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International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-6, Jun- 2017]

https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.6.12 ISSN: 2454-1311

The Effect of addition of Spent Catalyst and


Steel fibres on the strength properties of concrete
B.S. Krishnamurthy1, R.Balamuralikrishnan2, Shaima Ibrahim AL-Abdali3
1
Sr. Lecturer Department of BNE, Caledonian College of Engineering, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
2
Asst. Professor, Department of BNE, Caledonian College of Engineering, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
3
Student, Department of BNE, Caledonian College of Engineering, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

Abstract - Large quantities of CO2 are released into the minimum flexural strength of 3.80 N/mm2. Finally the
atmosphere in the production of cement. The CO2 study shows that 15% partial replacement of cement by
production increases the hazard of global warming which spent catalyst with addition of 0.20% steel fibers with an
has forced the researchers to find materials which can aspect ratio of 60 produce satisfactory results.
partially or fully replace cement. Industrial by-products Keywords- Spent catalyst, Steel fiber, Concrete, strength,
like fly ash, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Steel fiber, Cementitious materials.
Silica fume, Rice husk Ash are tried as partial cement
replacement materials by virtue of their possessing I. INTRODUCTION
pozzalonic action when they come in contact with water 1.1 Supplementary Cementitious Materials
in concrete. Hence these industrial by-products are Fly ash, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS),
termed as Supplementary Cementitious Materials silica fume, Rice bush ash and Natural pozzolonic are
[SCM].Spent catalyst is one such industrial by-product of Supplementary cementitious Material. Supplementary
Oman from Petroleum Refineries produced from the cementitious materials are waste materials that are
cracking of petroleum to reduce the sulphur content and produced from various. Many efforts were made to use
to enhance the combustion properties of the oil. To the Supplementary cementitious Materials as cement
improve the tensile strength of concrete, discontinuous replacement or partial cement replacement materials in
discrete fibres are added to cement matrix and are termed order to minimize its disposal and reduce the pollution
as Fiber Reinforced Concrete. In this project an attempt generated by cement production process.
has been taken up to carry out an experimental Fly ash: The fly ash is an industrial by-product obtained
investigation to study the effect of addition of spent by burning coal in thermal power stations. Moreover, the
catalyst and steel fibers on the characteristic strength fly ash is non-combustible particles that are collected
properties of concrete. 15% by weight cement is replaced from the flue gases. Furthermore, proper percentage of fly
by spent catalyst as partial replacement of cement and ash to be implemented in concrete is determined based on
steel fibers of aspect ratio 60 are added at 0.2%, 0.3% the performance required, sources and composition of fly
and 0.4% by volume of concrete. C30 grade reference ash. The Fly ash of F class is produced from bituminous
concrete mix was cast for strength comparison. 150 mm x coal or burning anthracite and it generally has low content
150 mm x 150mm size cube moulds, 150 mm diameter of calcium. The class-C fly ash is formed by burning
and 300mm height cylindrical specimens and 500 mm x subbituminous coal and it has pozzalonic properties
100 mm x 100mm beam specimens were cast and tested to (Samara, M., 2013).
find the characteristic strength properties of all the Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag: GGBS is by-
concrete mixes cast. The experimental results show that product material and it is generated when the iron ore
the concrete mix M3 containing 15% partial replacement converted to pig iron. Immediately, the liquid slag is
of cement by spent catalyst and 0.20% steel fibers with an cooled in water and form granules. The obtained granules
aspect ratio of 60 shows maximum compressive stress of are ground to achieve smaller particles.
42.05N/mm2, maximum split tensile strength of 5.25 Silica fume: This material is a by-product of ferrosilicon
N/mm2 and maximum flexural strength of values of 4.20 metal or silicon manufacture (in other words, clay or
N/mm2. The test results also show that the concrete mix shale heated and ground after being cooled rabidly) and it
M5 containing 15% partial replacement of cement by is a highly reactive pozzalonic substance. The arc
spent catalyst and 0.40% steel fibers with an aspect ratio furnaces produce flue gases and the silica fume is
of 60 shows minimum compressive stress of 38.10 N/mm2, collected. The silica fume particles size is very small and
minimum split tensile strength of 4.76 N/mm2 and the average size of cement grains is about 100 times

