
r e g a r d i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l for t h r o u g h - t h i c k n e s s its m i n i m u m s e c t i o n . T h e r a d i u s of t h e c u t R
f a i l u r e s in c o l u m n f l a n g e s . T h e d e s i g n p r o c e - c a n be r e l a t e d to d i m e n s i o n s b a n d c b a s e d
d u r e l i m i t s t h e m a x i m u m s t r e s s at t h e face of o n t h e g e o m e t r y of a c i r c u l a r arc, u s i n g t h e
t h e c o l u m n to a v a l u e o n t h e o r d e r of t h e e q u a t i o n in Fig. 4.2. T h e a m o u n t of f l a n g e
a c t u a l yield s t r e s s of t h e b e a m . T h i s e x c e p - m a t e r i a l t h a t is r e m o v e d a t t h e m i n i m u m
t i o n to t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of F E M A 2 6 7 A h a s s e c t i o n of t h e R B S is s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d to
b e e n a d o p t e d for s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . First, s p e c - the percent flange removal w h i c h is c o m -
i m e n s d e s i g n e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e p r o c e d u r e s p u t e d a s (2c/bf.) x 100, w h e r e bfis the u n r e -
d e s c r i b e d h e r e i n h a v e p e r f o r m e d well in lab- d u c e d f l a n g e v~idth of t h e beam~
o r a t o r y t e s t s . S e c o n d , s a t i s f y i n g t h e 45 k s i In p a s t r e s e a r c h t e s t s , t h e d i m e n s i o n s a
s t r e s s limit, w o u l d r e s u l t in l a r g e f l a n g e and b have generally been chosen based on
c u t o u t s in m a n y c a s e s , or w o u l d r e q u i r e s u p - t h e j u d g m e n t of t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . In g e n e r a l ,
p l e m e n t a l f l a n g e r e i n f o r c e m e n t s u c h a s cover these dimensions should be kept as small as
p l a t e s or ribs. F u r t h e r , r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d
r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d u n d e r t h e SAC P h a s e 2
p r o g r a m s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l for RBS
w = uniform beam gravity load ~ RBS II II

t h r o u g h - t h i c k n e s s f a i l u r e s is c o n s i d e r a b l y
less than previously thought, and that the
c u r r e n t limit of 4 5 k s i c a n m o s t likely be
i n c r e a s e d w i t h o u t p o s i n g a n i n c r e a s e in r i s k
__

~
~ ~.~_.1l.~r.! ~ ~ 1 I } I I t ~ ~ 1 t I } ~ l ~ l ~

i
'
,- ,n -~ ,n - ~


&4
~.!?..t.~.!.|~[~]

i
,, lla +~ " L' = distancebe~een ~nters of RBS ~ts ~a+ ~ ~
of f r a c t u r e i n i t i a t i o n . I ~
The design procedure assumes that a L : distance between column entedines
r a d i u s c u t R B S is p r o v i d e d in b o t h t h e t o p Figure 4.3
a n d b o t t o m f l a n g e s at t h e m o m e n t c o n n e c - Typical Moment Frame Beam with
t i o n at e a c h e n d of a m o m e n t f r a m e b e a m . RBS Connections

8
D E S I G N O F R E D U C E D B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS
possible in order to m i n i m i z e the i n c r e a s e of location. It is possible t h a t b e a m size m a y
m o m e n t b e t w e e n the plastic hi nge located in n e e d to be a d j u s t e d , a n d different RBS sizing
the RBS a n d the face of t_he c o l u m n . a n d location m u s t be d e t e r m i n e d , to m e e t all
The d i m e n s i o n a s h o u l d be large e n o u g h , design criteria.
however, to p e r m i t stress in t he r e d u c e d sec- This RBS sizing d e t e r m i n a t i o n is also
tion of the b e a m to s p r e a d uni f or m l y across applicable w h e n retrofitting existing SMF
th e flange wi dt h at t he face of t he c o l u m n . s t r u c t u r e s . Access is limited or impossible at
Similarly, the d i m e n s i o n b s h o u l d be large th e u p p e r flange of t h e b e a m , d u e to t h e
e n o u g h to avoid excessive inelastic s t r a i n s p r e s e n c e of a floor slab, so RBS modifications
w i t h i n t h e RBS. B a s e d on a n e v a l u a t i o n of typically o c c u r at t h e b o t t o m flange of t h e
s u c c e s s f u l p a s t tests, t he following sugges- m o m e n t b e a m only. If a c c e s s is available to
tions are m a d e for selecting t h e s e d i m e n - t h e top flange of t h e b e a m , it is r e c o m m e n d e d
sions: to apply t h e RBS design m e t h o d o l o g y to both
(o.s to o.Ts) bf tl) flanges. There h a s b e e n a great deal of effort
a n d r e s e a r c h s p e n t on t h e u s e of RBS modi-
b ~ (65 to 0 . 8 5 ) d (2) fications to existing SMFs. The AISC Design
Guide Series Twelve (1999) t h a t s u m m a r i z e s
w h e r e by a n d d a r e t he b e a m flange w id th this work, c o n t a i n s a significant a m o u n t of
a n d delSth. E x a m i n a t i o n of RBS test d a t a i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g retrofit of SMFs utiliz-
i n d i c a t e s t h a t s u c c e s s f u l c o n n e c t i o n per- ing RBS c o n n e c t i o n modifications. It is rec-
f o r m a n c e h a s b e e n o b t a i n e d for a wide r a n g e o m m e n d e d t h a t d e s i g n e r s u s i n g a n RBS
of v a l u e s for a a n d b. C o n s e q u e n t l y , a great a p p r o a c h to retrofit a n existing SMF refer to
deal of precision in c h o o s i n g t h e s e values th e AISC d o c u m e n t prior to utilizing t h e
does n o t a p p e a r justified a n d E q u a t i o n s 1 design m e t h o d o l o g y c o n t a i n e d h erein .
a n d 2 s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a n a p p r o x i m a t e Upon selection of t h e b e a m - c o l u m n com-
guide. b i n a t i o n to be utilized in th e SMF design a n d
The r e m a i n i n g d i m e n s i o n t h a t m u s t be t h e location, s h a p e a n d size of t h e RBS, fur-
c h o s e n w h e n sizing t h e RBS is c, t h e d e p t h of t h e r c o n n e c t i o n design c h e c k s are r e q u i r e d
the cut. The value of c will control t he maxi- to e n s u r e t h e design will p erfo rm in a ductile
m u m m o m e n t developed w i t h i n t h e RBS, a n d manner.
therefore will control t h e m a x i m u m m o m e n t The first c h e c k s h o u l d be th e "Strong Col-
g e n e r a t e d at t h e face of t h e c o l u m n . As n o t e d u m n - W e a k Beam" confirmation. This c h e c k
above, t he final d i m e n s i o n s s h o u l d be c h o s e n is i n t e n d e d to limit inelastic d e f o r m a t i o n s of
so t h a t t he m a x i m u m m o m e n t at t he face of c o l u m n s o u tsid e of t h e i r p a n e l zone regions.
th e c o l u m n is in t h e r a n g e of a b o u t 85 to 100 It is generally recognized t h a t c o l u m n yield-
p e r c e n t of t he b e a m ' s a c t u a l plastic m o m e n t . ing is a n u n d e s i r a b l e m o d e b e c a u s e of t h e
At p r e s e n t , it is s u g g e s t e d to avoid utilizing possible effect on t h e c o l u m n , a n d in t u r n ,
flange r e d u c t i o n s gr e a t e r t h a n a b o u t 50 per- th e global stability of t h e s t r u c t u r a l frame.
cent. Thus, t he va l ue of c s h o u l d be c h o s e n The AISC Seismic Design Provisions (1997)
to be less t h a n or e qua l to 0.25bf. outline a n a c c e p t a b l e d e s i g n level for t h e
The basic a p p r o a c h t a k e n in "this proce- b e a m / c o l u m n relatio n s h ip . As a m i n i m u m ,
d u r e is to c h o o s e p r e l i m i n a r y v a l u e s for a, b, this AISC proviso s h o u l d be met.
a n d c, t h e n c o m p u t e t h e m o m e n t at the face RBS c o n n e c t i o n d e s i g n m u s t also a d d r e s s
of t h e c o l u m n , a n d c h e c k this m o m e n t t h e p a n e l zone. The p a n e l zone is s u b j e c t e d
a g a i n s t t he limit n o t e d above. Some iteration to large s h e a r forces as t h e b e a m s r e a c h their
in the RBS d i m e n s i o n s m a y be n e e d e d to full capacity. B a s e d on FEMA 267A (1997),
arrive u p o n a satisfactory design. F u r t h e r t h e p a n e l zone m u s t be s t r o n g e n o u g h to
design c h e c k s are c o m p l e t e d u p o n satisfac- develop at least 80% of t h e s h e a r s a s s o c i a t e d
tory sizing of the RBS. with Mfl The p a n e l zone r e q u i r e m e n t s c a n be
The b e a m size will typically be c h o s e n for m e t in one of two ways. O n e w a y is to provide
drift r e q u i r e m e n t s , followed by some a m o u n t a c o l u m n w i t h a t h i c k e n o u g h web to resist
of flange r e d u c t i o n . The designer m u s t exam- t h e r e q u i r e d s h e a r in a c c o r d a n c e with t h e
ine the effect of all applied loads at t he RBS

9
DESIGN OF REDUCED BEAM SECTION (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS

d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e o t h e r w a y to s u p - STEP 2 Compute the plastic section modu-


ply s u f f i c i e n t p a n e l z o n e s h e a r r e s i s t a n c e is l u s a t t h e m i n i m u m s e c t i o n of t h e
to a d d d o u b l e r p l a t e s to t h e s e l e c t e d s e c t i o n . RBS.
D o u b l e r p l a t e s s h o u l d c o n s i s t of t h e r e q u i r e d
a d d i t i o n a l t h i c k n e s s of steel, a d d e d to o n e or F i g u r e 4 . 4 s h o w s a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of t h e
b o t h s i d e s of t h e c o l u m n web. F a b r i c a t o r s b e a m at t h e m i n i m u m s e c t i o n of t h e RBS.
i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e u s e of a h e a v i e r c o l u m n sec- b~
tion, i n s t e a d of d o u b l e r p l a t e s a n d o t h e r
labor intensive reinforcing details, may result
in a m o r e e c o n o m i c a l s t r u c t u r a l f r a m e .
T h e final d e s i g n c h e c k to be p e r f o r m e d o n
t h e s e l e c t e d b e a m - c o l u m n c o m b i n a t i o n is t h e "~'~"""''~P~ions cut from flange
d/2 ~ ~ tw
b e a m s h e a r . T h e m a x i m u m b e a m s h e a r is
d e v e l o p e d in t h e s e c t i o n of t h e b e a m b e t w e e n
t h e R B S a n d t h e c o l u m n f l a n g e face, w h e r e
PlasticNeutralAxis
g r a v i t y s h e a r a n d s e i s m i c s h e a r c o i n c i d e . At
t h i s l o c a t i o n , s h e a r c a p a c i t y of t h e b e a m sec-
t i o n n e e d s to b e c h e c k e d to e n s u r e t h a t t h e
d/2
b e a m will h a v e a d e q u a t e s h e a r c a p a c i t y after
/./.~Portions cut from flange
t h e p l a s t i c h i n g e in t h e b e a m d e v e l o p s d u e to
applied lateral loads. /
T h e following s t e p - b y - s t e p p r e s e n t a t i o n _ __ ~ ,~,'~t
~ ~.~
o u t l i n e s t h e R B S d e s i g n p r o c e d u r e r e l a t i n g to c c
t h e r e m o v a l of t h e b e a m f l a n g e a n d t h e Figure 4.4
c h e c k s r e q u i r e d to e n s u r e p r o p e r b e h a v i o r Beam at Minimum Section of RBS
and correlation with test and research
results.
B a s e d o n t h e d i m e n s i o n s s h o w n in t h i s fig-
u r e , Z R B S c a n b e c o m p u t e d a s follows:
4.3 Step-by-step Procedure

Z ~ s = Z b - 2 c t.f (d - t.f ) (3)


STEP 1 C h o o s e trial v a l u e s for R B S d i m e n -
s i o n s a, b, a n d c.
Where:
T h e trial v a l u e s for a a n d b s h o u l d b e
c h o s e n w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of E q u a t i o n s 1 a n d ZRB S = plastic section modulus at min-
2. To e s t a b l i s h a trial v a l u e of c, a f l a n g e i m u m s e c t i o n of R B S
r e d u c t i o n of a b o u t 4 0 p e r c e n t is s u g g e s t e d
for t h e initial d e s i g n i t e r a t i o n . T h u s , c h o o s e c
~ 0 . 2 0 b f As n o t e d earlier, v a l u e s for c in = p l a s t i c s e c t i o n m o d u l u s for full
e x c e s s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0 . 2 5 b f a r e n o t rec- beam cross-section
ommended.

