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Music

Senior Syllabus 2013

Queensland Studies Authority


ISBN
Print version: 978-1-921802-29-4
Electronic version: 978-1-921802-30-0
Music Senior Syllabus 2013
The State of Queensland (Queensland Studies Authority) 2013

Queensland Studies Authority


154 Melbourne Street, South Brisbane
PO Box 307 Spring Hill QLD 4004 Australia

Phone: (07) 3864 0299


Fax: (07) 3221 2553
Email: office@qsa.qld.edu.au
Website: www.qsa.qld.edu.au
Contents
1 Rationale ................................................................................. 1
2 Dimensions and objectives ................................................... 2
2.1 Dimension 1: Composition ......................................................................... 2
2.2 Dimension 2: Musicology ........................................................................... 2
2.3 Dimension 3: Performance ........................................................................ 3

3 Course organisation .............................................................. 4


3.1 Course overview ........................................................................................ 4
3.2 Use of technologies in Music ..................................................................... 7
3.3 Planning a course of study ......................................................................... 8
3.4 Advice, guidelines and resources .............................................................. 8

4 Assessment .......................................................................... 11
4.1 Principles of exit assessment ................................................................... 11
4.2 Planning an assessment program............................................................ 13
4.3 Special provisions .................................................................................... 14
4.4 Authentication of student work ................................................................. 14
4.5 Assessment techniques ........................................................................... 15
4.6 Verification folio requirements .................................................................. 23
4.7 Exit standards .......................................................................................... 24
4.8 Determining exit levels of achievement.................................................... 24

5 Glossary ................................................................................ 28
1 Rationale
Music is a unique art form that uses sound and silence as a means of personal expression. It
allows for expression of the intellect, imagination and emotion and the exploration of values.
Music occupies a significant place in the everyday life of all cultures and societies serving social,
cultural, celebratory, political and educational roles. As a powerful educative tool, with its own
discrete knowledge, processes and skills, music contributes to the holistic development of the
individual. A study of music helps students to develop their practical and creative potential and to
understand and heighten enjoyment of the arts. It develops their understanding of artistic
processes and contributes to the development of the aesthetic, cognitive, psychomotor and
affective domains.
Students live in a world in which music has an important and pervasive presence. Senior Music
offers students opportunities for personal growth and for making an ongoing contribution to the
culture of their community. Through a deeper level of knowledge, understanding and active
participation in music making, it is hoped that students will maintain a lifelong engagement with
music as an art form and a means of creative, artistic and emotional expression. The course
encourages students to become creative and adaptable thinkers and problem solvers who are
able to make informed decisions, and develop their abilities to analyse and critically evaluate. The
discipline and commitment of music making builds students self-esteem, personal motivation and
independence, as well as providing opportunities for refining their collaborative teamwork skills in
activities that reflect the real-world practices of composers, performers and audiences.
All learning in Senior Music leads to developing students musicianship, i.e. the unique set of
knowledge, understanding, skills, attitudes and dispositions that allows students to engage in all
forms of music making and music interaction. Music is sound, and any experience of music is
essentially and fundamentally aural. Students develop their inner hearing, music skills,
techniques and artistry when they have opportunities to use their imagination, creativity, personal
and social skills in music making.
In Composition, students experiment with sounds, instruments, styles, new media and methods of
documenting sound, to create music works. They improvise, trial and refine their music ideas,
working with sound in innovative ways to develop their work. In Musicology, students explore and
engage with a variety of music contexts, styles, genres and practices. They identify and
investigate characteristics of the music they experience and communicate music ideas. In
Performance, students sing, play, conduct and direct music. They develop practical music skills
through exploring, applying and refining solo and/or ensemble performances and apply
theoretical understanding, aural awareness and music technology skills when creating or
re-creating music works. Students are encouraged to become adept in using various music-
related technologies and applying their broad music knowledge, skills and insights to express
themselves in a rapidly changing music-making environment.
A course of study in Music can establish a basis for further education and employment in the
fields of music performance, composition, music research, pedagogy, sound technology, music
theatre, Arts administration, and emerging creative industries. Many universities and TAFEs offer
courses with a strong music focus or in disciplines that build on the knowledge, understandings
and skills which students develop in Music. The study of music can be undertaken as part of
undergraduate and graduate studies in Music, and the Creative and Performing Arts, either in
combined qualifications or as a creative link in interdisciplinary studies, e.g. Music and Law, and
Music and Medicine.

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2 Dimensions and objectives
The dimensions are the salient properties or characteristics of distinctive learning for this subject.
The dimensions are described through their objectives and it is these that schools are required to
teach and that students should have the opportunity to learn. The objectives describe what
students should know and be able to do by the end of the course of study.
Progress in a particular dimension may depend on the qualities and skills developed in other
dimensions. Learning through each of the dimensions must increase in complexity to allow for
greater independence of the learner over a four-semester course of study.
Schools must assess how well students have achieved the objectives. The standards have
a direct relationship with the objectives, and are described in the same dimensions as the
objectives.
The dimensions for a course of study in this subject are:
Dimension 1: Composition
Dimension 2: Musicology
Dimension 3: Performance.

2.1 Dimension 1: Composition


The dimension Composition involves the creation of music by combining music elements and
concepts (see Section 3.1.2) in a range of contexts, styles and genres (see Section 3.1.3).
It entails innovation through exploring and experimenting with sound to synthesise and express
personal music ideas and enhance musicianship in Musicology and Performance.

2.1.1 Objectives
By the conclusion of the course of study, students should:
select and apply music elements and concepts in the creation of their own works
demonstrate composition techniques in the creation of their own works
synthesise and communicate music ideas and stylistic characteristics to create their own
works.
When students select and apply knowledge and understanding of music elements and concepts,
they comprehend the meaning of sounds and symbols. They perceive patterns and determine
relationships in sound and symbol systems through the development of their inner hearing and
musical memory.
When students demonstrate composition techniques, they conceptualise, critically reflect, refine
and edit creative music works and translate sounds into symbols.
When students synthesise and communicate music ideas, they create, structure and present
sounds and symbols 1.

2.2 Dimension 2: Musicology


The dimension Musicology involves the study of music in social, historical and cultural contexts.
It entails researching, analysing and evaluating repertoire and other music sources, in a range of
contexts, styles and genres, to synthesise and express a music viewpoint, and enhance
musicianship in Composition and Performance.

1
In this syllabus, the use of the term symbol includes Western music notation, graphs, pictures, letters, characters,
numbers, signs and other markings which may be used separately or in combination in music systems.

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2.2.1 Objectives
By the conclusion of the course of study, students should:
perceive and interpret music elements and concepts in repertoire and music sources
analyse and evaluate music to determine the relationships between music elements, concepts
and stylistic characteristics
synthesise findings, justify music viewpoints and communicate music ideas.
When students perceive and interpret music elements and concepts, they identify and show
understanding of the meaning of words, sounds and symbols.
When students analyse and evaluate music, they investigate, review and critique repertoire,
extract and clarify information. They draw conclusions through the evaluation of a range of
repertoire and other music material.
When students synthesise findings, justify music viewpoints and communicate music ideas, they
consider possibilities and make judgments about music repertoire. They structure and organise
extended written text using correct spelling, punctuation, grammar and vocabulary, appropriate to
a music context.

