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2001 Was
_A_ A SURVEY OF
1000
) LIFE CONDITIONS IN ATJEH
NORTH SUMATRA

With special reference to the Orang-Utan

by

C R. CARPENTER

A Report prepared in cooperation


with H. J. Coolidge, Jr., former Secretary of the American Committee for
International Wild Life Protection, February 1938.

Reprinted from "Communications Nr. 12" of the Netherlands Committee


for International Nature Protection, Amsterdam, 1938.
?2T U Loo
iSISUSIHEEK KITLV

0253 6090
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A SURVEY OF
WILD LIFE CONDITIONS IN ATJEH
NORTH SUMATRA

With special reference to the Orang-Utan

by

C. R. CARPENTER

A Report prepared in cooperation


with H. J. Coolidge, Jr., former Secretary of the American Committee for
International Wild Life Protection, February 1938.
FOREWORD

The protection of species of animal and plant life threatened by


extinction is becoming increasingly a matter of world importance
along with the development of our scientific knowledge of animals
and plants and their uses to mankind. In 1900 there was an attempt
to make an International Convention for the control of African Wild
Life. This was never ratified but in 1933 a new convention was
drawn up to meet the same problem which had become more acute
in many parts of Africa. This Convention came into force in January
1936 and while it is only a first step, it has already led to the establish-
ment of new reserves and important laws for the protection of
primitive areas containing threatened species. It would now be
extremely desirable to have similar conventions effective in Asia
and the New World. Great Britain has taken the leadership in
Africa, both by the example she has set in her colonies and by
sponsoring the London Convention of 1933. She now proposes to
do the same thing in Asia and deserves the fullest cooperation in
this important work.
The Dutch have made great progress in organizing their Nature
Protection in the Netherlands East Indies along with other far-
eastern countries including the Commonwealths of Australia and
New Zealand, but even so, a great deal remains to be done. There
are several important species of animals, birds and plants in South
Eastern Asia which need special protection. The forests of populous
Java have been largely destroyed except for those now remaining
in the limited reserves, and parts of Sumatra are being threatened
with a similar fate, thus making necessary and desirable the establish-
ment of large National Parks. There has been a growing awareness
in the Netherlands Indies of the importance of Nature Protection but
there are, however, widely varying reports on the effectiveness of
what is actually being done and accurate information is not readily
available as to the enforcement of protective laws or the general
problems of their administration in the remote areas. It seemed
that helpful information on these problems could be obtained by
first-hand observations of an impartial, well qualified observer to
whom the Government authorities would be willing to extend all
available facilities and cooperation.
I have been for some years Secretary of the American Committee
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for International Wild Life Protection and during this time I have
particularly interested myself in measures that have been or should
be adopted in many parts of the world for plant and animal preservat-
ion, and particularly for the protection of mammals or birds that
have been so reduced in numbers that the species represented are
threatened with extinction. My special interest in the problems of
the Netherlands Indies has been stimulated through the work of the
Netherlands Indian Society for Nature Preservation (with head-
quarters in Java) which is celebrating its twenty -fifth year of activity,1)
and the Netherlands Committee for International Nature Protection
(with headquarters in Holland). The active founder and leader of
the latter organization, Dr. P. G. van Tienhoven, took a great
personal interest in my proposed visit to the Nature Reserves of
Java and Sumatra and together with Jhr. Dr. Ir. F. C. van Heurn was
most helpful in making available facilities and valuable information.
Dr. K. W. Dammerman, director of the Government Botanical
Gardens at Buitenzorg had attracted world attention to some of the
unique mammals, birds and reptiles in the Netherlands Indies by
his special report to the Fourth Pacific Science Congress on
"Preservation of Wild Life and Nature Reserves in the Netherlands
Indies". He very kindly assured me of a warm welcome and cooper-
ation in my proposed plans for visiting the Nature Reserves of
Java and Sumatra.
The Bureau of International Research at Harvard gave me a grant
to enable me to make a study of "The Enforcement of Nature
Protection in the Netherlands Indies with Special Reference to a
Pan Asiatic Convention". This report was to be prepared at the
conclusion of my field work in connection with the Asiatic Primate
Expedition in Siam and British North Borneo in the summer of
1937. In May I contracted an unfortunate illness in Borneo which
forced me to abandon all hope of visiting Java and obliged me to
spend the month of July in a hospital in Sumatra. My entire project
would have had to be abandoned had it not been for my colleague,
Dr. C. R. Carpenter of Bard College, Columbia University. He had
completed the behavior studies on the wild gibbon in Siam which
were his special mission on the Asiatic Primate Expedition, and he
1
) They have celebrated this event with a beautiful publication:
Album van Natuurmonumenten in Nederlandsch-Indie (December,
1937)-
4
was interested in making a survey of the present status of the Suma-
tran orang-utan. We had planned to make this study together in
August after I had completed my survey in Java and South Sumatra.
Fortunately, I was able to transfer the North Sumatra part of my
mission to him, together with certain funds which not only made
it possible for him to make a preliminary survey study of orang-
utans as planned, but also enabled him to make a survey of certain
wild life problems in Northern Atjeh in my place.
The following report is based on Dr. Carpenter's field observations.
His training in studying animal behavior both in extensive field
work as well as in laboratory investigations qualified him particularly
for this type of survey, and I hope his recommendations will be
seriously considered by those enlightened private and governmental
Netherlands agencies in a position to take effective action in these
matters.
HAROLD J. COOLIDGE, JR.

February 28,1938. Cambridge, Mass.

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INTRODUCTION

This report deals especially with the conditions of wild life, its
protection, its cultivation and its proper use in the former State of
Atjeh, Sumatra. Emphasis will be placed on the orang-utan and
its habitat, although many observations were also made of gibbons,
siamangs, langurs and other primates. Limited data was also gathered
relative to conditions affecting elephants, rhinoceri and tapirs.
During the study, answers were sought to the following questions:
What is the distribution and the status of the population of the
important Sumatran mammals which are on the protected list?1)
What ecological, economic or geographical factors are operative in
changing the distribution and the population of some of these
animals? What are the existing nature reserves and do they fulfill
their functions in connection with the conservation, cultivation and
use of wild life? In relation to certain ideals of wild life protection,
what recommendations may be made regarding the extension of
present reserves, the creation of new parks and the suitability of
existing laws of wild life protection as well as their adequate
enforcement? How do the military, civil and local government
agencies of Atjeh cooperate in dealing with common problems of
wild life protection? A factual basis was sought by means of which
impartial, objective answers could be given to these questions,
although it was realized that complete answers would demand a
more extensive study than was possible at the time. Furthermore,
it was realized that final answers could not be given to a constantly
changing problem.
The field work was done between the dates of July 18th and August
14th, 1937. During this period, I travelled more than fifty-five

