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Blacks, Decker

A manual of techniques
with easy-to-make projects I
for the home


Consultant editors George Daniels and Tomiffi. ...

$i6. 9 5

Blacks. Decker*
Black &
Decker Power Tool Car-
pentry provides the do-it-yourselfer
with a unique reference book, in-
valuable to the beginner and exper-
ienced home handyman alike.

Presenting one of the widest ranges

of quality power tools available,
this book gives excellent tips on
how to use them as well as describ-
ing what types of jobs are best
suited to each tool, to obtain maxi-
mum efficiency.
A special techniques section con-
tains photographs of the tools in
action and explains how they actu-
ally work. This section is supple-
mented with a guide to the hand
tools needed for the basic car-
penter's kit and, also, a detailed and
comprehensive description of all
the common woodworking joints.

The second, or projects, section is

devoted to over 25 projects, care-

fully selected for their practicality.
Each explained with well-pre-

pared step-by-step instructions and

illustrated with clear, easy-to-work-
from diagrams. This section will
enable you to create novel and
exciting projects for every living
area: A built-in closet and a loft
bed, a mix-and-match living room
suite, a hall stand and linen chest,
kitchen units, a garden planter, a
jungle gym and more.
. . .

So, all in one, Black & Decker

Power Tool Carpentry gives you a
complete, attractive and easy-to-
use book to both advance your
skills and enhance your home.

(Continued on back flap)

'ae ^oslrand Reinhold Book


Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2011
Blacks. Decker

Consultant editors: George Daniels and Tom Philbin
Copyright <' 1978 by Marshall Cavendish Limited
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 77-90840
ISBN 0-442-01985-8
All rights reserved. No part of this work covered
by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used
in any form or by any means graphic, electronic
or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,
taping, or information storage and retrieval systems
- without written permission of the publisher.

Printed in Great Britain.

Published in 1978 by Van Nostrand Reinhold Company

A Division of Litton Educational Publishing, Inc.
450 West 33rd Street, New York, N.Y. 10001, U.S.A.

This publication is not to be sold outside the United States

of America and its territories.

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Main entry under title:

Black and Decker power tool carpentry.

1Carpentry - Tools. 2. Power tools. 3. Black &


Decker Manufacturing Company, Towson, Md. 1. Daniels,

George Emery, 1914- II. Philbin, Thomas, 1934-

III. Title Power tool carpentry.

TH5618.B53 1978 684.083 77-90840

ISBN 0-442-01985-8
Trying your hand at home carpentry is something of a gamble,
but pozver-tool carpentry virtually guarantees you success -
even with the most exciting and ambitious of projects.
This book has been specially written to enable anyone to quickly
master the basic power-tool techniques and put them into
practice on projects chosen for their qualities
of design and ease of construction.
In fact, the onlv difficulty vou are likely to come across is
deciding which project to start first, since the choice includes
virtually everything from a garden gate to a 4-poster bed!
Basic tool kit 8
Woodworking joints n
Workmate 16
Power tool safety 19
The 20
Sanders 25
Power sawing 27
The jointer 36
The router 37
The bench grinder 37
The lathe 39
Spray painting 43

Hall stand 46
Telephone table 51
Victorian butler's tray 55
Coffee table 59
Serving cart 61
Sofa bed 66
Studio couch & chair 71
Mix-and-match living room suite 76
Round table 87
Table with a rural look 91
Dining chairs 99
Fold-down table with cabinet 105
Made-to-measure kitchen unit 108
oven/cooktop 114
Split level
Kitchen wall cabinet 119
Bunk beds 123
Loft bed 128
Closet 133
Built-in dressing table 137
Four-poster bed 141
Linen chest 145
Garden bench 150
Garden seat/ planter 154
Garden gates 160
Playhouse 165
Jungle gym 169
Gazebo 174

Index 182
Publisher's note
The lumber for the projects in this book has been selected for its relatively easy
availability. If you have difficulty obtaining a particular size stock, it is suggested
that you buy the next largest size and have it trimmed down by the lumberyard
(they should do this for a nominal fee) or trim it yourself.
Basic tool kit

Bosk tool kit

t\pc-s of handsaw (noi shown) are the rip
saw and tin- crosscul Baw*. The rip saw is

26m (660mm) long and 5 teeth per inch.