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-6, Jun- 2017]
https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.6.12 ISSN: 2454-1311
bigger than silica fume particles size. This material is II. LITERATURE REVIEW
available in form of water-slurry or dens powder. ASTM Konapure & Dasari, 2015. An experimental work done
C 1240 is the standard specification for the silica fume to investigate the effect of addition of Silica Fume and
and it is added at the percentages from 5 to 12 by mass of Steel Fiber on the flexural strength and compressive
binder for mixture where high strength is needed. Special strength of concrete. The mixed proportion used in this
procedure is applied when the silica fume is handled, research is 1:1.97:2.75 while the water binder ratio is
cured and placed due to its extreme fitness. 0.41. The prepared mixture contained hook-end steel fiber
Rice hush ash: The ash collected from controlled rice with volume fraction of 1 percent and the selected aspect
husks burning after separation of rice grains. The Rice ratio of the steel fibres is 71. The replacement percentage
hush ash is considered as a very effective SCM. This of cement by silica fume is 5 percent by weight
material has great surface area and contains high quantity replacement. A chemical admixture which is
of silica soluble which is in condition of alkaline. 15 to 20 superplastisizer was added to the mixture to get the
percent of Rice hush ash is silica, 50 percent cellulose and desired workability. The relationship between
25 to 30 percent of lignin. A 30 percent of cement can be compressive strength, workability and flexural tensile
replaced by Rice hush ash due to high silica content that strength of concrete was represented graphically and
material has. This replacement will enhance the mathematically. The results achieved from the prepared
mechanical properties of concrete. Partial replacement of specimens were compared with results achieved from the
cement with Rice hush ash in concrete will generate C-S- control concrete specimens.
H gel and that helps in strengthen the bound between the Sukumar & John, 2015. Fibres are used in concrete to
aggregate (National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, provide cracking resistance besides increasing its
2000). strength. In this research, steel fibres are added to
Spent catalyst: This material is a by-product from oil concrete to investigate its influence on concrete. Many
refineries obtained by adding the fresh catalysts to oil researchers concluded that the compressive strength of the
cracking in order to minimize the amounts of sulphur concrete containing steel fibres is much more than the
content and to develop the oil properties of combustion. compressive strength containing polypropylene and glass
Oman has two sources of spent catalyst, one is Mina Al- fibers. The volume fraction Percentage of hooked steel
Fahal Refinery and the other one is from Sohar refinery fibres varied from 0 percent to 0.38 percent and the
(Al-Jabri, K. et al., 2013). Supplementary cementitious diameter of steel fibres used is 0.75mm. For this
materials (SCM) like spent catalyst when they come in experimental work, concrete cubes and beams were cast
contact with water will react with the calcium hydroxide to test the compressive and flexural strength of concrete.
of cement and produce C-S-H gel. By this process with It was found that the steel fibres enhance the strength
the addition of SCM, the microstructure of the cement properties of concrete.
paste will be improved which enhance the strength Al-Jabri, K. et al., 2014. In this paper, the authors defined
properties of concrete. the spent catalysts as materials produced from the cracks
Fibres: of petroleum in oil refineries when fresh catalyst is added
Many properties of concrete can be enhanced by addition to minimize the sulphur content and to develop the oil
of deferent types of fibers in concrete mixture. There are properties of combustion. The authors mentioned that
many types of fibres such as Steel fibres, Asbestos fibres, considerable quantities of spent catalysts are produced in
Organic fibres, carbon fibres, Polypropylene fibres and Sohar and Mina Al-Fahal Refineries in Oman. The Spent
glass fibres. catalyst produced in Refinery of Sohar is Zeolite catalyst
Steel fibres: The concrete physical properties, while the spent catalyst produced in Mina Al-Fahal
performance under different types of loads and Refinery is Equilibrium catalyst. The aim of the study
performance under vibration are improved by addition of discussed in this paper is to investigate the effect of
steel fibres into the concrete mixture. The concrete that is partial replacement of cement by spent catalyst on
reinforced by steel fibres preforms as a composite concrete properties. The Cement replacement percentages
material and its reinforcement is provided in all examined were up to 10 by cement weight and the ratios
directions. Even when the crack appears, the FRC is able of water-to-binder are 0.5 and 0.7.
to carry the loads because of the high ductility that Al-Jabri, K. et al., 2013. This research was done to study
concrete acquired. The addition of the steel fibres the effect of addition of spent catalyst on the mortars
improves the concrete strength, enhances the edge compressive strength. The by weight sand replacement
protection and develops the control of crack and was done with the percentages of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25.
shrinkage. There are various types of steel fibres such as Moreover, the by weight replacement of cement by the
Crimpt, hooked-end, straight, etc. (Neeraja, 2013) spent catalyst was done with the percentages of 2,4,6,8

