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PARTS OF SPEECH

This is a summary of the main parts of speech (Este es un resumen de las partes priincipales de la
oracin).

part of
function or "job" example words example sentences
speech

pen, dog, work, music,


This is my dog. He lives in my
Noun thing or person town, London, teacher,
house. We live in London.
John

Pronoun replaces a noun I, you, he, she, some Tara is Indian. She is beautiful.

a/an, the, 2, some, good, I have two dogs. My dogs are big. I
Adjective describes a noun
big, red, well, interesting like big dogs.

(to) be, have, do, like, EnglishClub is a web site. I like


Verb action or state
work, sing, can, must EnglishClub.

describes a verb, quickly, silently, well, My dog eats quickly. When he is


Adverb
adjective or adverb badly, very, really very hungry, he eats really quickly.

links a noun to
Preposition to, at, after, on, but We went to school on Monday.
another word

I like dogs and I like cats. I like cats


joins clauses or
Conjunction and, but, when and dogs. I like dogs but I don't like
sentences or words
cats.

EJEMPLO GENERAL

(possessive) (demonstrative)
noun verb conjunction verb adverb preposition noun
adjective adjective
Mi hijo vive y trabaja aqu en esta ciudad.
My son lives and works here in this city.
NOUN
El sustantivo nombra persona, animal o cosa.

1. Gnero
El uso del sustantivo en ingls, en cuanto al gnero, es ms sencillo que en castellano ya que, salvo
excepciones, no hay diferencias entre masculino y femenino.
e.g.
Is she your friend? Yes, she is
Who are your cousins? Mary and Sue.

e.g. (Excepciones)
He is an actor. She is an actress.
I have a brother and a sister
Boys and girls work together in this school.

2. Nmero
Para la formacin del plural aadiremos s al singular.
e.g.
chair-chairs, car-cars, computer-computers

A continuacin detallamos las excepciones a la regla principal:

Los sustantivos acabados en ch, o, s, sh, x, aaden -es al singular.


e.g.
glass/glasses; match/matches; potato/potatoes; dish/dishes; box/boxes

Los sustantivos acabados en consonante ms -y cambian su terminacin


-y por -ies.
e.g.
party-parties lady-ladies country-countries

Los acabados en vocal ms y solo aaden -s.


e.g
boy/boys day/days

Los terminados en f, fe cambian por -----> ves


knife knives wolf wolves life lives
Pero: chiefs, safes, cliffs, handkerchiefs

Adems, existen plurales irregulares que no siguen las normas.


e.g.
man-men child-children woman-women

A propsito del nmero, diremos que los sustantivos pueden ser CONTABLES O
INCONTABLES. Los contables son aquellos que tienen singular y plural:
e.g.
biscuit/biscuits apple/apples bottle/bottles
Y los incontables no tienen plural, es decir, no es posible determinar su cantidad:
e.g.
money, fish, bread, water...

EJERCICIOS

Q1 of 10: The plural of baby: __________________ Q1 of 10: The singular of cities: _______________

Q2 of 10: The plural of cake: __________________ Q1 of 10: The singular of furniture: ____________

Q3 of 10: The plural of church: ________________ Q1 of 10: The singular of money: ______________

Q4 of 10: The plural of glass: _________________ Q1 of 10: The singular of tomatoes: ____________

Q5 of 10: The plural of wife: __________________ Q1 of 10: The singular of jeans: _______________

Q6 of 10: The plural of fish: __________________ Q1 of 10: The singular of information: __________

Q7 of 10: The plural of month: ________________ Q1 of 10: The singular of people: ______________

Q8 of 10: The plural of child: _________________ Q1 of 10: The singular of families: _____________

Q9 of 10: The plural of wish: __________________ Q1 of 10: The singular of projects: _____________

Q10 of 10: The plural of woman: _______________ Q1 of 10: The singular of questions: ____________

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
La funcin de los pronombres personales es reemplazar al nombre o sustantivo. Los pronombres son
Pronombres Personales: I, you, we, they, he, she, it,

.
1. The people are reading. _____________________________________________________________
2. My father and I love this team. _____________________________________________________________
3. The car is missing a tire. _____________________________________________________________
4. The dog looks sick. _____________________________________________________________
5. The police came here yesterday. _____________________________________________________________
6. My sisters and I always laugh when we're together. ________________________________________
7. My aunt is 80 years old. _____________________________________________________________
8. My friend's uncle likes to travel. _____________________________________________________________
9. Holly's boots are dirty. _____________________________________________________________
10. The (male) singer is very handsome. _____________________________________________
ADJETIVO
El adjetivo es la palabra que acompaa al sustantivo o nombre para determinarlo o calificarlo;
expresa caractersticas o propiedades atribuidas a un sustantivo, ya sean concretas (el libro verde,
el libro grande). En ingls los adjetivos NO tienen plural y vienen antes del sustantivo.