2.3 Dimension 3: Performance


The dimension Performance involves the interpretation of music elements and concepts through
playing, singing and/or conducting in context. It entails communicating music to audiences
through the synthesis of music ideas, stylistic characteristics and practices, while enhancing
musicianship in Composition and Musicology.

2.3.1 Objectives
By the conclusion of the course of study, students should:
interpret and apply music elements and concepts in performance
demonstrate performance skills and techniques related to contexts
synthesise and communicate music ideas and stylistic characteristics to create performances.
When students interpret and apply knowledge and understanding of music elements and
concepts in performance, they conceptualise, organise, analyse, refine and critically reflect on
aural and visual music texts 2. They interpret complex patterns and relationships in music texts.
When students demonstrate performance skills and techniques in context, they interpret and
comprehend the meaning of sounds and symbols, and translate symbols into sounds. They
determine and apply techniques, procedures and aspects of performance practice to solve
performance challenges.
When students synthesise and communicate music ideas to audiences, they listen, imitate,
memorise, experiment, practise, rehearse, direct and collaborate.

2
In this syllabus, a music text refers to a coherent piece of spoken/signed, written, nonverbal, visual or auditory
language, or some or all of these in combination, produced in an interaction in a social context.

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3 Course organisation
3.1 Course overview
This syllabus enables schools to plan a course of study in which students develop the ability to
think, work and engage in the world of music.
The minimum number of hours of timetabled school time, including assessment, for a course of
study developed from this syllabus is 55 hours per semester. A course of study will usually be
completed over four semesters (220 hours).
A course of study in Music is based on developing in students the fundamental concept of
musicianship that unique set of knowledge, understandings, skills, attitudes, dispositions and
artistry that allows students to participate in all forms of music making and music interaction, and
which underpins a persons musical identity.
Musicianship is achieved through the knowledge and application of music elements and
concepts, and experience in, and appreciation of, a range of music contexts, styles and genres.
The interrelationships among the aspects of musicianship, music elements and concepts,
context, style and genre, and the dimensions of the course of study are represented in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Interrelationships in Music

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3.1.1 Musicianship
Musicianship is a broad concept that covers a range of music abilities. It can be seen as a set of
skills, techniques, understandings, attitudes and dispositions that allows students to develop
proficiency in music making and which is necessary for intelligent and critical listening, thinking,
creating and performing in and about music.
Musicianship relies on the development of skills in using, interpreting and expressing complex
sound and symbol systems. It brings together knowledge and understanding of music with the
development of inner hearing, cognition, artistic sensitivity and creativity in all music activity and
thought. Musicianship is the process through which music elements and concepts are made
conscious and music skills are practised, relying on meaningful emotional and cognitive
engagement with the essence of music. It involves critical reflection on music as an art form and
as an expression of culture.

Importance of notation
Fundamental to the teaching and learning of music is engaging in symbol systems for the
representation of musical sound. Becoming proficient with notation is essential for developing
students music literacy for Composition, Musicology and Performance.
In this syllabus the term symbol includes Western music notation, graphs, pictures, letters,
characters, numbers, signs and other markings which may be used separately or in combination
in music systems.

3.1.2 Music elements and concepts


Music elements, and their associated concepts, are core subject matter to be developed over the
four-semester course of study. Elements of music in this syllabus are identified as:
duration
expressive devices
pitch
structure
texture
timbre.
Concepts associated with each music element are included in Table 1 below. These concepts are
neither prescriptive nor exhaustive, nor do they form a checklist. They provide a guide for
exploring music elements within context, style and genre, and employ commonly used
terminology.
Elements and concepts chosen will be determined by the selected repertoire. While the
knowledge, understanding and skills associated with music elements and concepts underpin the
dimensions and objectives, teachers should not feel constrained by these aspects they may
wish to explore others depending on the interests of their students. It is expected that the study of
music elements and concepts will reflect a developmental approach, with more complex
treatment being evidenced towards the end of the course.

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Table 1: Music elements and associated concepts

Element Definition Concepts which could be used to


explore the elements

beat and pulse


metre
the relative lengths of sounds
duration
and silences in music accent and syncopation
tempo
rhythm

dynamics
ways of influencing mood and contrast
expressive devices
character of music instrumental and vocal techniques
articulation

melody
the relative frequency of
pitch
sound harmony
tonality

melodic patterns
melody the horizontal arrangement of melodic shape and contour
sound intonation
range and register

the vertical arrangement of consonance and dissonance


harmony sounds (describes the ways in chord progressions
which combinations of sounds
countermelodies
progress throughout a piece
of music) cadence

the organisation of pitches keys and modes


tonality
that establishes tonal scale forms
relationships modulation

repetition, variety, contrast, development


and unification
structure the form and design of music treatment of thematic material
multi-movement and contemporary
structures

monophony, homophony, heterophony,


polyphony
texture the density of sound linear and vertical arrangement
voicing
sequencing and track layering

instrumentation
instrumental and vocal techniques and
characteristic quality of sound
timbre devices
sources, or tone colour
manipulation of sound quality
register

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3.1.3 Contexts, styles and genres
Students should be provided with learning experiences within and across a variety of contexts,
styles and genres. These are ways of classifying music with related characteristics such as:
origins and influences
function or purpose
techniques used
types of instruments used
time period
culture or country of origin.
While music can be categorised in different ways these classifications are often arbitrary, closely
related and overlap.
Context often involves the circumstances in which music occurs.
Style implies characteristics of certain types of music, e.g. a particular group of people, time
period, country or culture, techniques or instruments used, origins or influences. The term is often
used interchangeably with genre.
Genre implies an accepted class, type or category of music that adheres to a shared tradition, set of
conventions or common characteristic or quality. The term is often used interchangeably with style.
In this syllabus all contexts, styles and genres are of equal importance for study.
Teachers may choose to focus in depth on some contexts, styles or genres while incorporating
others more broadly in their course organisations.

3.2 Use of technologies in Music


Technological advances influence, and will continue to change, the ways in which musicians
work, both in terms of the instruments they play and use, and the means by which they record
and share their compositions, performances and music ideas. Musicians have access to a wide
range of new instruments and sounds, as well as the means to record and manipulate sounds.
Information and communications technologies (ICTs) in music encompass all technologies,
including traditional and electronic musical instruments, digital devices, protocols and
applications. ICT capability means having the technical and cognitive proficiency to access
information, and being able to use, develop, create and communicate using the technological
tools available.
Using ICTs is a form of literacy and an integral component of all teaching and learning in Music.
Purposeful and appropriate application of ICTs offers students opportunities to:
use their ICT capability to assist and progress their learning
engage in higher-order thinking skills and enhance cognition
demonstrate, apply and reinforce their understanding of ICT capability within a music environment.
The use of technologies can develop students understanding of musical concepts and enhance
aesthetic sensitivity, creative thinking and appreciative ability. Through activities in composition,
musicology and performance students come to appreciate the impact of technology on and in
music, to understand the capabilities and use of various performing media, and to incorporate
technological perspectives into their work.
Teachers are encouraged to use the range of technologies available to them, not only in the
music classroom but also in the wider school context to provide access to music for students and
to enhance and open up new music experiences. Teaching and learning styles can be

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transformed by the use of technologies through alignment with a variety of aural, theoretical,
instrumental, compositional and social media applications, allowing students to be independent
and collaborative learners in a wide variety of music environments.
Students should have opportunity to explore their music ideas using a variety of technologies, as
available, for example:
in Composition, works could be created as audio recordings of live performances or digital
works in a variety of formats, such as notated scores using notational software
in Musicology, tasks could be prepared incorporating ICTs and presented in digital forms
in Performance, students could use a variety of existing and emerging technologies as they
make music.

