Impact Study of Electric Vehicle (EV)
Integration on Medium Voltage (MV) Grids
Qiuwei Wu, Member, IEEE, Arne Hejde Nielsen, Senior Member, IEEE, Jacob Østergaard, Senior
Member, IEEE, Seung Tae Cha, Member, IEEE and Yi Ding

allow a fully charged 25 kWh battery to provide enough
energy to meet daily driving requirements in most cases. If
Abstract—The impact study of electric vehicle (EV)
additional energy is required, the EV batteries can be
integration on medium voltage (MV) grids has been done in
recharged during the day where there is an appropriate
order to investigate the effects of different EV charging
scenarios on MV grids from the perspectives of power charging infrastructure in place.
component loading and voltage profiles. The intent of the Congestion from EVs can be observed at the medium
impact study of EV integration is to identify the bottlenecks of voltage (MV) level, as a number of studies demonstrate [3]-
power systems for the EV grid integration, assess different EV [4]. Many studies have been conducted analyzing congestion
charging scenarios and quantify the benefits from smart issues on the MV network, however they also note that the
charging from the power component loading and voltage problems likely originate on the LV network, and as such,
profile perspectives. Three charging scenarios, dumb charging, analysis of this network should be conducted as the primary
timed charging and fleet operator based charging, have been stage of congestion studies [3], [5], [6].
considered in the impact study. The vehicle driving pattern The degree of grid congestion is dependent on a number of
data in Denmark have been used to determine the EV charging factors including local grid rating and topology, penetration
demands of different charging scenarios. A MV grid from the and distribution of EVs, and charging management
Bornholm power system has been used to implement the case procedures. Coordinated charging appears to be an effective
studies. method of increasing the penetration of EVs without violating
grid constraints. There is some incongruity on the optimal
Index Terms—Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration, Impact manner in which to coordinate charging, with a number of
Study, Medium Voltage (MV) Grid, Power Component Loading,
Voltage Profile different objectives proposed, including maximization of EV
penetration [3], minimization of losses [4], and minimization
I. INTRODUCTION of customer charging costs [7]-[8]. The study conducted in [7]
shows that substantial computational power is required to
T he deployment of a large number of electric vehicles (EV)
has become a very interesting option. Replacing
conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles with
handle grid constraints in an iterative optimization for EV
charging management.
Another method of grid congestion prevention is the
EVs will reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the
inclusion of devices in chargers that detect voltage and halt
transport sector. In the mean time, the flexibility of EV
charging when the voltage drops beyond a given threshold.
charging demands can be used to balance the intermittency of
Alternatively the power factor could be adjusted to rectify the
renewable energy resources (RES). Although the EV grid
voltage drop. These methods are mentioned in a number of
integration is beneficial to the environment and can help
papers [9]-[11].
integrate more RES into power systems, the impact of EV grid
In the existing work of impact studies of EV charging on
integration has to be investigated in order to identify the
distribution systems, realistic driving data have not been used
bottlenecks of power systems for the EV grid integration and
and the benefits of smart EV charging have not been
test different charging scenarios.
quantified. In order to handle the congestion from EV
Denmark offers a unique opportunity for renewable energy
charging and identify the bottlenecks in MV grid, it is very
utilization and EV deployment. At present, the wind power
important to use realistic driving data to determine the EV
penetration level in Denmark is around 20%, and the Danish
charging demands. In this paper, the vehicle driving data in
government has set a target of 50% penetration of wind power
Denmark has been used to determine the EV charging
by 2025 [1].The average driving distance in Denmark is
demands which are the inputs for the EV impact study.
approximately 40 km per day [2], which is sufficiently low to
The work in this paper consists of modeling a typical MV
grid, smart charging schedule management based spot prices,
This work was supported by the project of “Electric vehicles in a
Distributed and Integrated market using Sustainable energy and Open
and impact study of different charging scenarios on MV grid.
