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Impact Study of Electric Vehicle (EV)
Integration on Medium Voltage (MV) Grids
Qiuwei Wu, Member, IEEE, Arne Hejde Nielsen, Senior Member, IEEE, Jacob Østergaard, Senior
Member, IEEE, Seung Tae Cha, Member, IEEE and Yi Ding

allow a fully charged 25 kWh battery to provide enough
energy to meet daily driving requirements in most cases. If
Abstract—The impact study of electric vehicle (EV)
additional energy is required, the EV batteries can be
integration on medium voltage (MV) grids has been done in
recharged during the day where there is an appropriate
order to investigate the effects of different EV charging
scenarios on MV grids from the perspectives of power charging infrastructure in place.
component loading and voltage profiles. The intent of the Congestion from EVs can be observed at the medium
impact study of EV integration is to identify the bottlenecks of voltage (MV) level, as a number of studies demonstrate [3]-
power systems for the EV grid integration, assess different EV [4]. Many studies have been conducted analyzing congestion
charging scenarios and quantify the benefits from smart issues on the MV network, however they also note that the
charging from the power component loading and voltage problems likely originate on the LV network, and as such,
profile perspectives. Three charging scenarios, dumb charging, analysis of this network should be conducted as the primary
timed charging and fleet operator based charging, have been stage of congestion studies [3], [5], [6].
considered in the impact study. The vehicle driving pattern The degree of grid congestion is dependent on a number of
data in Denmark have been used to determine the EV charging factors including local grid rating and topology, penetration
demands of different charging scenarios. A MV grid from the and distribution of EVs, and charging management
Bornholm power system has been used to implement the case procedures. Coordinated charging appears to be an effective
studies. method of increasing the penetration of EVs without violating
grid constraints. There is some incongruity on the optimal
Index Terms—Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration, Impact manner in which to coordinate charging, with a number of
Study, Medium Voltage (MV) Grid, Power Component Loading,
Voltage Profile different objectives proposed, including maximization of EV
penetration [3], minimization of losses [4], and minimization
I. INTRODUCTION of customer charging costs [7]-[8]. The study conducted in [7]
shows that substantial computational power is required to
T he deployment of a large number of electric vehicles (EV)
has become a very interesting option. Replacing
conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles with
handle grid constraints in an iterative optimization for EV
charging management.
Another method of grid congestion prevention is the
EVs will reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the
inclusion of devices in chargers that detect voltage and halt
transport sector. In the mean time, the flexibility of EV
charging when the voltage drops beyond a given threshold.
charging demands can be used to balance the intermittency of
Alternatively the power factor could be adjusted to rectify the
renewable energy resources (RES). Although the EV grid
voltage drop. These methods are mentioned in a number of
integration is beneficial to the environment and can help
papers [9]-[11].
integrate more RES into power systems, the impact of EV grid
In the existing work of impact studies of EV charging on
integration has to be investigated in order to identify the
distribution systems, realistic driving data have not been used
bottlenecks of power systems for the EV grid integration and
and the benefits of smart EV charging have not been
test different charging scenarios.
quantified. In order to handle the congestion from EV
Denmark offers a unique opportunity for renewable energy
charging and identify the bottlenecks in MV grid, it is very
utilization and EV deployment. At present, the wind power
important to use realistic driving data to determine the EV
penetration level in Denmark is around 20%, and the Danish
charging demands. In this paper, the vehicle driving data in
government has set a target of 50% penetration of wind power
Denmark has been used to determine the EV charging
by 2025 [1].The average driving distance in Denmark is
demands which are the inputs for the EV impact study.
approximately 40 km per day [2], which is sufficiently low to
The work in this paper consists of modeling a typical MV
grid, smart charging schedule management based spot prices,
This work was supported by the project of “Electric vehicles in a
Distributed and Integrated market using Sustainable energy and Open
and impact study of different charging scenarios on MV grid.
