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Impact Study of Electric Vehicle (EV)


Integration on Medium Voltage (MV) Grids
Qiuwei Wu, Member, IEEE, Arne Hejde Nielsen, Senior Member, IEEE, Jacob stergaard, Senior
Member, IEEE, Seung Tae Cha, Member, IEEE and Yi Ding

allow a fully charged 25 kWh battery to provide enough


energy to meet daily driving requirements in most cases. If
AbstractThe impact study of electric vehicle (EV)
additional energy is required, the EV batteries can be
integration on medium voltage (MV) grids has been done in
recharged during the day where there is an appropriate
order to investigate the effects of different EV charging
scenarios on MV grids from the perspectives of power charging infrastructure in place.
component loading and voltage profiles. The intent of the Congestion from EVs can be observed at the medium
impact study of EV integration is to identify the bottlenecks of voltage (MV) level, as a number of studies demonstrate [3]-
power systems for the EV grid integration, assess different EV [4]. Many studies have been conducted analyzing congestion
charging scenarios and quantify the benefits from smart issues on the MV network, however they also note that the
charging from the power component loading and voltage problems likely originate on the LV network, and as such,
profile perspectives. Three charging scenarios, dumb charging, analysis of this network should be conducted as the primary
timed charging and fleet operator based charging, have been stage of congestion studies [3], [5], [6].
considered in the impact study. The vehicle driving pattern The degree of grid congestion is dependent on a number of
data in Denmark have been used to determine the EV charging factors including local grid rating and topology, penetration
demands of different charging scenarios. A MV grid from the and distribution of EVs, and charging management
Bornholm power system has been used to implement the case procedures. Coordinated charging appears to be an effective
studies. method of increasing the penetration of EVs without violating
grid constraints. There is some incongruity on the optimal
Index TermsElectric Vehicle (EV) Integration, Impact manner in which to coordinate charging, with a number of
Study, Medium Voltage (MV) Grid, Power Component Loading,
Voltage Profile different objectives proposed, including maximization of EV
penetration [3], minimization of losses [4], and minimization
I. INTRODUCTION of customer charging costs [7]-[8]. The study conducted in [7]
shows that substantial computational power is required to
T he deployment of a large number of electric vehicles (EV)
has become a very interesting option. Replacing
conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles with
handle grid constraints in an iterative optimization for EV
charging management.
Another method of grid congestion prevention is the
EVs will reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the
inclusion of devices in chargers that detect voltage and halt
transport sector. In the mean time, the flexibility of EV
charging when the voltage drops beyond a given threshold.
charging demands can be used to balance the intermittency of
Alternatively the power factor could be adjusted to rectify the
renewable energy resources (RES). Although the EV grid
voltage drop. These methods are mentioned in a number of
integration is beneficial to the environment and can help
papers [9]-[11].
integrate more RES into power systems, the impact of EV grid
In the existing work of impact studies of EV charging on
integration has to be investigated in order to identify the
distribution systems, realistic driving data have not been used
bottlenecks of power systems for the EV grid integration and
and the benefits of smart EV charging have not been
test different charging scenarios.
quantified. In order to handle the congestion from EV
Denmark offers a unique opportunity for renewable energy
charging and identify the bottlenecks in MV grid, it is very
utilization and EV deployment. At present, the wind power
important to use realistic driving data to determine the EV
penetration level in Denmark is around 20%, and the Danish
charging demands. In this paper, the vehicle driving data in
government has set a target of 50% penetration of wind power
Denmark has been used to determine the EV charging
by 2025 [1].The average driving distance in Denmark is
demands which are the inputs for the EV impact study.
approximately 40 km per day [2], which is sufficiently low to
The work in this paper consists of modeling a typical MV
grid, smart charging schedule management based spot prices,
This work was supported by the project of Electric vehicles in a
Distributed and Integrated market using Sustainable energy and Open
and impact study of different charging scenarios on MV grid.
Networks (EDISON) funded by the ForskEl program (ForskEL Project The rest of the paper is arranged as follows. In Section II,
Number 081216). the modeling of a MV grid from the Bornholm Island is
The authors are with Center for Electric Technology (CET), Department described in details. The three EV charging scenarios are
of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Kgs.
Lyngby, DK 2800, Denmark (qw@elektro.dtu.dk). explained in Section III. Case study results are presented in
2