(1) (i.e. w i t h o u t f l a n g e c u t o u t s )
a (O.Sto 0.75) bf
b ~ (0. 6 5 to O. 85) d
o t h e r v a r i a b l e s a s s h o w n in F i g u r e 4.4.

10
D E S I G N OF R E D U C E D B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS} MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS

STEP 3 E s t a b l i s h t h e e x p e c t e d yield s t r e s s T h e f a c t o r of 1.15 in E q u a t i o n 5 a c c o u n t s


of t h e b e a m . for s t r a i n h a r d e n i n g , a n d is b a s e d o n s t r a i n
h a r d e n i n g v a i a e s m e a s u r e d in R B S t e s t s .
T h e e x p e c t e d yield s t r e s s for t h e b e a m
c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d f r o m S e c t i o n 6 . 2 of t h e STEP 5 C o m p u t e t h e s h e a r force a t t h e
AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel c e n t e r of t h e R B S c u t s a t e a c h e n d
Buildings (1997). A c c o r d i n g to t h e s e provi- of t h e b e a m .
sions:
T h e s h e a r a t t h e c e n t e r of t h e R B S c a n be
Fy e = Ry Fy (4) c o m p u t e d f r o m a free b o d y d i a g r a m of t h e
moment frame beam taken between RBS
c e n t e r s . S u c h a free b o d y d i a g r a m is illus-
where: t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 4 . 5 for t h e c a s e of a u n i -
f o r m l y d i s t r i b u t e d g r a v i t y l o a d w.
Fy e = expected yield stress f
R~BS RBS
I w = uniform b e a m gravity ~oad
l!.~.,~ ~ ~ t ~ I t t t t I t t I t ~ ~ I t I I I t t ~ t.!..!,{
= m i n i m u m s p e c i f i e d yield s t r e s s
. . . . . .

= r a t i o of e x p e c t e d to m i n i m u m RBSRBS! i RBS RBS


s p e c i f i e d yield s t r e s s i L' = distance between centers of RBS ' -I

Figure 4 . 5
= 1.5 for A 3 6 steel Free B o d y D i a g r a m B e t w e e n
Centers of RBS

= 1.1 for A 5 7 2 Gr. 50 a n d A 9 9 2 S u m m i n g m o m e n t s a b o u t e a c h e n d of


steel t h i s free b o d y d i a g r a m r e s u l t s i n t h e follow-
ing:
T h e v a l u e of F v e r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e
a c t u a l y i e l d s t r e n g t l ~ o f s t r u c t u r a l steel c a n
2MRBs wL'
significantly exceed the minimum specified V~S - L' + -~- (6a)
value.

STEP 4 Compute the maximum moment


e x p e c t e d at t h e c e n t e r of t h e RBS.
2 MRB s wL'
(5) V~O~S - L' 2 (6b)
MRB S = 1.15 ZRB S Fy e

where: where:

V R B S V' BS = s h e a r f o r c e a t t h e c e n t e r
MRB S = m a x i m u m m o m e n t e x p e c t e d a t of t h e R B S a t e a c h e n d
t h e c e n t e r of t h e R B S
of b e a m

ZRB S = p l a s t i c s e c t i o n m o d u l u s a t m i n - L' = distance between centers of


i m u m s e c t i o n of t h e R B S
RBS

e x p e c t e d yield s t r e s s of b e a m
W = uniformly distributed gravity
load on beam

11
D E S I G N OF R E D U C E D B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS} M O M E N T F R A M E C O N N E C T I O N S

For gravity load conditions other than a


u n i f o r m load, t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a d j u s t m e n t M f = Mp,Bs + VRBs a + (7)
c a n e a s i l y be m a d e to t h e free b o d y d i a g r a m
a n d to E q u a t i o n s 6 a a n d 6b.
Equations 6a and 6b assume that plastic where:
h i n g e s will f o r m a t t h e R B S at e a c h e n d of t h e
b e a m . If t h e gravity l o a d o n t h e b e a m is v e r y
= m a x i m u m m o m e n t e x p e c t e d at
large, t h e p l a s t i c h i n g e a t o n e e n d of t h e
t h e face of t h e c o l u m n
beam may move toward the interior portion
of t h e b e a m s p a n . If t h i s is t h e c a s e , t h e free
b o d y d i a g r a m in F i g u r e 4 . 5 s h o u l d be m o d i - allother variables as previous~
fied to e x t e n d b e t w e e n t h e a c t u a l p l a s t i c defined
h i n g e l o c a t i o n s . To c h e c k if E q u a t i o n s 6 a a n d
6 b a r e valid, d r a w t h e m o m e n t d i a g r a m for Equation 7 neglects the gravity load on
t h e s e g m e n t of t h e b e a m s h o w n in F i g u r e t h e p o r t i o n of t h e b e a m b e t w e e n t h e c e n t e r of
4.5, i.e., for t h e s e g m e n t of t h e b e a m b e t w e e n t h e R B S a n d t h e face of t h e c o l u m n . T h i s
t h e c e n t e r s of t h e RBS c u t s . If t h e m a x i m u m s i m p l i f i e s t h e e q u a t i o n a n d i n t r o d u c e s little
m o m e n t o c c u r s at t h e e n d s of t h e s p a n s , error. If d e s i r e d , t h e g r a v i t y l o a d o n t h i s
t h e n E q u a t i o n s 6 a a n d 6 b a r e valid. If t h e s m a l l p o r t i o n of t h e b e a m c a n be i n c l u d e d in
maximum moment occurs within the span, t h e free b o d y d i a g r a m a n d in E q u a t i o n 7.
a n d e x c e e d s Mp.e of t h e b e a m (see E q u a t i o n
8), t h e n t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e will STEP 7 C o m p u t e t h e p l a s t i c m o m e n t of t h e
be needed. b e a m b a s e d o n t h e e x p e c t e d yield
stress.
STEP 6 Compute the maximum moment
e x p e c t e d at t h e face of t h e c o l u m n . Mpe = Z b Fy e (8)

T h e m o m e n t at t h e face of t h e c o l u m n c a n
b e c o m p u t e d f r o m a free b o d y d i a g r a m of t h e where:
s e g m e n t of t h e b e a m b e t w e e n t h e c e n t e r of
t h e R B S a n d t h e face of t h e c o l u m n flange. Mpe = p l a s t i c m o m e n t of b e a m b a s e d
S u c h a free b o d y d i a g r a m is i l l u s t r a t e d in on expected yield stress.
F i g u r e 4.6.

STEP 8 C h e c k t h a t M f i s in t h e r a n g e of 85
RBS to 100 p e r c e n t of Mpe.

M.f ~ 0 . 8 5 to 1.0 (9)


m pe

- - Mf ....."~". VRBs MRBs If E q u a t i o n 9 is n o t s a t i s f i e d , m o d i f y t h e


v a l u e s of c a n d / o r a a n d b a s n e e d e d , a n d
~ ,
r e p e a t S t e p s 2 t h r o u g h 8. Note t h a t t h i s
I- b c h e c k o n m o m e n t at t h e face of t h e c o l u m n is
---N a +.-Z- s i m p l i f i e d for d e s i g n p u r p o s e s , b a s e d o n
more detailed analyses and past test results.
Figure 4.6 T h e a c t u a l force t r a n s f e r m e c h a n i s m a n d
Free Body Diagram Between Center of s t a t e of s t r e s s a n d s t r a i n at t h i s l o c a t i o n is
RBS and Face of Column Flange q u i t e c o m p l e x d u e to t h e c o n s t r a i n t g e n e r -
S u m m i n g m o m e n t s a b o u t t h e left e n d of a t e d by t h e c o n n e c t i o n to t h e c o l u m n flange.
t h i s free b o d y d i a g r a m r e s u l t s in t h e follow- For more detailed information on the issue,
ing: t h e r e a d e r is r e f e r r e d to (Lee, et.al. 1997).

12
D E S I G N OF REDUCED BEAM SECTION (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS
STEP 9 Strong C o l u m n - W e a k B e a m C h e c k

To c h e c k s t r o n g c o l u m n - w e a k b e a m Z Mc = M c t + Me b (14)
r e q u i r e m e n t s , t he p r o c e d u r e p r e s e n t e d in
FEMA 267A (1997) will be u s e d , with m i n o r Where:
modifications. The e q u a t i o n to be u s e d to
c h e c k t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t (from E q u a t i o n Vc = s h e a r force in t h e c o l u m n s
7.5.2.5-1 of FEMA 267A (1997)) is as follows: above a n d below th e c o n n e c t i o n

~ Z(F~c - J~) > 1.0 (10) Mct = column moment immediately


above c o n n e c t i o n
ZMc
where: Mcb = column moment immediately
below c o n n e c t i o n

plastic section m o d u l u s of th e d i s t a n c e from top of b e a m to


ht
c o l u m n s e c t i o n a bove a n d p o in t of inflection in th e col-
below t he c o n n e c t i o n u m n above t h e c o n n e c t i o n

YMc = m i n i m u m specified yield stress dc = d e p t h of c o l u m n


of t he c o l u m n
hb d i s t a n c e from b o t t o m of b e a m
to p o in t of inflection in th e col-
= axial s t r e s s in t h e c o l u m n u m n below t h e c o n n e c t i o n
above a n d below t he c o n n e c t i o n
db = d e p t h of b e a m
~VMc s u m of t h e c o l u m n m o m e n t s at
t he top a n d b o t t o m of t he p a n e l All o t h e r variables as previously defined.
z o n e c o r r e s p o n d i n g to t h e
d e v e l o p m e n t of M R B S at th e
c e n t e r of t h e RBS in t h e ~~i -,,~-.-.~VC
attached beams

Figure 4.7 s h o w s a free body d i a g r a m t h a t ht


c a n be u s e d to e s t i m a t e c o l u m n m o m e n t s Mct
w h e n c h e c k i n g E q u a t i o n 10. This free body
c u t s t he b e a m s at t he RBS c e n t e r s a n d c u t s
MRBS db
th e c o l u m n s at a s s u m e d points of inflection ~
(often t a k e n as m i d - h e i g h t of t he a d j a c e n t V
RBS
stories for design purposes). i Mcb
B a s e d on Figure 4.7, 'Mc c a n be esti-
m a t e d from t he following equations: I hb
, ,(de _,~
Z M R~s + (VR~s + V ~ s ) ~ - + a +
2J
V~ : (11)
ht + d b + hb l
I I
a+(b/2) d c a+(b/2)
Mct = Vch t (12)
Figure 4.7
F r e e B o d y D i a g r a m for
Mcb = Vch b (13)
Calculation of Column Moments