*) According to the Decree of 1931, Hunting and Animal Protection,


the list follows: ghost animals" (Tarsius), orang-utans (Simia satyrus),
gibbons of all kinds (tailless apes, Hylobatidae), proboscis monkeys
of Borneo (Kahau, Nasalis larvatus), rhinoceros (badak. Rhinoceros
sondaicus and sumatrensis), tapirs (tjipan, tenoek, Tapirus indicus)
Sumatra mountain goats (kambing oetan, Nemorhaedus sumatrensis),
scaly ant-eaters (pangolin peusing, Manis javanica), elephant (Elephas
indicus), buffalo (Bos sondaicus), dwarf buffalo (anoang, sapi oetan,
Anoa), deer swine (babiroesa, Babirussa), deers (mendjangan, roesa,
Cervus), kidangs (muntjak, Cervulus), dwarf deer (kantjil, pelandok,
napoe, Tragulus).
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hundred kilometers by car, fifty kilometers by foot and sixty kilo-
meters by boat along the rivers. The itinerary included visits from
Medan to Pematang Siantar and the environs, Lake Toba at
Haranggoal, Kabandjahe, Koeala Simpang and the Serva Estate
at Aloer Bjomboer, Peureulak, Bjamboer Batang,;Lokop, Rantaupand-
jang, back to Koeala Simpang, hence to Blangrakal, Takengon,
Koeta Radja and hence to the West Coast of Atjeh including Lamno,
Meulaboh, Lami, Blangpidi, Tapa Toean and finally Bakongan.
Intensive observational work was done in and around Lokop, Aloer
Bjomboer, Blangrakal, Takengon and Tapa Toean. (See map i ) .
There was not sufficient time to investigate with care the Great
Lser Reserve in the Gajo and Alas districts, but there was time
for a more careful study of the smaller Raff lesia Reservation. It would
have been desirable, had time permitted, to spend several months
in the Lser Complex alone. However, since time was limited, it was
necessary for me to select certain regions and subjects for study
which could feasibly be undertaken under these conditions.
During the survey, thirty-eight carefully planned interviews were
held with individuals whose work and interests brought them into
intimate contact with some important phases of the problem of wild
life protection. In addition, all possible first-hand observations were
made in an attempt to find answers to the stated questions. Thus as
an unbiassed and non-partisan observer, I sought information which
served as the basis for the recommendations given in the final section
of this report.
Bitter experience in the United States and many other parts of
the world has shown that unless a wilderness area is isolated by
the physical nature of its surroundings, economic exploitation and
especially devastation resulting from gun, axe and fire may in a
short time cause the complete destruction of large areas and of
certain species of the indigenous flora and fauna. Where the efforts
to set aside certain areas as national parks or permanent reserves have
been successful, primitive areas have been partially saved from
destruction and species of plant or animal life saved from extinction.
Knowledge of what has happened in the past and of the basic
needs of wild life as well as an appreciation of the value of wild life
preserved in its native habitat for educational and scientific uses
serve to indicate the importance of the investigation here reported.
Acknowledgements are made with sincere appreciation for the
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indispensable assistance given in this study by the following
governmental agencies, companies and individuals: The honorable
Resident at Koeta Radja and his officers, especially Colonel
G. F. V. Grosenson and the military authorities, the Deli-Maat-
schappij, especially its manager, Mr. J. H. Bitters, and directors,
Mr. Herbert Cremer and Mr. Peter W. Jansen. Also personal thanks
are due to Baron and Baroness Van Styrum, Mr. A. P.M. Audretsch,
Lieutenant A. Weber now of Lokop, Lieutenant W, Damme now of
Takengon and Lieutenant J. B. Doedans now of Blangpidi. Oblig-
ations to the Bureau of International Research of Harvard University
and the American Committee for International Wild Life Protection
are acknowledged.

I. HUMAN POPULATION AND ITS RELATION TO


WILD LIFE AND TOPOGRAPHY

The native peoples of Atjeh depend primarily upon agricultural


pursuits for their livelihoods; they are not huntsmen. They do
attempt to protect themselves and their stock against tigers, wild
hogs and elephants, but there is very little shooting because the
people are, in the main, unarmed by established law. The military
authorities enforce the regulations which prohibit the carrying of
arms by the natives, except in the case of some native chiefs, and in
these instances the possession of arms is carefully supervised by the
soldiers of the Netherlands-Indies army. Since the natives do not
depend upon wild game as a source of food supply, they constitute
no great threat to wild life except in that as the population increases,
there are fewer undisturbed habitats for the indigenous fauna.
Some hunting and trapping is carried on by the natives under the
influence of Europeans who encourage them to cooperate in securing
animal specimens for the European and American markets. Also,
urged on by high prices from Chinese merchants, the natives trap
certain animals, particularly the rhinoceros in order to secure
especially their horns, urine and blood for "medicinal purposes".
A forest officer in Medan reported1) that he had seen a rhinoceros
which had been trapped in central Atjeh and which had the horns
') Unless otherwise stated, reports were made directly to the in-
vestigator.
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ATJEH, NORTH SUMATRA
X Showing reported and observed locations of
Orang-outans
1937
to accompany A survey of wild life conditions m Atjeh, North Sumatra with special reference
to the Oronq-outan'by CR Carpenter
o Miles loo

Map No* i
and other preferred parts cut away. The carcass was covered with
a crude shelter awaiting the return of the trappers to carry away the
remainder. This is an example of the attitude of the natives toward
certain wild animals; an attitude which is strongly determined by
the demands of Europeans and of Chinese "medicine men". It
would seem safe to conclude that the present native population
does not constitute a serious threat to wild animal life in Atjeh.
In the main, the problem of protecting wild life, as far as human
damages are concerned, lies in controlling the behavior of the Euro-
peans who inhabit the region and those who come into the region
for exploiting or collecting the indigenous wild life. As large tracts
of land are given in concessions for the various companies operating
in Sumatra, the habitats of orang-utans, other primates, elephants,
tapirs and other animals are destroyed. This usually results in the
destruction of the animals themselves, or in their displacement into
regions which are often less suitable for their survival than were
their original habitats. This has happened in relation to the large
clearings along the Simpang Kanan River and adjacent territories
between Peureulak and Koeala Simpang. The same thing will happen
on the West Coast near Meulaboh, only to a lesser extent, for there
is not as much land suitable for cultivation purposes.
Numerous opinions were expressed which indicated that there
existed a conflict between the economic development of a region
and the protection of its wild life. However, it is not realized that
wild animals of desirable kinds and in suitable numbers may be
economic assets and neither the wild life nor the plantations need
suffer if an adequate program of wild life conservation and control
is effectively applied.
A conservation program in Atjeh has its greatest asset in the
topography of the region. Thousands of square kilometers of territory
are still inaccessible and will remain so especially in the rugged
mountains even after Atjeh has reached a high state of development.
The question arises, however, of the suitability of these inaccessible
regions as refuges for the animals which need protection. For
example, have the large clearings for rubber around Koeala Simpang
and Aloer Bjomboer not only destroyed many orang-utans but also
forced others to range into the highlands? Do these highlands
afford an optimum or even an approximately optimum environment
for these apes? Are conditions sufficiently favorable to insure that
10
to etcempany "A survey of w-ld Ute condition* in Atjth North Sumatra mit h iptcial rt ttrente to oronq-ovtan'by 'C R Carpenter

Map No 2

ii
the present population of large mammals is being maintained at a
desirable level? These considerations raise the question of whether
or not certain limited areas should be allocated for wild life even
though these areas are highly desirable for cultivation purposes.
Herein lies the main conflict between the protection of certain
animals and the economic development of the country. In addition
another possible conflict may arise if some conserved animals leave
their reservations and raid certain large plantations and native farms.