Section IV to analyze the impact of different EV charging and paper


scenarios on MV grids. In the end, conclusions are drawn as Manufacturing industry-Basic metal
370 300000
industry
per the case study results. 390 Manufacturing industry-Other 151724,1
Commerce and services-
410 17901,23
II. MEDIUM VOLTAGE GRID MODELING Construction
Commerce and services-Wholesale
The modeling work of the MV grid is comprised of both 422 69053,25
trade
demand modeling and the topology of the grid. 431
Commerce and services-Restaurants
48469,24
It is a challenge to model demands since there are no real and hotels
Commerce and services-Banking,
time measurements for end user demands. The available 432
insurance and business services
38153,31
demand data are the yearly consumption data of end users. Commerce and services-Cultural
433 24937,24
Therefore, it is very important to find a proper way to model activities and household services
Commerce and services-Public
the demand profiles of end users using the yearly 441 services-Electricity, gas, heat, and 43734,94
consumption. water supply
In Denmark, Dansk Energi has published the yearly Commerce and services-Public
averaged demand profile of each customer category [12]. 442 services-Sewerage and sanitation, 38082,19
water
Although the demand profile levels out the difference of Commerce and services-Public
443 102500
different customers within the same category, it is a good services-Education and research
representation of the demand profile and can be used to Commerce and services-Public
444 services-Health and veterinary ser- 77142,86
determine the end user hourly demands with the yearly vices
electricity consumption. Commerce and services-Public
Another important issue for the demand modeling is the 445 services-Social institutions and or- 26199,1
power factor. In the Bornholm 10 kV power system in ganizations
450 Other consumption-Public lighting 16875
PowerFactory, each 10/0.4 kV substation has a power factor.
This power factor is used to get the reactive power of each
The typical daily demand of a 10/0.4 kV substation is
lumped demand at each 10/0.4 kV substation.
illustrated in Figure 1. The power factor is 0.95 inductive.
Therefore, the demand modeling consists of four steps.
Determine the customer types within the whole 10
kV grid
According to the customer types, determine the
daily demand profile of each customer type with
peak load
Determine the daily load of each customer using
the demand profile and yearly consumption
Determine the lumped demand of each 10/0.4 kV
substation with both active and reactive power
For the case studies, the Ronne Syd 10 kV grid was used to
carry out the impact study of EV integration on MV grids. The Figure 1 The typical daily demand of a 10/0.4 kV substation
customer type information of the Ronne Syd grid is listed in
Table 1. The typical daily demand of the Ronne Syd grid is shown
in Figure 2.
Table 1 Customer type information of the SVANEKE grid
Yearly
Consumer_I
Consumer_Category Consumption
D
(kWh)
Residential-Apartments in multi-
111 family houses-Without electric heat- 1988,978
ing
Residential-Apartments in multi-
119 8937,409
family houses-Joint consumption
Residential-One-and two-family
121 3926,906
houses-Without electric heating
Residential-One-and two-family
122 8788,898
houses-With electric heating
Residential-One-and two-family
130 2960,442
houses-Weekend cottages
211 Agriculture-Without electric heating 16626,92 Figure 2 The typical daily demand of the Ronne Syd grid
212 Agriculture-With electric heating 22580,65
220 Gardening 86363,64
Manufacturing industry-Wood and
The topology data of the 10 kV grid are obtained from the
330 127777,8 distribution system operator of the Bornholm power system -
wood products
340 Manufacturing industry-Printing 167222,2 stkraft. The topology of the Ronne Syd 10 kV grid is shown
3

in Figure 3. min 1 (1)

Constraints

1 (2)

Where is the charging status of the EV fleet at the time


period of the ith minimum spot price, is the ith minimum
spot price, is the availability of the time period of the ith
minimum spot price, 1 is the percentage of cars whose
charging time is equal or less than (i-1) hours, is the
equivalent charging time for the time period of the ith
minimum time period, is the total charging power if all
EVs are connected to grid and start charging at the same time,
is the total energy requirement of the EV fleet for the
Figure 3 The Ronne Syd 10 kV grid topology whole day.