Estos son algunos ejemplos:

Los adjetivos Los adjetivos en ingls


un rbol verde a green tree
un edificio alto a tall building
un hombre muy viejo a very old man
la casa roja vieja the old red house
un amigo muy agradable a very nice friend
cobarde coward
loco, chiflado crazy
Cruel cruel
encantador charming
alegre, jovial; cheerful
soso, aburrido dull, boring
amigable, simptico, agradable friendly
generoso generous
trabajador hard-working
honesto honest
amable kind

Q1 of 10: Spanish/beautiful/a/woman/young ______________________________________________

Q2 of 10: glass/a/round/small/table ______________________________________________

Q3 of 10: French/city/a/old/wonderful ______________________________________________

Q4 of 10: a/blue/cotton/bath/towel/large ______________________________________________

Q5 of 10: fat/brown/cats/two ______________________________________________

Q6 of 10: red/new/a/car/fast ______________________________________________

Q7 of 10: day/a/cold/winter/day/long ______________________________________________

Q8 of 10: small/three/books/black ______________________________________________

Q9 of 10: big/red/a/apple/delicious ______________________________________________

Q10 of 10: man/an/Canadian/old/intelligent ______________________________________________


VERB
El verbo ingls es diferente al verbo espaol. En esta unidad se analizar a gros modo el verbo en
los diferentes tiempos del ingls.

Presente Simple (abrir ejercicios...) Presente Continuo (abrir ejercicios...)


I walk I am (I'm) walking
you* walk you are (you're) walking
he walks he is (he's) walking
she walks she is (she's) walking
it walks it is (it's) walking
we walk we are (we're) walking
they walk they are (they're) walking

Pasado Simple (abrir ejercicios...) Pasado Continuo (abrir ejercicios...)


I walked I was walking
you walked you were walking
he walked he was walking
she walked she was walking
it walked it was walking
we walked we were walking
they walked they were walking

Presente Perfecto Simple (abrir ejercicios...) Presente Perfecto Continuo (abrir ejercicios...)
I have (I've) walked I have been walking
you have (you've) walked you have been walking
he has (he's) walked he has been walking
she has (she's) walked she has been walking
it is (it's) walked it has been walking
we have (we've) walked we have been walking
they have (they've) walked they have been walking

Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Continuos


I had (I'd) walked I had been walking
you had (you'd) walked you had been walking
he had (he'd) walked he had been walking
she had (she'd) walked she had been walking
it had (it'd) walked it had been walking
we had (we'd) walked we had been walking
they had (they'd) walked they had been walking
ADVERB
La funcin del adverbio es describir al verbo. Los adverbios en ingls se pueden clasificar en las
siguientes categoras: Adverbios de modo, adverbios de lugar, adverbios de tiempo, adverbios de
duracin, adverbios de frecuencia, adverbios de orden, adverbios de grado, adverbios de certeza.

De Modo - How? well, better, fast, slowly, carefully, easily


De Lugar - Where? here, there, above, everywhere, away
De Tiempo - When? now, early, late, soon, already, tomorrow
De Duracin - How long? all week, for a while, since yesterday
De Frecuencia - How often? always, never, often, once a day
De Orden - In what order? firstly, secondly, lastly, finally
De Grado - To what degree? very, completely, greatly, extremely
De Certeza - How sure? certainly, indeed, of course, perhaps

A. Put the correct adverb (de modo):

1. Helen is very quick. She runs __________________________________________


2. Jean is clever She answers all the questions __________________________________________
3. His accent is clear. He speaks __________________________________________
4. Peter's work was hard. He worked __________________________________________
5. Mary has a beautiful voice. She sings __________________________________________
6. I am very slow. I wok __________________________________________
7. My father is very careful. He drives very __________________________________________
8. He is a fast driver. He drives very __________________________________________
9. They like nice clothes. They dress __________________________________________
10. This problem is very easy. You can solve it __________________________________________

B. Adjective or Adverb?

1. He does his exercises........... (easy, easily) __________________________________________


2. She is a ....... (nice, nicely) singer. _________________________________________
3. Is Helen a ......... (clever, cleverly) student? _________________________________________
4. This bed is ......... (comfortable, comfortably). _________________________________________
5. He works ......... (hardly, hard). _________________________________________
6. She drives very .......... (good, well) _________________________________________
7. The cat ran .......... (quick, quickly) across the street. _________________________________________
8. They are a ........ (happy, happily) couple. _________________________________________
9. He is a very ......... (brave, bravely) man. _________________________________________
10. She is a very .......... (friend, friendly) person. _________________________________________
PREPOSICIONES
Las preposiciones en ingls se pueden clasificar en: Preposiciones de lugar, preposiciones de
tiempo, preposiciones de direccin, etc. Las preposiciones son palabras que relacionan los
elementos de una oracin.

