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Problem

A Festschrift on the 60th

Birthday of Ramesh K. Shah

Grenoble, France

August 24, 2002

Proceedings Editors

S. Kandlikar

Pages 131-139

LAMINAR FLOW FRICTION AND HEAT TRANSFER

IN NON-CIRCULAR DUCTS AND CHANNELS

PART II - THERMAL PROBLEM

Facultyof Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's,

NF, Canada, A1B 3X5, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo,

Waterloo, ON, Canada, N2L 3G1

ABSTRACT

A detailed review and analysis of the thermal characteristics of laminar developing and fully developed
ow in non-circular

ducts is presented. New models are proposed which simplify the prediction of Nusselt numbers for three fundamental

ows: the combined entrance problem, the Graetz problem, and thermally fully developed
ow in most non-circular duct

geometries found in heat exchanger applications. By means of scaling analysis it is shown that the complete problem may

be easily analyzed by combining the asymptotic results for short and long ducts. By means of a new characteristic length

scale, the square root of cross-sectional area, the eect of duct shape has been reduced. The new model has an accuracy

of 10 percent, or better, for most common duct shapes. Both singly and doubly connected ducts are considered.

A = ow area, m2 = symmetry parameter

a; b = major and minor axes of ellipse or rectangle, m = dynamic viscosity, Ns=m2

Bi = constants, i = 1 : : : 4 = kinematic viscosity, m2 =s

C = constant = uid density, kg=m3

Ci = constants, i = 1 : : : 5 = wall shear stress, N=m2

cp = specic heat, J=kg K = temperature excess, T To, K

Dh = hydraulic diameter of plain channel, 4A=P Subscripts

p

f = friction factor =( 21 U 2 ) A = based on the square root of area

h = heat transfer coecient, W=m2 K Dh = based on the hydraulic diameter

k = thermal conductivity, W=mK H = based on iso ux condition

L = duct length, m h = hydrodynamic

L = dimensionless thermal length, L=LReLP r L = based on the arbitrary length L

L = characteristic length scale, m m = mixed or bulk value

m = correlation parameter T = based on isothermal condition

m_ = mass ow rate, kg=s t = thermal

n = inward directed normal

NuL = Nusselt number, hL=k Superscripts

P = perimeter, m () = denotes average value of ()

Pr Prandtl number, =

q

=

= heat ux, W=m2 INTRODUCTION

r = radius, m Heat transfer in non-circular ducts of constant cross-

ReL = Reynolds number, U L= sectional area is of particular interest in the design of com-

s = arc length, m pact heat exchangers. In these applications passages are

T = temperature, K generally short and usually composed of cross-sections such

u; v; w = velocity components, m=s as triangular or rectangular geometries in addition to the

U = average velocity, m=s circular tube or parallel plate channel. Also, due to the

x; y; z = cartesian coordinates, m wide range of applications, uid Prandtl numbers usually

Y = dimensionless coordinate, y=L vary between 0:1 < P r < 1, which covers a wide range of

z = axial coordinate, m uids encompassing gases and highly viscous liquids such

Z = dimensionless position for thermally as automotive oils. In the second part of this paper, the

developing ows, z=LReLP r authors develop models for thermally fully developed ow,

thermally developing or Graetz ow, and simultaneously

Greek Symbols developing ow in circular and non-circular ducts and chan-

= thermal diusivity, m2 =s nels.

= hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness, m A review of the literature [1,2] reveals that the only

= thermal boundary layer thickness, m models available for predicting heat transfer in the com-

1

bined entry region are those of Churchill and Ozoe [3,4] The energy equation represents a balance between trans-

for the circular duct and Stephan [5,6] for the parallel plate verse conduction and axial convection, i.e.,

channel and circular duct. Recently, Garimella et al. [7] de-

veloped empirical expressions for the rectangular channel, cp V~

| {z

rT} = k| r{z2 T} (4)

while numerical data for polygonal ducts were obtained by Convection Conduction

Asako et al. [8]. Additional data for the rectangular, cir- We now consider several balances by examining the in-

cular, triangular, and parallel plate channel are available teraction of the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers

in Shah and London [1], Rohsenow et al. [9], and Kakac in two regions: the long duct and the short duct . Each is

and Yener [10]. Yilmaz and Cihan [11,12] provide a com- examined below using the method of scale analysis advo-

plex correlation method for the case of thermally developing cated by Bejan [18].

ow with fully developed hydrodynamic
ow, often referred

to as the Graetz problem or Graetz
ow. More recently, the Long Duct Asymptote, L >> Lt; L >> Lh

authors have presented simpler models for both the Graetz We begin by considering thermally and hydrodynami-

problem [13], the combined entrance problem [14], and nat- cally fully developed
ow in a non-circular duct of constant

ural convection in vertical isothermal ducts [15]. Additional cross-section. We write the left hand side of Eq. (4) as:

results are reported in Muzychka [16].