II. THE ORANG-UTAN

When one considers the protection of orang-utans (Simia satyrus),


their specific geographical distribution is a subject of fundamental
importance. Dr. Coenraad reported that orang-utans of Sumatra
are found only in the State of Atjeh. The basis of this opinion was
that the zoological garden at Koeta Tjane has never had specimens
of these animals except from Atjehnese territory. Dr. Coenraad
reported that the Wampoe River in Langkat was the eastern extre-
mity of their range. Mr. Neys confirmed this and added that orang-
utans were restricted to Atjeh and Langkat north and west of the
great Wampoe River. He stated, moreover, that none were to be
found in the Batak District around Lake Toba. Mr. Audretsch and
Mr. Bartels of the Medan Zoological Garden said that they received
orang-utan specimens from Atjeh only and never from other parts
of Sumatra. One orang-utan came to the Garden from Takengon;
it was a captive specimen that had been brought to Takengon
from the West Coast of Atjeh. Other apes had been captured by
Mr. Ruppert at the Serba Estate and in July and August, 1937,
Mr. Ruppert had four orang-utans awaiting shipment and sale.
Furthermore, numerous reports indicated that orang-utans could
always be secured from a Chinese dealer at Blangkedjeren.
Mr. Ruppert and his son, who are well informed on the conditions
of wild life and especially of the orang-utan, described the orang-
utan population on the East Coast of Atjeh as centering along the
Simpang Kanan and Peureulak Rivers. The center of the population
according to these men lies about two days up the Simpang Kanan
River near or slightly above where it forks with the Simpang Kiri.
(See map No. 3).
12
to accompany"A iurvey of wild life conditions m Alje/i, North Sumatra mth ipeciot reference to
the arona-cutcn by C R Carpenter