13
D E S I G N O F R E D U C E D B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS) M O M E N T FRAME C O N N E C T I O N S
T h e a p p r o a c h p r e s e n t e d in FEMA 2 6 7 A M? = m a x i m u m m o m e n t e x p e c t e d at
(1997) a c c o u n t s for t h e d i f f e r e n c e in c o l u m n o p p o s i t e c o l u m n face
s h e a r forces above a n d below the connection,
whereas the simplified approach above
a s s u m e s t h e s a m e s h e a r force is p r e s e n t in All o t h e r v a r i a b l e s a s p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d .
the columns above and below the connec-
T h e v a l u e of My c o m p u t e d a c c o r d i n g to
tion. A l t h o u g h t h e a p p r o a c h in FEMA 2 6 7 A
Equation 7 combines the, seismic moment
(1997) m a y b e s o m e w h a t m o r e a c c u r a t e , t h e
d u e to (2XMRBs)/L' w i t h t h e m o m e n t d u e to
c o m p u t a t i o n of Vc p r e s e n t e d in E q u a t i o n 11
g r a v i t y load. O n t h e s i d e of t h e c o l u m n o p p o -
a b o v e is s i m p l e r to i m p l e m e n t , a n d is still
site to t h a t w h e r e My is d e v e l o p e d , t h e
r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e for initial d e s i g n p u r -
m o m e n t a t t h e face of" t h e c o l u m n will be
poses considering the numerous uncertain-
somewhat smaller since the gravity load
t i e s i n v o l v e d in t h e s t r o n g c o l u m n - w e a k
m o m e n t will o p p o s e t h e s e i s m i c m o m e n t .
b e a m d e s i g n p h i l o s o p h y . T h e r e a d e r is
T h i s s o m e w h a t s m a l l e r m o m e n t is c a l c u l a t e d
r e f e r r e d to S e c t i o n 7 . 5 . 2 . 5 of F E M A 2 6 7 A
u s i n g E q u a t i o n 17.
(1997) to i m p l e m e n t a m o r e a c c u r a t e c a l c u -
l a t i o n for Vc to b e u s e d i n t h e final d e s i g n
T h e s t r e n g t h of t h e p a n e l z o n e c a n b e cal-
check.
c u l a t e d a s follows:
S T E P 10 C h e c k P a n e l Z o n e
3bc t~
To c h e c k t h e c o l u m n p a n e l z o n e , t h e p r o - V = 0.55Fycdct 1 + dbdc--~~ (18)
c e d u r e u s e d in S e c t i o n 6 . 6 . 6 . 3 . 7 of FEMA
2 6 7 A (1997) will b e u s e d . T h i s s e c t i o n
requires that the panel zone have sufficient
s t r e n g t h to d e v e l o p t h e s h e a r force d e v e l o p e d where:
b y 0 . 8 'M/: B a s e d o n t h i s a p p r o a c h , t h e
p a n e l z o n e ' s h e a r force c a n b e c o m p u t e d a s V = panel zone shear strength
follows:

bc = w i d t h of c o l u m n f l a n g e
M'f = M ~ S + V ~ S a + (15)

tcf = t h i c k n e s s of c o l u m n f l a n g e
Mf= Mf+ M~r (16)
= t o t a l t h i c k n e s s of p a n e l z o n e
including doubler plates
o.8Z
Vpz - 0.8Vc (17)
0.95 d b All o t h e r v a r i a b l e s a s p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d .
Where:
S T E P 11 C h e c k B e a m S h e a r

Vpz p a n e l z o n e s h e a r force corre- T h e final d e s i g n c h e c k s h o u l d b e m a d e to


s p o n d i n g to t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of ensure that the beam has adequate capacity
80 p e r c e n t of t h e m a x i m u m for s h e a r a s s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a t e r a l a n d g r a v i t y
e x p e c t e d c o l u m n face m o m e n t s loads. This check combines the beam shear
associated with the plastic moment within
t h e R B S u s i n g E q u a t i o n 6a, c o m b i n e d w i t h
m a x i m u m m o m e n t e x p e c t e d at
t h e p o r t i o n of gravity l o a d a d d i n g s h e a r to
t h e face of t h e c o l u m n , c a l c u -
the beam within the section between the RBS
l a t e d a c c o r d i n g to E q u a t i o n 7

14
D E S I G N OF REDUCED BEAM S E C T I O N (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS
c e n t e r a n d the c o l u m n flange. This c a n be c o n d u c t e d since th e Northridge e a r t h q u a k e
c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g E q u a t i o n 19: h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d th e i m p o r t a n c e of weld
m e t a l t o u g h n e s s in th e groove welds of seis-
(/-/,) mic r e s i s t a n t m o m e n t c o n n e c t i o n s (Kauf-
W - -
2 (19) m a n n , et.al. 1996; Tide 1998 I. The AISC Seis-
VRBs q mic Provisions (1997) r e c o m m e n d s th e u s e of
2
a filler m e t a l with a m i n i m u m specified ten-
sile s t r e n g t h of 70 ksi, ( a s s u m i n g a 50 ksi
4.4 Additional Design Considera- base m a t e r i a l specified yield) a n d a m i n i m u m
tions specified CVN v a l u e of 20 ft.-lb, at -20 F.
Previous r e s e a r c h tests on RBS c o n n e c t i o n s
h a v e generally e m p l o y e d th e self-shielded
In addition to e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e d i m e n s i o n s of flux cored arc weld in g p r o c e s s (FCAW), u s i n g
the RBS cut, t h e r e are a n u m b e r of addi- E70TG-K2, E71T-8 or E70T-6 electrodes. All
tional design a n d detailing f e a t u r e s t h a t m a y of t h e s e electrodes provide a m i n i m u m spec-
significantly affect c o n n e c t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e ified CVN of 20 ft.-lb, at -20 F. A n u m b e r of
a n d e c o n o m y of this system. These items are o th er FCAW electrodes are available t h a t pro-
d i s c u s s e d below. vide this m i n i m u m CVN value. In addition,
The p r o c e d u r e p r e s e n t e d above for sizing s u c c e s s f u l tes ts on o t h e r types of c o n n e c -
the RBS c u t p e r m i t s a r a n g e of a c c e p t a b l e tions h a v e e m p l o y e d t h e shielded m e t a l arc
v a l u e s for t he d i m e n s i o n s a, b a n d c. Fabri- welding {SMAW) p r o c e s s u s i n g a n E7018
cation can likely be simplified by s t a n d a r d i z - electrode. The final choice of welding p r o ces s
ing t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s over a large n u m b e r of a n d electrode is b e s t left to t h e fabricator.
b e a m s on a project. Making small c h a n g e s Other factors, s u c h as t h e mixing of different
on the RBS d i m e n s i o n s from b e a m to b e a m filler m e t a l s in t h e s a m e weld j o i n t m a y r e s u l t
is n ot likely to improve c o n n e c t i o n perform- in lower CVN v a l u e s for the c o m b i n a t i o n ,
a n c e a n d m a y u n n e c e s s a r i l y i n c r e a s e fabri- t h a n for one of t h e filler m e t a l s alone. A
cation costs. The d e s i g n e r m a y wish to con- p a p e r w ritten on this subject, "The Effects of
sult with a fabricator before finalizing the I n t e r m i x e d Weld Metal on M e c h a n i c a l Prop-
RBS d i m e n s i o n s to identify w a y s of r e d u c i n g erties" ( J o h n s o n , Q u i n t a n a 1998), m a y be
fabrication costs. For example, if the fabrica- u s e f u l to th e e n g i n e e r w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e
tor is m a k i n g RBS c u t s u s i n g a t o r c h inter-mixing of weld filler metals .
m o u n t e d on a guide with a fixed r a d i u s , th e At th e b e a m flange c o m p l e t e jo in t pene-
e c o n o m y of t he c o n n e c t i o n m a y be i m p r o v e d tration welds, it is r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h e
by m a i n t a i n i n g a c o n s t a n t r a d i u s of c u t R weld run-off t a b s be r e m o v e d at b o t h the top
over a large n u m b e r of c o n n e c t i o n s . a n d b o t t o m flanges, a n d t h a t th e edges of t h e
The RBS c u t is n o r m a l l y m a d e by t h e r m a l groove welds be g r o u n d smooth. The pre-
c u t t i n g in t he fabrication shop. The c u t ferred final profile of t h e weld tab g r o u n d
s h o u l d be m a d e to avoid nicks, gouges, a n d s u rface is r a d i u s e d , to f u r t h e r r e d u c e t h e
other discontinuities. After t he c u t is m a d e , possibility of f r a c t u r e at t h e s e locations. This
t h e surfa c e s h o u l d be g r o u n d , to aid in will minimize a n y p o ten tial n o t c h e s intro-
r e d u c i n g t h e potential for f r a c t u r e s o c c u r r i n g d u c e d by th e p r e s e n c e of t h e weld tabs, or by
in the RBS at h i g h plastic rotations a n d low d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s c o n t a i n e d in t h e weld m e t a l
cycle fatigue. The grinding s h o u l d be d o n e to within th e r u n - o f f regions. In addition, it is
avoid p r o d u c i n g grind m a r k s p e r p e n d i c u l a r r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t th e b o t t o m flange steel
to the b e a m flange, since they are p e r p e n d i - b a c k i n g be r e m o v e d a n d a reinforcing fillet be
cu lar to t he direction of principal stress. p l a c e d at th e b a s e of th e weld after the j o i n t
These m a r k s c a n act as s t r e s s risers. Varia- is b a c k g o u g e d to s o u n d metal. This require-
tions on grinding m e t h o d s m a y be possible to m e n t is i n t e n d e d b o t h to elimin ate th e n o t c h
r e d u c e fabrication effort. effect p r o d u c e d by t h e steel backing, a n d to
Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n for design of RBS p e r m i t better i n s p e c t i o n a n d u l t r a s o n i c test-
m o m e n t c o n n e c t i o n s is welding. R e s e a r c h ing of th e weld. At t h e top flange groove weld,

15
D E S I G N OF REDUCED B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS

it is r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h e steel b a c k i n g be D 1.1. A c c e p t a n c e c r i t e r i a for u l t r a s o n i c t e s t -