3.3 Planning a course of study


When planning a course of study, schools should take into account the needs and interests of
students, and the culture and resources of the school and its community.
A course of study must:
allow for the achievement of the dimensions and objectives
allow for the development of students musicianship
include the core subject matter of music elements and concepts
represent a range of contexts, styles and genres.
Learning experiences should:
be balanced across the three dimensions and the course of study
offer a depth and breadth of music activities
include experiences in available music-related technologies
include both vocal and instrumental experiences.

3.4 Advice, guidelines and resources


The following advice, guidelines and resources support the implementation of the syllabus.
Where indicated further information may be obtained from the Music subject page of the
QSA website <www.qsa.qld.edu.au/20324.html>.

3.4.1 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives


The Queensland Government has a vision that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Queenslanders have their cultures affirmed, heritage sustained and the same prospects for
health, prosperity and quality of life as other Queenslanders. The QSA is committed to helping
achieve this vision and encourages teachers to include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
perspectives in the curriculum.
The Queensland Studies Authority (QSA) recognises Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
peoples, their traditions, histories and experiences from before European settlement and
colonisation through to the present time. To strengthen students appreciation and understanding
of the first peoples of the land, opportunities exist in the syllabus to encourage engagement with
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander:
frameworks of knowledge and ways of learning
contexts in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples live
contributions to Australian society and cultures.

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For Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples music is a rich and integral aspect of community
life and culture. As with all Indigenous arts, Indigenous music is not just a form of self-expression.
It is a response to the world that conveys meaning and has a spiritual purpose. Through song,
dance and storytelling, music is used to pass on and explain stories of creation, spirituality and
beliefs.
Students can gain knowledge, understanding and appreciation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander histories and cultures through exploring the various forms of music produced by
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and through the diversity of music-making practices.
They also need to develop appreciation of responding to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander art
works in a culturally sensitive and responsible manner.
A music curriculum incorporating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives should
ensure:
respect for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples
respect for the rights of the traditional owners of artworks, songs, stories and dances
use of accurate and up-to-date resources
accessibility for Indigenous and non-Indigenous students.
When planning practical learning experiences that incorporate Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander perspectives, it is important to involve the local communities, as appropriate.
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Handbook (accessed on the QSA website at
<www.qsa.qld.edu.au/8848.html>) includes information about:
establishing a supportive school and classroom environment
consulting and collaborating with local Indigenous communities
dealing with sensitive issues
selecting appropriate resources and texts
removing barriers to student success and engagement.
Subject-specific resources are available on the Music subject page. In addition, guidelines about
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives and resources for teaching are available on the
QSA website <www.qsa.qld.edu.au/577.html>.

3.4.2 Composite classes


This syllabus enables teachers to develop a course of study that caters for a variety of ways to
organise learning, such as combined Years 11 and 12 classes, combined campuses, or modes of
delivery involving periods of student-managed study. This resource provides guidelines about
composite classes.

3.4.3 Embedding educational equity in the course of study


Equity means fair treatment of all. In developing work programs from this syllabus, schools need
to provide opportunities for all students to demonstrate what they know and what they can do. All
students, therefore, should have equitable access to educational programs and human and
material resources.
In addition to the subject-specific resources available on the Music subject page, guidelines about
educational equity and resources for devising an inclusive work program are available on the
QSA website <www.qsa.qld.edu.au/10188.html>.

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3.4.4 Language education in Music
It is the responsibility of teachers to develop and monitor students abilities to use the forms of
language appropriate to their own subject areas. This involves providing opportunities for the
development of students abilities in:
selection and sequencing of information required in various forms (such as reports, essays,
interviews and seminar presentations)
use of technical terms and their definitions
use of correct grammar, spelling, punctuation and layout.

3.4.5 Learning experiences and sample resources


This resource provides guidelines for learning experiences and sample resources, which may
include unit/s of work.

3.4.6 Mathematical concepts in Music


It is the responsibility of teachers to develop and monitor students abilities to use mathematical
concepts appropriate to their own subject areas. This involves providing opportunities for the
development of students abilities to:
comprehend basic concepts and terms underpinning the areas of number, space, probability
and statistics, and measurement
extract, convert or translate information given in numerical forms, or as diagrams, maps,
graphs or tables
calculate and apply procedures
use skills or apply concepts from one problem or one subject to another.

3.4.7 Reference materials


This resource provides links to reference materials, text and reference books, websites,
newspaper reports, periodicals, electronic media and learning technology, and organisations and
community resources for the subject.

3.4.8 Work program requirements


A work program is the schools plan of how the course of study will be delivered and assessed,
based on the schools interpretation of the syllabus. It allows for the special characteristics of the
individual school and its students. Work program requirements are available on the Music subject
page of the QSA website <www.qsa.qld.edu.au/20324.html>. Instructions for online submission of
work programs are available from <https://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/wponline/login.qsa>.

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4 Assessment
Assessment is an integral part of the teaching and learning process. For Years 11 and 12 it is the
purposeful, systematic and ongoing collection of information about student learning outlined in the
senior syllabuses.
In Queensland, assessment is standards based. The standards for each subject are described in
dimensions, which identify the valued features of the subject about which evidence of student
learning is collected and assessed. The standards describe the characteristics of student work.
The major purposes of assessment in senior Authority subjects are to:
promote, assist and improve learning
inform programs of teaching and learning
advise students about their own progress to help them achieve as well as they are able
give information to parents, carers and teachers about the progress and achievements of
individual students to help them achieve as well as they are able
provide comparable levels of achievement in each Authority subject which may contribute
credit towards a Queensland Certificate of Education
provide base data for tertiary entrance purposes
provide information about how well groups of students are achieving for school authorities and
the State Minister responsible for Education.

4.1 Principles of exit assessment


All the principles of exit assessment must be used when planning an assessment program and
must be applied when making decisions about exit levels of achievement.
A standards-based assessment program for the four-semester course of study requires
application of the following interdependent principles:
information is gathered through a process of continuous assessment, i.e. continuous
assessment
balance of assessment is a balance over the course of study and not necessarily a balance
over a semester or between semesters, i.e. balance
exit levels of achievement are devised from student achievement in all areas identified in the
syllabus as being mandatory, i.e. mandatory aspects of the syllabus
assessment of a students achievement is in the significant aspects of the course of study
identified in the syllabus and the schools work program, i.e. significant aspects of the course
of study
selective updating of a students achievement is undertaken over the course of study, i.e.
selective updating
exit assessment is devised to provide the fullest and latest information on a students
achievement in the course of study, i.e. fullest and latest information.

