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Hearsay reporting Hearsay reports are mostly often used in news

reporting. This kind of reports describes what people


say, know, believe, think, etc. The report can refer to
present, past or a time before the time or reporting.
Present verb, present reference Basic hearsay report formula:
Passive form of the report verb (in present or past
Present Simple Passive Present Infinitive
simple form) + to-infinitive form
The problem is said to be dangerous.
This structure allows to report about a state or an action in the present.

Exercise 01. Rewrite the sentences the way it


doesnt contain the word underlined.
Present verb, past reference

Present Simple Passive Past Infinitive In all times people believe that heroes are nearby.
___________________________________________
The problem is said to have been solved.
They say the problem was solved last year.
This structure allows to report about a state or an action in the past.
___________________________________________
Michael believed it was a very hard decision.
___________________________________________
Past verb, reference to time of reporting
Everybody knew the earthquake was too destructive.
Past Simple Passive Present Infinitive ___________________________________________
The problem was said to be dangerous. Janet says that she has been waiting for Tim too long.

This structure allows to report about a statement or action at the time the ___________________________________________
report was made.
Tom considers that he bought his Mustang in Illinois.
___________________________________________
Past verb, reference before time of reporting The managers found out that their boss was wrong.
___________________________________________
Past Simple Passive Past Infinitive
The police suspects that the robbers stole for 2 years.
The problem was said to have been dangerous. ___________________________________________
This structure allows to report about a statement or action at the time Jane saw the dog when it was crossing the street.
before the report was made.
___________________________________________
Andy decided to discuss the problem together.
___________________________________________
Other forms possible
The referee thinks that the player was simulating foul.
Present continuous infinitive
Past continuous infinitiveto be + Ving ___________________________________________
to have been + Ving Historians believed these manuscripts were lost at all.
In this case we add to the meaning the continuous effect if we need to.
___________________________________________
The city is believed to be suffering no longer.
Jared is said to have been trying to escape twice. The dispatcher reported that the pilots were ready.

Present passive infinitive ___________________________________________


Past passive infinitiveto be + V3 The court informs that Hank was guilty in seduction.
to have been + V3
The effect of generalizing and omitting can be got using this structure.
___________________________________________
I know that Mark was trying to prove his screw up.
The city is known to be blocked by army forces.
Jim is said to have been put into the nearest hospital. ___________________________________________
The precious stones were believed to have been lost.
Diana thought she had seen Joy on Tuesday at 5 p.m.
Present passive continuous
Past passive continuousbeing + V3 ___________________________________________
having been + V3 Miriam saw that her husband had cleaned the garden.
Notice, there almost no difference in the meaning between these forms
___________________________________________
He denied being called at 5 p.m.
He denied having been called at 5 p.m.
Hearsay reporting

Exercise 02. Rewrite the sentences so that it begins with the words underlined.