s e a l w e l d e d to t h e face of t h e c o l u m n u s i n g a i n g of g r o o v e w e l d s is r e c o m m e n d e d to be in
m i n i m u m size fillet weld, t y p i c a l l y a 5 / 1 6 " fil- c o n f o r m a n c e w i t h T a b l e 5.2 of AWS D 1.1-98.
let. A n a l y s i s h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e n o t c h Additional useful information on welding
effect of t h e s t e e l b a c k i n g is n o t a s s e v e r e at m o m e n t c o n n e c t i o n s c a n be f o u n d in a n u m -
t h e t o p flange, a n d t h a t w e l d i n g t h e steel b e r of r e f e r e n c e s l i s t e d at t h e e n d of t h i s doc-
b a c k i n g to t h e c o l u m n f u r t h e r r e d u c e s t h e ument.
n o t c h effect. F u r t h e r , d e f e c t s a r e l e s s likely R e c e n t t e s t s h a v e s h o w n t h a t RBS c o n -
at t h e t o p f l a n g e w e l d s i n c e t h e g r o o v e w e l d nections with bolted web details can meet the
is n o t i n t e r r u p t e d by t h e b e a m w e b , a s it is a t r e c o m m e n d e d p l a s t i c r o t a t i o n d e m a n d s of
t h e b o t t o m flange. FEMA 2 6 7 (1995). H o w e v e r , it s h o u l d be
M a n y r e s e a r c h e r s a n d d e s i g n e r s believe n o t e d t h a t at large r o t a t i o n d e m a n d s , t h e
that the weld access hole has an important b o l t e d d e t a i l a p p e a r s to be m o r e s u s c e p t i b l e
effect o n c o n n e c t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . A l t h o u g h to f r a c t u r e i n i t i a t i n g n e a r t h e w e l d a c c e s s
c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h is a d d r e s s i n g i s s u e s r e l a t e d hole. T h i s i s s u e is t h e s u b j e c t of f u r t h e r SAC
to t h e w e l d a c c e s s hole, t h e r e a p p e a r s to b e s p o n s o r e d r e s e a r c h . U n t i l m o r e definitive
n o c o n s e n s u s a s of y e t o n t h e o p t i m u m size g u i d a n c e is p r o v i d e d in t h e u p c o m i n g SAC
and shape. Consequently, pending further Guidelines, t h e e n g i n e e r s h o u l d c a r e f u l l y
research, access hole geometry should con- consider required connection and SMF per-
f o r m to t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o w n in F i g u r e 5.2 formance when choosing a beam web con-
of AWS D 1 . 1 - 9 8 (AWS 1998). T h e r e is n o nection.
i n d i c a t i o n t h a t w e l d a c c e s s h o l e size, w i t h i n T h e m a j o r i t y of t h e w e l d e d w e b c o n n e c -
t h e AWS limits, will a d v e r s e l y affect t h e p e r - tion tests have utilized a complete joint pen-
f o r m a n c e of R B S m o m e n t connections. e t r a t i o n (CJP) g r o o v e w e l d b e t w e e n t h e b e a m
T h e r e f o r e , size a n d s h a p e of t h e a c c e s s h o l e w e b a n d c o l u m n f l a n g e over t h e full d e p t h of
s h o u l d be left to t h e f a b r i c a t o r to c o n f o r m to t h e web. T h e s h e a r tab, w h i c h is w e l d e d to
AWS r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . t h e c o l u m n a n d b o l t e d to t h e b e a m w e b , is
A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of w e l l - b e h a v e d still p r o v i d e d . T h i s s h e a r t a b s e r v e s s e v e r a l
moment connections are the continuity p u r p o s e s . First, it a c t s a s b a c k i n g for t h e
p l a t e s b e t w e e n t h e c o l u m n f l a n g e s . All of t h e C J P g r o o v e weld. S e c o n d , it c a r r i e s e r e c t i o n
s u c c e s s f u l t e s t s o n R B S c o n n e c t i o n s for n e w l o a d s a n d h e l p s m a i n t a i n t h e f r a m e in a
c o n s t r u c t i o n ( A p p e n d i x A) h a v e e m p l o y e d p l u m b p o s i t i o n u n t i l w e l d i n g at t h e c o n n e c -
c o n t i n u i t y p l a t e s . H o w e v e r , n o R B S t e s t s to t i o n is c o m p l e t e d . S i n c e t h e s h e a r t a b is p r o -
d a t e h a v e o m i t t e d c o n t i n u i t y p l a t e s , so it is v i d e d for e r e c t i o n p u r p o s e s only, it is r e c o m -
unclear under what conditions continuity m e n d e d t h a t t h e d e s i g n of t h e s h e a r t a b b e
plates are actually required. Pending the out- left to t h e f a b r i c a t o r . H o w e v e r , to e n s u r e t h a t
c o m e of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , it is r e c o m m e n d e d t h e s h e a r t a b d o e s n o t r e s i s t l o a d s in t h e
t h a t c o n t i n u i t y p l a t e s be p r o v i d e d for all R B S event that excessive plastic rotations cause
connections, with a continuity plate thick- t h e w e b c o n n e c t i o n to f r a c t u r e , t h e d e s i g n e r
n e s s s i m i l a r to t h e b e a m f l a n g e t h i c k n e s s . could consider indicating that the shear tab
W e l d s t h a t a t t a c h a c o n t i n u i t y p l a t e to t h e be fabricated with short horizontal slotted
c o l u m n f l a n g e or web, s h o u l d be m a d e w i t h holes.
a n e l e c t r o d e w i t h a r a t e d CVN of at l e a s t 20 Traditionally the shear tab would be
ft.-lb, at -20 F. B a s e d o n e x p e r i m e n t a l w e l d e d o n b o t h s i d e s . H o w e v e r , w h e n utiliz-
r e s u l t s , r e m o v a l of b a c k i n g b a r s f r o m c o n t i - i n g a w e b C J P weld, t h e "~backside" fillet w e l d
nuity plate welds, however, does not appear m a y p o s e p o t e n t i a l filler m e t a l m i x i n g a n d fit
to be n e c e s s a r y . W h e n w e l d i n g t h e c o n t i n u i t y up problems. The engineer should work with
p l a t e s to t h e c o l u m n , w e l d i n g in t h e " k - a r e a " t h e f a b r i c a t o r to g e n e r a t e a n a c c e p t a b l e
of t h e c o l u m n s h o u l d be a v o i d e d (AISC w e l d i n g s e q u e n c e . As a n a l t e r n a t i v e to a C J P
1997}. g r o o v e weld, t h e b e a m w e b c o n n e c t i o n c a n
All w e l d i n g s h o u l d be s p e c i f i e d to be in also be m a d e u s i n g a h e a v y fillet w e l d e d
c o n f o r m a n c e w i t h t h e l a t e s t e d i t i o n of AWS s h e a r tab. T h e s h e a r t a b is t y p i c a l l y w e l d e d

16
D E S I G N OF REDUCED B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS

to the c o l u m n u s i n g either fillet welds or a nection detail. Both s p e c i m e n s were con-


CJP groove weld. The s h e a r tab, in turn, is s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e s a m e m e m b e r sizes
t h e n welded to the b e a m web with fillet (W36xlS0 b e a m a n d W14x426 column) a n d
welds. An example of s u c h a connection can h e a t s of steel, a n d tested in the s a m e test
be found in "Moment Frame Connection setup with identical m e m b e r lengths, identi-
Development a n d Testing for the City of Hope cal m e m b e r e n d s u p p o r t conditions, a n d
National Medical Center" (Zekioglu, et.al. identical lateral bracing. Both s p e c i m e n s
1997). were s u b j e c t e d to the s a m e loading history.
If the engineer chooses to u s e a bolted The only difference was t h a t one s p e c i m e n
web connection, all aspects of the c o n n e c t i o n was c o n s t r u c t e d with a cover plated connec-
s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d to resist the full s h e a r tion a n d the other with a n RBS connection.
applied to the b e a m d u e to gravity a n d earth- Both s p e c i m e n s were provided with a single
q u a k e loads. Short slotted holes m a y be uti- b e a m lateral s u p p o r t n e a r the point of load
lized to futher protect the s h e a r tab a n d application.
b e a m web from possz'bie excesive deflections
w h e n the c o n n e c t i o n in subjected to large 250
Cover'Pla~ed Connectlon ~.______,~_
-~--~--,~ ~. ~.~ :~-~
rotations as t h e s y s t e m u n d e r g o e s inelastic
action d u r i n g a n e a r t h q u a k e . It s h o u l d be
200

150
RBS Connection
\'~
]
~ -
*~
~':~*
~ ~" ~
100 .
n o t e d t h a t s t r u c t u r a l steel erectors prefer
~ 50. _ _ _

s t a n d a r d holes to slotted holes to aid in erec- ~ o.


tion.
One of t h e m o s t d i s c u s s e d aspects of RBS
.~ -~0. - - - -

-100,

design, a n d one of the m o s t important, is the -150.


~ ~ '~"'~'~'({~:;e
s u p p l e m e n t a l lateral bracing required for
this system. FEMA 267A (1997) r e c o m m e n d s
-200,

-250
I
I , ,
-6 .~ -2
t h a t a lateral brace be provided n e a r the Displacement (inches)

RBS. The following discussion p r e s e n t s an


analysis of test r e s u l t s t h a t did not have lat- Figure 4 . 8
eral bracing provided n e a r the RBS. C o m p a r i s o n o f T e s t R e s u l t s for
Virtually all m o m e n t c o n n e c t i o n s t h a t Cover P l a t e d a n d RBS C o n n e c t i o n s
dissipate energy by yielding of the b e a m are
subject to varying degrees of b e a m instability As can be seen from Figure 4.8, t h e p e a k
at large levels of inelastic rotation. This is s t r e n g t h of the RBS c o n n e c t i o n is less t h a n
true both for reinforced c o n n e c t i o n s (cover t h a t of t h e cover-plated connection. This, of
plates, ribs, h a u n c h e s , etc.) a n d for RBS con- course, is expected a n d is in fact a potential
nections. This instability generally involves a advantage of the RBS in t h a t it r e d u c e s t h e
c o m b i n a t i o n of flange buckling, web buckling m o m e n t g e n e r a t e d at t h e c o n n e c t i o n a n d t h e
a n d lateral torsional buckling a n d typically m o m e n t delivered to the column. After reach-
results in deterioration of the b e a m flexural ing their p e a k strength, both c o n n e c t i o n s
strength, with i n c r e a s i n g inelastic rotations. exhibited s o m e s t r e n g t h deterioration d u e to
In the experience of some researchers, the c o m b i n e d flange, web a n d lateral torsional
degree of instability a n d associated s t r e n g t h b u c k l i n g in t h e beam. Note however t h a t t h e
deterioration for RBS c o n n e c t i o n s tested in rate of deterioration is less for t h e RBS spec-
the laboratory have been no more severe, a n d imen. In fact, at large inelastic deformations,
p e r h a p s s o m e w h a t less severe t h a n for m a n y t h e RBS exhibits t h e s a m e s t r e n g t h as t h e
types of reinforced c o n n e c t i o n s . This is cover-plated connection. This c o m p a r i s o n
d e m o n s t r a t e d by the connection test results d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e observation m a d e above,
s h o w n in Figure 4.8. i.e., RBS c o n n e c t i o n s e x h i b i t n o m o r e
This figure shows a plot of b e a m tip load s t r e n g t h deterioration, a n d p e r h a p s some-
v e r s u s b e a m tip d i s p l a c e m e n t for two differ- w h a t less deterioration t h a n reinforced con-
e n t test specimens. These two s p e c i m e n s nections.
were virtually identical, except for the con-

17
D E S I G N OF R E D U C E D B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS

T h e t e s t d a t a s u m m a r i z e d in A p p e n d i x A 5 RBS Design Example


i n d i c a t e s t h a t m a n y RBS c o n n e c t i o n t e s t s
have been conducted without an additional
Description of Design Example Project
l a t e r a l b r a c e at t h e RBS. T h e r e is n o i n s t a n c e
where an investigator reported unusually
C o m m e r c i a l Office B u i l d i n g / M e d i c a l
s e v e r e or u n a c c e p t a b l e s t r e n g t h d e t e r i o r a t i o n
Office B u i l d i n g
d u e to t h e a b s e n c e of a l a t e r a l s u p p o r t n e a r
L o c a t e d in S a n F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a
the RBS. Futher, as discussed above,
Distance from Nearest Earthquake
s t r e n g t h d e g r a d a t i o n in t h e R B S is c o m p a r a -
F a u l t : ~ 9 k i l o m e t e r s (San A n d r e a s )
ble to t h a t s e e n in m a n y o t h e r c o n n e c t i o n
H i g h S e i s m i c i t y Z o n e w i t h Near F a u l t
t y p e s for w h i c h n o a d d i t i o n a l l a t e r a l b r a c i n g
Characteristics
is p r e s e s n t l y r e q u i r e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , b a s e d
o n c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e d a t a , a n a d d i t i o n a l lat-
Description of Design Example Frame
eral b r a c e at t h e R B S d o e s n o t a p p e a r n e c e s -
s a r y in o r d e r to a c h i e v e a c c e p t a b l e p e r f o r m -
Perimeter Moment Frames
a n c e . H o w e v e r , t h e d e s i g n e r s h o u l d still
Frame centerline dimensions:
a d h e r e to t h e n o r m a l c o d e p r o v i s i o n s for
story height = 13' - 0"
b e a m l a t e r a l s u p p o r t a n d for b e a m f l a n g e
bay width = 2 2 ' - 8"
a n d w e b s l e n d e r n e s s limits. L a t e r a l b r a c i n g
for b e a m s in S p e c i a l M o m e n t F r a m e s s h o u l d
Beam: W24x117
b e p r o v i d e d at a m a x i m u m s p a c i n g of 2 5 0 0
A 5 7 2 Gr. 50 (A992)
/FY, a s r e q u i r e d b y S e c t i o n 9 . 8 of t h e AISC
Fy b = 50 k s i
is~nic Provisions ( 1997}.
As d e s c r i b e d earlier, m o s t m o m e n t c o n -
Column: W14x311
nections show gradual strength degradation
A 5 7 2 Gr. 50 (A992)
at large levels of p l a s t i c r o a t a t i o n d u e to c o m -
Fy c = 50 k s i
b i n e d local a n d l a t e r a l t o r s i o n a l b u c k l i n g of
t h e b e a m . T h i s o c c u r s for t h e R B S a s well a s
Gravity load on beam:
for m o s t o t h e r c o n n e c t i o n t y p e s , a s illus-
(1.2D + .5L p e r
t r a t e d in F i g u r e 4.9. R e d u c i n g t h e l a t e r a l
Sect. 9 . 2 c of AISC Seismic Provisions):
s u p p o r t s p a c i n g in t h e r e g i o n of t h e p l a s t i c
h i n g e f r o m t h a t r e q u i r e d in S e c t i o n 9.8 of t h e
2 kips/ft (0.17 k i p s / i n )
A I S C Seismic Provisions m a y t h e r e f o r e
r e d u c e t h e r a t e of s t r e n g t h d e g r a d a t i o n for
G r a v i t y l o a d s a r e d u e to floor t r i b u t a r y
m o s t t y p e s of m o m e n t c o n n e c t i o n s . F u r t h e r
l o a d s a s well a s e x t e r i o r wall l o a d s .
definitive recommendations and research
r e s u l t s will be p r o v i d e d in t h e u p c o m i n g SAC
Design typical interior moment
Guidelines.
c o n n e c t i o n of p e r i m e t e r f r a m e .
If a d e s i g n e r s h o u l d c h o o s e to p r o v i d e a
l a t e r a l b r a c e at t h e RBS, t h e b r a c e s h o u l d
n o t b e l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e r e d u c e d s e c t i o n of R = radius of cut = 4c~+ b~

t h e b e a m . W e l d e d or b o l t e d b r a c e a t t a c h e - 8c

m e n t s in t h i s h i g h l y s t r a i n e d r e g i o n of t h e
b e a m m a y s e r v e a s f r a c t u r e i n i t i a t i o n sites.
C o n s e q u e n t l y , if a l a t e r a l b r a c e is p r o v i d e d , it
s h o u l d b e l o c a t e d at or b e y o n d t h e e n d of t h e
R B S t h a t is f a r t h e s t f r o m t h e face of t h e col-
u m n . If b r a c i n g is to be p r o v i d e d a s p a r t of
_1
the design, requirements and recommenda- I~
a
V l ~
b -- I

t i o n s c a n be g a t h e r e d f r o m d o c u m e n t s s u c h
a s FEMA 2 6 7 A (1997) a n d " F u n d a m e n t a l s of
B e a m B r a c i n g " (Yura 1993). Figure 5.1 RBS D i m e n s i o n s