Map No 3

Observations show that there are orang-utans from Bjomboer


Batang to Lokop and Rantaupandjang. Orang-utan nests were ob-
served near the Eastern Divide of the mountains near Lokop and
occasional nests were seen along the trail from Lokop totheRafflesia
Reservation near Rantaupandjang. However, the largest number of
nests were seen in groves of durian trees several kilometers below
the fork of the Simpang Kanan and -Kiri Rivers. Although no orang-
utans or nests were observed from Bjomboer Batang to Lokop,
Lieutenant Weber of Lokop, who is intimately acquainted with
13
that wild section, stated that there are many of these apes within
this region and that they are sometimes seen by him and his patrols.
Lieutenant Weber placed the center of the distribution of orang-utans
on the East Coast along the Peureulak River at the point where it
comes nearest the Simpang Kanan River, a point not far distant
from the Rafflesia Reservation. (See map 3).
Lieutenant Damme of Takengon has spent much time on patrols
between that post on the lake and Lokop. He reported having seen
orang-utans along the trail several days southeast of Takengon
toward Lokop, as well as along trails toward Blangkedjeren.
Mr. H. Obergasner of Takengon, a hunter and planter, reported
that Blangkedjeren was the best place to find and study orang-utans.
He had observed them in that region in the tongues of forest that
cut into the surrounding semi-plateau. This well informed amateur
naturalist had also found single nests high in the mountains toward
Koeta Radja from Takengon, but it was his opinion that these were
built by a single individual which had strayed rather far away from
the main territory inhabited by orang-utans living in groups. "The
Datoek", Hadji Datoek Soeliman, a native hunter who has known
well the territory around Blangrakal since 1917, had seen orang-
utans but once on the eastern slopes of the mountains from Blangrakal
at an altitude of about five hundred meters. Lieutenant Bloom of
Lamno on the West Coast of Atjeh, reported that he had met no
orang-utans in his present patrol area, but that during his period
of service there, he had seen several nests. They were located about
three days from Lamno in the direction of Sigli at an altitude of
about fifteen hundred meters. These were placed singly and he
believed that they had been built by solitary animals. These
observations were made in the same general region as those reported
by Mr. Obergasner and the two reports check each other relative to
the theory that the nests were probably built by solitary orang-
utans.
Evidence pointed to the regions of Lami, Tapa Toean and Bakongan
as the places on the West Coast of Atjeh where orang-utans live
in the largest numbers. Direct observations and the numerous
opinions of well informed officers of the military patrols confirmed
this fact. Lieutenant Doedans and Lieutenant Weber had both
observed many orang-utans in the vicinity of Blangpidi. Lieutenant
Weber reported large numbers in the swamps west of the highway
14
toward the sea in Ala Batee and in the territory between Blangpidi
and Blangkedjeren up to altitudes of seven to eight hundred meters.
Lieutenant Doedans confirmed this information. Captain Fet and
others of the military post at Bakongan also confirmed previous
reports by Lieutenants Bloom, Weber and Doedans that there were
many orang-utans in that malarial district. Lieutenant Bloom said
that he had seen thirty or forty orang-utans in the forest south and
east of Bakongan while he was stationed there. In June of 1937
a large male orang-utan and a female had been observed near the
barracks at Bakongan. Captain Fet reported that his lieutenants and
sergeants had seen orang-utans in the Lser Complex up to an alti-
tude of fifteen hundred meters. Captain Fet, who is a great hunter
and strongly supports the Lser Reservation, gave the southeastern
boundary of orang-utan distribution as being roughly a line drawn
from Singkel on the West Coast to Pangkalan Brandan on the East
Coast. This, it should be noted, corresponds with the views of
Mr. Neys and Mr. Audretsch.
Direct observations of orang-utans were made near Tapa Toean.
Two females, two young and possibly an adult male were located
on three successive days and a female and juvenile were observed
continuously for seven hours. The observations leave no doubt
about the existence of orang-utans in the regions surrounding Tapa
Toean.
The northern boundary of the distribution is roughly indicated
by the reports of Lieutenants Bloom and Christian, the former
suggesting a line from Lamno to Sigli and the latter confirming this
by reports of observations of orang-utans on the north face of the
mountains east and south of Sigli.
The accompanying map (No. 1) shows where orang-utans have
been definitely located from reports and observations. It will be
seen that this distribution covers the larger part of Atjeh. The main
regions excluded are the high central districts above fifteen hundred
meters, the cultivated and thickly populated districts on the East
Coast, the grass lands of the north, exemplified by the region between
Sigli and Koeta Radja, the rough mountains north of Lamno and
cultivated sections of the West Coast, especially around Meulaboh.
Opinions vary greatly as to the numbers of orang-utans to be
found in any given region; in other words the density of the popul-
ation is almost unknown. Mr. Ruppert and his son said that there
15
were six animals in a strip of forest one kilometer wide and six
kilometers long near Koeala Simpang and that there were fifteen
or twenty in another near-by forest covering fifteen or twenty
kilometers square. On the other hand, almost without exception,
the soldiers who have been patrolling in the Atjeh forests for from
three to six years, have only seen orang-utans three or four times.
Naturally these men were not looking for the apes, but if the popul-
ation were dense, they would probably have seen them more often.
Lieutenant Christian was of the opinion that on the average one
family occupies' a territory twenty-five kilometers square. The
observations of Mr. Neys, Lieutenants Weber, Damme, Bloom,
Doedans and Captain Fet support the position that orang-utans
are scarce, even in regions where they are believed to be most
abundant. Although information which we have about the normal
density of orang-utan population is insufficient guidance in a
protective program, we shall tentatively suggest that the modes
of population are centered around the Simpang Kanan and Peureulak
Rivers on the East Coast, and along the West Coast in suitable
forests from Lami to Singkel. Also that orang-utans range from sea
level up to possibly fifteen hundred meters with a marked preference
for the lower altitudes and a sharp decrease in the number of animals
above seven or eight hundred meters.
The investigation indicated that orang-utans may migrate for
considerable distances in response to shifts in the ripening of pre-
ferred fruits. Mr. Ruppert and his son stated that there were more
"mawas" (orang-utans) near Aloer Bjomboer in the region near
Koeala Simpang during certain years when durians were plentiful
there and scarce further up the Simpang River. Many reports from
the West Coast indicated that orang-utans come down from high
mountains and hills when certain kinds of fruits, especially durians,
are ripe. On the other hand, reports from natives in several different
localities indicated that families of "mawas" have lived in the same
limited localities for twenty years or more. For example, a large
male of the group observed near Tapa Toean was said to have
ranged in a given territory for at least the last twenty years. Whether
or not these great apes migrate and for what distances is an important
consideration in relation to the problem of wild life protection and
the location of proposed reservations and their size.
Little is known about the kinds of native foods upon which
16
"mawas" feed. However, there is almost universal agreement in the
opinion that they are primarily fruit eaters. The apes which I saw
were eating fruits but they also ate leaves and bark. Many of the
nests that I observed were located in durian trees, many of which
were badly damaged by the apes because they pulled in the terminal
branches while feeding, thus breaking them. However, the general
problem of the natural feeding habits of orang-utans remains to
be solved.
Those who have observed the capturing of orang-utans in the
wild under favorable conditions are agreed that this operation is
I without major difficulties. As compared with some other apes and
monkeys, orang-utans are rather slow and deliberate of movement.
This, coupled with their size and awkward locomotion on the ground,
places them at a disadvantage when pursued. The problem of
capturing them is that of finding desirable individuals and getting
them to a favorable location in accessible forests and particular
trees where capturing operations may feasibly proceed.
Orang-utans are captured by the following methods: (i) A female
carrying a young animal may be shot and the young one taken.
(2) A young animal may be isolated from its mother and taken
when it moves into low trees. (3) Large individuals may be driven
into suitable trees, the surrounding trees cleared away and the
animal left isolated. An orang-utan may remain in a single tree,
according to reports of Mr. Ruppert, for from three to seventeen
days and until it is sufficiently starved to be forced to come to the
ground. When this happens, several trained natives quickly throw
over it a small elastic net which fits the animal so closely that it
cannot struggle and the ape is thus brought into captivity. In the
meantime it usually has eaten all of the leaves and bark from the
tree. The long period of time without food has weakened the animal
until the netting process is not extremely difficult. Variations of this
method of capture are sometimes introduced as follows: At times,
fires are built near the tree and the smoke, of which orangs seem
to be afraid, drives the animal to the ground. Often the tree is
felled and thus the animal is brought down, all too frequently
f seriously wounded or even killed, and then the animal is netted. At
times, skillful natives are able to lasso an ape while it is in the tree
or pull it down with slip nooses on long poles. Generally speaking,
under the direction of an experienced man and with a well trained
17
crew of natives, orang-utans in suitable forests can be captured with
considerable certainty, and with a minimum risk of killing or
seriously injuring them.
It is a simple matter to shoot an orang-utan. They do not fear
human beings greatly and hence do not flee when approached;
thus a hunter may come under the trees in which they are feeding
or resting and shoot, even with a small calibre rifle, until the fatal
wound is given. Guns, poisoned darts or arrows or even clever stone
throwing may be effective weapons against the slow-moving orang-
utan.
The reactions of orang-utans to man raise the question of whether
or not they will attack him. The information on this subject cannot
be taken at its face value, but must be interpreted and stripped of
all anecdotal coloring. We heard the famous story of a "mawas"
attacking Lieutenant, now Captain, Harterink. The Captain related
the incident with cool conservatism and left the question entirely
open as to whether or not the "mawas kuda" was attacking or
merely escaping. Nevertheless, this story in its colourful version,
known to every officer and many soldiers throughout Atjeh, has
greatly influenced the attitude of these men toward orang-utans.
As a result, they suppose that Orang-utans will attack and much
unnecessary shooting has resulted.
Between June 15th and Juli 15th, 1937, three orang-utans were
shot in Atjeh by military patrolmen. The reasons given for killing
two of these animals, both large males, were that they had begun
to attack. There is reason to believe that in both instances other
motives were operative. In one case, the soldier was preparing to
go back to Java and his lieutenant believed that he wanted the skull
of the animal as a trophy or charm. There seemed to be little
question that the other soldier had shot his animal for the trophy
of a skull. A lieutenant on the East Coast shot a mother "mawas"
that was carrying a baby, and it might have been assumed that he
did it to get the little one. However, upon discussing this incident
with the lieutenant, it became clear that he had not known the
animal had a baby until he shot her. This fairly large female had
suddenly appeared in the pathway on the ground before a patrol
of soldiers. The lieutenant saw the animal when she was only ten
or fifteen meters away and shot her almost instantly, possibly as a
result of his predisposition and belief that orang-utans would attack.
18
(Published by kind permission of the Royal Zoological Society
N a t u r a Artis m a g i s t r a " Amsterdam)
Orang-Utan
Only then did he see that she was carrying a baby. She climbed
a tree and after a second shot was fired, fell with the baby under her.
Although the baby suffered a broken shoulder, it recovered and was
well and healthy when observed on August n t h .
On the basis of reports and from direct observations of the apes
at close range, the question of orang-utan attacks may be summarized
as follows: Orang-utans do not fear men greatly and therefore do
not try to escape or move off when approached by men. On the
contrary, the animals are curious and often come near to a man,
showing exploratory rather than flight reactions. During direct
observations which were made at Tapa Toean, a large female came
to within fifty feet of us. Although the animal was greatly agitated
after being observed for five hours at close range, there was not the
least indication that she would attack. If she had charged, our escape
could easily have been made, although the ground was exceedingly
rough and the bushes thick. On the other hand, an effective defense
could have been made by using clawangs or large bush knives.
Summary on orang-utans: This anthropoid is found in unknown
numbers throughout an estimated fifty per cent of the primary
forests in the former State of Atjeh in Sumatra. As large clearings are
made in the rather level lowlands, these apes are being destroyed or
forced into the hills and mountains where it is questionable whether or
not conditions, including food supply, are sufficiently suitable for the
maintenance of the present population level. However, large areas
of Atjeh, because of its rugged topography and inaccessibility, will
remain naturally protected for a long time as an orang-utan habitat.
Europeans and not natives threaten the orang-utan population, the
most serious inroads being made by commercial developments in
the areas suitable for orang-utan habitats. Numbers of these apes
are being shot annually under the supposition that they attack
human beings, and it is feared that government records do not
accurately record all animals captured or killed. At present there
is no adequate basis for estimating the population of orang-utans
or for describing the natural behavior of the animals including their
social and ecological relations. Field studies should be encouraged
relative to this important anthropoid in the interest of its planned
protection.