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4.1.1 Continuous assessment
Judgments about student achievement made at exit from a course of study must be based on an
assessment program of continuous assessment.
Continuous assessment involves gathering information on student achievement using
assessment instruments administered at suitable intervals over the developmental four-semester
course of study.
In continuous assessment, all assessment instruments have a formative purpose to improve
teaching and student learning and achievement.
When students exit the course of study, teachers make a summative judgment about their levels
of achievement in accordance with the standards matrix.
The process of continuous assessment provides the framework in which the other five principles
of exit assessment operate: balance, mandatory aspects of the syllabus, significant aspects of the
course of study, selective updating, and fullest and latest information.

4.1.2 Balance
Judgments about student achievement made at exit from a course of study must be based on a
balance of assessments over the course of study.
Balance of assessment is a balance over the course of study and not a balance within a semester
or between semesters.
Balance of assessment means judgments about students achievements of the dimensions and
objectives are made a number of times using a variety of assessment techniques and a range of
assessment conditions over the developmental four-semester course of study.
See also Section 4.6, Verification folio requirements.

4.1.3 Mandatory aspects of the syllabus


Judgments about student achievement made at exit from a course of study must be based on
mandatory aspects of the syllabus.
The mandatory aspects are:
the dimensions Composition, Musicology and Performance
music elements and concepts.
To ensure that the judgment of student achievement at exit from a four-semester course of study
is based on the mandatory aspects, the exit standards for the dimensions stated in the standards
matrix must be used (see Section 4.8.2, Awarding exit levels of achievement).

4.1.4 Significant aspects of the course of study


Judgments about student achievement made at exit from a course of study must be based on
significant aspects of the course of study.
Significant aspects are those areas described in the schools work program that have been
selected from the choices permitted by the syllabus to meet local needs.
The significant aspects must be consistent with the objectives of the syllabus and complement
the developmental nature of learning in the course of study over four semesters.

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4.1.5 Selective updating
Judgments about student achievement made at exit from a course of study must be selectively
updated throughout the course of study.
Selective updating is related to the developmental nature of the course of study and works in
conjunction with the principle of fullest and latest information.
As subject matter is treated at increasing levels of complexity, assessment information gathered
at earlier stages of the course of study may no longer be representative of student achievement.
Therefore, the information should be selectively and continually updated (and not averaged) to
accurately represent student achievement.
Schools may apply the principle of selective updating to the whole subject group or to individual
students.

Whole subject-group
A school develops an assessment program so that, in accordance with the developmental nature
of the course of study, later assessment information based on the same groups of objectives
replaces earlier assessment information.

Individual student
A school determines the assessment folio for verification or exit (post-verification). The students
assessment folio must be representative of the students achievements over the course of study.
The assessment folio does not have to be the same for all students; however, the folio must
conform to the syllabus requirements and the schools approved work program.
Selective updating must not involve students reworking and resubmitting previously graded
responses to assessment instruments.

4.1.6 Fullest and latest information


Judgments about student achievement made at exit from a course of study must be based on the
fullest and latest information available.
Fullest refers to information about student achievement gathered across the range of
objectives.
Latest refers to information about student achievement gathered from the most recent period
in which achievement of the objectives is assessed.
As the assessment program is developmental, fullest and latest information will most likely come
from Year 12 for those students who complete four semesters of the course of study.
The fullest and latest assessment information on mandatory and significant aspects of the course
of study is recorded on a student profile.

4.2 Planning an assessment program


To achieve the purposes of assessment listed at the beginning of this section, schools must
consider the following when planning a standards-based assessment program:
dimensions and objectives (see Section 2)
course organisation (see Section 3)
principles of exit assessment (see Section 4.1)
variety in assessment techniques and conditions over the four-semester course of study
(see Section 4.5)

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verification folio requirements, i.e. the range and mix of assessment instruments necessary to
reach valid judgments of students standards of achievement (see Section 4.6)
post-verification assessment (see Section 4.6.2)
exit standards (see Section 4.7).
In keeping with the principle of continuous assessment, students should have opportunities to
become familiar with the assessment techniques that will be used to make summative judgments.
Further information can be found on the Music subject page of the QSA website
<www.qsa.qld.edu.au/20324.html>.

4.3 Special provisions


Guidance about the nature and appropriateness of special provisions for particular students are
described in QSAs Policy on Special Provisions for School-based Assessments in Authority and
Authority-registered Subjects (2009), <www.qsa.qld.edu.au/2132.html>.
This statement provides guidance on responsibilities, principles and strategies that schools may
need to consider in their school settings. Reasonable adjustments to students with specific
educational needs must be planned and negotiated as early as possible so that students can be
provided with appropriate support in order to commence, participate and complete course of
study requirements. The special provisions might involve alternative teaching approaches,
assessment plans and learning experiences.

4.4 Authentication of student work


It is essential that judgments of student achievement be made on genuine student assessment
responses. Teachers should ensure that students work is their own, particularly where students
have access to electronic resources or when they are preparing collaborative tasks.
The QSAs AZ of Senior Moderation contains a strategy on authenticating student work
<www.qsa.qld.edu.au/10773.html>. This provides information about various methods teachers
can use to monitor that students work is their own. Particular methods outlined include:
teachers seeing plans and drafts of student work
student production and maintenance of evidence for the development of responses
student acknowledgment of resources used.
Teachers must ensure students use consistent accepted conventions of in-text citation and
referencing, where appropriate.
Further advice on drafting of student assessment responses is available on the Music subject
page of the QSA website <www.qsa.qld.edu.au/20324.html>.

14 | Music Senior Syllabus 2013


4.5 Assessment techniques
The assessment techniques relevant to this syllabus are identified in the diagram below, and
described in detail in Sections 4.5.3, 4.5.4, 4.5.5 and 4.5.6).

Figure 2: Music assessment techniques

Schools design assessment instruments from the assessment techniques relevant to this
syllabus. For each assessment instrument, schools use the standards from the syllabus for
making judgments about the quality of students responses. Assessment is designed to allow
students to demonstrate the range of standards (see Section 4.8.2, Awarding exit levels of
achievement).
Where students undertake assessment in a group or team, instruments must be designed so that
teachers can validly assess the work of individual students and not apply a judgment of the group
product and processes to all individuals.
The assessment instruments students respond to in a Year 11 assessment program should
support those included in Year 12.
The conditions of assessment, possible modes for assessment and supporting evidence are
identified and described below.