18
D E S I G N OF R E D U C E D B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS
Section Properties: From E q u a t i o n 5:

W24x117: MRB S = 1.15 ZRBS_Fy e


db = 2 4 . 2 6 in. = 1 15x218x55
bf = 1 2 . 8 0 in. = 13789 in-kip
fw = 0 . 8 5 in.
= 0 . 5 5 in. STEP 5 Compute the shear force at the
Zxb = 3 2 7 in. 3 c e n t e r s of the RBS at e a c h e n d of
W14x311: the beam
dc = 1 7 . 1 2 in.
bcf = 1 6 . 2 3 in. L'=L-dc-2 a+ = 2 7 2 - 1 7 . 1 2 - 2 7+ =222in.
tcf = 2 . 2 6 in.
tcw = 1.41 in.
Zxc = 6 0 3 in. 3 F r o m E q u a t i o n s 6 a a n d 6b:
2Me~s wL' 213789 0.17x222
STEP 1 C h o o s e t r i a l v a l u e s for R B S d i m e n - Vm~s - - - + - ~ =143kips
L' 2 222 2
s i o n s a, b a n d c

a -~'(0.5 to 0.75) b f V~s _ 2M~s wL'_ 213789 0.17222 =105kips


~ 6 in. t o 10 in. L' 2 222 2
Try: a = 7 in.
b ~ ( 0 . 6 5 to 0.85) d b
~ 16 in. to 21 in. Figure 5.2 s h o w s t h e s h e a r force d i a g r a m ,
Try: b = 19 in. t h e b e n d i n g m o m e n t d i a g r a m , a n d t h e free
c ~0.2 bf b o d y d i a g r a m t h e for t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e b e a m
~ 2 . 6 in. between RBS centers. Observe that the max-
Try: c = 2 . 7 5 in. i m u m m o m e n t o c c u r s a t t h e e n d s , i.e., a t t h e
c e n t e r s o f t h e R B S . If t h e g r a v i t y l o a d w e r e
STEP 2 Compute the plastic section modu- e x t r e m e l y large, c o m p a r e d to t h e m o m e n t
lus at t h e m i n i m u m section of t h e
RBS
143 105
F r o m E q u a t i o n 3:

V (kip)
ZRB S = Z x b - 2 c t f ( d b - t ~
= 327 - 2 x 2.75 x 0.85 x (24.26 - 0.85) 13789
= 218 in.3

STEP 3 Establish the expected yield stress


of t h e b e a m
M (kip-in)

F o r A 5 7 2 Gr. 5 0 s t e e l , R y = 1.1.

F r o m E q u a t i o n 4: -13789

~ REDS w= 0.17 kips/in. ~ RIBS


Fy e = R y F y b = 1 . 1 x 5 0 = 55ksi
Ii.,.l..i ~ I i ~ I i I I I I ~ t I t i i I I I t I ~ I i i.l..!j

STEP 4 Compute the maximum moment


143
. . . . . . . . t' "~05k
J ~
expected at the center of the RBS
,
L' ~ 222 in.

Figure 5.2
Portion of Example Beam
between RBS Centers

19
DESIGN OF R E D U C E D B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS) M O M E N T F R A M E C O N N E C T I O N S
,

d e v e l o p e d d u e to a p p l i e d l a t e r a l l o a d s , t h e
c u r v e d p o r t i o n of t h e m o m e n t d i a g r a m c o u l d > 1.0 ( E q u a t i o n 10)
drive t h e p l a s t i c h i n g e t o w a r d t h e c o l u m n , ZMc
a w a y f r o m t h e RBS. T h i s e x a m p l e i n d i c a t e s
t h a t t h e gravity l o a d is n o t l a r g e e n o u g h to R e t u r n i n g to t h e e x a m p l e , a s s u m i n g t h a t
form a plastic hinge within the span, away p o i n t s of i n f l e c t i o n in t h e c o l u m n s o c c u r at
f r o m t h e RBS. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e c a l c u l a - t h e i r m i d - h e i g h t s , a n d a s s u m i n g a n axial
t i o n s a b o v e for t h e m o m e n t a n d s h e a r forces, s t r e s s (fa) of 15 k s i in t h e c o l u m n s u n d e r
at t h e R B S c u t s , a r e valid. combined earthquake and gravity loading,
t h e following c a l c u l a t i o n s r e s u l t .
STEP 6 Compute the maximum moment F r o m E q u a t i o n s 11, 12, 13 a n d 14:
e x p e c t e d a t t h e face of t h e c o l u m n

F r o m E q u a t i o n 7:
h~ + d b + hb
Ms =Mees + Veas(a+ 2b-/=13789+ 143(7 + ~ ) = 16149in - kip

2 x 13789+ (143 + 105(17;12 + 7 + ~ )


STEP 7 C o m p u t e t h e p l a s t i c m o m e n t of
= 217kips
the beam based on the expected 156
yield s t r e s s

F r o m E q u a t i o n 8: Met = Vc h t
= 2 1 7 x (156 - 2 4 . 2 6 ) / 2
= 14294 in-kip
Mpe = Zxb Fy e = 3 2 7 x 55 = 1 7 9 8 5 i n - k i p
STEP 8 C h e c k t h a t Mfis in t h e r a n g e of 85 Mcb 14294 in-kip
to 100 p e r c e n t of Mpe
= 2 x 1 4 2 9 4 = 28588 in - k i p
F r o m E q u a t i o n 9:

Mf 16149 ~Zc(Fyc-.f~) -
2603(50-15)
= 1.5 > 1 OK
- -
- - - 0.90 OK ~M~ 28588
Mpe 17985

T h u s , t h e p r e l i m i n a r y d i m e n s i o n s a r e OK. STEP 10 C h e c k C o l u m n P a n e l Z o n e

Use: a = 7in. To c h e c k t h e c o l u m n p a n e l z o n e , t h e p r o -
c e d u r e d i s c u s s e d in S e c t i o n 4 will b e u s e d .
b = 19in.
c = 2 . 7 5 in.
Based on the example, the column panel
STEP 9 Strong Column-Weak Beam Check z o n e s h e a r is c o m p u t e d a s follows:

To c h e c k s t r o n g c o l u m n - w e a k beam Mf = 16149 in-kip ( E q u a t i o n 7)


r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e p r o c e d u r e p r e s e n t e d in
FEMA 2 6 7 A (1997) will be u s e d , w i t h t h e F r o m E q u a t i o n s 15, 16 a n d 17:
m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s n o t e d in S e c t i o n 4. T h e
final e q u a t i o n to b e u s e d to c h e c k t h i s 27Mf = Mf+ M:f
r e q u i r e m e n t (from E q u a t i o n 7 . 5 . 2 . 5 - 1 of = 16149 + 15522 = 31674 in-kip
F E M A 267A) is a s follows:
Mf=M~Bs+V~Bsa+ =13789+105 7+
,
=15522in - kip

i|1

20
D E S I G N OF R E D U C E D B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS} M O M E N T FRAME CONNECTIONS

Vez- 0.8z..,~'Mr 0.8Vc Vc - 0.8x31671 0.8x217= 926kips RBS flange r e d u c t i o n is approximately 43


0.95dt) 0.9524.26 percent. Consequently, it is expected t h a t t h e
inclusion of tlae RBS the b e a m s will i n c r e a s e
interstory drift by a b o u t 5 percent.
Panel zone strength is c o m p u t e d as fol-
S~e~c Abut
lows: ,~
From Equation 18: I /
~
~
. B.U. bar to remain
~ Remove weld tabs
IE 718"x 6" ~,.~,,.T-~-~'~"r-.~/ ~ IP
{B.S.) ~ I ! [ I / _1 16 ~ Weld B.U. bar Io coiutnn
- - N ~ l ~ . l I~ . ~ _ 5 .... .

= 0.55F~,~d~tIlL+ 3b~ft~d+d~t
1 ~ l / *~

I.t' i I w2,.,,7
~i I.I I'\i~, I g;-~'~-------------~,~,:,,d~,,,~,,~,,oo,~d,
tose~v a s b a c i~g C~,~ -- ~
I 3 x 16"23x (2"26)~] IZ . . . .ooo,0,.to
= 0.55xSOx17.12x1.41 1+ 24.26xlT.12xl.41J = 946 kips ,.]~,~ ,_~ ~ ~ \,~,~.~ : ~ columnand beam byfabdcato~.

II 5/16 \ cleaned and inspected


.

946 > 926 .'.No doubler plates r e q u i r e d =.o,o0,


Configure plate comes to \ ~
...... / .17Grind75" Radius
of column Smooth

STEP 11 C h e c k B e a m Shear ~ ~ J ~ 1 ~ 7.3"


2.75"
2.75"

From E q u a t i o n 19: 5/'I'~ NI welds: ET0


~lI groove welds: electrodes must be rat~;I for
' CVN of at teast 20 It-fos at -20 deg. F.
All weldingshall conformto AWS D1.1

w (l-l') /272~222/ Figure 5 . 3 C o n n e c t i o n D e t a i l for


V~ 4 2 0.17 - Design E~mple
' 2 143 = 145kips
2
6 Procedures for Acceptance
of Design by Building
V, = A,,,Fy = (0.55)(24.26)(5 O) = 667 kips > 145 kips Authorities

Continuity Plates The design of SMF building s y s t e m s require


t h a t the d e s i g n a c c o u n t for inelastic defor-
m a t i o n d e m a n d s on t h e connection. The
Use c o n t i n u i t y plates with a t h i c k n e s s
AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel
a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l to t h e b e a m flange
t h i c k n e s s . The b e a m flange t h i c k n e s s is 0.85
Buildings (1997), Section 9.2, p r e s e n t s t h e
r e q u i r e m e n t s for SMF structures. The RBS
inches. Therefore, u s e 7 / 8 " thick continuity
c o n n e c t i o n is a n o p t i o n t h a t c a n m e e t
plates (0.875"). C o n n e c t continuity plates to
r e q u i r e m e n t s set by building codes a n d con-
c o l u m n flanges u s i n g CJP groove welds, a n d
s e n s u s d o c u m e n t s . The following c o m m e n t s
the web u s i n g double fillet welds. The cor-
are i n t e n d e d to describe actions t h a t can be
n e r s of c o n t i n u i t y plates s h o u l d be config-
followed to help facilitate the p e r m i t t i n g
u r e d to avoid welding into the k - a r e a of the
process for a SMF building system.
column.