The Ronne Syd grid is situated in the west part of


Bornholm and consists of 75 10/0.4 secondary substations.
The 75 secondary substations feed 1887 households. The
Ronne Syd grid consists of 137 lines with 12 line types and
the total length of lines is 98.263 km.

III. EV CHARGING SCENARIOS


Four charging scenarios have been tested using the
developed MV grid. The three charging scenarios are listed
below.
Dumb charging
Timed charging Figure 4 Aggregated Charging Schedule for an EV Fleet based on
Spot Price
Fleet operator based all charging
Fleet operator based most cost effective charging
In the dumb charging scenario, the customers will start
charging EVs immediately after they reach home and the
charging activity continues till the EV battery state of charge
(SOC) reaches 85%. According to the driving data analysis,
most vehicles reach home at 5:00 pm. Therefore, in the dumb
charging scenario, the customers start charging at 5:00 pm.
In the timed charging scenario, the customers will charge
EVs during low demand time periods. According to the
demand profile, it is determined that customers will start
charging at 10:00 pm for 1 phase charging option and 12:00
am for 3 phase charging option. Figure 5 Charging Schedule for Individual EVs as per Aggregated EV
The third and fourth charging scenarios are spot price based Charging Schedule
charging scenarios. The entity in charge of EV charging
For the charging status of the EV fleet, the constraint is
management for a number of EVs, EV fleet operator,
described by Eq. (3).
determines the charging schedule of the EVs according to the
predicted spot prices of next day. As per the charging schedule
for the EV fleet, the EV fleet operator will determine the
1 1
charging schedules of individual EVs. The concept of the spot
based charging scenario is illustrated by Figure 4 and Figure 5. 0
(3)
The difference between the third and fourth charging
scenarios is that the EV battery SOC will reach 85% before The equivalent charging time, , can be calculated using
each trip in the third charging scenario. Eq. (4).
The spot price based EV charging scenario can be depicted
by the optimization problem below.
(4)
Objective Function:
4

Where is the energy requirement for the EVs whose


charging time is bigger than (i-1) and equal or less than i, and EV Charging Demand Scenario 3- 3 Phase

are the percentage of EVs whose charging time is bigger 0.9


Charging Scenario 3 - 3 Phase
than (i-1) and equal or less than i. 0.8

0.7

IV. CASE STUDIES 0.6

EV Demand (MW)
The loading of power components and voltage profiles in 0.5

the MV grid are analyzed to quantify the impact of the 0.4

charging scenarios and charging power levels on MV grids 0.3

and illustrate the effectiveness of the smart charging scenario. 0.2

The battery size of EVs used for the impact study is 25 0.1

kWh. Besides the three charging scenarios, there are two 0

charging power options.


2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
time (Hour)

1 phase 16 A Figure 7 EV Charging Demand Scenario 3 3 Phase


3 phase 16 A
The EV penetration level is 10%. The total cars on the EV Charging Demand Scenario 4 - 1 Phase

0.6
Bornholm Island are 2000 and the 10% EV penetration is
Charging Scenario 4 - 1 Phase
corresponding to 2000. For the Ronne Syd grid, the EV 0.5

number is 186 which is calculated according to the household


number within the S Ronne Syd grid. 0.4

EV Demand (MW)
The EV charging details of the four charging scenarios are 0.3
described below.
A. Dumb charging scenario Charging Scenario 1 0.2

According to the charging power options, the charging


times for the dumb charging scenarios are listed below.
0.1

EV_3.68kW: 5 hours Start charging: 17:00, Finish 0


2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
charging: 22:00 time (Hour)