In Part I of this paper, the hydrodynamic problem was

considered in detail. Part II of this paper will present new

cp V~ rT cp U (Tw L To) (5)

models for the associated thermal problem. These mod- Next considering an enthalpy balance on the duct, we

els have been developed using the Churchill and Usagi [17] write:

asymptotic correlation method, as was done in Part I for the

hydrodynamic problem. In this paper, the asymptotic so- qP L = mc_ p (Tw To) (6)

lutions for thermally fully developed
ow, L >> Lh ; L >> Using the above relationship in Eq. (5) we obtain the

Lt , thermally developing
ow, L >> Lh; L << Lt, and following result:

the combined entry problem, L << Lh; L << Lt, are used

to develop a more general model for predicting heat trans-

fer coecients in non-circular ducts. Here Lt denotes the cp V~ rT qP

A

(7)

thermal entry length and Lh the hydrodynamic entrance The energy equation, Eq. (4) for fully developed
ow

length. now scales according to

GOVERNING EQUATIONS qP

The governing equations for steady, constant property, A

k (TwL2 To) (8)

incompressible
ow, in the thermal entrance region in a where L represents a characteristic transversal length scale

non-circular duct or channel are: of the duct cross-section. This allows the following relation

r V~ =0 (1) using the geometry:

qL

V~ rV~ = rp + r2 V~ (2) NuL =

k(Tw To) P L

A (9)

p

cp V~ rT = kr2 T (3) If the chracteristic length scale is chosen to be L = A, as

done in Part I of this paper, then the following expression

Simultaneous solution of the continuity, Eq. (1), and is obtained:

momentum, Eq. (2), equations subject to the no slip con- p

diction at the duct wall, V~ = 0, the boundedness condition NupA

A

=B= B1 (10)

along the duct duct axis, V~ 6= 1, and a constant initial P

velocity, V~ = U ~k, are required to characterize the
ow. In otherwords, the Nusselt number for fully developed

In the energy equation, the
ow is subject to constant in-
ow, scales to a constant related to the geometry of the

let temperature, the boundedness condition along the duct duct cross-section. This result is valid for both parabolic

axis, and either uniform wall temperature (UWT) usually or uniform velocity distributions.

denoted with a subscript (T) or uniform wall
ux (UWF)

condition, usually denoted with a subscript (H), at the duct Short Duct Asymptote, L << Lt ; L >> Lh

wall. In the entrance region near the duct inlet two separate

In the next section, scaling analysis [18] is used to show problems must be considered. The rst assumes that a

the appropriate form of the solution for both short and long fully developed hydrodynamic boundary layer exists while

ducts. Later, asymptotic analysis [19] is used to develop a the second considers the more general problem where both

new model. hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers develop.

Beginning with the classical Graetz
ow problem,

SCALE ANALYSIS where the velocity distribution is assumed to be fully de-

We now examine the energy equation and consider the veloped and of parabolic distribution, we may write the left

various balances implied under particular
ow conditions. hand side of Eq. (4) as:

2

(Tw To)

cp V~ rT cp U L (Tw L To) (11) cp U

L

k (Tw2 To) (21)

where is the thermal boundary layer thickness. This which gives

assumes that the thermal boundary layer is conned to a

1

region near the duct wall where the velocity distribution is

L (ReL P r)1=2

(22)

approximately linear, i.e. jV~ j U =L. The energy equa-

tion for Graetz
ow now scales according to and using Eq. (14), the Nusselt number becomes:

(Tw To)

cp U

L k (Tw2 To) (12) NuL =

B3

(23)