Beam Web Connection 6.1 Communication

C o n n e c t b e a m web to c o l u m n flange It is r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t early in the process,


u s i n g CJP groove weld over full d e p t h of web the S t r u c t u r a l E n g i n e e r of Record c o m m u n i -
(between weld access holes). cate with t h e building official regarding t h e
proposed u s e a n d p e r t i n e n t a s p e c t s of t h e
A drawing of a generic final c o n n e c t i o n RBS m o m e n t connection. The e n g i n e e r m a y
detail is s h o w n in Figure 5.3. The resulting n e e d to provide b a c k g r o u n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n
frame s h o u l d be c h e c k e d for all code speci- to the building official if h e or she is unfamil-
fied s t r e n g t h a n d drift limits. Note t h a t the iar with the design a n d terminology relating

21
DESIGN OF REDUCED BEAM S E C T I O N (RBS} MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS
to the design. The u s e of this d o c u m e n t m a y The d o c u m e n t a t i o n related to the RBS
aid the building official in u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c o n n e c t i o n s h o u l d be clear a n d concise, yet
design intent. provide e n o u g h detail for the fabricator to
properly i n c o r p o r a t e all the difficult a n d
6.2 Methodology i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of th e connection. The
information s h o u l d be s u c h t h a t a n y fabrica-
tor or erector c a n utilize the information pro-
Once t he building official u n d e r s t a n d s th e vided, a n d c o n s t r u c t the final c o n n e c t i o n in
design i n t e n t a n d s y s t e m behavior, it is s u c h a m a n n e r t h a t the p e r f o r m a n c e will
i m p o r t a n t to clearly state t he design m e t h o d - directly correlate with the design intent.
ology to be u s e d early so t h a t a n y m i s u n d e r - I m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of the design to be
s t a n d i n g s c a n be avoided. This d o c u m e n t i n c l u d e d in the d raw in g details are welding
p r e s e n t s a general design methodology, uti- details, RBS s h a p e a n d location, n o t e s
lizing s o m e simplifying a s s u m p t i o n s a n d r e g a r d i n g grinding of the RBS after cutting,
some of t he better a s p e c t s of m a n y different s h e a r tab detail information a n d b e a m web to
design m e t h o d s . There are ot he r w a y s to c o l u m n flange c o n n e c t i o n details. It is rec-
design a n RBS m o m e n t c o n n e c t i o n a n d SMF o m m e n d e d to provide a set of n o tes specific
s y s t e m t h a n t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d in this docu- to th e RBS c o n n e c t i o n s , relating to welding
ment. If ot he r m e t h o d s are utilized, t h e engi- practices a n d c o n n e c t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n proce-
n e e r s h o u l d be s u r e to clearly indicate the d u r e s to help th e c o n t r a c t o r u n d e r s t a n d t h e
m e t h o d u s e d a n d t he i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s t h a t c o n n e c t i o n a n d th e i m p o r t a n c e it h a s on t h e
s h o w design c o m p l i a n c e with the governing building s y s t e m p e r f o r m a n c e . Reference to
building code. applicable portions of AWS D I.1 a n d other
Any design m e t h o d o l o g y utilized s h o u l d AWS or AISC d o c u m e n t s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d
correlate well with other p u b l i s h e d m e t h o d s , in th es e n o tes to clearly state a level of
test r e s u l t s a n d r e s e a r c h papers. Section 9.2 expected quality. This level of i n f o r m a t i o n
of the AISC Seismic Provisions require t h a t will also facilitate obtaining th e a p p r o p r i a t e
the design be b a s e d on qualifying cyclic tests. level of i n s p e c t i o n r e q u i r e d for this type of
The table in Appendix A will help to satisfy connection.
this r e q u i r e m e n t for t he RBS connection.
Any significant deviation from e s t a b l i s h e d
methodologies or tests s h o u l d be justified. It 7 Fabrication and I n s p e c t i o n
is i m p o r t a n t to u n d e r s t a n d t h a t m a n y rec- Issues
o m m e n d a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d in this d o c u m e n t
are b a s e d on e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h. Design A n u m b e r of fab ricatio n a n d i n s p e c t i o n
e q u a t i o n s a n d RBS sizing v a l u e s are b a s e d i s s u e s are i m p o r t a n t to e n s u r e a well-con-
on s u c c e s s f u l r e s e a r c h , b o t h analytically a n d s t r u c t e d RBS connection. As d i s c u s s e d ear-
experimentally. Therefore, a n y n e w design lier proper fabrication a n d erection of this
e q u a t i o n s s h o u l d be c o m p a r a b l e to estab- c o n n e c t i o n is a critical portion of th e sys-
lished equations. t e m ' s p e r f o r m a n c e . If w e l d s are poorly
placed, the stress at w h i c h f r a c t u r e initiates
6.3 Construction Documents a n d p r o p a g a t e s is m u c h lower t h a n the
stress a t o u g h weld metal, placed with care,
c a n resist. Cu ttin g a n d grinding are critical
After a design is complete, it is imperative to a s p e c t s of fabrication w h i c h m u s t be well
convey t he information a c c u r a t e l y on con- e x e c u t e d to p r o d u c e a high quality final con-
struc t i on d o c u m e n t s . While calculations are nection.
i m p o r t a n t a n d describe t he final c o n s t r u c t e d
connection, c o n s t r u c t i o n d o c u m e n t s provide
direction to t he fabricator a n d erector. The 7.1 Cutting and Grinding
e l e m e n t s e x p r e s s e d on t he drawings will be
m o r e i m p o r t a n t to the final quality of the The c u t portion of both the c u r v e d RBS sec-
design t h a n a n y calculation. tion, as well as the p r e p a r a t i o n of th e e n d of

22
DESIGN O F REDUCED BEAM SECTION (RBS} MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS

th e b e a m , n e e d s to be s m o o t h a n d free of 7.2 Welding


n o t c h e s . This s m o o t h n e s s is i m p o r t a n t for
r e a s o n s d i s c u s s e d earlier. Many fabrication
Welding is a very critical p a r t of th e proper
s h o p s have t he ability to m a k e virtually
fabrication of this c o n n e c t i o n . A significant
n o t c h free t h e r m a l cuts. While this is a ben-
a m o u n t of effort h a s b e e n m a d e to p r o d u c e a
efit to r e d u c e t he n u m b e r of p e r p e n d i c u l a r
beam with a r e d u c e d section modulus,
n o t c h e s , w h i c h m a y p r e s e n t stress risers,
d e s i g n e d to y ield p r i o r to d e v e l o p i n g
small imperfections exist t h a t m a y affect con-
m o m e n t s w h i c h deliver very high s t r e s s e s to
nection performance.
b e a m flange - c o l u m n flange welds. However,
Therefore, it is i m p o r t a n t to clearly iden-
if th e welding r e q u i r e d for this c o n n e c t i o n is
tify w h a t is the a d e q u a t e a m o u n t of m a t e r i a l
d o n e poorly, t h e s t r e s s at w h i c h brittle
to remove (by grinding) from t he c u t surface.
behavior m a y o c c u r is m u c h lower t h a n t h e
FEMA 267A (1997) d i s c u s s e s a level of
e n g i n e e r expects. Good welds, u s i n g t o u g h
a c c e p t a b l e surfa c e r o u g h n e s s value less t h a n
filler metal, will resist h i g h e r loads t h a n sur-
or equal to 1000 as defined in ANSI/ASME
r o u n d i n g b a s e metal. Therefore, it is im p er a-
B46.1. This level is difficult to d e t e r m i n e
tive t h a t t h e w eld in g for this type of c o n n e c -
w i t h o u t a significant a m o u n t of e q u i p m e n t
tion be of h i g h q u a l i t y , to p r o d u c e a
a n d expertise. Therefore, this d o c u m e n t rec-
c o n n e c t i o n t h a t will p erfo rm as designed.
o m m e n d s t h a t the t h e r m a l c u t s be g r o u n d Any specific i s s u e s related to welds, s u c h
s m o o t h in the following m a n n e r : "It is impor-
as weld profiles, s e q u e n c e , s u b m i t t a l of
t a n t t h a t t he p a t t e r n of a n y c u t s m a d e in the
m a t e r i a l s or certifications t h a t are consid-
flange be p r o p o r t i o n e d so as to avoid s h a r p ered i m p o r t a n t for c o m p l i a n c e of t h e fabrica-
c u t corners. All c o m e r s s h o u l d be r o u n d e d to
tor's w o r k to m e e t t h e design intent, s h o u l d
minimize n o t c h effects a n d in addition, c u t
be clearly s t a t e d in t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n docu-
edges s h o u l d be c u t or g r o u n d to have a sur- m e n t s . I t e m s s u c h as p r e h e a t s h o u l d be
face r o u g h n e s s m e e t i n g t he r e q u i r e m e n t s of a d d r e s s e d in t h e project specifications a n d
AWS C4.1-77 class 4, or smoother." c o n s t r u c t i o n d rawin g s . Typically, AWS will
The d e s i g n e r s h o u l d d i s c u s s the i n t e n t a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s m o s t i s s u e s , a n d for n e w
with the fabricator a n d develop criteria for a n d e s i g n will provide t h e f a b r i c a t o r a m p l e
a c c e p t a b l e m o c k - u p to be m a d e for r e f e r en ce direction to c o m p l e t e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n in a
d u r i n g f a b r i c a t i o n i n s p e c t i o n s . The final safe a n d h i g h quality m a n n e r .
grinding t h a t t h e e n g i n e e r a n d fabricator The e n g i n e e r s h o u l d be clear in th e proj-
have agreed u p o n , s h o u l d be i n s p e c t e d by ect specifications a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n d r a w i n g s
the fabricator's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e as well as th e t h a t filler m e t a l s sh all n o t be m i x e d in s u c h
owner's testing agency, to e n s u r e c o m p l i a n c e a w a y as to p r o d u c e a CVN v alu e below t h a t
with t he a c c e p t e d m o c k - u p . specified a n d r e q u i r e d for a single filler
M a n y b e a m s u s e d for SMF s y s t e m s are metal. Most fabrication s h o p s p r e s e n t l y u s e
large with t h i c k flanges a n d webs. S h e a r gas s h i e l d e d FCAW m e t h o d s for welds to
p u n c h i n g holes in t h e s e t h i c k portions of th e c o l u m n s a n d b e a m s . The erection crews,
m e m b e r c oul d lead to localized d e l a m i n a t i o n especially w h e n w e l d i n g c o m p l e t e jo in t p en e-
or tearing. In s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e hole diame- t r a t i o n groove w e l d s , t y p i c a l l y u s e self
ters are sma l l er t h a n t h e b a s e m a t e r i a l shielded FCAW. Also, t h e r e are different filler
t h i c k n e s s , t he d e s i g n e r m a y c o n s i d e r t h a t m e t a l s u s e d for t h e flat position as well as
holes r e q u i r e d for fabrication of e l e m e n t s a n d other positions. S o m e c o m b i n a t i o n s of filler
portions of t he RBS b e a m be drilled r a t h e r m e t a l s in th e s a m e j o i n t m a y p r o d u c e a com-
t h a n p u n c h e d . No r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s indicate b in ed CVN value, w h i c h co u ld p r e s e n t "brit-
t h a t a r e d u c t i o n in c o n n e c t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e fie behavior". The e n g i n e e r s h o u l d carefully
is a t t r i b u t a b l e to p u n c h i n g holes in RBS review t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d in "The
beams. Effects of I n t e r m i x e d Weld Metal on M e c h a n -
ical Properties" (1998) a n d th e s u b m i t t e d
WPS prior to f a b r i c a t i o n to e n s u r e t h a t t h e
fabricator a n d erecto r are n o t c r e a t i n g a

23
D E S I G N O F REDUCED B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS} MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS

potential problem by inappropriately mixing i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g the RBS c o n n e c t i o n


filler metals. details a n d construction. Complete joint pen-
P a r a m e t e r s should be set for quality con- etration groove welds should be inspected by
trol of shop welding a n d fabrication. The fab- a Level II qualified NDT inspector as defined
ricator m u s t have a n acceptable Quality Con- in the AWS D 1.1. Each joint should be ultra-
trol (QC) procedure in place t h r o u g h o u t the sonically tested a n d all welds associated with
fabrication of the project. In addition, Quality the connection should receive c o n t i n u o u s
A s s u r a n c e m e a s u r e s s h o u l d be t a k e n to help special inspection. Field inspection should be
e n s u r e t h a t the QC procedure is being imple- sensitive to s u c h i s s u e s as weld preparation
m e n t e d a n d followed. Typically QA or Verifi- a n d fit-up, weld profile a n d weld p a s s
cation Inspection is provided by special sequence, b a c k - u p bar removal a n d grinding
inspectors, hired by the owner. It is the of r u n - o f f tabs. The i n s p e c t o r s s h o u l d
responsibility of the engineer to establish develop a n acceptable protocol for inspection
inspection protocol, request a pre-fabrication a n d reports in regards to welding a n d con-
a n d pre-erection meeting, a n d i m p r e s s u p o n nection completion.
the fabricator a n d erector the i m p o r t a n t

24
D E S I G N OF REDUCED B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS) MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS
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Blodgett, O., Funderburk, S., and Miller, D.,


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Engelhardt, M.D. and Sabol, T.A., "Reinforc-
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Frame Connections," M.S. Thesis, Divi-
Cover Plates: Benefits and Limitations,"
sion of Structural Engineering, University
Engineering Structures, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp.
of California, San Diego, 1997.
510-520, 1998.