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-6, Jun- 2017]
https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.6.12 ISSN: 2454-1311
and 10. The water binder ratios used were 0.50, 0.55 and Table.1: Steel Fibres Dimensions
0.60 while the binder to-sand ratio was one to three. The
cast specimens were tested after curing periods of 7, 14, Dimensions
28, 56 and 91 days. Good results were found when sand 1.00 mm ( 0.04
Wire diameter (d)
in concrete was partially replaced by Sohar refinerys mm)
spent catalyst. Minor effects on the concrete compressive 60.0 mm (+2/-3
Fibre length (L)
mm)
strength were recorded when cement was partially
replaced by spent catalyst produced by Sohar and Mina Hook length (l and l) 14
Al-Fahal. The Leachate tests showed that spent catalyst 1.80 mm (+1/-0
Hook depth (h and h)
has no negative impact on the environment if used as mm)
Bending angle (a and
construction material. 45 (min. 30)
a)
Neeraja, 2013. According to the previous researches, it is
well known that the concrete resistance against cracking Aspect ratio (L/d) 60
is improved by addition of steel fibres into the mixture. Camber of the fibre Max. 5% of l
As a result, the fibres can enhance the tensile strength of
Torsion angle of the
concrete. Even if cracks appear on concrete, the steel < 30
fibre
fibres have the ability of keeping concrete components
Number of fibres per kg 2600
connected. After inclusion of steel fibres in the concrete
mixture, the ordinary concrete is noticed to be ductile Total fibre length per 10
1575 m
material. kg

III. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION Table.2: Physical properties and Chemical composition


3.1 Materials Collection and properties: of Spent Catalyst
The materials used to cast the concrete specimens are Typical chemical Typical physical
Cement, Steel fibres, Water, Aggregate and Spent composition properties
catalyst. Cement is used to form the binder material Calcium Oxide 45 % colour Dry grey
needed for casting the concrete specimens. The cement Specific
Silica 40% 2.9
used for this experimental work is Ordinary Portland gravity
cement (Type I) having grade of 43. The cement used was Alumina 19% Bulk density 800 kg/m3
>1100
obtained from CCE material lab. The specific gravity of Magnesia 10% Fineness
m2/kg
cement used is 3.15 and its colour is greenish gray.
Steel fibers: Hooked-end Steel Fibers with aspect ratio of Table.3: Test Programme
60 and having tensile strength of 1150 MPa were used in Fine Coarse
Spent Steel
this experimental work. The dimensions and details are Cement aggreg aggreg Water
Mix. No. catalyst fibres
kg -ate -ate kg
shown in Table.1. The zeolite Spent catalyst that was kg kg
kg kg
gained from Sohar Refinery of ORPIC and used for this Mix
16.166
1(Reference 33.50 39.40 7.6 0 0
experimental work has gray colour. Physical properties Mix)
and chemical composition of Spent Catalyst presented in Mix 2 (15%
Table 2. The mean particles size of spent catalyst is 97 of Spent
catalyst+ 13.74 33.50 39.40 7.6 2.42 0
m. This material is considered as hazardous waste thus, 0% of steel
using safety measures while dealing with this material is fibre)
mandatory. Mix 3 (15%
of Spent
catalyst+ 13.74 33.50 39.40 7.6 2.42 0.644
0.2% of
steel fibre)
Mix 4 (15%
of Spent
catalyst+ 13.74 33.50 39.40 7.6 2.42 0.966
0.3% of
steel fibre)
Mix 5 (15%
of Spent
catalyst+ 13.74 33.50 39.40 7.6 2.42 1.23
0.4% of
steel fibre)