L (L)1=2

where the bulk temperature is taken to be equal the inlet

temperature, due to a thin thermal boundary layer. Re- When << , V~ U =, and the energy equation

arranging this expression for yields: scales according to

(Tw To )

k (Tw2 To)

1=3

L cp U (24)

L LReL P r (13) L

which gives

Next, considering the heat transfer coecient which scales

according to 1

1=2 (25)

k(Tw To)

L Re P r1=3

L

h(Tw To) (14) and using Eq. (14), the Nusselt number becomes:

we obtain the following expression for the Nusselt number: B4

NuL = (26)

hL 1 P r1=6 (L )1=2

NuL =

k

(L )1=3

(15)

In summary, we have found from scaling analysis the

or following relationships for the local or average Nusselt num-

B2 ber:

NuL = (16)

(L )1=3

where L = L=LReLP r, is the dimensionless thermal duct 8

>

length. >

>

> B1 L >> Lt ; Lh

>

Alternatively, we could have used: >

fReL 1=3

>

>

>

>

>

< B2 L << Lt ; L >> Lh

V~ rV~ ~ fReL UL (17) NuL =

>

L

B3

(27)

>

> L << Lt ; Lh , >>

where we have used the result from Part I, i.e. Eq. (9),

>

>

>

> (L )1=2

>

for the dimensionless average wall shear. This leads to the >

> B4

>

: L << Lt ; Lh , <<

following well known behaviour: P r (L )1=2

1 = 6

L=fReL 1=3

This asymptotic behaviour will be examined further

L LReL P r (18) and will form the basis for the new model developed for the

thermal entrance problem. Finally, an expression relating

and the approximate magnitude of the thermal entrance length

fReL 1=3

NuL = B2 (19) may be obtained by considering an equality between two

L asymptotic limits given in Eq. (27) for Graetz
ow with

Both Eq. (16) and Eq. (19) have the same character- L = Lt :

istic and order of magnitude, since fReL is constant.

fReL 1=3

L t

(28)

Finally, in the combined entrance region, the hydrody- or 3

namic boundary layer thickness scales according to the well B2

known expression [18]: Lt = fReL (29)

B1

Later, it will be shown that this approximate scale com-

1

L (ReL)1=2

(20) pares well with exact solutions.

We now consider two distinct regions. These are >> ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS

and >> . When >> , V~ U , and the energy In this section, asymptotic analysis [19] is used to es-

equation scales according to tablish expressions for the characteristic long duct and

3

short duct behaviour characterized through scaling anal- of the available data are predicted within 10 percent by

ysis. First, the long duct limit is considered yielding a Eq.(31), with few exceptions.

simple relationship for predicting Nusselt number. Addi- Figures 1-3 compare the data for many duct shapes

tionally, the issue of an appropriate characteristic length obtained from Shah and London [1] for both singly and

scale is addressed. Finally, the short duct limits are consid- doublyp connected ducts. When the results are based upon

ered by re-examining the approximate solution method of L = A, and an appropriate aspect ratio dened, two dis-

Leveque [20] and the laminar boundary layer solutions for tinct bounds are formed in Figs. 1 and 2 for the Nusselt

isothermal and iso
ux plates [1,2,18,19]. number. The lower bound consists of all duct shapes which

have re-entrant corners, i.e. angles less than 90 degrees,

Long Duct Asymptote, L >> Lt ; L >> Lh while the upper bound consists of all ducts with rounded

The fully developed
ow limit for both hydrodynamic corners and/or right angled corners.

and thermal problems has been addressed by Muzychka [16] Figure 3 shows the Nusselt number for the (H) condi-

and reported in Muzychka and Yovanovich [13,14]. Addi- tion for polygonal annular ducts and the circular annular

tional results appear in Yovanovich et al. [15]. These refer- duct. The predicted values are determined from Eq. (31)

ences [13-15] provide models for the classic Graetz problem using the equivalent denition of aspect ratio given in Part

and the combined entrance problem for forced
ow, and I for the circular annulus.

for natural convection in vertical isothermal ducts of non- p For the polygonal annular ducts,

the equivalent r = Ai =Ao , where Ai and Ao are the

circular cross-section. cross-sectional areas of the inner and outer ducts respec-

In Part I of this paper the authors have shown that tively.