Plumier, A., "The Dogbone: Back to the


Gross, J., Engelhardt, M., Uang, C., Kasai,
Future," Engineering Journal, American
K., and Iwankiw, N., "Modification of
Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. 2nd
Existing Steel Welded Moment Frame
Quarter 1997.
Connections for Seismic Resistance,"
Steel Design Guide Series Twelve, Ameri-
can Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.,
Chicago, 1999.

25
D E S I G N O F REDUCED B E A M S E C T I O N (RBS} MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS

Popov, E. and Stephen, R., "Cyclic Loading of "Structural Welding Code - Steel," AWS D 1.1-
Full Size Steel Connections," Bulletin No. 98, American Welding Society, Miami,
21, American Iron and Steel Institute, 1998.
1972.
Tide, R., "Stability of Weld Metal Subjected to
SAC Joint Venture, Background Reports on Cyclic Static and Seismic Loading," Engi-
Metallurgy, Fracture Mechanics, Welding, neering Structures, Vol. 20, Nos. 4-6,
Moment Connections and Frame Systems April-June 1998.
Behavior, Published by the Federal Emer-
gency Management Agency, Report FEMA Tsal, K.C. and Popov, E.P., "Steel Beam-Col-
288, 1996. u m n Joints In Seismic Moment Resisting
Frames", Report No. UCB/EERC - 88/19,
SAC Joint Venture, Interim Guidelines: Eval- Earthquake Engineering Research Cen-
uation, Repair, Modification and Design of ter, University of California at Berkeley,
Welded Steel Moment Frame Structures, 1988.
Published by the Federal Emergency
Management Agency, Report FEMA 267, Yura, J.A., "Fundamentals of Beam Bracing,"
August 1995. Proceedings, Structural Stability Research
Council Conference, "Is Your Structure
SAC Joint Venture, Interim Guidelines Advi- Suitably Braced?," 1993.
sory No. 1 - Supplement to FEMA 267,
Published by the Federal Emergency Zekioglu, A., Mozaffarian, H. and Uang, C.,
Management Agency, Report FEMA 267A, "Moment Frame Connection Development
March 1997. and Testing for the City of Hope National
Medical Center," Proceedings; Structures
Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Build- Congress XV, Portland, April 13-16, 1997,
ings, American Institute of Steel Con- American Society of Civil Engineers,
struction, Inc., Chicago, April 15, 1997. 1997.

26
APPENDIX A

Summary of Experiments on Reduced Beam Section Moment Connections for New Construction

Ref Spec. Beam Column Flange Welds Web RBS Details Op Comments
Connection and Other (%)
Flange
Modifications
Built-up W shape Built-up Box: SS-FCAW Bolted: Tapered cut 2.4 Fracture of beam
[1] YC-1 d=23.6", b~=l 1.8", 19.7"xl 9.7"x.79" E70T-7 7-7/8" A325 L1=2" flange initiating at weld
tf=0.79", tw=0.47" Lc = 87" No weld tabs used LRBS=I3.8" access hole
Lb=73" A572 Gr. 50 FR=20%
A36 steel Fy =56 ksi
Fy_f=40 ksi Fu =82 ksi
Fo.~=66 ksi
Fy.w=40 ksi
Fu.w=65 ksi
Tapered cut 2.9 Fracture of beam
[1] YC-2 L~=2" flange initiating at weld
LRBS=17.7" access hole
FR=25%
Tapered cut 4.1 Fracture of beam
[1] PC-1 L1=4.7" flange initiating at weld
LRBS=I5.7" access hole
FR=34%
Tapered cut 4.8 Fracture of beam
[1] PC-2 L1=4.7" flange initiating at weld
LRSS= 17.7" access hole
FR=42%
Tapered cut 3.8 Fracture of beam
[1] PC-3 L1=4.7" flange initiating at weld
LRss=I 7.7" access hole
FR=42%

I m~
Ref Spec. Beam Column Flange Welds Web RBS Details 0p Comments
Connection and Other (%)
Flange
Modifications
[2] DBT- W30x99 W14x176 SS-FCAW Bolted: Tapered cut 2.8 no failure; test stopped
1A-99- A572 Gr. 50 A572 Gr. 50 E70TG-K2; 7-1" A325 L1=7.5" due to limitations in
176 L~= 138" Lc=168" backing bar removed LRBS=20.25'' test setup
Fy.w = 61.6 ksi Fy.w =55.6 ksi at bottom flange FR=45%
Fu.w = 82.8 ksi Fu.w =70.7 ksi
[2] DBT- W30x99 W14x176 Tapered cut 4.0 no failure; test stopped
1B-99- A572 Gr. 50 A572 Gr. 50 L1=7.5" due to limitations in
176 Lb=138" Lc=168" LRBS=20.25" test setup
Fy.w = 51.5 ksi Fy.w =55.5 ksi FR=45%
Fu.w = 72.1 ksi Fu.w =71.8 ksi
[2] DBT- W36x150 W14x257 Bolted: Tapered cut 3.5 ' Fracture of beam top
2A-150- A572 Gr. 50 A572 Gr. 50 9-1" A325 L1=9" flange near groove
257 Lb=138" Lc=168" LaBs=24" we d
F~.w = 60.2 ksi Fy.w =59.6 ksi FR=45%
Fu.w = 72.3 ksi Fu.w =75.2 ksi
[2] DBT- W36x150 W 14x257 Tapered cut 1.7 Fracture of beam top
2B-150- A572 Gr. 50 A572 Gr. 50 L1=9" flange we d;
257 Lb=138" Lc=168" LRBS=24'' propagated to divot-
Fy.w = 62.9 ksi Fy.w =64.5 ksi FR=45% type fracture of
Fu.w = 83.1 ksi Fu.w =83.2 ksi column flange
[3,4] ARUP- W36x150 W 14x426 SS-FCAW welded Tapered cut 3.5 Flange fracture at
1 A572 Gr. 50 A572 Gr. 50 E70TG-K2 (heavy shear L1=9" minimum section of
Lb=132" Lc=136" backing bar left in tab groove LABS=24" RBS
Fy.f =55.5 ksi place w/seal weld at welded to FR=44%
Fu4 =73 ksi top flange; column and top & bottom
Fy.w=62.5 ksi backing bar removed fillet welded flanges
Fu-w=77 ksi at bottom flange to beam reinforced with
web) vertical ribs
[3,4] COH-1 W27x178 W 14x455 Tapered cut 3.5
A572 Gr. 50 A572 Gr. 50 L~=7"
Lb= 132" Lc=136" LABS=20"
Fy.f =44 ksi Fy.f =55 ksi FR=38%
Fu.f =62 ksi Fu4=84 ksi top & bottom
Fy.w=46 ksi Fy.w=54 ksi flanges
Fu-w=62 ksi Fu-w=86 ksi reinforced with
vertical ribs

A-2
Ref Spec. Beam Column Flange Welds Web RBS Details Gp Comments
Connection and Other (O/o)
Flange
Modifications
[3,4] COH-2 3.8
(~ = ~

[3,4] COH-3 W33x152 Wl 4x455 Tapered cut 3.2


A572 Gr. 50 A572 Gr. 50 L1=9"
Lb=132" Lc=136" LRBS=26"
Fy.f=57.6 ksi Fy.f=55 ksi FR=43%
Fu.f=78.5 ksi Fu.f=84 ksi top & bottom
Fy.w=62 ksi Fyow=54 ksi flanges
Fu-w=84.5 ksi Fu-w=86 ks i reinforced with
Beam connected to vertical side
column web plates
[3,4] COH-4 4.0
~ =~

[3,4] COH-5 W33x152 1.8


|~
A572 Gr. 50
Lb=132"
F~4=62.8 ksi
Fu.f=86 ksi
F~.w=69.1 ksi
Fu.w=93.7 ksi
DB1 W36x160 Wl 4x426 SS-FCAW welded Constant cut 2.0 Flange fracture at
[5,6] L~=134" A572 Gr. 50 E71T-8 (beam web L1=9" RBS
Fy.f=54.7 ksi Lc=136" backing bar left in groove LRBS=I9.5"
Fu4=75.6 ksi place w/seal weld at welded to FR=40%
Fy.w=53.5 ksi top flange; column)
Fu-w=79.2 ksi backing bar removed
at bottom flange
[5,6] DB2 W36x150 W 14x426 Radius cut 3.0 Testing stopped due"
Lb=134" A572 Gr. 50 L1=9" to limitations of test
Fy.f=41.4 ksi Lc=136" L~Bs=27" setup
Fu4=58.7 ksi Fy.f=50 ksi FR=40%
Fy.w=47.1 ksi Fu4=74.5 ksi
Fu-w=61.8 ksi Fy.w=50 ksi
Fu.w=75 ksi

A-3
Ref Spec. Beam Column Flange Welds Web RBS Details ~p Comments
Connection and Other (%)
Flange
Modifications
[5,6] DB3 W36x170 W 14x426 Radius cut 3.8
L~=134" A572 Gr. 50 L1=9"
Fy.f =58 ksi Lc=136" LRBS=27''
Fu.f=73 ksi FR=40%
Fy,w=58.5 ksi
Fu.w=76.7 ksi
[5,6] DB4 W36x194 W 14x426 Radius cut 3.7
Lb=134" A572 Gr. 50 L1=9"
Fy.f =38.5 ksi Lc=136" LRBS=27"
Fu4 =58.6 ksi Fy4=50 ksi FR=38%
Fy,w=43.6 ksi Fu4 =74.5 ksi
Fu.w=59.8 ksi Fy,w=50 ksi
Fu.w=75 ksi
[5,6] DB5 W30x148 W 14x257 Radius cut 4.0 Testing stopped due
Lb=134" A572 Gr. 50 L1=5" to limitations of test
Fy.f =46.6 ksi Lc=136" LRas=25" setup; significant
Fu.f =64.5 ksi Fy.f =48.7 ksi FR=38% column panel zone
Fy.w=48.5 ksi Fu.f=69 ksi yielding
Fu.w=65.4 ksi Fy.w=49.4 ksi
Fu.w=66.2 ksi
[7] DB1 W36x135 W 14x257 SS-FCAW Not Radius cut 3.0 Testing stopped due
A36 Steel with 1-5/16" thk. E71T-8 Available L1=8" to limitations of test
Lb=134.5" cover plates (details of backing LRBS=28'' setup
(cover plates welded and weld tabs not FR=40%
across flanges of available)
W14x257 to form
box)
A572 Gr, 50
L~=132"

A-4
Ref Spec. Beam Column Flange Welds Web RBS Details 0p Comments
Connection and Other (%)
Flange
Modifications
[8] S-1 W530x82 (Canadian W 14x 120 SS-FCAW Bolted: Radius cut 9.0 Specimen loaded
Designation) A572 Gr. 50 E71T-8 5-1" A325 L1=4.7" monotonically; testing
d=20.8", bf=8.2", Lc=120" backing bar left in LRss=l 5.7" stopped due to
tf=0.52", tw=0.37" place w/seal weld at FR=55% limitations of test
wt.=54 Ib/ft. top flange; setup
Lb=142" backing bar removed
CSA G40.41-350W at bottom flange
steel
Fy.f =52.4 ksi
Fo.f=76.6 ksi
Fy.w=57.5 ksi
Fu.w=81 ksi
[8] (~
S-2A 3.6 Testing stopped due
to limitations of test
setup
[8] SC-1 3.4 Composite slab
included (6); testing
stopped due to
limitations of test
setup
[8] S-3 note statically applied
(8) simulated earthquake
loading (7); testing
stopped due to
reaching end of
simulated earthquake
loading; no connection
failure
[8] S-4 note dynamically applied
(9) simulated earthquake
loading (7); testing
stopped due to
reaching end of
simulated earthquake
loading; no connection
failure