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-6, Jun- 2017]
https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.6.12 ISSN: 2454-1311
3.2 Testing of Specimens Cast:
The compressive strength, Split tensile strength and
flexural strength of concrete specimens contained spent
catalyst and steel fibres are tested and compared with the
results obtained from the reference mix.
3.3 Compressive strength test:
C30 grade concrete cube specimens with dimensions of Fig.2: Split tensile strength
(150mm x 150mm x 150mm) were cast to conduct the
compressive strength test. The cubic moulds were filled
with 0%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% of steel fibres, 0% and
15% by weight replacement of cement with spent catalyst.
After 24 hours from specimens casting, the cubes were
demoulded and cured for 28 days. After curing, the cubes
were tested under the universal testing machine having
capacity of 1000kN. Three cubes were tested in each
category and the average value of the three cubes was
recorded (Fig.1). Fig.3: Flexure test
3.4 Split tensile strength test:
C30 grade cylinders specimens with of dimensions IV. RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION
(150mm diameter and 300mm height) were cast to 4.1 Experimental Results:
conduct split tensile strength test. The cylinders moulds Table 4 shows the 28 days characteristic compressive
were filled with 0%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% of steel fibres, strength test results and also graphically represented in
0% and 15% by weight replacement of cement with spent Fig.4.
catalyst. After 24 hours of casting the specimens, the Table.4: Compressive strength test results of concrete
cylinders were demoulded and cured from 28 days. After mixes M1 to M5
curing, the cylinders were tested under the universal Concre Ce Spent Fine Coar Steel Avera
testing machine having capacity of 1000kN. Three te me- Cataly Agg se fibre ge
cylinders were tested in each category and the average Mix nt st rega Aggr s Compr
value of the three cylinders was recorded (Fig.2). designa te egate essive
3.5 Flexural strength test: tion Streng
C30 grade beams specimens with of dimensions (100 mm th
x 100 mm x 500 mm) were cast to conduct flexural Test
strength test. The beams moulds were filled with 0%, results
0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% of steel fibres, 0% and 15% by N/mm2
weight replacement of cement with spent catalyst. After M1 100 ---- 100 100% ---- 37.30
24 hours from casting the specimens, the beams were % %
demoulded and cured for 28 days. After curing, the beams M2 85% 15% 100 100% ---- 41.35
were tested under the universal testing machine having %
capacity off 1000kN. Two beams were tested using third M3 85% 15% 100 100% 0.2 42.05
point method and in each category .the average value of % %
the two beams was recorded (Fig.3). M4 85% 15% 100 100% 0.3 40.00
% %
M5 85% 15% 100 100% 0.4 38.10
% %

Fig.1: Compressive strength test

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-6, Jun- 2017]
https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.6.12 ISSN: 2454-1311
Table 6 shows the 28 days flexural strength to concrete
results and also graphically represented in Fig.6.
Table.6: Flexural strength test results of concrete mixes
M1 to M5