4.5.1 Conditions of assessment


Over a four-semester course of study, students are required to complete assessment under a
range of conditions (see Section 4.1.2, Balance).
Conditions may vary according to assessment. Conditions should be stated clearly on
assessment instruments and may include:
whether supervised or unsupervised
indicating individual, group or team
stating time allowed (with perusal time as needed)
stating length required
using seen or unseen questions and stimulus materials
(seen or unseen also refers to studied or not previously studied, heard or not previously heard)
using music sources or technologies.
Where support materials or technologies (e.g. notes, music sources or computers) are used
under supervised conditions, schools must ensure that the purpose of supervised conditions
(i.e. to authenticate student work) is maintained.

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4.5.2 Modes of assessment
Assessment techniques may be presented in a variety of modes, e.g. written, spoken/signed and
multimodal. An assessment response is communicated to an audience for a particular purpose
which may influence the type of text, language features and other textual features used in the
response. Purposes may include creating; performing; interpreting; showcasing; analysing;
evaluating; informing; persuading; communicating; presenting investigative findings, or reviewing
a music source or situation.
Referencing conventions should be followed, regardless of the mode of assessment.

4.5.3 Composition
Assessment technique: Composition
Purpose

This technique assesses the creation of music. It involves the creative input of students and the
application of identified skill/s in composing music. It is the outcome of applying a range of creative,
expressive, aural, cognitive and technical skills in moving towards the development of a personal creative
style. The focus of this assessment is the application of skills to create music which demonstrates a
context, style and/or genre by demonstrating knowledge of music elements and concepts.

Dimension to be assessed

The dimension to be assessed should be clearly stated on assessment instruments. This assessment
technique is best used to determine student achievement in objectives from the dimension Composition.

Types of composition

Composition tasks require students to create music. Possible types of compositions include:
response to particular stimuli, e.g. another composers work, visual stimulus such as a film clip or
advertisement
demonstration of an understanding of a particular style or genre
arrangement of an existing piece
composition for a particular occasion, purpose or musical production
pieces for combinations of instruments and/or voices
compositions generated by electronic means and contemporary technologies.

Supporting evidence

Students can present their compositions as a sound recording and/or a score (traditional, graphic or
contemporary).
The development of a composition may also include documentation of the process, e.g. composers
journal, recordings, screen shots, diagrams, annotations.

Presentation

Students can present their compositions as a sound recording and/or a score (traditional, graphic or
contemporary).
Certain styles favour a recorded format while others may be better presented in notated form (score).
Recordings may be a better presentation format for music such as computer-generated sounds, film
music when presented with the visuals, the various types of music of Indigenous cultures based on an
oral tradition, and some rock styles. More traditional forms such as string quartets, serial compositions
and musical theatre songs may be better presented in notated form.
The presentation of compositions should allow students to demonstrate the exit standards.

Assessment condition Year 11 Year 12

Length: a minimum of 16 bars or a minimum of 32 bars or


approximately 30 seconds in length approximately 1 minute in length

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Assessment technique: Composition

Further guidance

Tasks can be based on any context, style or genre of music.


Compositions may or may not be accompanied by a composers statement.
Compositions which are arrangements of existing music require substantial reworking of music
elements and must be obviously well removed, but derived from the original composition.
It is not necessary to assess all music elements and concepts in composition assessments. The
elements and concepts to be assessed depend on the context, style and genre of the composition.
The development of the composition is observed throughout the teaching and learning.
The combination of music elements and concepts is the focus of composition assessment, not the
manner of presentation (recorded sound or score).
Documentation of compositions should demonstrate the explicit and complete ideas of the composer.

4.5.4 Musicology extended response


Assessment technique: Musicology extended response
Purpose

This technique assesses the sustained application of higher order cognition (analysis, interpretation,
evaluation, and development and justification of music ideas and viewpoints) in responding to stimulus
materials. Students respond to repertoire and other music sources, analyse, interpret, synthesise and
evaluate data and information to develop, justify and express a music viewpoint.

Dimension to be assessed

The dimension to be assessed should be clearly stated on assessment instruments. This assessment
technique is best used to determine student achievement in objectives from the dimension Musicology.

Description of extended response

An extended response:
requires the student to analyse, evaluate and synthesise repertoire and music sources to justify
and express a music viewpoint
is made over a set period of time; students may use class time and their own time to develop a
response
is communicated to an audience for a particular purpose, which may influence the mode of
presentation, type of text, language features and other textual features used in the response
may involve a students response to stimulus material such as repertoire and music sources, or a
response to a given research question, statement or hypothesis.
Providing a response to repertoire and other music sources may involve students in:
listening with intent to a variety of music
perceiving music characteristics when listening
analysing repertoire, both aurally and visually
identifying music elements and concepts
determining relationships between music elements, concepts and stylistic characteristics
applying concepts or theories to a question, scenario, issue or situation
agreeing or disagreeing with a challenging quote or statement
locating, analysing and using information/data from a variety of music sources
examining and evaluating information/data for validity and value
synthesising data/information and findings
making judgments about repertoire and other music sources
expressing and justifying a music viewpoint
drawing conclusions, with justifications
communicating music ideas and viewpoints.

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Assessment technique: Musicology extended response
Although students may undertake research in the writing of the extended response, it is not the focus
of this technique. This research may involve students collecting, selecting, organising and using
information from primary and secondary sources that goes beyond the information they have been
given and the knowledge they currently possess.

Possible assessment instruments

Assessment instruments that may be developed to assess extended response include:


critique, review, interview, debate, documentary
essay, e.g. analytical, persuasive/argumentative, informative
report, e.g. investigative, experimental, field-based, practical, historical
article, e.g. magazine or journal, which may be analytical, persuasive or informative
speech, e.g. analytical, persuasive/argumentative or informative
presentation combining speaking with auditory and/or visual prompts, e.g. sound sources, scores,
posters, brochures, handouts
digital presentation combining technologies, e.g. images, sound bites, blog entries and embedded
videos.

Modes of presentation

An extended response may be presented in a variety of modes, e.g. written, spoken and multimodal.
All modes of response are supported by appropriate music references, scores, sound sources, tables
of data, diagrams or flow charts.

Written response

Written responses require students to communicate a written assessment response to an audience for
a particular purpose.
Examples may include an analytical research assignment, a persuasive or argumentative essay or
informative text, a comparative analysis of repertoire, a magazine article, critique or review.

Spoken response

Spoken responses require students to present a spoken assessment response to a live or virtual
audience (i.e. through the use of technology) for a particular purpose.
Examples may include interviews, debates, podcasts and presentations.

Multimodal response

A multimodal response uses a combination of at least two modes to communicate an extended


response to a live or virtual audience for a particular audience.
Examples may include spoken and/or visual presentations, seminars and digital presentations.
Modes include:
written
spoken/signed
nonverbal (e.g. aural, visual or physical).
Each of the selected modes contributes significantly to the multimodal response.
Different technologies may be used in the creation or presentation of the response.
When making judgments about multimodal responses, teachers apply the standards to the entire
response that is, to all modes used to communicate the response.
Note: Replication of a written document into an electronic or digital format does not constitute a
multimodal response.

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Assessment technique: Musicology extended response

Supporting evidence

Supporting evidence is required to substantiate decisions made on spoken and multimodal responses
for monitoring, verification and exit purposes.
Evidence to support spoken or multimodal responses may include:
notes or annotations
summary of findings
journal entries or log book
seminar brief or conference paper
a recording of the response (as appropriate).