19
III. SIAMANGS AND GIBBONS

Wherever there are suitable forests in Atjeh, both siamangs


(Symphalangy syndactylus) and the so-called gray gibbon (Hylobates
lar agilis) are found. It is estimated that there are about three times
as many of the former as the latter, but at present there is an
abundance of both types. Not only is there a wide distribution but
the population is rather dense in heavily forested regions. Forexample,
a careful survey was made of a section of forest near Pematang
Siantar. The forest was about five kilometers square and consisted
of a dense primary jungle lying over rather level ground. It was
estimated that there were at least twenty groups of siamangs in this
forest and that the groups averaged about four animals each. Thus,
there were approximately one hundred siamangs in this limited
area alone. It is possible that this sample forest was unusually
favorably suited to siamangs, and that the population was conse-
quently abnormally dense. However, there are hundreds of square
kilometers of forest throughout Atjeh which afford equally suitable
siamang habitats and in which large numbers of this interesting
small ape are found.
Gibbons and siamangs could be made to serve several desirable
purposes. For example, where large sections of land are being
cleared for cultivation, and siamangs and gibbons inhabit the area,
the specimens found there should be systematically collected for
scientific uses. The animals, if they could be trapped or driven over
forest lanes, might be removed to certain plots of forest near centers
of population where they could be studied scientifically and where
the general public could have favorable opportunities for observing
these magnificent acrobats in their native habitat.
Not only do both siamangs and gibbons range throughout Atjeh
from the southern and eastern borders to near Koeta Radja, according
to first-hand observations, but also they range from sea level up
to several thousand meters in the mountains.
I found that the existing and adequate regulations affecting
siamangs and gibbons are effectively enforced. Siamangs, as far
as I could learn, are not shot except very occasionally when mothers
are killed in order that the baby can be captured. Absolute prohibition
of collecting siamangs for accredited research is probably not
justified in view of the large numbers of these animals available.
20
IV. OTHER PRIMATES

Many groups of macaques (Macacus irus) representing two or


more sub species were observed along highways, trails, small streams
and rivers throughout Atjeh. Near plantations and small farms as
well as in the deep primary forests, macaques were abundant. The
interesting behavior of these primates will be described in another
paper and only phases relative to wild life protection will be dealt
with here.
The troops ranged in size from five to fifty or sixty and in every
group there was a high percentage of infants and juveniles. I
interpreted this to mean that in the macaque groups the rate of
reproduction is high compared with that of gibbons, siamangs or
even langurs.
In certain sections of Atjeh macaques were seen very frequently.
It would seem that considering the numbers, the lack of commercial
value of these animals' skins and the variety of their diet, there is
really no problem of protection. Instead, attention needs to be given
to methods of control and use.
It was reported by Colonel Grssenson that because of the damage
being done by a "kind of monkey", presumably the macaques, to
the fruits and vegetables of the natives, that about five hundred of
the monkeys were shot by soldiers. The location of this incident
was a small town northeast of KoetaRadja.This occurrence illustrates
the need for some procedure of intelligent control and adequate
use of these primates. Macaques may be valuable if taken alive
and shipped to medical research centers of the world or, if pre-
pared as anatomical materials, for instructional and research
purposes.
Although there are not as many langurs (Presbytis sumatrana) as
macaques, nevertheless they are abundant in Atjeh. They were
observed everywhere living in relatively small groups and usually
ranging in forests away from native villages.They seem more arboreal
and less likely to prove a nuisance to farms than the macaques,
being less frugiverous in their food habits, but our information is
not conclusive or complete.
The same suggestions of conservation apply to these monkeys as
to macaques. The present regulations for protection are adequate in
21
statement and in application and control measures will probably
be unnecessary. It would seem desirable to give attention to the
adequate use of specimens, if control becomes necessary and to
arrange for making specimens available for accredited research
projects.