when the friction factor-Reynolds number product is based

on the square root of cross-sectional area, the large number

of data were reduced to a single curve which was a simple Table 1

function of the aspect ratio of the duct or channel. We Nusselt Numbers for Slug and Fully

also showed that this curve was accurately represented by Developed Flow for Regular Polygons

the rst term of the series solution for the rectangular duct Iso
ux (H) Isothermal (T)

cross-section. This important result is given by Geometry FDF Slug FDF Slug

Triangle 3.11 - 2.47 -

Square 3.61 7.08 2.98 4.93

12 N uDh Hexagon 4.00 7.53 3.35 5.38

fRepA = p(1 + ) 1 192 tanh

(30) Octagon 4.21 7.69 3.47 5.53

Circular 4.36 7.96 3.66 5.77

5 2 Triangle 3.51 - 2.79 -

Square 3.61 7.08 2.98 4.93

Next, Muzychka [16] and Muzychka and Yovanovich N upA Hexagon 3.74 7.01 3.12 5.01

[13] applied the same reasoning to the fully developed Nus- Octagon 3.83 7.00 3.16 5.03

selt number in non-circular ducts, leading to the develop- Circular 3.86 7.06 3.24 5.11

ment of a model for the Graetz problem in non-circular

ducts. First, it was observed [13,16] that the Nusselt num-

bers for

p polygonal ducts collapsed to a single point when Short Duct Asymptote, L << Lt ; L >> Lh

L = A, see Table 1, for both fully developed and slug If the velocity distribution is fully developed and the

ows. Next it was observed that when the Nusselt num- temperature distribution is allowed to develop, the classic

bers for the rectangular duct and elliptic duct, were nor- Graetz problem results. In the thermal entrance region, the

malized with respect to the limiting values for the circular results are weak functions of the shape and geometry of the

and square ducts, these curves were approximately equal duct. This behaviour is characterized by the following ap-

to the normalized friction factor Reynolds number curve, proximate analytical expression attributed to Leveque, see

Eq. (30). Finally, a model was been developed which ac- [20]:

curately predicts the data for both thermal boundary con- 1=3

ditions [16], i.e. (T) and (H). The resulting model which C

Nu / (32)

requires Eq. (30) is L

fRepA where C is the dimensionless mean velocity gradient at the

NupA = C1 p
(31) duct wall and L is the dimensionless axial location. Thus,

8

if C is a weak function of shape, then Nu will be a weaker

where C1 is equal to 3:01 for the (UWT) boundary condi- function of shape due to the one third power.

tion and 3:66 for the (UWF) boundary condition. These In the thermal entrance region of non-circular ducts

results are the average value for fully developed
ow in a the thermal boundary layer is thin and is assumed to be

polygonal tube when the characteristic length scale is the developing in a region where the velocity gradient is linear.

square root of cross-sectional area [16]. The parameter
For very small distances from the duct inlet, the eect of

is chosen based upon the geometry. Values for
which curvature on the boundary layer development is negligible.

dene the upper and lower bounds in Figs. 1 and 2 are Thus, the analysis considers the duct boundary as a
at

xed at
= 1=10 and
= 3=10, respectively. Almost all plate. The governing equation for this situation is given by

4

ent at the duct wall. For non-circular ducts, this constant

is dened as:

I

@u 1 @u

C= = ds (34)

@n w P @n w

stant C is related to the friction factor-Reynolds number

product

fReL @u L

= = C (35)

2 @n w U

where L is an arbitrary length scale.

Dening the following parameters:

y z=L UL

Y= Z= = T To ReL =

Fig. 1 - Fully Developed Flow NuT, data from L ReL P r

Ref.[1]. leads to the governing equation

@ @ 2

C Y = (36)

@Z @Y 2

The governing equation can now be transformed into an

ordinary dierential equation for each wall condition using

a similarity variable [20]

Y

= (37)

(9Z=C )1=3

Both the UWT and UWF conditions are examined. Solu-

tions to the Leveque problem are discussed in Bird et al.