Assessment conditions

Assessment conditions should be clearly stated on assessment instruments including:


length or duration of the response
length of time given for preparation and completion of the task, especially for unsupervised tasks
perusal time (if appropriate)
use of seen or unseen questions and stimulus materials
(seen or unseen also refers to studied or not previously studied, heard or not previously heard)
use of music sources or technologies.
An extended response may occur over a period of time. Students may use class time and their own
time to develop a response.

Specific conditions Year 11 Year 12

Written: 6001000 words 8001200 words

Spoken: 34 minutes 45 minutes

Multimodal: 35 minutes 57 minutes

Further guidance

Items can be based on any context, style or genre of music.


It is not necessary to assess all music elements and concepts in extended response assessments.
The elements and concepts to be assessed depend on the question type and repertoire chosen.
Teachers who wish to offer an extended response as a test (supervised conditions) should refer to the
assessment technique: Musicology written examination (see Section 4.5.5).

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4.5.5 Musicology written examination
Assessment technique: Musicology written examination
Purpose

This technique assesses the application of a range of cognition (knowledge, understanding, application,
analysis, evaluation) to responses completed under supervised conditions.

Dimension to be assessed

The dimension to be assessed should be clearly stated on assessment instruments. This assessment
technique is best used to determine student achievement in objectives from the dimension Musicology.

Types of items in the written examination

Items will be in response to seen or unseen questions/statements and/or stimulus materials


(seen or unseen also refers to studied or not previously studied, heard or not previously heard).

Extended written responses

Items require sustained analysis, synthesis and evaluation to answer a question fully or express a
music viewpoint.
Students provide a response to repertoire, e.g. by determining relationships between music elements,
concepts and stylistic characteristics; through comparison of repertoire that requires justifying a
stance; by making judgments about music repertoire and other music material; or by agreeing or
disagreeing with a challenging quote.

Short written responses

Items may include response to stimulus items that require:


explanations longer than one sentence
ideas maintained, developed and justified
full sentence responses, constructing a piece of prose that may have one or several paragraphs.
Items may require students to:
read, listen to, interpret and/or analyse scores and/or recordings
demonstrate problem solving and mathematical calculations, e.g. in demonstrating an
understanding of harmony, acoustics, serial patterning, and compositional techniques.

Assessment conditions Year 11 Year 12

Recommended duration: 11.5 hours 1.52 hours

Short responses: 50250 words per response 50250 words per response

Extended responses: 400600 words per response 600800 words per response

Further guidance

Items can be based on any context, style or genre of music.


The focus of this assessment technique is to respond primarily by using repertoire rather than by
referring to secondary sources.
It is not necessary to assess all music elements and concepts in supervised written assessments. The
elements and concepts to be assessed depend on the question type and repertoire.
Teachers who wish to offer an extended response but not as a test (i.e. not under supervised
conditions) should refer to the assessment technique: Musicology extended response (Section
4.5.4).

20 | Music Senior Syllabus 2013


4.5.6 Performance
Assessment technique: Performance
Purpose

This technique assesses the demonstration and interpretation of music elements and concepts through
playing, singing and/or conducting. It is the outcome of applying a range of creative, expressive, aural,
cognitive, technical, physical and psychomotor skills to music repertoire.
The focus of this assessment is music performance to an audience. Performance assessment involves
the creative input of students and the application of identified skill/s involved in the interpretation of music
elements, concepts and music repertoire.

Dimension to be assessed

The dimension to be assessed should be clearly stated on assessment instruments. This assessment
technique is best used to determine student achievement in objectives from the dimension Performance.

Types of performance

Possible types of performance include:


ensemble, instrumental and/or vocal
solo performance, instrumental and/or vocal
performance of student compositions
improvisation
conducting
performance from the co-curricular vocal or instrumental program
accompaniment
performance involving the use of emerging performance media.
It is not necessary to assess all music elements and concepts in performance assessments. The
elements and concepts to be assessed depend on the context, style and genre of the chosen
repertoire.
Conductors are expected to rehearse the group leading to a performance and be totally responsible
for directing all rehearsals of the piece.

Supporting evidence

Supporting evidence is required to substantiate teacher decisions made on performances for


monitoring, verification and exit purposes.
All performances are to be recorded (see Section 4.6.1).
Evidence to support performances may also include teacher notes or annotations.

Assessment conditions

Performance tasks should:


be approximately three minutes in length
allow for student performances in any style
allow for preparation and performance with or without a score (except for conducting)
in ensemble performances, assess only the individual students performance
require that the student interpret music elements and concepts
require the student to perform to an audience.
Students may perform using any melodic/harmonic instrument (including voice), drum kit or
percussion, or they may conduct.
Performances may be accompanied or unaccompanied, to suit the style.
If the performance is within an ensemble, the students part must be independent and aurally
identifiable (one person per part).
Improvisations may be prepared or unprepared.
Where students choose to accompany themselves, both music roles will be assessed as a unified
performance.
Repertoire must be different from that performed in the senior Music Extension course.

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Assessment technique: Performance

Further guidance

In this syllabus, there is no requirement for students to meet a prescribed minimum standard of
technique.
Repertoire selected should allow students to demonstrate the objectives and be within their technical
capabilities.
Teachers should ensure that the technical demands of repertoire do not prevent students from
engaging cognitively, physically and emotionally with the music.
In the performance of student compositions, teachers should ensure that the quality of that
composition does not disadvantage the quality of the performance.
Performances should be assessed in an authentic situation, as they represent the culmination of
student learning.

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4.6 Verification folio requirements
A verification folio is a collection of a students responses to assessment instruments on which
the interim level of achievement is based. For students who are to exit after four semesters, each
folio should contain the range of assessments for making summative judgments as stated below.
Students verification folios for Music must contain evidence that each dimension has been
assessed summatively twice by verification. Each folio must include:
evidence of student work from Year 12 only
evidence of all dimensions being assessed twice
evidence of extended writing (see Sections 4.5.4 and 4.5.5)
a student profile completed to date.
Suggested tasks are available on the Music subject page of the QSA website
<www.qsa.qld.edu.au/20324.html>.
For information about preparing monitoring and verification submissions, schools should refer to
QSAs Moderation handbook for Authority subjects, <www.qsa.qld.edu.au/10773.html>.

4.6.1 Evidence to support judgments about student achievement


It is a requirement that schools judgments about the application of standards to student
responses for performance tasks and spoken and multimodal presentations be supported by
digital evidence. Digital evidence may also be most appropriate for certain styles of composition,
which may favour a recorded format over a notated format.
Teachers should ensure that students are not disadvantaged by the quality of recordings.
Recordings should be sufficiently clear to illustrate the quality of the student response and be a
continuous recording of the composition, performance or presentation, with no pausing or editing.
The following guidelines are advised for compositions, spoken and multimodal presentations, and
music performances:
recordings of compositions should demonstrate the complete and explicit ideas of the
composer
allow the performer/presenter to be seen and heard clearly
ensure the recording is as similar as possible to the original live performance situation
ensure that conductors are filmed from the perspective of the ensemble
all recordings must be playable on a laptop computer
scores are not required in the submission
clearly label or annotate the recording to indicate identified students.