Networks (EDISON)” funded by the ForskEl program (ForskEL Project The rest of the paper is arranged as follows. In Section II,
Number 081216). the modeling of a MV grid from the Bornholm Island is
The authors are with Center for Electric Technology (CET), Department described in details. The three EV charging scenarios are
of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Kgs.
Lyngby, DK 2800, Denmark (qw@elektro.dtu.dk). explained in Section III. Case study results are presented in

4 kV substation is lumped demand at each 10/0.86 determine the end user hourly demands with the yearly vices electricity consumption.1 Commerce and services- 410 17901. it is very important to find a proper way to model activities and household services Commerce and services-Public the demand profiles of end users using the yearly 441 services-Electricity. heat. it is a good services-Education and research representation of the demand profile and can be used to Commerce and services-Public 444 services-Health and veterinary ser.65 220 Gardening 86363.24 Therefore.8 distribution system operator of the Bornholm power system - wood products 340 Manufacturing industry-Printing 167222.95 inductive.442 houses-Weekend cottages 211 Agriculture-Without electric heating 16626. the demand modeling consists of four steps. In the Bornholm 10 kV power system in ganizations 450 Other consumption-Public lighting 16875 PowerFactory.4 kV substation customer type information of the Ronne Syd grid is listed in Table 1. The Figure 1 The typical daily demand of a 10/0.2 Østkraft. The power factor is 0.1 power factor.978 ing Residential-Apartments in multi- 119 8937.906 houses-Without electric heating Residential-One-and two-family 122 8788. Therefore.4 kV substation with both active and reactive power For the case studies. MEDIUM VOLTAGE GRID MODELING Construction Commerce and services-Wholesale The modeling work of the MV grid is comprised of both 422 69053.4 kV substation has a power factor. the Ronne Syd 10 kV grid was used to carry out the impact study of EV integration on MV grids. This power factor is used to get the reactive power of each The typical daily demand of a 10/0. 38082. gas.19 water Although the demand profile levels out the difference of Commerce and services-Public 443 102500 different customers within the same category.94 consumption. conclusions are drawn as Manufacturing industry-Basic metal 370 300000 industry per the case study results. • Determine the customer types within the whole 10 kV grid • According to the customer types. Commerce and services-Public Another important issue for the demand modeling is the 445 services-Social institutions and or. The topology of the Ronne Syd 10 kV grid is shown .898 houses-With electric heating Residential-One-and two-family 130 2960.92 Figure 2 The typical daily demand of the Ronne Syd grid 212 Agriculture-With electric heating 22580. 2 Section IV to analyze the impact of different EV charging and paper scenarios on MV grids. The typical daily demand of the Ronne Syd grid is shown in Figure 2. Table 1 Customer type information of the SVANEKE grid Yearly Consumer_I Consumer_Category Consumption D (kWh) Residential-Apartments in multi- 111 family houses-Without electric heat.31 demand data are the yearly consumption data of end users. Dansk Energi has published the yearly Commerce and services-Public averaged demand profile of each customer category [12]. In the end. time measurements for end user demands.4 kV substation. and 43734. determine the daily demand profile of each customer type with peak load • Determine the daily load of each customer using the demand profile and yearly consumption • Determine the lumped demand of each 10/0. 26199. water supply In Denmark.64 Manufacturing industry-Wood and The topology data of the 10 kV grid are obtained from the 330 127777. each 10/0. illustrated in Figure 1. 442 services-Sewerage and sanitation. 77142.409 family houses-Joint consumption Residential-One-and two-family 121 3926. Commerce and services-Cultural 433 24937.25 trade demand modeling and the topology of the grid. 431 Commerce and services-Restaurants 48469. 1988. The available 432 insurance and business services 38153.23 II. 390 Manufacturing industry-Other 151724.24 It is a challenge to model demands since there are no real and hotels Commerce and services-Banking.