[20]. The solution for local Nusselt number with the UWT

condition yields:

p

3 3 (2=3) fReL 1=3 fReL 1=3

NuL = = 0:4273

Fig. 2 - Fully Developed Flow NuH, data from 2 18Z Z

Ref.[1]. (38)

while the solution for the local Nusselt number for the

(UWF) condition yields:

fReL 1=3 fReL 1=3

NuL = (2=3) = 0:5167 (39)

18Z Z

The average Nusselt number for both cases can be ob-

tained by integrating Eqs. (38, 39):

3

NuL = NuL (40)

2

The solution for each wall condition can be compactly

written with Z = L as:

fReL 1=3

NuL = C2 C3 (41)

L

where the value of C2 is 1 for local conditions and 3/2 for

Fig. 3 - Fully Developed Flow NuH in Annular average conditions, and C3 takes a value of 0.427 for UWT

Ducts, data from Ref. [1]. and 0.517 for UWF.

The Leveque approximation is valid where the ther-

@T @2T mal boundary layer is thin, in the region near the wall

Cy = 2 (33)

@z @y where the velocity prole is linear. This corresponds to

where the constant C represents the mean velocity gradi- ow of large Prandtl number uids, which give rise to very

5

short hydrodynamic entrance lengths, i.e. hydrodynam- where the value of C4 = 1 for local conditions and C4 = 2

ically fully developed
ow. The weak eect of duct ge- for average conditions, and f (P r) is dened as:

ometry in the entrance region is due to the presence of

the friction factor-Reynolds number product, fRe, in the 0:564

f (P r) = h i2=9

(47)

above expression, which is representative of the average ve- 1 + 1:664P r1=6 9=2

locity gradient at the duct wall. The typical range of fRe

is 12 < fReDh < 24, Shah and London [1]. This results for the UWT condition, and

in 2:29 < (fReDh )1=3 < 2:88, which illustrates the weak

dependency of the thermal entrance region on shape and 0:886

f (P r) = h i2=9

(48)

aspect ratio. Further reductions are achievedp for similar 1 + 1:909P r1=6 9=2

shaped ducts by using the length scale L = A.

for the UWF condition. The preceding results are valid

Short Duct Asymptote, L << Lt ; L << Lh only for small values of L.

Finally, if both hydrodynamic and thermal boundary

layers develop simultaneously, the results are strong func- MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND COMPARISONS

tions of the
uid Prandtl number. In the combined entrance A model which is valid over the entire range of dimen-

region the behaviour for very small values of L may be ad- sionless duct lengths for P r ! 1, was developed by Muzy-

equately modelled by treating the duct wall as a
at plate. chka and Yovanovich [13] by combining Eq. (31) with Eq.

The characteristics of this region are: (41) using the Churchill and Usagi [17] asymptotic corre-

8 lation method. The form of the proposed model for an

< 0:564P r1=2 P r ! 0 arbitrary characteristic length scale is:

pNuz

= (42)

Re z : 0:339P r1=3 P r ! 1 ( !1=n

13 )n

for the UWT condition [4], and fRe n

Nu(z ) = C2 C3 + (Nuf d) (49)

8 z

< 0:886P r1=2 P r ! 0

pNu z

= (43) Now using the result for the fully developed friction

Re z : 0:464P r1=3 P r ! 1 factor, Eq. (32), and the result for the fully developed
ow

Nusselt number, Eq. (33), with n 5 a new model [13]

for the UWF condition [3]. was proposed having the form:

Composite models for each wall condition were devel-

oped by Churchill and Ozoe [3,4] using the asymptotic cor-

relation method of Churchill and Usagi [17]. The results NupA (L ) =

can be developed in terms of the P r ! 0 behaviour or the 2(

1) 5 3 51

P r ! 1 behaviour. For internal
ow problems, the appro-

fRepA 3

fRep 5 5

(50)

priate form is chosen to be in terms of the P r ! 0 charac- 4 C2 C3 + C1 p
A

L 8

teristic which introduces the Peclet number P e = ReP r:

where the constants C1 ; C2 , C3 and
are given in Table

Nuz Co 2. These constants dene the various cases for local or av-

= = f (P r) (44)

(Rez P r)1=2 " #1=n

Co P r1=6 n

erage Nusselt number and isothermal or iso
ux boundary

1+ conditions for the Graetz problem. The constant C2 was

C1 modied from that found by the Leveque approximation to

provide better agreement with the data.