Its special purpose is tor tutting soft-

woods, working with the t,'ram. The cross-

cut saw is 24m to 26in (610mm to 660
mm) long with 6 to 8 teeth per inch and is

used for cutting across the grain of hard-

woods and softwoods and for working with
the grain on very hard woods.
3. C clamps. These are used for a range
of clamping purposes. These clamps are
available in a 1 in to 18in (25mm to 457
mm) range of opening and between lin
to 8in (25mm to 203mm) depth of
throat. When C clamps always
place a waste scrap of lumber between the
piece to be clamped and the jaws of the
clamps. This prevents bruising of the
4. Ratchet brace. This has spring-
loaded jaws in a screw-tightened chuck. It

is specially designed for holding wood

auger bits (5). The brace is available
with or without a reversible ratchet in a
sweep (the arc described by the turning
handle of the brace) ranging from 5 fin
(148mm) to 14in (355mm).
5. Wood auger bits. These are used with

the ratchet brace (4).

6. Hand drill. This is used for holding
wood and metal twist drill bits (7) and
countersink bits (8). The example shown
here has a double pinion (cogged drive
7. Twist bits. These are commonly
available in sizes ranging from ^jin to

The Tools for the Job 1. Tenonor back saw. These saws are |in (0.4mm13mm). The type of steel

One of the dullest and slowest jobs in between 8in

available in blade lengths of used depends on the use to which the
carpentrv is making a large number of and 14in (203mm and 356mm) with 13, bit is to be put.
identical pieces
sawing the same shape 14, 15, 16 or 20 teeth per inch. This is 8. Countersink bit. This is used for
repeatedly, hand-drilling row after row used for jointing and cutting across the countersinking drilled holes so that count-
of holes, sanding to shape and so on. grain on small pieces. The back of the ersunk screwheads will fit flush with the
Power tools take the routine and heavy blade may be of brass or steel. The saw surface of the piece you are working with.

labor out of many of these tasks so that with 20 teeth per inch is for cutting dove- 9. Warrington pattern or cross peen
your enthusiasm and energy are not tailsand it has a thin blade to give greater hammer. This is used for general nailing
diminished and your work will be of a accuracy. The dovetail saw performs a and joinery and can be used for planishing
better standard. Power tools will also ripping action, so cut along the grain and beating metal. Weights of these
enable you to complete a better looking when using it. hammers range from 6oz (170g) to
product, because you can achieve greater 2. Handsaw. This is used for cutting 16oz (450g).
accuracy of line not only when sawing larger pieces of lumber.There are three 10. Claw hammer. This is used for

long edges but also when making strong, types of handsaw. The one shown here is general purpose carpentry, in particular

durable joints. a panel saw. It is 20in to 22in (508mm to for driving and removing nails. When
However, the power tool kit will need 559mm) long with 10 teeth per inch. Its taking out nails, make sure that the nail

to be complemented by the carpenter's special purpose is for fine crosscut and head is well into the claw of the hammer
jointingwork for and cutting plywood, and, if it is necessary to protect the
basic tool kit. This should consist of the
following tools. blockboard and hardboard. The other surface of the wood, place a scrap piece of


Bosic tool kit

umber between the claw and the wood. 18. Adjustable steel rule. The pocket reduces the likelihood of tool slip and
Exert even pressure to lever the nail out. size variety, when fully extended, range consequent damage to the work.
Claw hammers are available in weights in length from 6ft (1.83m) to 12ft (3.66m). 27. Screwdriver. This tool is available
ranging from 16oz (450g) to 24oz (570g). The larger varieties are available in either in blade lengths of between 3in (76mm)

