Impact Study of Electric Vehicle (EV)
Integration on Medium Voltage (MV) Grids
Qiuwei Wu, Member, IEEE, Arne Hejde Nielsen, Senior Member, IEEE, Jacob Østergaard, Senior
Member, IEEE, Seung Tae Cha, Member, IEEE and Yi Ding

allow a fully charged 25 kWh battery to provide enough
energy to meet daily driving requirements in most cases. If
Abstract—The impact study of electric vehicle (EV)
additional energy is required, the EV batteries can be
integration on medium voltage (MV) grids has been done in
recharged during the day where there is an appropriate
order to investigate the effects of different EV charging
scenarios on MV grids from the perspectives of power charging infrastructure in place.
component loading and voltage profiles. The intent of the Congestion from EVs can be observed at the medium
impact study of EV integration is to identify the bottlenecks of voltage (MV) level, as a number of studies demonstrate [3]-
power systems for the EV grid integration, assess different EV [4]. Many studies have been conducted analyzing congestion
charging scenarios and quantify the benefits from smart issues on the MV network, however they also note that the
charging from the power component loading and voltage problems likely originate on the LV network, and as such,
profile perspectives. Three charging scenarios, dumb charging, analysis of this network should be conducted as the primary
timed charging and fleet operator based charging, have been stage of congestion studies [3], [5], [6].
considered in the impact study. The vehicle driving pattern The degree of grid congestion is dependent on a number of
data in Denmark have been used to determine the EV charging factors including local grid rating and topology, penetration
demands of different charging scenarios. A MV grid from the and distribution of EVs, and charging management
Bornholm power system has been used to implement the case procedures. Coordinated charging appears to be an effective
studies. method of increasing the penetration of EVs without violating
grid constraints. There is some incongruity on the optimal
Index Terms—Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration, Impact manner in which to coordinate charging, with a number of
Study, Medium Voltage (MV) Grid, Power Component Loading,
Voltage Profile different objectives proposed, including maximization of EV
penetration [3], minimization of losses [4], and minimization
I. INTRODUCTION of customer charging costs [7]-[8]. The study conducted in [7]
shows that substantial computational power is required to
T he deployment of a large number of electric vehicles (EV)
has become a very interesting option. Replacing
conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles with
handle grid constraints in an iterative optimization for EV
charging management.
Another method of grid congestion prevention is the
EVs will reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the
inclusion of devices in chargers that detect voltage and halt
transport sector. In the mean time, the flexibility of EV
charging when the voltage drops beyond a given threshold.
charging demands can be used to balance the intermittency of
Alternatively the power factor could be adjusted to rectify the
renewable energy resources (RES). Although the EV grid
voltage drop. These methods are mentioned in a number of
integration is beneficial to the environment and can help
papers [9]-[11].
integrate more RES into power systems, the impact of EV grid
In the existing work of impact studies of EV charging on
integration has to be investigated in order to identify the
distribution systems, realistic driving data have not been used
bottlenecks of power systems for the EV grid integration and
and the benefits of smart EV charging have not been
test different charging scenarios.
quantified. In order to handle the congestion from EV
Denmark offers a unique opportunity for renewable energy
charging and identify the bottlenecks in MV grid, it is very
utilization and EV deployment. At present, the wind power
important to use realistic driving data to determine the EV
penetration level in Denmark is around 20%, and the Danish
charging demands. In this paper, the vehicle driving data in
government has set a target of 50% penetration of wind power
Denmark has been used to determine the EV charging
by 2025 [1].The average driving distance in Denmark is
demands which are the inputs for the EV impact study.
approximately 40 km per day [2], which is sufficiently low to
The work in this paper consists of modeling a typical MV
grid, smart charging schedule management based spot prices,
This work was supported by the project of “Electric vehicles in a
Distributed and Integrated market using Sustainable energy and Open
and impact study of different charging scenarios on MV grid.