the customers start charging at 5:00 pm. described by Eq. The spot price based EV charging scenario can be depicted by the optimization problem below. (4) Objective Function: . is the total charging power if all EVs are connected to grid and start charging at the same time. determines the charging schedule of the EVs according to the predicted spot prices of next day. The Ronne Syd grid is situated in the west part of Bornholm and consists of 75 10/0. In the timed charging scenario. 0 (3) The difference between the third and fourth charging scenarios is that the EV battery SOC will reach 85% before The equivalent charging time. the constraint is management for a number of EVs. (3). in the dumb charging scenario. (4). it is determined that customers will start charging at 10:00 pm for 1 phase charging option and 12:00 am for 3 phase charging option. Figure 5 Charging Schedule for Individual EVs as per Aggregated EV The third and fourth charging scenarios are spot price based Charging Schedule charging scenarios.263 km. . the customers will charge EVs during low demand time periods. is the availability of the time period of the ith minimum spot price. 3 in Figure 3. the customers will start charging EVs immediately after they reach home and the charging activity continues till the EV battery state of charge (SOC) reaches 85%. min ∑ 1 (1) Constraints ∑ 1 (2) Where is the charging status of the EV fleet at the time period of the ith minimum spot price. The Ronne Syd grid consists of 137 lines with 12 line types and the total length of lines is 98. Eq. Therefore. • Dumb charging • Timed charging Figure 4 Aggregated Charging Schedule for an EV Fleet based on Spot Price • Fleet operator based all charging • Fleet operator based most cost effective charging In the dumb charging scenario. is the ith minimum spot price.4 secondary substations. EV fleet operator. EV CHARGING SCENARIOS Four charging scenarios have been tested using the developed MV grid. 1 is the percentage of cars whose charging time is equal or less than (i-1) hours. The concept of the spot based charging scenario is illustrated by Figure 4 and Figure 5. According to the demand profile. The three charging scenarios are listed below. According to the driving data analysis. III. The entity in charge of EV charging For the charging status of the EV fleet. is the equivalent charging time for the time period of the ith minimum time period. can be calculated using each trip in the third charging scenario. is the total energy requirement of the EV fleet for the Figure 3 The Ronne Syd 10 kV grid topology whole day. the EV fleet operator will determine the 1 ∑ 1 charging schedules of individual EVs. most vehicles reach home at 5:00 pm. As per the charging schedule for the EV fleet. The 75 secondary substations feed 1887 households.

0.9 Charging Scenario 3 .3 Phase 1. The voltage limits are set as 0. Finish Figure 8 EV Charging Demand Scenario 4 – 1 Phase charging: 19:00 EV Charging Demand Scenario 4. 0.2 The battery size of EVs used for the impact study is 25 0.1 Phase corresponding to 2000.68kW: 5 hours – Start charging: 17:00.3 described below. Timed charging scenario – Charging Scenario 2 According to the charging power options.8 • EV_10. the charging Charging Scenario 4 . 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Impact study results of 1 Phase charging option time (Hour) Figure 6 EV Charging Demand Scenario 3 – 1 Phase The impact study results of 10% EV penetration and 1 .3 Phase 1.45kW: 5 hours – Start charging: 22:00. CASE STUDIES 0.6 Bornholm Island are 2000 and the 10% EV penetration is Charging Scenario 4 . The EV charging demands of Charging Figure 9 EV Charging Demand Scenario 4 – 3 Phase scenarios 3 and 4 with 1 phase and 3 phase charging are shown in Figure 6 . In the impact study.4 charging scenarios and charging power levels on MV grids 0. Finish EV Demand (MW) charging: 02:00 0.2 Scenarios 3 and 4 0 The spot price based charging scenarios are Charging 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 time (Hour) 16 18 20 22 24 Scenarios 3 and 4.4 obtained.3 sections below.5 Charging Scenario 3 .2 times for the timed charging scenarios are listed below. 0.3 Phase are the percentage of EVs whose charging time is bigger 0. 