The audience witnesses that the professor is creating a brand new point of view on a popular question.
________________________________________________________________________________________
The news TV-presenter announced that the Eastern coast had been suffering from a significant water level rise.
________________________________________________________________________________________
The board of directors believes that the company has been experiencing the best times in its history.
________________________________________________________________________________________
The publicity thinks that some car brand owners have been thinking about the usage of electric engines.
________________________________________________________________________________________
The agency considers that Jake Andersen is representing the company more efficiently than his predecessor.
________________________________________________________________________________________
His parents insist that their teenage daughter is looked after while they visit a foreign conference.
________________________________________________________________________________________
The managers think that the company is preparing a brand new briefing about the current situation solutions.
________________________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 03. Rewrite each sentence using Exercise 04. Rewrite each sentence so that it is a
appreciate, deny, enjoy, like or remember and the hearsay report, using the words in capitals.
words in capitals.
Two criminals have been caught.
Thanks for calling me today.
__________________________________REPORTThe
__________________________________CALLEDNick
train delivered the cargo in time.
was taken around the city and he enjoyed it very
__________________________________BELIEVEThe
much.
government is trying to estimate the consequences of a
__________________________________BEINGI dont
tsunami.
remember when they brought me home yesterday.
__________________________________SAYThey
__________________________________BEINGTom said
hadnt expected the collapse till last Tuesday in June.
that he liked when people took him as a prominent
__________________________________REPORTDolphi
actor.
ns have never been known to talk to humans.
__________________________________TAKENWilliam
__________________________________SAYThe
told that he didnt pay to receive the role in the new
accident happened at 6 a.m.
TV-series.
__________________________________BELIEVELast
__________________________________HAVINGLisa
year the company recorded slight salary rises.
doesnt remember when they put this strange thingy in
__________________________________THINK
her bag.
__________________________________BEING
Hearsay reporting: Exercise 02. Rewrite the sentences so that
it begins with the words underlined.
KEYS
The audience witnesses that the professor is
creating a brand new point of view on a
popular question.
Exercise 01. Rewrite the sentences the way it doesnt
contain the word underlined. The professor is witnessed to be creating a
new point of view on a popular question.
In all times people believe that heroes are nearby. The news TV-presenter announced that the
In all times heroes are believed to be nearby Eastern coast had been suffering from a
They say the problem was solved last year. significant water level rise.
The problem is said to have been solved last year. The Eastern coast was announced to have
Michael believed it was a very hard decision. been suffering from a significant water
The decision was believed to be difficult. level rise.
Everybody knew the earthquake was too destructive. The board of directors believes that the company
The earthquake was known to have been too destructive. has been experiencing the best times in its
Janet says that she has been waiting for Tim too long. history.
Tom is said to have been waited for too long. The company is believed to have been
Tom considers that he bought his Mustang in Illinois. experiencing the best times in its history.
The Mustang is considered to have been bought in ... The publicity thinks that some car brand owners
The managers found out that their boss was wrong. have been thinking about the usage of
The boss was found out to have been/to be wrong. electric engines.
The police suspects that the robbers stole for 2 years. Some car brand owners are thought to
The robbers are suspected to be stealing for 2 years. have been thinking about the usage of
Jane saw the dog when it was crossing the street. electric engines.
The dog was seen to have been crossing the street. The agency considers that Jake Andersen is
Andy decided to discuss the problem together. representing the company more efficiently
The problem was decided to be discussed together. than his predecessor.
The referee thinks that the player was simulating foul. Jake Andersen is considered to be
The player is thought to have been simulating the foul. representing the company more efficiently
Historians believed these manuscripts were lost at all. than his predecessor.
These manuscripts were believed to have been lost at all. His parents insist that their teenage daughter is
The dispatcher reported that the pilots were ready. looked after while they visit a foreign
The pilots were reported to be ready. conference.
The court informs that Hank was guilty in seduction. Their teenage daughter is insisted on being
Hank is informed to have been guilty in seduction. looked after while they visit a foreign
I know that Mark was trying to prove his screw up. conference.
Mark is known to have been trying to prove his screw up. The managers think that the company is preparing
Diana thought she had seen Joy on Tuesday at 5 p.m. a brand new briefing about the current
Joy was thought to have been seen on Tuesday at 5 p.m. situation solutions.
Miriam saw that her husband had cleaned the garden. The company is thought to be preparing a
The garden was seen to have been cleaned. brand new briefing about the current
situation solutions.
Hearsay reporting:
KEYS
Exercise 04. Rewrite each sentence so that it is a
hearsay report, using the words in capitals.

Exercise 03. Rewrite each sentence using Two criminals have been caught.
appreciate, deny, enjoy, like or remember and the Two criminals are reported to have been
words in capitals.
caught.REPORTThe train delivered the cargo in time.

Thanks for calling me today. The cargo is believed to have been delivered in time.

I appreciate being called today/having been called BELIEVEThe government is trying to estimate the

today.CALLEDNick was taken around the city and he consequences of a tsunami.

enjoyed it very much. The government is said to be trying to estimate the

Nick enjoyed very much being taken around the consequences of a tsunami.SAYThey hadnt

city.BEINGI dont remember when they brought me expected the collapse till last Tuesday in June.

home yesterday. The collapse was reported not to have been expected till

I dont remember being brought home last Tuesday in June.REPORTDolphins have never

yesterday.BEINGTom said that he liked when people been known to talk to humans.

took him as a prominent actor. Dolphins are said to have never been known to talk to

Tom liked being taken/to be taken as a prominent humans.SAYThe accident happened at 6 a.m.

actor.TAKENWilliam told that he didnt pay to The accident is believed to have happened at 6

receive the role in the new TV-series. a.m.BELIEVELast year the company recorded slight

William denied having paid to receive the role in the salary rises.

new TV-series.HAVINGLisa doesnt remember when The company is thought to have recorded slight salary

they put this strange thingy in her bag. rises last year.THINK

Lisa doesnt remember being put that strange thingy in


her bag.BEING