Networks (EDISON)” funded by the ForskEl program (ForskEL Project The rest of the paper is arranged as follows. In Section II,
Number 081216). the modeling of a MV grid from the Bornholm Island is
The authors are with Center for Electric Technology (CET), Department described in details. The three EV charging scenarios are
of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Kgs.
Lyngby, DK 2800, Denmark (qw@elektro.dtu.dk). explained in Section III. Case study results are presented in

4 kV substation customer type information of the Ronne Syd grid is listed in Table 1.898 houses-With electric heating Residential-One-and two-family 130 2960. Therefore. Commerce and services-Cultural 433 24937.19 water Although the demand profile levels out the difference of Commerce and services-Public 443 102500 different customers within the same category. the demand modeling consists of four steps.906 houses-Without electric heating Residential-One-and two-family 122 8788.94 consumption. This power factor is used to get the reactive power of each The typical daily demand of a 10/0.24 Therefore. heat.8 distribution system operator of the Bornholm power system - wood products 340 Manufacturing industry-Printing 167222.4 kV substation has a power factor. 26199.4 kV substation is lumped demand at each 10/0. the Ronne Syd 10 kV grid was used to carry out the impact study of EV integration on MV grids. The topology of the Ronne Syd 10 kV grid is shown . and 43734. it is very important to find a proper way to model activities and household services Commerce and services-Public the demand profiles of end users using the yearly 441 services-Electricity.442 houses-Weekend cottages 211 Agriculture-Without electric heating 16626. Table 1 Customer type information of the SVANEKE grid Yearly Consumer_I Consumer_Category Consumption D (kWh) Residential-Apartments in multi- 111 family houses-Without electric heat. The Figure 1 The typical daily demand of a 10/0. Commerce and services-Public Another important issue for the demand modeling is the 445 services-Social institutions and or.65 220 Gardening 86363. In the Bornholm 10 kV power system in ganizations 450 Other consumption-Public lighting 16875 PowerFactory. In the end.24 It is a challenge to model demands since there are no real and hotels Commerce and services-Banking. 1988.64 Manufacturing industry-Wood and The topology data of the 10 kV grid are obtained from the 330 127777. water supply In Denmark. determine the daily demand profile of each customer type with peak load • Determine the daily load of each customer using the demand profile and yearly consumption • Determine the lumped demand of each 10/0. 431 Commerce and services-Restaurants 48469. each 10/0.4 kV substation.31 demand data are the yearly consumption data of end users. 442 services-Sewerage and sanitation.409 family houses-Joint consumption Residential-One-and two-family 121 3926.1 Commerce and services- 410 17901.86 determine the end user hourly demands with the yearly vices electricity consumption. gas. MEDIUM VOLTAGE GRID MODELING Construction Commerce and services-Wholesale The modeling work of the MV grid is comprised of both 422 69053.95 inductive. The power factor is 0. The available 432 insurance and business services 38153. time measurements for end user demands.2 Østkraft. 77142.4 kV substation with both active and reactive power For the case studies.1 power factor. Dansk Energi has published the yearly Commerce and services-Public averaged demand profile of each customer category [12]. The typical daily demand of the Ronne Syd grid is shown in Figure 2.92 Figure 2 The typical daily demand of the Ronne Syd grid 212 Agriculture-With electric heating 22580. 390 Manufacturing industry-Other 151724.23 II. conclusions are drawn as Manufacturing industry-Basic metal 370 300000 industry per the case study results. 2 Section IV to analyze the impact of different EV charging and paper scenarios on MV grids. 38082. illustrated in Figure 1.978 ing Residential-Apartments in multi- 119 8937.25 trade demand modeling and the topology of the grid. • Determine the customer types within the whole 10 kV grid • According to the customer types. it is a good services-Education and research representation of the demand profile and can be used to Commerce and services-Public 444 services-Health and veterinary ser.