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 time (Hour) • 1 phase 16 A Figure 7 EV Charging Demand Scenario 3 – 3 Phase • 3 phase 16 A The EV penetration level is 10%.2 to check whether the power lines and transformers can sustain the extra loads from EV charging.35: 2 hours – Start charging: 00:00. Therefore.04: 2 hours – Start charging: 17:00. The impact study results with 10% EV penetration. the 67% percent loading limit is used 0.8 0. the charging times for the dumb charging scenarios are listed below. Spot price based charging scenario – Charging 0.3 Phase than (i-1) and equal or less than i. 4 Where is the energy requirement for the EVs whose charging time is bigger than (i-1) and equal or less than i. Finish 0.6 EV Demand (MW) The loading of power components and voltage profiles in 0.1 0.1 • EV_3.1 Phase 0. and EV Charging Demand Scenario 3. The intent of the impact study of EV integration on MV EV Charging Demand Scenario 3 . the EV 0.5 the MV grid are analyzed to quantify the impact of the 0.2 According to the charging power options. 0.1 kWh.4 EV Demand (MW) The EV charging details of the four charging scenarios are 0. and voltages of busbars are 0. A. The total cars on the EV Charging Demand Scenario 4 .5 number is 186 which is calculated according to the household number within the S Ronne Syd grid.4 B.1 Phase EV penetration levels and charging scenarios.7 IV. there are two 0 charging power options. 1 • EV_3.Figure 9. Dumb charging scenario – Charging Scenario 1 0. Finish 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 charging: 22:00 time (Hour) • EV_11. the loading of lines and transformers.95 pu – 1.3 and illustrate the effectiveness of the smart charging scenario. Besides the three charging scenarios.6 charging: 02:00 0.4 C.1 Phase grids is to study whether the MV grids can sustain with certain 0.05 pu. For the Ronne Syd grid. and 1 and 3 phase charging options are presented in the EV Demand (MW) 0.

1 60 Wihtout EV 1. NO EV 62.224 Figure 11 Transformer Loading .1 Phase CH1 107.765 100 CH2 63.Figure 15 and Table 5 Charging Scenario Loading (%) .98 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.008 Line Loading (%) 60 50 It is seen from the loading and voltage results that all 40 transformers loading is below the 67% loading limit and all 30 bus voltages are within the range of 0.224 Line loading with 10% EV Penetration 110 CH1 76.04 Fleet Operator Evening 30 Bus Voltage p.224 Dumb Charing Timed Charging 90 CH3 65. 1.Table 7.95 – 1.96 Time (Hour) 0.Table 4.131 CH2 73. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time (Hour) Impact study results of 3 Phase charging option Figure 10 Power Line Loading .947 70 Fleet Operator Evening Transformer loading (%) Bus Voltages with 10% EV Penetration 1.008 Fleet Operator All Day 70 Fleet Operator Evening CH3 1.000 80 Timed Charging CH2 1.167 Wihtout EV 100 CH2 62.167%.007 CH4 1.801 Fleet Operator All Day 80 CH4 62. the dumb charging scenario will cause the 10 line loading exceeding the 67% limit which is 76.008 90 Wihtout EV Dumb Charing CH1 1.946 Transformer loading with 10% EV Penetration CH1 66.815 Charging Scenario Loading (%) NO EV 63.Figure 12 and Table 2 Table 4 Voltage Profile – 1 Phase .9 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time (Hour) Figure 12 Voltage Profile .1 Phase .06 Timed Charging 40 Fleet Operator All Day 1.08 50 Dumb Charing 1.3 Phase 20 Table 5 Maximum Power Line Loading – 3 Phase 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Charging Scenario Loading (%) Time (Hour) NO EV 62.92 0.975 80 Timed Charging Fleet Operator All Day CH4 63. 5 phase charging are shown in Figure 10 .u.94 Figure 14 Transformer Loading .947 Wihtout EV 90 Dumb Charing CH3 63.05 pu. Regarding 20 the line loading.1 Phase Table 2 Maximum Power Line Loading – 1 Phase The impact study results of 10% EV penetration and 1 phase charging are shown in Figure 13 .224 Fleet Operator Evening 70 Line Loading (%) Transformer loading with 10% EV Penetration 60 100 Wihtout EV 50 90 Dumb Charing Timed Charging 40 80 Fleet Operator All Day 30 Fleet Operator Evening 70 Transformer loading (%) 20 60 10 50 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 40 Time (Hour) 30 Figure 13 Power Line Loading .3 Phase 0.02 20 1 10 0. Charging Scenario Bus Voltage (pu ) 100 Line loading with 10% EV Penetration NO EV 1.168 CH4 64.041 Table 3 Maximum Transformer Loading – 1 Phase CH3 72.