EV_11.04: 2 hours Start charging: 17:00, Finish Figure 8 EV Charging Demand Scenario 4 1 Phase
charging: 19:00
EV Charging Demand Scenario 4- 3 Phase
1.4
B. Timed charging scenario Charging Scenario 2
According to the charging power options, the charging
Charging Scenario 4 - 3 Phase
1.2

times for the timed charging scenarios are listed below. 1

EV_3.45kW: 5 hours Start charging: 22:00, Finish


EV Demand (MW)

charging: 02:00 0.8

EV_10.35: 2 hours Start charging: 00:00, Finish 0.6

charging: 02:00
0.4

C. Spot price based charging scenario Charging 0.2

Scenarios 3 and 4 0
The spot price based charging scenarios are Charging 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
time (Hour)
16 18 20 22 24

Scenarios 3 and 4. The EV charging demands of Charging Figure 9 EV Charging Demand Scenario 4 3 Phase
scenarios 3 and 4 with 1 phase and 3 phase charging are
shown in Figure 6 - Figure 9. The intent of the impact study of EV integration on MV
EV Charging Demand Scenario 3 - 1 Phase
grids is to study whether the MV grids can sustain with certain
0.5 Charging Scenario 3 - 1 Phase
EV penetration levels and charging scenarios. Therefore, the
loading of lines and transformers, and voltages of busbars are
0.4 obtained. The impact study results with 10% EV penetration,
and 1 and 3 phase charging options are presented in the
EV Demand (MW)

0.3
sections below.
In the impact study, the 67% percent loading limit is used
0.2
to check whether the power lines and transformers can sustain
the extra loads from EV charging. The voltage limits are set as
0.1
0.95 pu 1.05 pu.
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Impact study results of 1 Phase charging option
time (Hour)

Figure 6 EV Charging Demand Scenario 3 1 Phase The impact study results of 10% EV penetration and 1
5

phase charging are shown in Figure 10 - Figure 12 and Table 2 Table 4 Voltage Profile 1 Phase
- Table 4. Charging Scenario Bus Voltage (pu )
100
Line loading with 10% EV Penetration
NO EV 1,008
90
Wihtout EV
Dumb Charing
CH1 1,000
80
Timed Charging CH2 1,008
Fleet Operator All Day

70
Fleet Operator Evening CH3 1,007
CH4 1,008
Line Loading (%)

60

50
It is seen from the loading and voltage results that all
40
transformers loading is below the 67% loading limit and all
30
bus voltages are within the range of 0.95 1.05 pu. Regarding
20
the line loading, the dumb charging scenario will cause the
10
line loading exceeding the 67% limit which is 76.167%.
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Time (Hour)
Impact study results of 3 Phase charging option
Figure 10 Power Line Loading - 1 Phase

Table 2 Maximum Power Line Loading 1 Phase The impact study results of 10% EV penetration and 1
phase charging are shown in Figure 13 - Figure 15 and Table 5
Charging Scenario Loading (%) - Table 7.
NO EV 62.224 Line loading with 10% EV Penetration
110
CH1 76.167 Wihtout EV
100
CH2 62.224 Dumb Charing
Timed Charging
90
CH3 65.801 Fleet Operator All Day
80
CH4 62.224 Fleet Operator Evening

70

Line Loading (%)


Transformer loading with 10% EV Penetration 60
100
Wihtout EV 50
90 Dumb Charing
Timed Charging 40
80 Fleet Operator All Day 30
Fleet Operator Evening
70
Transformer loading (%)

20

60 10

50 0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
40 Time (Hour)

30 Figure 13 Power Line Loading - 3 Phase


20
Table 5 Maximum Power Line Loading 3 Phase
10

0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Charging Scenario Loading (%)
Time (Hour) NO EV 62.224
Figure 11 Transformer Loading - 1 Phase CH1 107.131
CH2 73.041
Table 3 Maximum Transformer Loading 1 Phase CH3 72.168
CH4 64.815
Charging Scenario Loading (%)
NO EV 63.946
Transformer loading with 10% EV Penetration
CH1 66.765 100

CH2 63.947
Wihtout EV
90 Dumb Charing
CH3 63.975 80
Timed Charging
Fleet Operator All Day
CH4 63.947 70
Fleet Operator Evening
Transformer loading (%)

Bus Voltages with 10% EV Penetration


1.1 60

Wihtout EV
1.08 50
Dumb Charing
1.06 Timed Charging 40
Fleet Operator All Day
1.04 Fleet Operator Evening 30
Bus Voltage p.u.