4.6.2 Post-verification assessment


In addition to the contents of the verification folio, there must be at least one subsequent
summative assessment in the exit folio completed after verification. For this syllabus, students are
to complete an assessment instrument after verification that assesses one dimension.

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4.7 Exit standards
Exit standards are used to make judgments about students levels of achievement at exit from a
course of study. The standards are described in the same dimensions as the objectives of the
syllabus. The standards describe how well students have achieved the objectives and are stated
in the standards matrix.
The following dimensions must be used:
Dimension 1: Composition
Dimension 2: Musicology
Dimension 3: Performance.
Each dimension must be assessed in each year of the course, and each dimension is to make an
equal contribution to the determination of exit levels of achievement.

4.8 Determining exit levels of achievement


When students exit the course of study, the school is required to award each student an exit level
of achievement from one of the five levels:
Very High Achievement (VHA)
High Achievement (HA)
Sound Achievement (SA)
Limited Achievement (LA)
Very Limited Achievement (VLA).
All the principles of exit assessment must be applied when making decisions about exit levels of
achievement.
Exit levels of achievement are summative judgments made when students exit the course of
study. For most students this will be after four semesters. For these students, judgments are
based on exit folios providing evidence of achievement in relation to all objectives of the syllabus
and standards.
For students who exit before completing four semesters, judgments are made based on the
evidence of achievement to that stage of the course of study and the principles of exit
assessment.

4.8.1 Determining a standard


The standard awarded is an on-balance judgment about how the qualities of the students
responses match the standards descriptors in each dimension. This means that it is not
necessary for the student responses to have been matched to every descriptor for a particular
standard in each dimension.

4.8.2 Awarding exit levels of achievement


When standards have been determined in each of the dimensions for this subject, Table 2 below
is used to award exit levels of achievement, where A represents the highest standard and E the
lowest. The table indicates the minimum combination of standards across the dimensions for
each level.

24 | Music Senior Syllabus 2013


Table 2: Awarding exit levels of achievement

VHA Standard A in any two dimensions and no less than a B in the remaining dimension

HA Standard B in any two dimensions and no less than a C in the remaining dimension

SA Standard C in any two dimensions and no less than a D in the remaining dimension

LA At least Standard D in any two dimensions and an E in the remaining dimension

VLA Standard E in the three dimensions

Further information is available in the QSAs Moderation handbook for Authority subjects,
<www.qsa.qld.edu.au/10773.html>.

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4.8.3 Standards matrix
Standard A Standard B Standard C Standard D Standard E
The student work has the The student work has the The student work has the The student work has the The student work has the
following characteristics: following characteristics: following characteristics: following characteristics: following characteristics:
consistent and proficient effective selection and selection and application of variable selection and selection and application of
selection and application of application of music music elements and application of music some music elements and
music elements and elements and concepts in the concepts in the creation of elements and concepts in concepts in their own works
concepts in the creation of creation of their own works their own works their own works
Composition

their own works


skilful manipulation of manipulation of demonstration of use of basic compositional use of rudimentary
compositional techniques in compositional techniques in compositional techniques in techniques to develop works compositional techniques to
the creation of cohesive and the creation of cohesive the creation of their own of variable quality produce partial works
well-structured music music works
discerning synthesis and effective synthesis and synthesis and presentation of music ideas use of music ideas in their
convincing expression of expression of music ideas communication of music and stylistic characteristics in own works.
music ideas and stylistic and stylistic characteristics ideas and stylistic their own works.
characteristics integral to the that support the creation of characteristics to create their
creation of their own works. their own works. own works.
The student work has the The student work has the The student work has the The student work has the The student work has the
following characteristics: following characteristics: following characteristics: following characteristics: following characteristics:
discerning perception and thorough perception and perception and interpretation inconsistent perception and little consideration of music
interpretation of relevant interpretation of relevant of music elements and interpretation of music elements or concepts in
music elements and music elements and concepts in repertoire and elements and concepts in repertoire and music sources
concepts in repertoire and concepts in repertoire and music sources repertoire and music sources
music sources music sources

Musicology

comprehensive and in-depth and coherent analysis and evaluation of simple analysis of music to statements that may relate to
discerning analysis and analysis and evaluation of music to determine the identify some connections music elements or concepts
evaluation of music to music to determine the relationships between music between music elements,
determine the relationships relationships between music elements, concepts and concepts or stylistic
between music elements, elements, concepts and stylistic characteristics characteristics
concepts and stylistic stylistic characteristics
characteristics
discerning synthesis of effective synthesis of synthesis of findings, statements of findings with statements of opinion related
findings, well-supported findings, valid justification of justification of music simple justification of music to music ideas.
justification of music music viewpoints, and logical viewpoints, and viewpoints and presentation
viewpoints, and convincing communication of music communication of music of music ideas.
communication of music ideas. ideas.
ideas.

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Standard A Standard B Standard C Standard D Standard E
The student work has the The student work has the The student work has the The student work has the The student work has the
following characteristics: following characteristics: following characteristics: following characteristics: following characteristics:
consistent and proficient effective interpretation and interpretation and application superficial interpretation and use of some music elements
interpretation and application application of music of music elements and application of music and concepts in performance
of music elements and elements and concepts in concepts in performance elements and concepts in
concepts in performance performance performance
Performance

fluent and authoritative effective demonstration of demonstration of evidence of some basic use of rudimentary
demonstration of refined secure performance skills performance skills and performance skills and performance techniques
performance skills and and techniques related to techniques related to techniques in context
techniques related to contexts contexts
contexts
discerning synthesis and effective synthesis and synthesis and presentation of music ideas simplistic use of music ideas
convincing expression of expression of music ideas communication of music and stylistic characteristics in in performance.
music ideas and stylistic and stylistic characteristics ideas and stylistic performance.
characteristics integral to the that support the characteristics to create
performance. performance. performances.