where Co and C1 represent the coecients of the right A model for the combined entrance region is now de-

hand side of Eqs. (42, 43). The correlation parameter n is veloped by combining the solution for a
at plate with the

found by solving Eq. (44) at an intermediate value of P r model for the Graetz
ow problem developed earlier. The

where the exact solution is known, i.e. P r = 1. This leads proposed model takes the form:

to n = 4:537 for the UWT condition and n = 4:598 for the

UWF condition. For simplicity, n = 9=2 is chosen for both 20( 5

1)

cases. fRepA 3

The average Nusselt number for both cases is now ob- NupA (L ; P r) = 4@ C2 C3 +

L

tained by integrating Eq. (44):

!m=5 31=m

NuL = 2NuL (45)

fRepA 5

f (P r )

m

C1 p
+ C4 p 5 (51)

8 L

After introducing L , the solution for each wall condi-

tion can be compactly written as: which is similar to that proposed by Churchill and Ozoe

f (P r) [3,4] for the circular duct. This model is a composite solu-

NuL = C4 p (46) tion of the three asymptotic solutions just presented.

L

6

ber was considered. However, the blending parameter was

found to be most dependent upon the
uid Prandtl number.

A simple linear approximation was determined to pro-

vide better accuracy than choosing a single value for all

duct shapes. Due to the variation in geometries and data,

higher order approximations oered no additional advan-

tage. Therefore, the linear approximation which predicts

the blending parameter within 30 percent was found to be

satisfactory. Variations in the blending parameter of this

order will lead to small errors in the model predictions,

whereas variations on the order of 100 percent or more, i.e.

choosing a xed value, produce signicantly larger errors.

The resulting t for the correlation parameter m is:

Fig. 4 - Thermally Developing Flow NuT;m, data

from Ref.[1]. The above model is valid for 0:1 < P r < 1 which is

typical for most low Reynolds number ow heat exchanger

applications.

Comparisons with the available data from Ref. [1] are

provided in Tabular form in [13,14,16] and Figs. 4-9. Good

agreement is obtained with the data for the circular duct

and parallel plate channel. Note that comparison of the

model for the parallel plate channel was obtained by consid-

ering a rectangular duct having an aspect ratio of = 0:01.

This represents a reasonable approximation for this system.

The data are also compared with the models of Churchill

and Ozoe [3,4] and Stephan [5,6] for the circular duct and

parallel plate channel in Figs. 7 and 8.

The numerical data for the UWT circular duct fall

short of the model predictions at low P r numbers. How-

ever, all of the models are in excellent agreement with the

integral formulation of Kreith [22]. Good agreement is also

Fig. 5 - Thermally Developing Flow NuH;z, data obtained for the case of the square duct for all Prandtl num-

from Ref.[1]. bers. Comparisons of the model with data for the rectangu-

lar duct at various aspect ratios and the equilateral trian-

gular duct show that larger discrepancies arise. These data

neglect the eects of transverse velocities in both the mo-

mentum and energy equations. Additional graphical com-

parison can be found in [14].

The accuracy for each case may be improved consider-

ably by using the optimal value of the parameter m. How-

ever, this introduces an additional parameter into the model

which is deemed unnecessary for purposes of heat exchanger

design. The proposed model predicts most of the available

data for the combined entry problem to within 15 percent

and most of the data for the data for Graetz ow within

12 percent [13,14,16]. These models can also be used to pre-

dict the heat transfer characteristics for other non-circular

ducts for which there are presently no data.

The present models also agree well with the published

Fig. 6 - Thermally Developing Flow in Parallel models of Churchill and Ozoe [3,4] and the models of

Plate Channel, data from Ref.[1]. Stephan [5,6]. It is evident from Figs. 4-9 that the present

The parameter m was determined to lie in the range models provide acceptable accuracy for design calculations.

2 < m < 7, for all data examined. Values for the blend- Thermal Entrance Lengths

ing parameter were found to be weak functions of the duct An equation for predicting the thermal entrance length

aspect ratio and whether a local or average Nusselt num- is now obtained from Eq. (29) with B1 corresponding to Eq.