1.02 20

1 10

0.98 0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
0.96 Time (Hour)

0.94 Figure 14 Transformer Loading - 3 Phase


0.92

0.9
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Time (Hour)

Figure 12 Voltage Profile - 1 Phase


6

Table 6 Maximum Transformer Loading 3 Phase [3] J. A. P. Lopes, F. J. Soares and P. M. R. Almedia, Identifying
Management Procedures to Deal with Connection of Electric Vehicles in
Charging Scenario Loading (%) the Grid, in Proc. 2009 IEEE Buchsrest PowerTech, pp. 1-8.
[4] K. Clement, E. Haesen and J. Driesen, Coordinated Charging of
NO EV 63,946 Multiple Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Residential Distribution
CH1 94,972 Grids, in Proc. 2009 IEEE PES Power Systems Conference and
CH2 64,186 Exposition, pp. 1-7.
CH3 63,997 [5] A. Maitra, K. S. Kook, J. Taylor and A. Giumento, Grid Impacts of
CH4 63,947 Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Hydro Quebec's Distribution System, in
Proc. 2010 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and
Bus Voltages with 10% EV Penetration Exposition, pp. 1-7.
1.1
[6] J. Taylor, M. Maitra, D. Alexander and M. Duvall, Evaluation of the
1.08
Wihtout EV
Dumb Charing
Impact of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Loading on Distribution System
1.06 Timed Charging Operations, in Proc. 2009 IEEE Power&Energy Society General
Fleet Operator All Day Meeting, pp. 1-6.
1.04 Fleet Operator Evening
[7] O. Sundstorm and C. Binding, Planning Electric-Drive Vehicle
Charging under Constrained Grid Conditions, in Proc. 2010
Bus Voltage p.u.