Networks (EDISON)” funded by the ForskEl program (ForskEL Project The rest of the paper is arranged as follows. In Section II,
Number 081216). the modeling of a MV grid from the Bornholm Island is
The authors are with Center for Electric Technology (CET), Department described in details. The three EV charging scenarios are
of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Kgs.
Lyngby, DK 2800, Denmark ( explained in Section III. Case study results are presented in

906 houses-Without electric heating Residential-One-and two-family 122 8788.92 Figure 2 The typical daily demand of the Ronne Syd grid 212 Agriculture-With electric heating 22580.24 Therefore.25 trade demand modeling and the topology of the grid.409 family houses-Joint consumption Residential-One-and two-family 121 3926. Dansk Energi has published the yearly Commerce and services-Public averaged demand profile of each customer category [12].4 kV substation customer type information of the Ronne Syd grid is listed in Table 1. 38082.65 220 Gardening 86363.24 It is a challenge to model demands since there are no real and hotels Commerce and services-Banking. The topology of the Ronne Syd 10 kV grid is shown . and 43734.8 distribution system operator of the Bornholm power system - wood products 340 Manufacturing industry-Printing 167222. MEDIUM VOLTAGE GRID MODELING Construction Commerce and services-Wholesale The modeling work of the MV grid is comprised of both 422 69053. This power factor is used to get the reactive power of each The typical daily demand of a 10/0. heat. 1988. The typical daily demand of the Ronne Syd grid is shown in Figure 2. each 10/0. • Determine the customer types within the whole 10 kV grid • According to the customer types. it is very important to find a proper way to model activities and household services Commerce and services-Public the demand profiles of end users using the yearly 441 services-Electricity. 77142. the demand modeling consists of four steps.1 power factor.2 Østkraft.94 consumption.898 houses-With electric heating Residential-One-and two-family 130 2960.4 kV substation is lumped demand at each 10/0. In the Bornholm 10 kV power system in ganizations 450 Other consumption-Public lighting 16875 PowerFactory. gas.23 II. determine the daily demand profile of each customer type with peak load • Determine the daily load of each customer using the demand profile and yearly consumption • Determine the lumped demand of each 10/0.19 water Although the demand profile levels out the difference of Commerce and services-Public 443 102500 different customers within the same category.95 inductive.4 kV substation. The Figure 1 The typical daily demand of a 10/0. time measurements for end user demands. The available 432 insurance and business services 38153. Commerce and services-Cultural 433 24937. 390 Manufacturing industry-Other 151724. illustrated in Figure 1. water supply In Denmark.86 determine the end user hourly demands with the yearly vices electricity consumption.4 kV substation with both active and reactive power For the case studies. The power factor is 0. Therefore. In the end.4 kV substation has a power factor.64 Manufacturing industry-Wood and The topology data of the 10 kV grid are obtained from the 330 127777.442 houses-Weekend cottages 211 Agriculture-Without electric heating 16626. it is a good services-Education and research representation of the demand profile and can be used to Commerce and services-Public 444 services-Health and veterinary ser. Table 1 Customer type information of the SVANEKE grid Yearly Consumer_I Consumer_Category Consumption D (kWh) Residential-Apartments in multi- 111 family houses-Without electric heat.978 ing Residential-Apartments in multi- 119 8937. 2 Section IV to analyze the impact of different EV charging and paper scenarios on MV grids. 431 Commerce and services-Restaurants 48469. the Ronne Syd 10 kV grid was used to carry out the impact study of EV integration on MV grids. Commerce and services-Public Another important issue for the demand modeling is the 445 services-Social institutions and or. 442 services-Sewerage and sanitation. conclusions are drawn as Manufacturing industry-Basic metal 370 300000 industry per the case study results.1 Commerce and services- 410 17901.31 demand data are the yearly consumption data of end users. 26199.