V. ELEPHANTS

A number of interesting facts were collected about elephants


(Elephas maximus sumatranus) in Atjeh. Between Bjamboer Batang
and Lokop I observed the spoor of a herd of elephants and according
to the reports of Lieutenant Weber, he and his patrols have seen this
or other herds repeatedly in the same territory. Also in a native
village southeast of Lokop Lieutenant Weber had been called upon
to kill a young bull elephant which was said to have threatened
natives. Lieutenant Weber's opinion that there were relatively few
elephants between Lokop and the East Coast was supported by
direct observations and by numerous reports. However, it would be
safe to estimate that several average sized herds range along the
Peureulak and Simpang Kanan Rivers.
A herd of elephants was tracked for several hours out from
Blangrakal to where it stopped to visit a warm mineral and salt
water spring and then disappeared into the jungle. This was a
small herd that, according to "The Datoek" of Blangrakal, was
restricted in its territorial range to a region of the forest surrounding
a mineral and salt spring. At intervals, however, according to the
report, distant herds visited this spring. Lieutenant Damme,
Mr. Obergasner and "The Datoek" were unanimous in their
agreement that many elephants live in the high mountains toward
Koeta Radja from Takengon. Lieutenant Christian said that he had
seen elephants, as well as rhinoceri and orang-utans, in the mountains
west of kilometer stone 274 near Lhokseumawe in a situation which
appears to be ideally suited for a state reservation for these animals.
Lieutenant Bloom and his soldiers stationed at Lamno had,
within seven months, killed thirteen elephants after these animals
had raided native villages. Often herds of elephants were said to
22
wreck small native villages and destroy the people's rice fields.
Having no guns, the natives requested the services of the military
patrols in protecting themselves against such attacks. The soldiers
seem to welcome these opportunities as sporting events and respond
with enthusiasm to the requests for elephant control by shooting.
Solitary bull elephants are most often shot after requests are received
from natives when these bulls stray into or near their villages and
plantings. The trophy incentive is countermanded by the govern-
ment regulation that soldiers deliver tusks to the offices of the State
in Koeta Radja. This law is an effective move in the direction of
preventing unnecessary slaughter.
A large herd of elephants ranges in the swamp lands toward Tapa
Toean from Koeta Radja west of kilometer stone 330 on the West
Coast. This herd periodically raids the rice fields of natives, who
being unarmed, are forced to ask the military post at Blangpidi
for assistance in protecting their fields from the elephants which
at times are exceedingly destructive.
General reports hold that the largest number of elephants in
Atjeh, outside of the little known Lser Complex, may be found
in the region between Lamno and Sigli and between Lamno and
Tangse. From this large general area a herd passes annually to the
"Gold Mountain" forest which is situated left of the highway from
Koeta Radja to Sigli. Captain Fet, Lieutenants Weber, Koedans,
Bloom, Wonderwal and others confirmed the fact that elephants
in rather large herds are to be found in the Lser Complex where
they are adequately protected by the existing reservation, aided by
the almost impenetrable character of the mountains.
As with no other animals on the protected list, a conflict arises
and will continue to become more acute between the policy of
having free ranging elephants and yet protecting cultivations,
including both plantations and native farms. A general and wide-
spread opinion exists that since the enforcement of the no-killing
regulations in regard to elephants, they have increased in numbers.
This fact, coupled with the anticipated development of the country,
may mean that elephant raids and destructiveness will become a
problem demanding intelligent handling. Decisions will have to be
made as to whether or not certain herds which range near rather
densely settled, cultivated areas should be allowed to exist or
whether certain villages of natives should not be moved as an alter-
23
native to exterminating certain herds of elephants. Control measures
may be necessary where villages are situated near reservations which
are or will be established.

VI. RHINOCERI (RHINOCEROS SONDAICUS AND


SUMATRENSIS)

The information regarding rhinoceri in Atjeh is indeed scanty


and uncertain. It was impossible to get any definite reports about
these animals in and around Lokop. "The Datoek" at Blangrakal
reported having observed them in the high mountains west of that
locality. Mr. Obergasner had seen and followed many rhinoceros
trails in that mountainous district and he reported having discovered
pools of water high in the mountains where these beasts regularly
bathed. According to him, one could locate and observe rhinoceri
of both the one-horned and two-horned variety without very great
difficulty within three days of Takengon. Lieutenant Bloom at
Lamno said that he knew of three warm mineral springs where
rhinoceri came frequently for salt and bathing. Lieutenant Bloom
reported that within three days of Lamno, rhinoceros trails and
wallowing places were abundant. This would indicate that a number
of these animals range in that section of rough mountains northeast
of Lamno. Many reports were heard from military patrols to the
effect that signs of rhinoceri had been seen in the Lser Complex,
usually above the altitude of one thousand meters. Thus, it would
seem that rhinoceri are fairly evenly dispersed throughout a
considerable part of west central Atjeh.
In summary, it would seem that there are still a number of rhino-
ceri in various parts of Atjeh and that there are two rather definite
regions where the population is centered; namely, in the Lser
Complex and in the section northeast of Lamno. A number are
reported to be living in the high mountains west of Takengon
toward Pameue. Whereas it seems possible thattheLserReservation
may prove to be an adequate protection for some rhinoceri, never-
theless, it is desirable that another reservation be set aside for them.
It is strongly recommended that further information be secured
24
in order that practical constructive moves may be made for the
protection and, if necessary, the husbandry of this conspicuously
interesting but vanishing mammal.

VII. RAFFLESIA RESERVATION NUMBER ONE

By means of the facilities afforded to me by Colonel Grssenson


and through the extreme courtesy and considerations shown me by
Lieutenant Weber, it was possible for me to visit the Rafflesia
Nature Monument on the Simpang Kanan River near Rantaupan-
djang. The authorities responsible are to be congratulated upon the
selection of this splendid site which may be approached by stream
and trail, and which contains such a rich store of both flora and
fauna. Not only is the magnificent Rafflesia flower found there but
a good representation of the other flora of that area and a cross-
section of the region's animal life.
There are several urgent needs which may be pointed out in
connection with this reservation: In the first place it should be
surveyed in detail and a census made of its plants and animals.
Its boundaries should be more definitely marked and the natives
informed of the reservation's limits. At present there is considerable
doubt as to whether or not the natives are adequately informed and
respect the park's boundaries. Clearings are being made which may
be infringing on the reservation itself and there was definite evidence
of some lumbering within the park's boundaries. If this is true, it is
highly probable that hunting and plant collecting are also done by
natives. Orang-utans definitely inhabit the reservation but the area
is not large enough to include the territory of even a single family
or for that matter a single individual. Since the reservation is located
strategically in the heart of the East Coast distribution of the orang-
utans, the larger purposes of the park should be foreseen, i.e., the
reservation should be an area set aside not only for Rafflesia but
also for other plants and animals characteristic of the region. We
would suggest a large extension of this reservation that it may serve
as a place for the protection of orang-utans, siamangs, gibbons,
elephants and other indigenous fauna. (See map No. 3). It is possible
25
that for the purposes suggested there should be a system of
Rafflesia Parks or extensive enlargements to supplement the present
limited area. It is also possible that plantings should be made within
the park in order to attract and hold larger numbers of orang-utans
as well as to aid in their increase.
In some documents and correspondence with authorities in the
Netherlands reference was made to a Rafflesia Park Number Two.
However, Lieutenant Weber did not know of this second reservation.
The district lies within the region supervised by him and it is a
pity he had not been informed of the existence of it.
The question also arose as to whether or not the present reservation
is located on the best site for a park protecting the Rafflesia flower.
The officers of military patrols suggested other regions where,
according to them, a greater number of this conspicuous and
beautiful flower exist. Although the flower was, unfortunately, not
in bloom when I visited the park, nevertheless it was quite evident
that there were only a small number within the reserve.