the EV fleet operator will determine the 1 ∑ 1 charging schedules of individual EVs. The 75 secondary substations feed 1887 households. is the ith minimum spot price. III. In the timed charging scenario. in the dumb charging scenario. The entity in charge of EV charging For the charging status of the EV fleet. Figure 5 Charging Schedule for Individual EVs as per Aggregated EV The third and fourth charging scenarios are spot price based Charging Schedule charging scenarios.4 secondary substations. the constraint is management for a number of EVs. it is determined that customers will start charging at 10:00 pm for 1 phase charging option and 12:00 am for 3 phase charging option. EV CHARGING SCENARIOS Four charging scenarios have been tested using the developed MV grid. EV fleet operator. As per the charging schedule for the EV fleet. is the total charging power if all EVs are connected to grid and start charging at the same time. (3). most vehicles reach home at 5:00 pm. the customers will charge EVs during low demand time periods. min ∑ 1 (1) Constraints ∑ 1 (2) Where is the charging status of the EV fleet at the time period of the ith minimum spot price. 3 in Figure 3. The three charging scenarios are listed below. • Dumb charging • Timed charging Figure 4 Aggregated Charging Schedule for an EV Fleet based on Spot Price • Fleet operator based all charging • Fleet operator based most cost effective charging In the dumb charging scenario. The Ronne Syd grid is situated in the west part of Bornholm and consists of 75 10/0. described by Eq. The Ronne Syd grid consists of 137 lines with 12 line types and the total length of lines is 98. According to the demand profile. The concept of the spot based charging scenario is illustrated by Figure 4 and Figure 5. Therefore. .263 km. determines the charging schedule of the EVs according to the predicted spot prices of next day. According to the driving data analysis. the customers will start charging EVs immediately after they reach home and the charging activity continues till the EV battery state of charge (SOC) reaches 85%. 0 (3) The difference between the third and fourth charging scenarios is that the EV battery SOC will reach 85% before The equivalent charging time. is the total energy requirement of the EV fleet for the Figure 3 The Ronne Syd 10 kV grid topology whole day. can be calculated using each trip in the third charging scenario. 1 is the percentage of cars whose charging time is equal or less than (i-1) hours. (4). Eq. (4) Objective Function: . The spot price based EV charging scenario can be depicted by the optimization problem below. is the equivalent charging time for the time period of the ith minimum time period. the customers start charging at 5:00 pm. is the availability of the time period of the ith minimum spot price.

the charging times for the dumb charging scenarios are listed below. there are two 0 charging power options. Spot price based charging scenario – Charging 0.5 Charging Scenario 3 . and voltages of busbars are 0.3 Phase 1.2 According to the charging power options.Figure 9.5 number is 186 which is calculated according to the household number within the S Ronne Syd grid.3 sections below.1 kWh.8 • EV_10.6 Bornholm Island are 2000 and the 10% EV penetration is Charging Scenario 4 .68kW: 5 hours – Start charging: 17:00.7 IV.3 described below. The intent of the impact study of EV integration on MV EV Charging Demand Scenario 3 . the charging Charging Scenario 4 . and 1 and 3 phase charging options are presented in the EV Demand (MW) 0.04: 2 hours – Start charging: 17:00. the loading of lines and transformers.95 pu – 1.2 to check whether the power lines and transformers can sustain the extra loads from EV charging. The EV charging demands of Charging Figure 9 EV Charging Demand Scenario 4 – 3 Phase scenarios 3 and 4 with 1 phase and 3 phase charging are shown in Figure 6 .05 pu.3 Phase than (i-1) and equal or less than i.2 The battery size of EVs used for the impact study is 25 0.1 Phase 0. 0. 0.9 Charging Scenario 3 . 4 Where is the energy requirement for the EVs whose charging time is bigger than (i-1) and equal or less than i. Finish Figure 8 EV Charging Demand Scenario 4 – 1 Phase charging: 19:00 EV Charging Demand Scenario 4. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Impact study results of 1 Phase charging option time (Hour) Figure 6 EV Charging Demand Scenario 3 – 1 Phase The impact study results of 10% EV penetration and 1 . 1 • EV_3.4 EV Demand (MW) The EV charging details of the four charging scenarios are 0.3 Phase are the percentage of EVs whose charging time is bigger 0. and EV Charging Demand Scenario 3. Therefore.6 charging: 02:00 0. CASE STUDIES 0. 0. The impact study results with 10% EV penetration. For the Ronne Syd grid. Timed charging scenario – Charging Scenario 2 According to the charging power options. The voltage limits are set as 0. The total cars on the EV Charging Demand Scenario 4 .2 Scenarios 3 and 4 0 The spot price based charging scenarios are Charging 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 time (Hour) 16 18 20 22 24 Scenarios 3 and 4.35: 2 hours – Start charging: 00:00.3 Phase 1. In the impact study.5 the MV grid are analyzed to quantify the impact of the 0. the EV 0.1 0.3 and illustrate the effectiveness of the smart charging scenario.6 EV Demand (MW) The loading of power components and voltage profiles in 0. A.1 Phase corresponding to 2000.1 Phase EV penetration levels and charging scenarios. Dumb charging scenario – Charging Scenario 1 0.1 Phase grids is to study whether the MV grids can sustain with certain 0. Besides the three charging scenarios.4 B.2 times for the timed charging scenarios are listed below. Finish 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 charging: 22:00 time (Hour) • EV_11.45kW: 5 hours – Start charging: 22:00. 0. the 67% percent loading limit is used 0. Finish 0.4 charging scenarios and charging power levels on MV grids 0. 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 time (Hour) • 1 phase 16 A Figure 7 EV Charging Demand Scenario 3 – 3 Phase • 3 phase 16 A The EV penetration level is 10%.8 0. Finish EV Demand (MW) charging: 02:00 0.4 C.1 • EV_3.4 obtained.

224 Line loading with 10% EV Penetration 110 CH1 76.98 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.167%.u.1 Phase . Charging Scenario Bus Voltage (pu ) 100 Line loading with 10% EV Penetration NO EV 1. 5 phase charging are shown in Figure 10 .224 Dumb Charing Timed Charging 90 CH3 65.02 20 1 10 0.007 CH4 1.041 Table 3 Maximum Transformer Loading – 1 Phase CH3 72.008 90 Wihtout EV Dumb Charing CH1 1.05 pu.95 – 1.946 Transformer loading with 10% EV Penetration CH1 66.975 80 Timed Charging Fleet Operator All Day CH4 63.168 CH4 64.801 Fleet Operator All Day 80 CH4 62.96 Time (Hour) 0.224 Fleet Operator Evening 70 Line Loading (%) Transformer loading with 10% EV Penetration 60 100 Wihtout EV 50 90 Dumb Charing Timed Charging 40 80 Fleet Operator All Day 30 Fleet Operator Evening 70 Transformer loading (%) 20 60 10 50 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 40 Time (Hour) 30 Figure 13 Power Line Loading .167 Wihtout EV 100 CH2 62.08 50 Dumb Charing 1. 1. Regarding 20 the line loading.008 Line Loading (%) 60 50 It is seen from the loading and voltage results that all 40 transformers loading is below the 67% loading limit and all 30 bus voltages are within the range of 0.000 80 Timed Charging CH2 1.1 60 Wihtout EV 1.Table 4. the dumb charging scenario will cause the 10 line loading exceeding the 67% limit which is 76. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time (Hour) Impact study results of 3 Phase charging option Figure 10 Power Line Loading .06 Timed Charging 40 Fleet Operator All Day 1.92 0.94 Figure 14 Transformer Loading . NO EV 62.131 CH2 73.9 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time (Hour) Figure 12 Voltage Profile .3 Phase 20 Table 5 Maximum Power Line Loading – 3 Phase 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Charging Scenario Loading (%) Time (Hour) NO EV 62.1 Phase Table 2 Maximum Power Line Loading – 1 Phase The impact study results of 10% EV penetration and 1 phase charging are shown in Figure 13 .224 Figure 11 Transformer Loading .3 Phase 0.Figure 12 and Table 2 Table 4 Voltage Profile – 1 Phase .815 Charging Scenario Loading (%) NO EV 63.008 Fleet Operator All Day 70 Fleet Operator Evening CH3 1.947 70 Fleet Operator Evening Transformer loading (%) Bus Voltages with 10% EV Penetration 1.765 100 CH2 63.Table 7.947 Wihtout EV 90 Dumb Charing CH3 63.1 Phase CH1 107.04 Fleet Operator Evening 30 Bus Voltage p.Figure 15 and Table 5 Charging Scenario Loading (%) .