4 secondary substations. III. EV fleet operator. The 75 secondary substations feed 1887 households. min ∑ 1 (1) Constraints ∑ 1 (2) Where is the charging status of the EV fleet at the time period of the ith minimum spot price. The three charging scenarios are listed below. can be calculated using each trip in the third charging scenario. is the total energy requirement of the EV fleet for the Figure 3 The Ronne Syd 10 kV grid topology whole day. According to the driving data analysis. In the timed charging scenario. 0 (3) The difference between the third and fourth charging scenarios is that the EV battery SOC will reach 85% before The equivalent charging time. The Ronne Syd grid consists of 137 lines with 12 line types and the total length of lines is 98. Eq. 1 is the percentage of cars whose charging time is equal or less than (i-1) hours. The concept of the spot based charging scenario is illustrated by Figure 4 and Figure 5. The Ronne Syd grid is situated in the west part of Bornholm and consists of 75 10/0. • Dumb charging • Timed charging Figure 4 Aggregated Charging Schedule for an EV Fleet based on Spot Price • Fleet operator based all charging • Fleet operator based most cost effective charging In the dumb charging scenario. it is determined that customers will start charging at 10:00 pm for 1 phase charging option and 12:00 am for 3 phase charging option. EV CHARGING SCENARIOS Four charging scenarios have been tested using the developed MV grid. Figure 5 Charging Schedule for Individual EVs as per Aggregated EV The third and fourth charging scenarios are spot price based Charging Schedule charging scenarios. the constraint is management for a number of EVs. determines the charging schedule of the EVs according to the predicted spot prices of next day. is the total charging power if all EVs are connected to grid and start charging at the same time. the EV fleet operator will determine the 1 ∑ 1 charging schedules of individual EVs. (3). most vehicles reach home at 5:00 pm. The entity in charge of EV charging For the charging status of the EV fleet. the customers will start charging EVs immediately after they reach home and the charging activity continues till the EV battery state of charge (SOC) reaches 85%. is the ith minimum spot price. Therefore. described by Eq. in the dumb charging scenario. As per the charging schedule for the EV fleet. According to the demand profile. . the customers will charge EVs during low demand time periods. is the equivalent charging time for the time period of the ith minimum time period. The spot price based EV charging scenario can be depicted by the optimization problem below. (4) Objective Function: . (4). the customers start charging at 5:00 pm.263 km. is the availability of the time period of the ith minimum spot price. 3 in Figure 3.

the EV 0.4 EV Demand (MW) The EV charging details of the four charging scenarios are 0. Timed charging scenario – Charging Scenario 2 According to the charging power options.95 pu – 1.2 times for the timed charging scenarios are listed below.7 IV.1 Phase grids is to study whether the MV grids can sustain with certain 0.1 0.5 Charging Scenario 3 . CASE STUDIES 0. Finish EV Demand (MW) charging: 02:00 0.3 described below. the charging Charging Scenario 4 . Dumb charging scenario – Charging Scenario 1 0.8 • EV_10.5 number is 186 which is calculated according to the household number within the S Ronne Syd grid.8 0. The impact study results with 10% EV penetration.2 Scenarios 3 and 4 0 The spot price based charging scenarios are Charging 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 time (Hour) 16 18 20 22 24 Scenarios 3 and 4.Figure 9.45kW: 5 hours – Start charging: 22:00. The EV charging demands of Charging Figure 9 EV Charging Demand Scenario 4 – 3 Phase scenarios 3 and 4 with 1 phase and 3 phase charging are shown in Figure 6 .35: 2 hours – Start charging: 00:00. In the impact study. 4 Where is the energy requirement for the EVs whose charging time is bigger than (i-1) and equal or less than i. The intent of the impact study of EV integration on MV EV Charging Demand Scenario 3 . Therefore. and 1 and 3 phase charging options are presented in the EV Demand (MW) 0. the charging times for the dumb charging scenarios are listed below. The total cars on the EV Charging Demand Scenario 4 .4 C.4 obtained.1 Phase 0.3 Phase are the percentage of EVs whose charging time is bigger 0. Spot price based charging scenario – Charging 0. 