Preposiciones de Lugar: on, upon, in, at, inside, outside, above, below
Preposiciones de Lugar: over, under, beneath, underneath, by, near, close to, across
Preposiciones de Lugar: along, a/round, against, on top of, at the bottom of, in front of
Preposiciones de Lugar: beside, next to, within, beyond, between, among, amid, before,
Preposiciones de Direccin: up, down, into, out of, on, onto, off, over, under, to, from
Preposiciones de Direccin: towards, away from, along, across, through, around, by, past, after
Preposiciones de Tiempo: about, around, before, after, during, over, for, throughout
Preposiciones de Tiempo: since, until, to, past, betweenand , within, fromto/till/until, as from/of
Preposiciones de Tiempo: by, beyond, on, at, in

Las preposiciones Las preposiciones en ingls


dentro de la casa inside the house
fuera del coche outside the car
conmigo with me
sin l without him
bajo la mesa under the table
pasado maana after tomorrow
antes del atardecer before sunset
pero yo estoy ocupado but I'm busy

Ejercicios

Q1 of 15: There are many tourists ___ New York. Q4 of 15: The meeting is ___ 3:30.
in on
at at
to in

Q2 of 15: I met him ____ the South of Spain. Q5 of 15: I'm going to Mexico City ___ this
weekend.
on
at
at
on
in

Q3 of 15: My apartment is ___ the first floor. Q6 of 15: We often go to the beach ___ summer.
on in
at at
in on
Q7 of 15: My birthday is ___ the 10th of June.
at
Q12 of 15: What time do you eat ___ the afternoon?
on
on
in
at
Q8 of 15: His birthday is ___ May. in
-
Q13 of 15: Where is Alex? He is ___ his apartment.
on
in at
in
Q9 of 15: Every year I go home ___ Christmas.
on
at
on Q14 of 15: We are meeting ___ the restaurant.
in to
on
Q10 of 15: We are getting married __ the spring.
at
at
in
Q15 of 15: She will arrive ___ ten minutes.
on
on
Q11 of 15: John lives near ___ Barcelona.
in
in
at
at
-
CONJUNCIONES
Los conectores o conjunciones son palabras que usamos para unir dos o ms frases o dos palabras
dentro de la misma oracin.

Copulativos: and, not only but also , not only but as well, both and , no sooner
than
Disyuntivos: or, either or , neither nor , whether or , else, otherwise
Condicionales: if, whether, unless, provided, providing, as long as, in case, in case of
Concesivos: although, though, even though, even if, despite, in spite of, not even if, regardless of
Conclusivos: therefore, hence, thus, so, consequently
Continuativos: then, moreover, furthermore, besides, in addition to
Adversativos: but, however, nonetheless, yet, still, on the other hand, instead, instead of, on the
contrary
Causales: because, for, because of, as a result of, due to, owing to, since, as
Comparativos: as, as as , not as as , not so as , just as so , as if, as though
Funcionales: so, so that, so as to, so as not to, in order to

EJEMPLOS:

I am teacher and I live in Spain do you have enough work or do you want
soy profesor y vivo en Espaa more?
tienes suficiente trabajo o quieres ms?
I am sick but I must work
estoy enfermo pero tengo que trabajar it is too hard for me, so I need your help
esto es muy duro para m, as que necesito tu
ayuda

EJERCICIOS

Q1 of 10: I looked _____ I didn't see him.


or
and
as
but
Q4 of 10: What would you like, coffee _____ tea?
or
and
as
but
Q2 of 10: She speaks slowly _____ clearly.
or
and
both
but
Q5 of 10: I have been living in Barcelona _____
or
1999.
both
as
Q3 of 10: She speaks fast, _____ I understand her. until
and for
but since
Q6 of 10: _____ it stopped raining, we went to the
beach.
After
Q9 of 10: Heather is moving to Florida _____ she
Since got a new job.
However because
Until for
and
Q7 of 10: He went to the Alps on holiday this year,
_____ he usually prefers the beach. although
therefore
however
Q10 of 10: I am saving my money _____ I can buy
so
a new car.
since
because
Q8 of 10: John is not ____ fast ____ you. although
both, and so that
either, or if
as, as
whether, or