7

(31) and B2 = C2 C3 . This gives the following relationship:

C2 C3 3 1+3
2

2 192

Lt = 19:80 (1 + ) 1 tanh

C1 5 2

(53)

Using Eq. (53) with the appropriate values of

C1 ; C2 ; C3 ;
yields, Lt = 0:0358 and Lt = 0:0366 for

the circular duct for (T) and (H) respectively. When

rescaled to be based upon the hydraulic diameter, we ob-

tain Lt = 0:0281 and Lt = 0:0287 for the circular duct

for (T) and (H), which compare with the values from [1],

Lt = 0:0335 and Lt = 0:0430 for (T) and (H), respectively.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

A general model for predicting the heat transfer co-

ecient in the combined entry region of non-circular ducts Fig. 7 - Simultaneously Developing Flow in a Cir-

was developed. This model is valid for 0:1 < P r < 1, cular Tube NuH;z, data from Ref. [1] .

0 < L < 1, both uniform wall temperature (UWT) and

uniform wall
ux (UWF) conditions, and for local and mean

Nusselt numbers. Model predictions agree with numerical

data to within 15 percent or better for most non-circular

ducts and channels. The model was developed by combin-

ing the asymptotic results of laminar boundary layer
ow

and Graetz
ow for the thermal entrance region. In addi-

tion, by means of a novel characteristic length, the square

root of cross-sectional area, results for many non-circular

ducts of similar aspect ratio collapse onto a single curve.

The present study took advantage of scale analysis,

asymptotic analysis, and the selection of a more appropri-

ate characteristic length scale to develop a simple model.

This model only requires two parameters, the aspect ratio

of the duct and the dimensionless duct length. Whereas the

models of Yilmaz and Cihan [11,12] for Graetz
ow consist

of several equations. The present model predicts most of Fig. 8 - Simultaneously Developing Flow in Chan-

the developing
ow data within 12 percent or better. nel NuT;m, data from Ref. [1].

Finally these models may also be used to predict results

for ducts for which no solutions or tabulated data exist.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors acknowledge the nancial support of the

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of

Canada (NSERC).

REFERENCES

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[2] Shah, R.K. and Bhatti, M.S., Chapter 3: Laminar Con-

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[3] Churchill, S.W. and Ozoe, H., \Correlations for Lami-

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8

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778. Non-Circular Ducts", Proceedings of the 2001 Interna-

[7] Garimella, S., Dowling, W.J., Van derVeen, M., Killion, tional Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition,

J., \Heat Transfer Coecients for Simultaneously Develop- New York, NY, November, 2001.

ing Flow in Rectangular Tubes", Proceedings of the 2000 [15] Yovanovich, M.M., Teertstra, P.M., and Muzychka,

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and Mass Transfer, Vol. 31, 1988, pp 2590-2593. Fluid Friction and Heat Transfer in Low Reynolds Number

[9] Rohsenow, W.M., Hartnett, J.P., and Cho, Y.I., eds. Flow Heat Exchangers , Ph.D. Thesis, University of Water-

Handbook of Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1998. loo, 1999, Waterloo, ON.

[10] Kakac, S. and Yener, Y., \Laminar Forced Convec- [17] Churchill, S. W. and Usagi, R., \A General Expression

tion in the Combined Entrance Region of Ducts", in Low for the Correlation of Rates of Transfer and Other Phenom-

Reynolds Number Heat Exchangers, ed. S. Kakac, R. K. ena", American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Vol. 18,

Shah and A. E. Bergles, pp. 165-204, Hemisphere Publish- 1972, pp. 1121-1128.

ing, Washington, 1983. [18] Bejan, A., Convection Heat Transfer, 2nd Ed., Wiley,

[11] Yilmaz, T. and Cihan, E., \General Equation for Heat 1995, New York, NY.

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[12] Yilmaz, T. and Cihan, E., \An Equation for Laminar port Phenomena, Wiley, 1960, New York, NY.

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of Heat Transfer, Vol. 117, 1995, pp. 765-766. ASME, Vol. 77, 1955, pp. 1265-1274.

[13] Muzychka, Y.S. and Yovanovich, M.M., \Model- [22] Kreith, F., Principles of Heat Transfer, 2nd Ed., Inter-

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Table 2

Coecients for General Model

Boundary Condition

0:564

UWT (T) C1 = 3:01; C3 = 0:409 f (P r) = h i2=9

1 + (1:664P r1=6 )9=2

0:886

UWF (H) C1 = 3:66; C3 = 0:501 f (P r) = h i2=9

1 + (1:909P r1=6 )9=2

Local C2 = 1 C4 = 1

Average C2 = 3=2 C4 = 2

Shape Parameter

Upper Bound = 1=10

Lower Bound = 3=10

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