0.2 According to the charging power options.4 charging scenarios and charging power levels on MV grids 0. 0. 1 • EV_3.1 Phase corresponding to 2000. Besides the three charging scenarios. the 67% percent loading limit is used 0.04: 2 hours – Start charging: 17:00.3 Phase 1. and voltages of busbars are 0.6 charging: 02:00 0.3 and illustrate the effectiveness of the smart charging scenario. 0. A.4 B. and EV Charging Demand Scenario 3.1 kWh.2 The battery size of EVs used for the impact study is 25 0. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Impact study results of 1 Phase charging option time (Hour) Figure 6 EV Charging Demand Scenario 3 – 1 Phase The impact study results of 10% EV penetration and 1 .1 Phase EV penetration levels and charging scenarios.2 to check whether the power lines and transformers can sustain the extra loads from EV charging.3 Phase than (i-1) and equal or less than i. The voltage limits are set as 0.05 pu. there are two 0 charging power options.9 Charging Scenario 3 .1 • EV_3. For the Ronne Syd grid.6 EV Demand (MW) The loading of power components and voltage profiles in 0.68kW: 5 hours – Start charging: 17:00.3 sections below. the loading of lines and transformers.6 Bornholm Island are 2000 and the 10% EV penetration is Charging Scenario 4 . 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 time (Hour) • 1 phase 16 A Figure 7 EV Charging Demand Scenario 3 – 3 Phase • 3 phase 16 A The EV penetration level is 10%. 0.5 the MV grid are analyzed to quantify the impact of the 0. Finish Figure 8 EV Charging Demand Scenario 4 – 1 Phase charging: 19:00 EV Charging Demand Scenario 4. Finish 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 charging: 22:00 time (Hour) • EV_11. Finish 0.3 Phase 1.

1 Phase .008 90 Wihtout EV Dumb Charing CH1 1. Regarding 20 the line loading.u.94 Figure 14 Transformer Loading .1 Phase Table 2 Maximum Power Line Loading – 1 Phase The impact study results of 10% EV penetration and 1 phase charging are shown in Figure 13 .975 80 Timed Charging Fleet Operator All Day CH4 63.007 CH4 1.1 Phase CH1 107.08 50 Dumb Charing 1.801 Fleet Operator All Day 80 CH4 62.95 – 1.06 Timed Charging 40 Fleet Operator All Day 1.Table 7.947 70 Fleet Operator Evening Transformer loading (%) Bus Voltages with 10% EV Penetration 1.02 20 1 10 0.96 Time (Hour) 0.9 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time (Hour) Figure 12 Voltage Profile .765 100 CH2 63.947 Wihtout EV 90 Dumb Charing CH3 63. 5 phase charging are shown in Figure 10 .224 Fleet Operator Evening 70 Line Loading (%) Transformer loading with 10% EV Penetration 60 100 Wihtout EV 50 90 Dumb Charing Timed Charging 40 80 Fleet Operator All Day 30 Fleet Operator Evening 70 Transformer loading (%) 20 60 10 50 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 40 Time (Hour) 30 Figure 13 Power Line Loading .815 Charging Scenario Loading (%) NO EV 63. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time (Hour) Impact study results of 3 Phase charging option Figure 10 Power Line Loading .Table 4.224 Dumb Charing Timed Charging 90 CH3 65.Figure 12 and Table 2 Table 4 Voltage Profile – 1 Phase .131 CH2 73.000 80 Timed Charging CH2 1. NO EV 62.041 Table 3 Maximum Transformer Loading – 1 Phase CH3 72.946 Transformer loading with 10% EV Penetration CH1 66.008 Line Loading (%) 60 50 It is seen from the loading and voltage results that all 40 transformers loading is below the 67% loading limit and all 30 bus voltages are within the range of 0. Charging Scenario Bus Voltage (pu ) 100 Line loading with 10% EV Penetration NO EV 1.168 CH4 64.167 Wihtout EV 100 CH2 62. the dumb charging scenario will cause the 10 line loading exceeding the 67% limit which is 76. 1.3 Phase 0.1 60 Wihtout EV 1.008 Fleet Operator All Day 70 Fleet Operator Evening CH3 1.3 Phase 20 Table 5 Maximum Power Line Loading – 3 Phase 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Charging Scenario Loading (%) Time (Hour) NO EV 62.Figure 15 and Table 5 Charging Scenario Loading (%) .167%.04 Fleet Operator Evening 30 Bus Voltage p.224 Figure 11 Transformer Loading .224 Line loading with 10% EV Penetration 110 CH1 76.05 pu.92 0.98 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.