27 | Music Senior Syllabus 2013 Queensland Studies Authority


5 Glossary
Term Explanation

accurate precise, to the point; consistent with a standard; relatively free from error

analysing dissecting to ascertain and examine constituent parts and/or their


relationships

applying adapting for a particular purpose; making use of as relevant, suitable or


pertinent; putting to use

assessment instrument a tool developed by the school for assessing students in a subject at a
specific time and used to frame an assessment task

assessment task work undertaken by a student in response to an assessment instrument, and


which is described on a criteria sheet. The standard of response is assessed
in relation to specific criteria.

assessment technique an overarching strategy for assessing student work. Under it can sit a variety
of assessment instruments.

authoritative commanding, masterly, imposing, confident, decisive, assertive, self-assured

basic underdeveloped, simple and straightforward

coherent rational, with parts that are harmonious, well-structured and that make sense

cohesive well-integrated and unified

combine to unite; merge; to join two or more elements or entities

communication the art and technique of using words effectively to impart information or
ideas; the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech,
signals, writing, or behaviour; interpersonal rapport

comparing displaying recognition of similarities and differences and recognising the


significance of these similarities and differences

complex characterised by complicated or involved interactions, relationships or


connections of elements, components, parts or steps

composition the creation of music by combining music elements and concepts in a range
of styles and genres, and in a variety of contexts

comprehensive thorough and inclusive of a broad coverage of facts, ideas and information

considered thought about or decided upon with care; reached after or carried out with
careful thought; deliberate

consistent regular, unfailing, constant, without contradiction

context the circumstances in which an event occurs; a setting

contrasting displaying recognition of differences by deliberate juxtaposition of contrary


elements

convincing persuasive because of clear, definite and strong argument, data and
presentation; leaving no doubt

creative characterised by originality and expressiveness; imaginative; having or


showing imagination

28 | Music Senior Syllabus 2013


Term Explanation

creativity the ability to transcend traditional ideas, rules, patterns, relationships, or the
like, and to create meaningful new ideas, forms, methods, interpretations,
etc.; originality, progressiveness, imagination, innovation, inventiveness; the
process by which one utilises creative ability

credible seeming reasonable or probable

critical rationally appraising for logical consistency and merit

critiquing appraising logical consistency and/or rationally scrutinising for


authenticity/merit

demonstrated clearly and deliberately shown; shown to be true by reasoning or adducing


evidence; proven; manifest

discerning making thoughtful and astute choices

discriminating able to recognise or draw fine distinctions; showing careful judgment or fine
taste

discussion expansion and elaboration of a line of argument with supporting ideas

effective meeting the assigned purpose

efficient well-organised and productive with minimal expenditure of effort; proficient


and useful

examine to explore by questioning to determine knowledge, reasons and conclusions

evaluating assigning merit according to criteria

explaining presenting a meaning with clarity, precision, completeness, and with due
regard to the order of statements in the explanation

explicit clear, overt, open, unequivocal

expounding a viewpoint presenting a clear and convincing argument for a definite and detailed
opinion

familiar materials, skills or circumstances that have been the focus of learning
experiences. In this syllabus, this refers in particular to music repertoire, both
aural and written, that students have previously been exposed to or have
directly used in class.

fluent flowing or moving effortlessly or smoothly; polished

genre an accepted class, type or category of music that adheres to a shared


tradition, set of conventions or common characteristic or quality. The term is
related to, but distinguishable from, musical form and musical style.

hypothesising formulating a plausible supposition to account for known facts or observed


occurrences. The supposition is often the subject of a validation process.

identify/identification to recognise or ascertain the origin, nature or definitive characteristics of

implicit understood, tacit, implied, inherent

inconsistent conflicting or contradictory; varying and unpredictable; incompatible

in-depth carefully worked out, detailed, thorough, incisive

Queensland Studies Authority | 29


Term Explanation

innovative novel, but not necessarily unique, often involving effective alternatives,
modification or changes to given information or routine tasks; the
implementation of something new or different; the use of a better and novel
idea or method

insightful perceptive, demonstrating high levels of understanding

integral essential or necessary for completeness; possessing everything essential

interpreting explaining the meaning of information, words, symbols, pictures/illustrations


or actions

justifying providing sound reasons or evidence to support a statement. Soundness


requires that the reasoning is logical and, where appropriate, that the
premises are likely to be true.

language conventions accepted language practices developed over time and generally used and
understood, for example use of punctuation

logical rational and valid; internally consistent; able to be supported

manipulate to move, arrange, operate or control, especially in a skilful manner; to handle


or use, especially with some skill, in a process or action; to control or
influence something in a clever or skilful fashion

manipulating/operating/ displaying competence in choosing and using an implement to perform a


using equipment given task effectively. In Music, this refers to musical instruments and music
technologies such as synthesisers, sequencers, recording and editing
systems, computers and digital instruments.

music elements and the fundamental parameters, aspects or characteristics of music. In this
concepts syllabus, the basic elements of music are identified as duration, expressive
devices, pitch, structure, texture and timbre. The concepts are important
aspects of music derived from these basic elements.

musicianship a unique set of knowledge, skills and attitudes that allows students to engage
in all forms of music making and music interaction

musicology the study of music from a variety of social, historical, cultural contexts

narrow limited in range or scope; barely adequate or successful

obvious predictable, immediately apparent

original not derived from something else; new, fresh and unusual; authentic;
inventive; showing a marked departure from previous practice

perceiving patterns recognising and identifying designs, trends and meaningful relationships
within text, including symbol systems

perceptive having the ability to perceive or understand; discerning; astute; discriminating

performance the interpretation of music elements and concepts through playing, singing
and conducting in context

proficient having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art,


vocation, profession, or branch of learning; having or showing knowledge,
skill and aptitude

purposeful having a purpose; intentional; determined; resolute; meaningful

range breadth of coverage

recognise/recognition discern, make out, distinguish

30 | Music Senior Syllabus 2013


Term Explanation

refined showing a high degree of refinement and assurance; subtle, discriminating;


elegant; polished

relevant applicable and pertinent; having a direct bearing on

rudimentary fundamental; basic; elementary

secure dependable; confident; assured; not liable to fail

sensitive capable of perceiving with a sense or senses; susceptible to the attitudes,


feelings, or circumstances of others; responsive to external conditions or
stimulation

significant major, noteworthy, important, worthwhile

simple easy to understand and deal with; may concern a single or basic aspect, few
steps, limited or no relationships

simplistic shallow, facile, naive; making unrealistically simple judgments or analyses

skilful made or done well, showing a lot of ability; possessing or displaying


accomplishment or skill, especially something that requires special ability or
training

sophisticated reflecting educated taste, knowledge, experience etc.; complex, refined,


intricate

sporadic appearing or happening at irregular intervals in time; occasional; isolated

style a form or type of music; a way of expressing something that is characteristic


of, for example, a particular group of people, time period, country or culture,
techniques or instruments used, origins or influences. The term is often used
interchangeably with genre.

superficial apparent and sometimes trivial, lacking in depth of understanding

supported to give something greater credibility by being consistent with it or providing


further evidence

sustained continued and constant

synthesising assembling constituent parts into a coherent, unique and/or complex entity.
The term entity includes a system, theory, communication, plan or set of
operations

systematic methodical; orderly; arranged in or comprising an ordered system, method or


plan

text a coherent piece of spoken/signed, written, nonverbal, visual or auditory


language, or some or all of these in combination, produced in an interaction
in a social context

thorough attentive to detail; carried out completely and carefully

translating from one form expressing information in a different form


to another

vague unclear, imprecise, ambiguous

valid applicable, legitimate and defensible, able to be supported

variable uneven in quality, patchy, up-and-down, irregular

variety a number of different modes or sources; a range

Queensland Studies Authority | 31


Term Explanation

well-justified providing sound reasons or evidence to support a statement. Soundness


requires that the reasoning is logical and likely to be true.

well-reasoned logical and sound; presented with justification

well-structured having a well-defined organisation; having a distinct shape or form, often


provided by an internal structure

32 | Music Senior Syllabus 2013


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