1.02

1 International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON),


pp. 1-6.
0.98
[8] N. Rotering and M. Ilic, Optimal Charge Control of Plug-In Hybrid
0.96 Electric Vehicles in Deregulated Electricity Markets, IEEE
0.94 Transactions on Power Systems, No. 99, pp. 1-9, 2010.
0.92
[9] S. Babaeim, D. Steen, L. A. Tuan, O. Carlson and L. Bertling, Effects
of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on distribution systems: A real case of
0.9
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Gothenburg, in Proc. 2010 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid
Time (Hour) Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT Europe), pp. 1-8.
Figure 15 Voltage Profile - 3 Phase [10] K. J. Dyke, N. Schofield and M. Barnes, The Impact of Transport
Electrification on Electrical Networks, IEEE Transactions on Industrial
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NO EV 1,008 IEEE, Vol. 99, No. 1, pp. 168-183, Jan. 2011.
CH1 0,983 [12] http://www.elforbrugspanel.dk/
CH2 1,008
CH3 1,006 VII. BIOGRAPHIES
CH4 1,008
Qiuwei Wu (M 09) obtained his B. Eng. and M.
It is seen from the loading and voltage results that all bus Eng. from Nanjing University of Science and
Technology, Nanjing, P. R. China, in 2000 and
voltages are within the range of 0.95 1.05 pu. Due to the 2003, respectively, both in Power System and
high charging power, the transformer loading is higher than Automation. He obtained his PhD degree from
the 67% loading limit for the dumb charging scenario. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore in
2009 in Power System Engineering.
Regarding the line loading, only the charging scenario 4 will He was a senior R&D engineer with VESTAS
not cause the line loading exceeding the 67% limit which is Technology R&D Singapore Pte. Ltd. from Mar.
64.815%. 2008 to Oct. 2009. He joined Centre for Electric
Technology (CET), Department of Electrical
Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) as PostDoc in Nov.
V. CONCLUSION 2009 and has been an assistant professor with CET since Nov. 2010.
His research interests are integration of electrical vehicles (EVs) into power
The impact study of EV integration on MV grids has been systems for high penetration of renewable energy sources (RES), integration
carried out to investigate the effects of different charging study for wind power, dynamic and transient performance of power systems
scenarios on MV power component loading and the voltage with high penetration of RES, real time simulation of power systems using
RTDS and reliability analysis and improvement of restructured power systems
profile under a certain EV penetration level. Two charging using demand response programs.
power options are included in the impact study in order to
check out the possibility of having relatively high EV charging Arne Hejde Nielsen obtained his MSc in Electric
power at MV grids and the effectiveness of the fleet operator Power Engineering from Technical University of
Denmark (DTU) in 1978.
based smart charging scenario. He worked as a research assistant in DTU from
The impact study results show that the fleet operator based 1978-1980. Afterwards, he joined central research
smart charging scenario can determine the optimal charging and development department, ASEA (now ABB),
Sweden. He became an assistant professor in DTU
schedule without causing any overloading on the MV grids.
in 1982 and has been an associate professor in the
same university since 1986.
VI. REFERENCES His research interests cover integration of
renewable energy and distributed energy resources,
[1] Z. Xu, M. Gordon, M. Lind and J. stergaard, Towards a Danish
methods for early warning and early prevention of voltage instability, wide
Power System with 50% Wind Smart Grids Activities in Denmark, in
area monitoring system (WAMS), overvoltage and protection of offshore
Proc. 2009 IEEE PES General Meeting, pp. 1-8.
wind power grids, etc.
[2] Q. Wu, A.H. Nielsen, J. stergaard, S.T. Cha, F. Marra, Y. Chen and C.
Traeholt, Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid
Integration Study, in Proc. 2010 IEEE PES Conference on Innovative
Smart Grid Technologies Europe, pp- 1-6.
7

Jacob stergaard (M95-SM 09) obtained his


MSc in Electrical Engineering from Technical
University of Denmark (DTU) in 1995.
He was with Research Institute of Danish Electric
Utilities for 10 years where he did research within
power system transmission and distribution and
was responsible for developing industrial-academic
collaboration. Since 2005 he has been Professor
and Head of Centre for Electric Technology
(CET), DTU. His research interests cover
SmartGrids with focus on system integration of
renewable energy and distributed energy resources, control architecture for
future power system, and flexible demand.
Prof. Jacob is serving in several professional organizations, boards and
steering committees. He is head of the Danish experimental platform for
electric power and energy, PowerLabDK, and he has been member of the EU
SmartGrids advisory council. In 2009 he received the IBM Faculty Award.

Seung Tae, Cha has a B.S degree in Electrical


Engineering from Illinois Institute of Technology,
Chicago in 1992, and a M.S degree in Electrical
Engineering from Yonsei University, Korea in
1997. Upon graduation, he joined Korea Electric
Power Research Institute where he was actively
engaged in the development of KEPS, a fully
digital real-time simulator, and other various
research projects.
He is a Ph.D candidate at Technical University of
Denmark and his present interest includes real-time
simulation of power systems, model development, studies involving load
flow, system planning & operation.

Yi Ding obtained his B. Eng. in electrical engineering from Shanghai Jiaotong


University, Shanghai, P. R. China, in 2000. He obtained his PhD in electrical
power engineering from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 2007.
His working experience include research fellow in International Reliability
and Risk Management Center (IRRMC), Sami Shamoon College of
Engineering, ISRAEL, from 2005 to 2006, postdoctoral fellow in University
of Alberta, Canada, from 2007-2008, research fellow in Nanyang
Technological University, Singapore, from 2008-2009. He is currently an
associate professor in Centre for Electric Technology (CET), Department of
Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU).
He research interests are reliability assessment of restructured power systems
and engineering systems, power market and nodal pricing.