VI. CH3 63. China. . Cha. 2009.04 Fleet Operator Evening [7] O. 2010 Bus Voltage p.983 [12] http://www. “Integration of Charging Scenario Bus Voltage (pu ) Electric Vehicles in the Electric Power System. 168-183.H.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Table 7 Voltage Profile – 3 Phase Electronics. Technical University of Denmark (DTU) as PostDoc in Nov. M. Rotering and M. His research interests are integration of electrical vehicles (EVs) into power The impact study of EV integration on MV grids has been systems for high penetration of renewable energy sources (RES). Almedia. Nanjing. he joined central research smart charging scenario can determine the optimal charging and development department. 1. [1] Z. 64. Department of Electrical Engineering. No. in area monitoring system (WAMS). Vol.96 Electric Vehicles in Deregulated Electricity Markets. in 1982 and has been an associate professor in the same university since 1986. 2009 IEEE Power&Energy Society General Fleet Operator All Day Meeting.947 Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Hydro Quebec's Distribution System. M. 2008 to Oct. pp. Singapore in 2009 in Power System Engineering. A. Nielsen. from Mar. Østergaard. “Effects of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on distribution systems: A real case of 0. and M. R. pp.08 Wihtout EV Dumb Charing Impact of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Loading on Distribution System 1. integration carried out to investigate the effects of different charging study for wind power. E. Lopes. K. Figure 15 Voltage Profile .997 [5] A. Nanyang Technological University. 2009 IEEE PES General Meeting. respectively. 1-6. Babaeim. No. 0. “Grid Impacts of CH4 63. pp. Xu. 1-8. M. Lopes. in 2000 and voltages are within the range of 0. CONCLUSION 2009 and has been an assistant professor with CET since CH2 1. from Nanjing University of Science and Technology. 3917 . “Planning Electric-Drive Vehicle Charging under Constrained Grid Conditions. Lind and J. V.946 Multiple Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Residential Distribution CH1 94. J. J.” in Proc.” Proceedings of the NO EV 1. 1-7. S. Steen. Soares and P. N. Tuan.1 [6] J. [11] J. F.” in Proc.3 Phase [10] K. 1.94 Transactions on Power Systems. Taylor. 1-6. 1-8. D. 2009 IEEE Buchsrest PowerTech. 2010. 1-9. Soares and P.elforbrugspanel. O. Due to the 2003. A. Gordon. both in Power System and high charging power. Chen and C. L. Ltd. 1-7. Traeholt. 2011. Dyke. R. “The Impact of Transport Electrification on Electrical Networks. Østergaard. Marra. Wu. Schofield and M. pp. [2] Q. pp. Duvall. “Evaluation of the 1.972 Grids. 2010 IEEE PES Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe. It is seen from the loading and voltage results that all bus Eng. Eng.” in Proc. Jan. D. “Towards a Danish methods for early warning and early prevention of voltage instability. J. Regarding the line loading. wide Power System with 50% Wind – Smart Grids Activities in Denmark”. ASEA (now ABB). “Optimal Charge Control of Plug-In Hybrid 0.06 Timed Charging Operations. S. Driesen. 1-8. M.1-6. A.T. pp. pp. Haesen and J. 1. “Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study”. dynamic and transient performance of power systems scenarios on MV power component loading and the voltage with high penetration of RES. Afterwards. 99. real time simulation of power systems using RTDS and reliability analysis and improvement of restructured power systems profile under a certain EV penetration level. CH1 0. only the charging scenario 4 will He was a senior R&D engineer with VESTAS not cause the line loading exceeding the 67% limit which is Technology R&D Singapore Pte. He worked as a research assistant in DTU from The impact study results show that the fleet operator based 1978-1980.3926. P. etc. pp. pp. 2010 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Bus Voltages with 10% EV Penetration Exposition. Giumento. R. He became an assistant professor in DTU schedule without causing any overloading on the MV grids.008 IEEE.815%. 