VIII. THE LOSER RESERVATION OR THE GAJO


AND ALAS NATIONAL PARK

To reach the Lser Complex fromMedan,evenwiththeindispens-


able aid of the Atjehnese military patrols, is an undertaking of
expeditionary proportions. In spite of the desirability of my going
to the Lser, it was absolutely impracticable within the limits of
time available for this study, since it would probably require at least
two weeks to reach and even superficially survey the Lser Complex.
It became necessary, therefore, to continue to gather information
from the well informed soldiers, with the exception of brief observat-
ions made during a visit to the recent extension of this reservation
to the sea near Bakongan. A visit to the Lser proper had to be
postponed with the hope that it could be undertaken at a more
suitable time.
In the main, the territory of the Lser Complex is unsurveyed and
little known although the vigilant and determined soldiers from
Bakongan, Tapa Toean and Blangpidi penetrate certain reaches
26
of the Lser Complex almost every month. Nevertheless, there are
great stretches of that rugged mountain country which have not
been explored. It is known that the highest part of the Lser peak
itself reaches an altitude of about nine thousand feet. Judging from
the information given by soldiers and from the sketchy contour
maps which are available, it would seem that, with the exception
of the limited extension to the sea at Bakongan, most of the reservat-
ion lies almost entirely above eight hundred meters in altitude. Thus,
the reservation contains a fair cross-section of the flora of the region
ranging from the sea to nine thousand feet. The patrols report that
regions which have been visited are forested with a magnificent
tropical forest, even over the highest slopes of the Lser itself.
Regarding the animal life, it is certain that elephants and rhinoceri
are to be found there and it was reported that orang-utans and nests
had been seen in the territory, even to a height of fifteen hundred
meters. No reliable basis was found for estimating the numbers of
these animals living in the reservation. Nevertheless, it seems prob-
able that there are few orang-utans in the Lser Complex and the
reason for this follows: The majority of our reports indicate that
orang-utans do not live in large numbers above the altitude of about
eight hundred meters. In fact, few men of experience have reported
orang-utans in families as high as fourteen or fifteen hundred meters
in the mountains. It is on this basis that we contend that the Lser
Reservation with its present boundaries is not and cannot be a
satisfactory reservation for orang-utans, since there is a marked
preference in these animals for altitudes below eight hundred meters.
Furthermore, since the lowland area of the reservation is so limited,
the extension including as it does only a narrow section of open
swamp land, the Lser Complex does not serve as a haven for the
lowland elephants but only for those that habitually prefer the
highlands and mountains.
It is with considerable anticipation that the report of Mr. A.
Hoogerwerf is awaited, who has recently completed a collecting
survey trip through a part of the Lser Reservation, entering it from
Koeta Tjane roadway. If the reservation is to be expanded and
planned to function as a comprehensive national park, I believe
the extensions which are suggested in the recommendations should
be made at an early date. In the meantime more facts are needed
relative to the habits and numbers of animals in the Lser Complex.
27
IX. AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM AND ITS NEED

The people of Atjeh, natives and Europeans alike, are lacking in


interest and information about wild life and its protection. Without
a doubt, the soldiers of Atjeh are doing one of the most difficult
jobs of patrolling in the world, and they are completely occupied
with the heavy demands of the job in hand. Nevertheless they need
and want information about the wild life with which they are so
closely associated. The natives are not naturally interested in hunting
the wild animals, since they are mainly an agrarian people and do
not depend upon game as a source of food.
The soldiers of Atjeh are responsible for the enforcement of all
regulations and laws applicable to wild life and its protection, yet
they have not been taught to perform these duties; on the contrary
they have been ordered to do so. Without exception, as far as my
contacts indicated, they are soldiers, of course, and in no way
naturalists. This applies to the officers as well. However, the
officers especially are unusually intelligent men and would respond
immediately to good literature, interestingly presented, about the
wild life and its many interesting phases. Since the soldiers are the
only effective agents for enforcing any program of nature protection
in Atjeh, they should have adequate training for the work. At present
they are receiving none of the bulletins either of the Netherlands
Indies Society for the Protection of Nature or the Nederlandsche
Commissie voor Internationale Natuurbescherming, nor do they
receive other kinds of interesting literature on wild life or its
protection. If appropriate literature were put into the hands of the
soldiers of Atjeh and they were more adequately informed by general
lectures at the time of their visits to Koeta Radja, they would be-
come effective wardens and their long vigils in the forest would
take on new interest and meaning.
Applicability of the law within the area of concessions: An important
point was raised by an officer of the government at Meulaboh as
well as by others. Regulations affecting wild life do not apply within
the boundaries of concessions, according to him. It would seem that
this situation should receive special consideration. If this is correct,
it virtually means that all animals are condemned which live within
territory given in concessions. This is certainly undesirable and
unnecessary. However, it is merely our purpose to call the attention
38
of the authorities to this opinion which may be a misunderstanding of
the game laws. If a misunderstanding does exist, this is further indicat-
ion of the need for wider dissemination of information. If game
regulations do not apply to concessions, it seems advisable that
these regulations be altered to have a wider application.
The Cultivation and Use of Wild Animals: It would seem that
the ends and objectives of a conservation program for any given
country or district should justify its means. Protection of wild
animals should meet the demands of desirable objectives which are
related to human interests or needs. Animals which are preserved,
frequently at large expense to governments, should be thought of
as natural resources to be preserved for future generations and may
be used intelligently for observational, recreational and scientific
purposes. It would seem unjustifiable to reserve large tracts of
valuable land for wild life, and then to leave this entire area com-
pletely untouched and unapproachable for interested people, and
to withhold the animals, if they are plentiful enough, from being
available for scientific research.
It is in my opinion especially important that when reservations
are set aside, parts at least should be made accessible to visitors,
for it has been repeatedly demonstrated that unarmed visitors to
national parks constitute no serious threat to the animals of the
region. Kruger National Park in South Africa is a perfect example
of what is meant. Barro Colorado Island in the Panama Canal Zone
is another example. The animals in these places have, to some
extent, lost their fear of men and can be observed to far greater
advantage by the visitor and nature student. These and other
similar places are beginning to serve as Meccas for naturalists from
many countries of the world. It should be noted that accessible
reservations with an abundance of observable animal life may
constitute a valuable asset for the country or state in which such
reservations are located.
An ideal wild life conservation program must frequently go
beyond mere protection. Where valuable animal types are in great
danger of becoming extinct, a positive program of husbandry would
be highly desirable if practicable. In the interest of making orang-
utans more accessible and in order to safeguard the present popul-
ation level, steps must be taken to make foods available in certain
districts; hence recommendations have been made to that end.
29
By cultivation and use is not meant commercial use. The economic
assets should be by-products when the income is beyond that
needed to maintain the program. An animal type as important as
the orang-utan should be considered to belong to science and not
to a particular country or people, and it should be available to
naturalists the world over. The two anthropoid apes in the East
and the two in Africa should be considered as international or world
assets and as property they should be decommercialized. If the
orang-utans are as few in Atjeh as is believed to be the case, the
present export trade is probably an undesirable drain on the
population. The commercial value of orang-utans on the European
market constitutes indirectly one of the greatest threats to the animal
population in Atjeh. The Medan Zoological Garden is forced to
depend upon the profits from the sale of orang-utans for much of
its income. Several private individuals in Atjeh depend for consider-
able income upon the profits from the capture and sale of orang-
utans. It would seem that this situation should be changed and
therefore a complete decommercialization of the Sumatran orang-
utan is recommended. If, in the interest of science or natural history
education, a specimen is needed, then it should be made available
on a cost basis, after permits have been granted by a committee
of qualified persons. The plan would seem to deserve careful
consideration, since it seems feasible, desirable and meets an urgent
need.