ASEA (now ABB). 2009. Babaeim. Binding.95 – 1.” in Proc.02 1 International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON). Sundstorm and C. in 2000 and voltages are within the range of 0. Xu.u. K. P. from Nanjing University of Science and Technology. “Planning Electric-Drive Vehicle Charging under Constrained Grid Conditions.T. No.3 Phase [10] K. he joined central research smart charging scenario can determine the optimal charging and development department. M. overvoltage and protection of offshore Proc. Nielsen. 1. He became an assistant professor in DTU schedule without causing any overloading on the MV grids. D. N. Afterwards. Clement. 1.008 Qiuwei Wu (M’ 09) obtained his B. wide Power System with 50% Wind – Smart Grids Activities in Denmark”. BIOGRAPHIES CH4 1.186 Exposition. pp. Two charging using demand response programs. Sweden.elforbrugspanel. “Evaluation of the 1.94 Transactions on Power Systems. Nanjing. VI.946 Multiple Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Residential Distribution CH1 94. Singapore in 2009 in Power System Engineering. J. Steen. He joined Centre for Electric Technology (CET). Almedia. pp. P. J. pp. Vol. “Grid Impacts of CH4 63. Lind and J. respectively. Kook. J. [2] Q.92 [9] S. Jan. 2010 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Time (Hour) Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT Europe). Tuan. dynamic and transient performance of power systems scenarios on MV power component loading and the voltage with high penetration of RES. 1-7. 1. 1-8. Dyke. Due to the 2003. 1-9. in area monitoring system (WAMS). 1. M. Maitra. No.04 Fleet Operator Evening [7] O.” in Proc. Regarding the line loading. Figure 15 Voltage Profile . etc. both in Power System and high charging power.972 Grids. No.” in Proc. Alexander and M. power options are included in the impact study in order to check out the possibility of having relatively high EV charging Arne Hejde Nielsen obtained his MSc in Electric power at MV grids and the effectiveness of the fleet operator Power Engineering from Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in 1978. J. Department of Electrical Engineering. “Identifying Management Procedures to Deal with Connection of Electric Vehicles in Charging Scenario Loading (%) the Grid. It is seen from the loading and voltage results that all bus Eng. R. CH1 0. 2010 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Bus Voltages with 10% EV Penetration Exposition. integration carried out to investigate the effects of different charging study for wind power. 57. Taylor and A. 0. pp. pp. O. Driesen. Bertling. Marra. Y. 2009 IEEE Buchsrest PowerTech. only the charging scenario 4 will He was a senior R&D engineer with VESTAS not cause the line loading exceeding the 67% limit which is Technology R&D Singapore Pte. P.” IEEE 0. 0. Ilic. F. Technical University of Denmark (DTU) as PostDoc in Nov. Ltd. Lopes. in 1982 and has been an associate professor in the same university since 1986. M. Chen and C.983 [12] http://www. M.dk/ CH2 1. A. 2009 IEEE PES General Meeting.” Proceedings of the NO EV 1. [11] J. J. Traeholt.” in Proc. 2010. A.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Table 7 Voltage Profile – 3 Phase Electronics.008 IEEE. 2010 Bus Voltage p. Nanyang Technological University. F. Soares and P. 64. His research interests are integration of electrical vehicles (EVs) into power The impact study of EV integration on MV grids has been systems for high penetration of renewable energy sources (RES). 2010. Maitra. 6 Table 6 Maximum Transformer Loading – 3 Phase [3] J. Rotering and M. Cha. He obtained his PhD degree from the 67% loading limit for the dumb charging scenario. S. and M. Soares and P.1 [6] J. “Effects of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on distribution systems: A real case of 0.815%. 2010 IEEE PES Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe. R. 2009 IEEE PES Power Systems Conference and CH2 64. China. real time simulation of power systems using RTDS and reliability analysis and improvement of restructured power systems profile under a certain EV penetration level. 