2010 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Time (Hour) Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT Europe). He obtained his PhD degree from the 67% loading limit for the dumb charging scenario.008 Qiuwei Wu (M’ 09) obtained his B.05 pu. wind power grids.9 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Gothenburg.” IEEE 0. Maitra. Binding. Y.006 VII. Kook.98 [8] N. P. 2009 IEEE PES Power Systems Conference and CH2 64. “Identifying Management Procedures to Deal with Connection of Electric Vehicles in Charging Scenario Loading (%) the Grid. pp. Almedia. 12. Alexander and M. F. the transformer loading is higher than Automation. Clement. Taylor and A.02 1 International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON). 6 Table 6 Maximum Transformer Loading – 3 Phase [3] J. 99. A. Sweden. Maitra. pp. 2010. 1. REFERENCES His research interests cover integration of renewable energy and distributed energy resources. “Coordinated Charging of NO EV 63. J. Two charging using demand response programs. No. Vol. P. BIOGRAPHIES CH4 1.008 CH3 1. Barnes. J. Bertling. based smart charging scenario. [4] K. 0. power options are included in the impact study in order to check out the possibility of having relatively high EV charging Arne Hejde Nielsen obtained his MSc in Electric power at MV grids and the effectiveness of the fleet operator Power Engineering from Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in 1978.” in Proc. overvoltage and protection of offshore Proc. 57. Carlson and L. in Proc. Sundstorm and C. F.” in Proc.186 Exposition.92 [9] S.u.95 – 1. Ilic. M.” in Proc. He joined Centre for Electric Technology (CET).

and flexible demand. system planning & operation. in 2000. P. Shanghai. He research interests are reliability assessment of restructured power systems and engineering systems. Canada. power market and nodal pricing. Chicago in 1992. research fellow in Nanyang Technological University. Upon graduation. Singapore. studies involving load flow.S degree in Electrical Engineering from Yonsei University. postdoctoral fellow in University of Alberta. China. He is a Ph. from 2008-2009. model development.S degree in Electrical Engineering from Illinois Institute of Technology. Technical University of Denmark (DTU). control architecture for future power system. DTU. R. Yi Ding obtained his B. ISRAEL. Prof. . His research interests cover SmartGrids with focus on system integration of renewable energy and distributed energy resources. His working experience include research fellow in International Reliability and Risk Management Center (IRRMC). Eng. He is head of the Danish experimental platform for electric power and energy. a fully digital real-time simulator. he joined Korea Electric Power Research Institute where he was actively engaged in the development of KEPS. in electrical engineering from Shanghai Jiaotong University. PowerLabDK. He is currently an associate professor in Centre for Electric Technology (CET). Korea in 1997. boards and steering committees. and a M. Department of Electrical Engineering. Since 2005 he has been Professor and Head of Centre for Electric Technology (CET). He obtained his PhD in electrical power engineering from Nanyang Technological University. from 2007-2008. Cha has a B. Jacob is serving in several professional organizations. Singapore. 2007. and he has been member of the EU SmartGrids advisory council.D candidate at Technical University of Denmark and his present interest includes real-time simulation of power systems. Seung Tae. He was with Research Institute of Danish Electric Utilities for 10 years where he did research within power system transmission and distribution and was responsible for developing industrial-academic collaboration. and other various research projects. 7 Jacob Østergaard (M’95-SM’ 09) obtained his MSc in Electrical Engineering from Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in 1995. Sami Shamoon College of Engineering. In 2009 he received the IBM Faculty Award. from 2005 to 2006.