He obtained his PhD degree from the 67% loading limit for the dumb charging scenario. No. Singapore in 2009 in Power System Engineering. J. “Towards a Danish methods for early warning and early prevention of voltage instability. Bertling.983 [12] http://www. Traeholt.94 Transactions on Power Systems. [1] Z. CONCLUSION 2009 and has been an assistant professor with CET since Nov. No. Dyke. Chen and C. 1. Sweden. only the charging scenario 4 will He was a senior R&D engineer with VESTAS not cause the line loading exceeding the 67% limit which is Technology R&D Singapore Pte. from Mar. M. in 1982 and has been an associate professor in the same university since 1986. [11] J. pp. 6 Table 6 Maximum Transformer Loading – 3 Phase [3] J.” in Proc. A. 0. integration carried out to investigate the effects of different charging study for wind power. Cha. M. It is seen from the loading and voltage results that all bus Eng. Duvall. Nielsen. S. D. Maitra. Ilic. 2009 IEEE PES Power Systems Conference and CH2 64. Vol. Wu. 1.elforbrugspanel. F.06 Timed Charging Operations. Taylor and A. in area monitoring system (WAMS). Marra. R. CH3 63. R. 64. 99. Babaeim. J. E. pp. Schofield and M.T.815%.3926. 1-9. “Identifying Management Procedures to Deal with Connection of Electric Vehicles in Charging Scenario Loading (%) the Grid.dk/ CH2 1. . pp. 1. Lopes. J. “Evaluation of the 1. Eng. [2] Q. Lopes. “Grid Impacts of CH4 63.008 IEEE. “Effects of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on distribution systems: A real case of 0. J.” Proceedings of the NO EV 1. V. VI. overvoltage and protection of offshore Proc. “Integration of Charging Scenario Bus Voltage (pu ) Electric Vehicles in the Electric Power System. Two charging using demand response programs.” in Proc.006 VII. 12. R. pp.05 pu. pp. J. “Optimal Charge Control of Plug-In Hybrid 0. in 2000 and voltages are within the range of 0. M. 2009.186 Exposition. Ltd. 1-8.1-6. 2008 to Oct. 99. power options are included in the impact study in order to check out the possibility of having relatively high EV charging Arne Hejde Nielsen obtained his MSc in Electric power at MV grids and the effectiveness of the fleet operator Power Engineering from Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in 1978. Barnes. “Coordinated Charging of NO EV 63. BIOGRAPHIES CH4 1. 0.947 Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Hydro Quebec's Distribution System. 2010 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Bus Voltages with 10% EV Penetration Exposition. Xu. Due to the 2003. Afterwards. Østergaard.3 Phase [10] K.92 [9] S. He became an assistant professor in DTU schedule without causing any overloading on the MV grids. Regarding the line loading. “Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study”. both in Power System and high charging power.95 – 1. pp. pp.997 [5] A. pp. Kook. 1-8. Lind and J. 2010 Bus Voltage p. Almedia. Gordon. Almedia.946 Multiple Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Residential Distribution CH1 94. Sundstorm and C. Maitra. 2010 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Time (Hour) Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT Europe). etc. S.1 [6] J. Alexander and M. Taylor. China.02 1 International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON). A. pp. 1-6. pp. Binding. 1-6. pp. Nanyang Technological University.9 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Gothenburg. 2010 IEEE PES Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe. Haesen and J. ASEA (now ABB). Department of Electrical Engineering.008 Qiuwei Wu (M’ 09) obtained his B.H.u. “Planning Electric-Drive Vehicle Charging under Constrained Grid Conditions. CH1 0.” in Proc. respectively. Technical University of Denmark (DTU) as PostDoc in Nov. N. 2009 IEEE PES General Meeting. wide Power System with 50% Wind – Smart Grids Activities in Denmark”. 