Averag
e
Concre
Fine Coar flexural
te Spent Steel
Ceme Agg se Strengt
Mix Catal fibre
nt rega Aggr h
Designa yst s
te egate Test
te-on
results
Fig. 4: Graphical representation of Compressive strength
N/mm2
test results of concrete mixes M1 to M5
100 ----
M1 100% ---- 100% 3.73
%
Table 5 shows the 28 days split tensile strength to
100 ----
concrete results and also graphically represented in Fig.5. M2 85% 15% 100% 4.13
%
Table.4: Split tensile strength test results of concrete
mixes M1 to M5 100 0.2
M3 85% 15% 100% 4.20
% %
Concret Ceme Spent Fine Coars Stee Aver
e nt Cataly Agg e l age 100 0.3
M4 85% 15% 100% 4.0
Mix st r- Aggr fibre Split % %
Design egat eg- s tensil 100 0.4
M5 85% 15% 100% 3.80
ati-on e ate e % %
Stren .
gth 4.4
N/m
4.2
m2
M1 100% ---- 100 100% ---- 4
4.5
% Flexural Strength
3.8
M2 85% 15% 100 100% ---- N/mm
5.16
% 3.6
M3 85% 15% 100 100% 0.2
5.25 3.4
% %
M1 M2 M3 M4 M5
M4 85% 15% 100 100% 0.3
5.00
% % Fig. 6: Graphical representation of flexural strength test
M5 85% 15% 100 100% 0.4 results of concrete mixes M1 to M5
4.76
% %
V. DISCUSSION
The experimental results show that the concrete mix M3
5.4
containing 15% partial replacement of cement by spent
5.2
catalyst and 0.20% steel fibers with an aspect ratio of 60
5
shows maximum compressive stress of 42.05N/mm2,
4.8
maximum split tensile strength of 5.25 N/mm2 and
4.6 Split Tensile maximum flexural strength of 4.20 N/mm2. The test
4.4 Strength in
results also show that the concrete mix M5 containing
4.2 N/mm
15% partial replacement of cement by spent catalyst and
4 0.40% steel fibers with an aspect ratio of 60 shows
M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 minimum compressive stress of 38.10 N/mm2, minimum
Fig. 5: Graphical representation of split tensile strength split tensile strength of 4.76 N/mm2 and minimum
test results of concrete mixes M1 to M5 flexural strength of 3.80 N/mm2. Finally the study show
that 15% partial replacement of cement by spent catalyst
with addition of 0.20% steel fibers with an aspect ratio of
60 produce satisfactory results. The strength properties of

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-6, Jun- 2017]
https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.6.12 ISSN: 2454-1311
concrete decreases when the by volume addition 0.3% by volume addition of steel fibres- increased
percentage of steel fibres goes beyond 0.20 because of the by 11% with reference to the control mix.
steel fibres distortion in the concrete mixture. 13) The split tensile strength of M5- contained 15% by
weight replacement of cement by spent catalyst and
VI. CONCLUSION 0.4% by volume addition of steel fibres- increased
Based on the results, the following conclusion are drawn: by 6% with reference to the control mix.
1) The experimental results show that the concrete mix 14) The flexural strength of M2- contained 15% by
M3 containing 15% partial replacement of cement weight replacement of cement by spent catalyst-
by spent catalyst and 0.20% steel fibers with an increased by 11% with reference to the control mix.
aspect ratio of 60 shows maximum values for the 15) The flexural strength of M3- contained 15% by
concrete strength properties. weight replacement of cement by spent catalyst and
2) The maximum compressive stress recorded is 0.2% by volume addition of steel fibres- increased
42.05N/mm2, maximum split tensile strength is 5.25 by 13% with reference to the control mix.
N/mm2 and maximum flexural strength is 4.20 16) The flexural strength of M4- contained 15% by
N/mm2. weight replacement of cement by spent catalyst and
3) The test results show that the concrete mix M5 0.3% by volume addition of steel fibres- increased
containing 15% partial replacement of cement by by 7% with reference to the control mix.
spent catalyst and 0.40% steel fibers with an aspect 17) The flexural strength of M5- contained 15% by
ratio of 60 shows minimum values for concrete weight replacement of cement by spent catalyst and
strength properties. 0.4% by volume addition of steel fibres- increased
4) The minimum compressive stress recorded is 38.10 by 2% with reference to the control mix.
N/mm2, minimum split tensile strength is 4.76
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