A-5
Ref Spec. Beam Column Flange Welds Web RBS Details 0p Comments
Connection and Other (%)
Flange
Modifications
[8] SC-2 Note Composite slab
(9) included (6);
dynamically applied
simulated earthquake
loading (6); testing
stopped due to
reaching end of
simulated earthquake
loading; no connection
failure
[11] LS-1 W30x99 W14x176 SS-FCAW welded Radius cut 4.0 No connection failure
A572 Gr. 50 A572 Gr. 50 E70T-6 (Beam web L1 = 7"
Lb = 141" Lc = 150" backing bar left in groove LaBs = 20"
Fy.f = 54.0 ksi Fy.f= 55.5 ksi place w/seal weld at welded to FR = 50%
Fu4= 71.9 ksi Fu4 = 74.0 ksi top flange; column)
Fy.w= 58.0 ksi Fy.w= 54.0 ksi backing bar removed
Fu.w= 74.8 ksi Fu.w= 73.1 ksi at bottom flange
(~
[11] LS-2 ~

+1.0 note (12)


/-5.0
[11] LS-3 -1.0/ note (12)
+5.0

[11] LS-4 4.0 No connection failure;


testing stopped due to
limitations of test
setup
[12] DBBW W36x150 W 14x398 SS-FCAW Bolted: Radius cut 4.0 No connection failure;
Beam 1 A572 Gr. 50 A572 Gr. 50 E70T-6 10 - 1" A490 L1 = 9" test stopped due to
Lb = 141" Lc = 146" backing bar left in LaBS = 27" limitations of test
Fy.f = 54.3 ksi Fy = 53.0 ksi place w/seal weld at FR = 50% setup;
Fo.f = 68.8 ksi Fu = 73.0 ksi top flange;
Fy.w= 59.4 ksi (based on CMTR) backing bar removed see note (13)
Fu.w= 72.0 ksi at bottom flange
.
[12] DBBW 4.0

Beam 2
m

A-6
Ref Spec. Beam Column Flange Welds Web RBS Details Op Comments
Connection and Other (%)
Flange
Modifications
[12] DBBW- 5.0 Low cycle fatigue
C fracture in RBS;

Beam 1 see note (14)


[12] DBBW- 3.8 Fracture of bottom
C beam flange adjacent
to groove weld;
Beam 2 fracture initiated at
weld access hole;

see note (14)


[13] DBWW W36x150 W 14x398 SS-FCAW welded 3.5 No connection failure;
A572 Gr. 50 A572 Gr. 50 E70T-6 (Beam web test stopped due to
Beam 1 Lb= 141" Lc = 144" backing bar left in groove limitations of test
Fy.f= 54.3 ksi Fv = 53.0 ksi place w/seal weld at welded to setup
Fu.f = 68.8 ksi Fu = 73.0 ksi top flange; column)
Fy.w= 59.4 ksi (based on CMTR) backing bar removed see note (13)
Fu.w= 72.0 ksi at bottom flange
((
[13] DBWW 3.5

Beam 2
[13] DBWW 5.0 Low cycle fatigue
-C fracture in RBS

Beam 1 see note (14)


[13] DBWW 5.0 Low cycle fatigue
-C fracture in RBS

Beam 2

A-7
Ref Spec. Beam Column Flange Welds Web RBS Details ~p Comments
Connection and Other (%)
Flange
Modifications
[14] WG-1 W33x201 W14x311 SS-FCAW Bolted: Radius cut 2.9 fracture of RBS at
A572 Gr. 50 A913 Gr. 65 E70TG-K2; 13-1" A490 L1 = 9.3" local buckle in RBS
Lb = 160.5" Lc = 152" backing bar removed LRBS = 25"
F~.f= 52.0 ksi Fy.f = 69.0 ksi at bottom flange FR = 54% see note (15)
Fu-f = 72.8 ksi Fu4 = 88.3 ksi
Fy.w= 51.5 ksi Fy-w= 68.0 ksi
Fu-w= 68.0 ksi F..w= 86.5 ksi
5/8" doubler plates
(A572 Gr. 50)
provided on each
side of column web
[14] WG-2 2.9 No connection failure;
test stopped due to
limitations of test
setup
1~
[14] WG-3 W36x300 W14x550 Bolted: Radius cut 3.5
A572 Gr. 50 A913 Gr. 65 20 - 1" A490 L1 = 10"
Lb = 159" Lc = 152" (2 rows of 10 Lass = 27"
F~.f = 56.0 ksi Fy.f = 67.0 ksi bolts each) FR = 51%
Fu4 = 72.9 ksi Fu4= 86.8 ksi
Fy.w= 56.7 ksi Fy.w= 68.1 ksi
Fu.w= 74.5 ksi Fu.w= 87.6 ksi
[14j WG-4 " " 4.5 "

Notes:
1. All specimens are single cantilever type, except DBBW, DBBW-C, DBWW, and DBWW-C
2. All specimens are bare steel, except SC-1, SC-2, DBBW-C and DBWW-C
3. All specimens subject to quasi static cyclic loading, with ATC-24, SAC or similar loading protocol, except S-1, S-3, So4, SC-2, LS-2 and LS-3
4. All specimens provided with continuity plates at beam-to-column connection, except Popov Specimen DB1 (Popov Specimen DB1 was provided with
external flange plates welded to column).
5. Specimens ARUP-1, COH-1 to COH-5, S-1, S-2A, S-3, S-4, SC-1, SC-2 and LS-4 provided with lateral brace near loading point and an additional
lateral brace near RBS; all other specimens provided with lateral brace at loading point only.
6. Composite slab details for Specimens SC-2 and SC-2:118" wide floor slab; 3" ribbed deck (ribs perpendicular to beam) with 2.5" ~oncrete cover;
normal wt. concrete; welded wire mesh reinforcement; 3.4"dia. shear studs spaced at 24" (one stud in every other rib); first stud located at 29" from
face of column; 1" gap left between face of column and slab to minimize composite action.

A-8
7. SpecimensS-3, S-4 and SC-2 were subjectedto simulatedearthquakeloadingbased on N10E horizontalcomponentof the Llolleo recordfrom the
1985 Chile Earthquake.For SpecimenS-3, simulatedloadingwas appliedstatically.For SpecimenS-4 and SC-2; simulatedloadingwas applied
dynamically,and repeatedthree times.
8. SpecimenS-3: Connectionsustainedstatic simulatedearthquakeloadingwithoutfailure. Maximumplastic rotationdemandon specimenwas
approximately2%.
9. SpecimensS-4 and SC-2: Connectionsustaineddynamicsimulatedearthquakeloadingwithoutfailure. Maximumplastic rotationdemandon
specimenwas approximately2%.
10. Tests conductedby Plumiernot includedin Table. Specimensconsistedof HE 260A beams (equivalentto W10x49)and HE 300B columns
(equivalentto W12x79).All specimenswere providedwith constantcut RBS. Beams attachedto columnsusing fillet welds on beam flanges and web,
or using a bolted end plate. Detailsavailablein Refs. 9 and 10.
11. Shakingtable tests were conductedby Chen, Yeh and Chu [1] on a 0.4 scale single story momentframe with RBS connections.Frame sustained
numerousearthquakerecordswithoutfractureat beam-to-columnconnections.
12. SpecimensLS-2 and LS-3 were tested using near field loadingprotocol.The specimenwas subjectedto peak pulsescorrespondingto 6% story drift
ratio. Loadingwas repeatedsix times for LS-2 and four times for LS-3. The specimenseventuallyfailed due to low cycle fatiguefractureat the
narrowestsectionin the RBS.
13. SpecimensDBBW and DBWW were cruciformt~,pespecimenswith beams attachedto each columnflange.
14. SpecimensDBBW-Cand DBWW-Cwere cruciformtype specimenswith compositefloor slab. Compositeslab details:
96" wide slab; 2" ribbed metal deck (ribs parallelto beam) with 3.5" toppingof normalweightconcrete;concretecompressivestrengthat time of
testing = 3600 psi for DBBW-Cand 6800 psi for DBWW-C;slab reinforcedwith #4 Gr. 60 bars in each direction;3.4"dia. shearstuds spacedat 12";
first stud locatedat 36" from face of column (at end of RBS).
15. SpecimensWG-1 to WG-4: Test report providedslightlyconflictingdata on locationalong length of beam wheredisplacementwas measured.Values
of plastic rotationreportedabove are basedon an estimatedlocationfor displacementmeasurements.

A-9
Notation:
Fy.f = flangeyield stress from coupontests
Fu_f = flange ultimate stress from coupontests
Fy_w = web yield stress from coupontests
Fu-w = web ultimate stress from coupontests
Lb = Lengthof beam, measuredfrom load application point to face of column
Lo = Lengthof column
L~ = distancefrom face of columnto start of RBS cut
EBBS = length of RBS cut
FR = Flange Reduction= (area of flange removed/originalflange area) xl00
(FlangeReductionreportedat narrowestsectionof RBS)
ep = Maximumplastic rotation developedfor at least one full cycle of loading, measuredwith respectto the face of the column (basedon occurrence
of fractureor based on end of loading)

References:
[1] Chen, S.J., Yeh, C.H. and Chu, J.M, "DuctileSteel Beam-to-ColumnConnectionsfor SeismicResistance,"Journalof Structural Engineering, Vol.
122, No. 11, November 1996, pp. 1292-1299.
[2] Iwankiw, N.R., and Carter, C., "The Dogbone: A New Idea to Chew On," Modern Steel Construction, April 1996.
[3] Zekioglu, A., Mozaffarian, H., and Uang, C.M., "Moment Frame Connection Development and Testing for the City of Hope National Medical Center,"
Building to Last- Proceedings of Structures Congress XV, ASCE, Portland, April 1997.
[4] Zekioglu, A., Mozaffarian, H., Chang, K.L., Uang, C.M. and Noel, S., "Designing After Northridge," Modem Steel Construction, March 1997.
[5] Engelhardt, M.D., Winneberger, T., Zekany, A.J. and Potyraj, T.J., "Experimental Investigation of Dogbone Moment Connections," Proceedings; 1997
National Steel Construction Conference, American Institute of Steel Construction, May 7-9, 1997, Chicago.
[6] Engelhardt, M.D., Winneberger, T., Zekany, A.J. and Potyraj, T.J., "The Dogbone Connection, Part II, Modem Steel Construction, August 1996.
[7] Popov, E.P., Yang, T.S. and Chang, S.P., "Design of Steel MRF Connections Before and After 1994 Northridge Earthquake," International
Conference on Advances in Steel Structures, Hong Kong, December 11-14, 1996. Also in: Engineering Structures, 20(12), 1030-1038, 1998.
[8] Tremblay, R., Tchebotarev, N. and Filiatrault, A., "Seismic Performance of RBS Connections for Steel Moment Resisting Frames: Influence of
Loading Rate and Floor Slab," Proceedings, Stessa '97, August 4-7, 1997, Kyoto, Japan.
[9] Plumier, A., "New Idea for Safe Structures in Seismic Zones," IABSE Symposium - Mixed Structures Including New Materials, Brussels, 1990.
[10] Plumier, A., "The Dogbone: Back to the Future," Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. 2nd Quarter 1997.
[11] Uang, C.M., Unpublished preliminary test reports for SAC Phase 2 RBS tests, University of California at San Diego, December 1998 and February
1999.
[12] Engelhardt, M.D. and Venti, M., Unpublished preliminary test reports for SAC Phase 2 tests, University of Texas at Austin, 1999. "
[13] Fry, G., Unpublished preliminary test reports for SAC Phase 2 tests, Texas A & M University, 1999.
[14] Unpublished report of connection proof tests for building construction project in southern California; project title withheld at request of building owner,
January, 1999.

A-10
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