2008 to Oct. R. Lopes. A. 3917 . pp. 1-6. D. based smart charging scenario.” in Proc. “Towards a Danish methods for early warning and early prevention of voltage instability. [1] Z. 1-8.96 Electric Vehicles in Deregulated Electricity Markets. 168-183. M. F. 1-7.06 Timed Charging Operations. in Proc. Gordon.947 Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Hydro Quebec's Distribution System. E.1-6. Duvall. 99.” in Proc. “The Impact of Transport Electrification on Electrical Networks. REFERENCES His research interests cover integration of renewable energy and distributed energy resources. CONCLUSION 2009 and has been an assistant professor with CET since Nov.05 pu. S. 2009 IEEE Power&Energy Society General Fleet Operator All Day Meeting. L.08 Wihtout EV Dumb Charing Impact of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Loading on Distribution System 1. pp. pp. “Coordinated Charging of NO EV 63. Wu. Schofield and M.008 CH3 1.98 [8] N.006 VII.3926. 1-6. pp. the transformer loading is higher than Automation. Haesen and J. Taylor. Østergaard. “Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study”. 99. 2011.997 [5] A. 1-8. CH3 63. Vol. wind power grids. 12. from Mar. Giumento. pp. Almedia. “Optimal Charge Control of Plug-In Hybrid 0. pp. [4] K. Eng. “Integration of Charging Scenario Bus Voltage (pu ) Electric Vehicles in the Electric Power System.9 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Gothenburg. Østergaard. . Carlson and L. A. He worked as a research assistant in DTU from The impact study results show that the fleet operator based 1978-1980.H. Barnes. V.

In 2009 he received the IBM Faculty Award. and other various research projects. DTU. research fellow in Nanyang Technological University. Upon graduation. system planning & operation. Cha has a B. control architecture for future power system. 2007. in electrical engineering from Shanghai Jiaotong University. and he has been member of the EU SmartGrids advisory council. Korea in 1997. model development. a fully digital real-time simulator. He is a Ph. Yi Ding obtained his B. ISRAEL. He obtained his PhD in electrical power engineering from Nanyang Technological University. in 2000. postdoctoral fellow in University of Alberta. His research interests cover SmartGrids with focus on system integration of renewable energy and distributed energy resources. from 2007-2008. He is head of the Danish experimental platform for electric power and energy. His working experience include research fellow in International Reliability and Risk Management Center (IRRMC). he joined Korea Electric Power Research Institute where he was actively engaged in the development of KEPS. studies involving load flow. . 7 Jacob Østergaard (M’95-SM’ 09) obtained his MSc in Electrical Engineering from Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in 1995. He research interests are reliability assessment of restructured power systems and engineering systems. China.S degree in Electrical Engineering from Illinois Institute of Technology. He was with Research Institute of Danish Electric Utilities for 10 years where he did research within power system transmission and distribution and was responsible for developing industrial-academic collaboration. from 2005 to 2006. and a M. Since 2005 he has been Professor and Head of Centre for Electric Technology (CET). Jacob is serving in several professional organizations. from 2008-2009. Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Singapore. Chicago in 1992. Canada. Sami Shamoon College of Engineering. and flexible demand.S degree in Electrical Engineering from Yonsei University. R. Prof. Singapore. power market and nodal pricing. Seung Tae. He is currently an associate professor in Centre for Electric Technology (CET). Department of Electrical Engineering. P. Eng. PowerLabDK.D candidate at Technical University of Denmark and his present interest includes real-time simulation of power systems. Shanghai. boards and steering committees.