X. RECOMMENDATIONS

The former State of Atjeh, Sumatra, presents not only a unique


opportunity to preserve from extinction two vanishing species of
large mammals, namely, the Sumatran orang-utan and theSondaicus
rhinoceros, but also to set another example to the entire world on
methods and objectives of wild life protection, cultivation and use.
The Decree which initially established the great Lser Reserve
is a commendable first step. The present superb military organization
in Atjeh and the existing laws are further indications of progress, but
much remains to be done.
The following suggestions or recommendations may indicate
feasible projects, plans and developments. It may be desirable to
30
extend considerably the Lser and Rafflesia Reserves, to create
others, to make some park areas more accessible, to make known
these parks and their unique contents, to survey and make adequate
censuses of the various reservations, and to instruct people, especially
the native people but also people throughout the world, regarding
the superbly rich store of wild life and primitive beauty which
abounds in Atjeh.

I. In order to conserve still further cross-sections of the rich


flora and fauna of West Coast Atjeh, it is suggested that the Gajo
and Alas National Park or Lser Reservation be enlarged in several
areas and that more additional extensions be made to the sea.
A. That a second extension to the sea be made through the rough
non-cultivatable mountains south of Tapa Toean and that this
extension come nearest the sea along the highway from kilometers
four to twelve (see map No. 2).
1. There is, apparently, an abundance of orang-utans, gibbons and
siamangs in this beautiful, accessible but extremely rugged
mountain region.
B. That a third extension to the sea be made over the mountain
range which approaches the coast between Tapa Toean and
Blangpidi (see map No. 2).
1. This extension brings the Reservation into an accessible region,
but a region which may never be used for cultivation purposes.
The area includes orang-utans and other primates which should
not be disturbed.
C. That the Lser Reservation be extended north and west to the
sea, Extension Four, crossing the highway in a strip of magni-
ficent forest somewhere between Kilometer Stone 318 and 338,
and including a large coastal swamp beyond the highway (see
map No. 2).
1. This fourth extension brings part of the Reservation into an
accessible range, it preserves a wonderful forest, a lowland
district which serves as a habitat for both lowland elephants
and orang-utans, which range even now near the highway.

II. It is strongly recommended that immediate steps be taken to


set aside and develop a small reservation, especially for the orang-
utan, south of Meulaboh. The nature monument or park would
31
cross the highway in a band of forest extending from Kilometer
Stone 276 to 284 and, if at all feasible, the monument should extend
from the coast high into the hills.
A. In connection with this monument, it is suggested that fruit
tree plantings, especially of durian trees, be made along the
highway in order to attract orang-utans into situations where
they may be observed by those who are interested. Plantings
could be made rather easily from Kilometer Stone 276 to 280.

III. It is recommended that full consideration should be given


by the proper authorities to a considerable extension of the Rafflesia
Reserve. It should be extended in plan to include the function of
protecting all forms of wild life in that region, and it should be
extended in area to include a large region between the Simpang Kiri
and Simpang Kanan Rivers, to include territory east of the water
divide of Lokop and to include a large section of the Peureulak River
Valley. The present park and suggested extensions are shown on
Map No. 3.
A. The extensions are considered necessary in order to include a
representative sampling of the wild life of the region and a
desirable section of altitudinal ranges. The extension is indicated
if the Reserve is to function as an especially protected region
for orang-utans and elephants.
B. It is strongly suggested that, under the supervision of military
patrols, fruit tree plantings be made in abandoned clearings
along the Simpang Kanan River, in an abandoned clearing near
the Rafflesia Reserve on the trail to Lokop, and in clearings, some
of which must be made, along the Peureulak River.

IV. It is strongly recommended that a reservation or park, corres-


ponding to the Lser, be planned for the mountainous region which
lies between Takengon and Koeta Radja in one direction, and
Blangrakal, Tangse and Lamno in another direction.
A. A reservation in this area would be especially desirable for the
protection of splendid and picturesque mountains, high altitude
flora, the elephant and the rhinoceros.

V. It is recommended that in order more adequately to protect


the Goudberg mountain, especially from prairie fires, that this
32
beautiful mountain which now harbors one or more tapirs and
periodically a herd of elephants, be set aside as a nature monument
and be put in charge of a competent ranger.

VI. It is suggested that careful consideration be given to the


establishment and making accessible of a large nature reserve to
be situated in the mountains and valleys between Lhokseumawe and
Blangrakal, and between the latter point and Lhoksoekon.
A. The region indicated is said to have within it elephants, orang-
utans and tapirs.

VII. It is believed that in order adequately to protect the orang-


utan, the conservation program must extend beyond that of
mere protection to cultivation. This is necessary because much of
the most suitable habitat for orang-utans has been destroyed. It is
believed that this situation has resulted in a decreasing population
of this important anthropoid.

VIII. As a result of the importance of the orang-utan as a


zoological organism, and since an urgent need exists for reliable
and adequate data on the population and changes which are occurring
in this animal type, it is strongly recommended that the killing and
capture of this animal for trading or exhibition purposes be completely
stopped and that its use for accredited but limited scientific purposes
alone be permitted.

IX. On the basis of the improbability that orang-utans will


attack man, and even if such were to occur in very rare instances,
klawangs would be adequate protection from the rather slow animal,
it is recommended that the soldiers in Atjeh be forbidden to shoot
orang-utans under any circumstances.

X. It is suggested that when large tracts of land are given in


concessions and when these areas include habitats of the orang-
utan, the apes be transferred to primary forest either by driving
them or by capturing and transporting them, rather than capturing
them for sale or destroying them. In situations where it seems more
feasible and desirable, plots of forest could be left standing for the
specific purpose of harboring both orang-utans and gibbons.
33
XL It seems very necessary and altogether desirable that the
Indies-and Netherlands Committees which are actively interested
in and responsible for wild life protection, engage in an educational
campaign in order to instruct natives, soldiers, naturalists and others
in the interesting natural history of Atjeh. It is specifically recomm-
ended that all military posts and all officers receive regularly the
publications on the many forms of Atjehnese plant and animal life
and that lectures be arranged for the officers when they have con-
ventions in Koeta Radja.

34