1-7. D. real time simulation of power systems using RTDS and reliability analysis and improvement of restructured power systems profile under a certain EV penetration level. Steen. F.96 Electric Vehicles in Deregulated Electricity Markets. REFERENCES His research interests cover integration of renewable energy and distributed energy resources. and M. He joined Centre for Electric Technology (CET). 2009 IEEE Buchsrest PowerTech. from Nanjing University of Science and Technology. Driesen. 1.08 Wihtout EV Dumb Charing Impact of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Loading on Distribution System 1. 168-183. “The Impact of Transport Electrification on Electrical Networks. 1-7.” in Proc.” in Proc. dynamic and transient performance of power systems scenarios on MV power component loading and the voltage with high penetration of RES. P. Vol.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Table 7 Voltage Profile – 3 Phase Electronics. Rotering and M.04 Fleet Operator Evening [7] O. Figure 15 Voltage Profile . He worked as a research assistant in DTU from The impact study results show that the fleet operator based 1978-1980. 2010. Soares and P. Østergaard. 57. Clement. 2010. Tuan.98 [8] N. the transformer loading is higher than Automation. he joined central research smart charging scenario can determine the optimal charging and development department. Jan. Y. 3917 . wind power grids. [4] K. Giumento.008 CH3 1. M. 2009 IEEE Power&Energy Society General Fleet Operator All Day Meeting. M. A. No.” in Proc. Carlson and L. based smart charging scenario. F. in Proc. P. His research interests are integration of electrical vehicles (EVs) into power The impact study of EV integration on MV grids has been systems for high penetration of renewable energy sources (RES). 2011. K.” IEEE 0. O.972 Grids. Nanjing. A. L. 1-8. P. Soares and P.

from 2008-2009. Prof. from 2007-2008. . Cha has a B. studies involving load flow. power market and nodal pricing. research fellow in Nanyang Technological University.S degree in Electrical Engineering from Yonsei University. P. in electrical engineering from Shanghai Jiaotong University. Singapore. boards and steering committees. He is head of the Danish experimental platform for electric power and energy.S degree in Electrical Engineering from Illinois Institute of Technology. control architecture for future power system. and other various research projects. a fully digital real-time simulator.D candidate at Technical University of Denmark and his present interest includes real-time simulation of power systems. He obtained his PhD in electrical power engineering from Nanyang Technological University. Chicago in 1992. and he has been member of the EU SmartGrids advisory council. Jacob is serving in several professional organizations. PowerLabDK. and a M. His research interests cover SmartGrids with focus on system integration of renewable energy and distributed energy resources. He is a Ph. Korea in 1997. and flexible demand. In 2009 he received the IBM Faculty Award. Upon graduation. 7 Jacob Østergaard (M’95-SM’ 09) obtained his MSc in Electrical Engineering from Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in 1995. R. China. Yi Ding obtained his B. he joined Korea Electric Power Research Institute where he was actively engaged in the development of KEPS. Since 2005 he has been Professor and Head of Centre for Electric Technology (CET). His working experience include research fellow in International Reliability and Risk Management Center (IRRMC). Canada. He is currently an associate professor in Centre for Electric Technology (CET). from 2005 to 2006. Seung Tae. model development. Singapore. Technical University of Denmark (DTU). ISRAEL. 2007. He was with Research Institute of Danish Electric Utilities for 10 years where he did research within power system transmission and distribution and was responsible for developing industrial-academic collaboration. DTU. in 2000. postdoctoral fellow in University of Alberta. Department of Electrical Engineering. Eng. system planning & operation. He research interests are reliability assessment of restructured power systems and engineering systems. Shanghai. Sami Shamoon College of Engineering.