11. Carpenter's or joiner's mallet. steel, fiberglass or fabric in lengths of up and 18in (457mm) and tip widths of
This is used for general carpentry and to 100ft (30.5m). between ^ in (4.8mm) and in (13mm).
cabinet work and is available in head 19. Try square. This is used for setting The screwdriver tip should fit the screw-
lengths of between 4in (102mm) and 5^in out right angles and for testing edges slot completely and the risk of tool slip
(140mm). when planing lumber square. The tool will be further reduced if the screwdriver
12. Handyman's knife. This useful has a sprung steel blade and the stock is tip has been cross ground.
carpentrv knife can be fitted with a protected by a thin strip of brass or other 28. Carpenter's chisels. These art-
varietv of blades to suit specific purposes. soft metal. Available in blade lengths of available in several shapes and sizes of both
The blades include angled concave, 6in(152mm), l\m (190mm), 9in (230mm) handles and blades. The firmer bevel edge
convex, linoleum and hooked blades. and 12in (300mm). chisels shown here are probably the most
Wood and metal saw blades (12A and 20. Marking gauge. This is used to useful all around chisels to have in a basic
12B) can also be fitted to this tool as can mark one or more lines on a piece of tool kit. Chisel handles are either of ash,
a blade for cutting plastic laminate. lumber, parallel to one edge of that boxwood or plastic (shown here). Plastic
13. Bench plane. There are various tvpes lumber. The type shown here is a mortise handles are virtually unbreakable on
of bench plane and they are available in a gauge which has a fixed point on one side quality chisels but wood handles should
range of lengths and widths. The and one fixed and one adjustable point on be treated with care and should only be
Smooth plane (shown here) comes in the other. Its specific use is for marking hit with a wooden mallet. Blade widths
lengths of between 9\\r\ and 10|in out mortise and tenon joints but it can vary from iin (3mm) to 2in (51mm).
(241mm and 260mm) and widths of be used in the same wax as an ordinary 29. Oilstones. These are used for sharpen-
between lfin and 2^in (45mm to 60mm). marking gauge. ing the cutting edges of such tools as
The Jack plane (not shown) is available 21. Folding wooden rule. This tool is planes and chisels. There are two main
in lengths of between 14in (356mm) and also available in plastic. Primarily for kinds of oilstone, natural and artificial.

15in (381mm) and widths ranging from joinery and carpentry use, it should be Natural stone comes in several types.
2in (51mm) to 2j^in (60mm). The Fore used narrow edge onto the lumber for Washita gives a good finish and cuts well.
plane (not shown) is 18in (457mm) long the most accurate marking. These rules Arkansas is an expensive stone but it is
and 2j'm (60mm) wide. The Jointer plane are available in 2ft (600mm) and 3ft of high quality and produces a very fine
(not shown) is 22in (561mm) long and (lm) sizes. edge. These are the most commonly
2|in (60mm) wide. When working with 22. Scriber marking knife. One end of used natural oilstones. Artificial stones
resinous or sticky woods, a plane with a this tool is ground to a chisel shaped come in three grades coarse, medium
longitudinally corrugated sole makes the cutting edge for marking lumber. The and fine and have the advantage of
job of planing easier because friction other end is sharpened to a point and can maintaining their quality. They are
between the lumber and the plane is be used for scribing metal. available in a selection of sizes including
reduced. If you do not have such a 23. Punch or nail set. This tool is used 5in x 2in (127mm x 51mm), 6in x 2in
plane, apply a drop of vegetable oil to the for tapping tack and nailheads below the (152mm x (203mm x
51mm), 8in x 2in
sole of your ordinary plane
this will surface of lumber. A range of head sizes 51mm), (254mm x 51mm)
lOin x 2in
perform much the same function. is available to suit all nail sizes. and Sin x l^in (203mm x 46mm).
14. Surform plane. This is one of a 24. Center punch. This is used for 30. Fine machine oil. This has many
range of open rasp planing tools, all of spot marking metal to give a yuide for workshop and can
lubricating uses in the
which are useful and versatile. They are drilling. The marked by tapping
point is be used in conmunction with oilstones.
primarily used for rough work but with the wide end of the tool with a hammer. 31. Honing gauge. This is a useful de-
care some reasonably fine craftmanship Automatic center punches (not shown) vice for holding bladed tool at the
can be produced. Each tool in this range are available. These are spring loaded so correct angle for sharpening on an oil-
has replaceable blades. you do not have to tap the end of the tool. stone. The disadvantage of this tool is

15. Block plane. This small plane is 25. Carpenter's pencil. This has an that it tends to cause wear in the center
particularly useful for fine cabinet work oblong shaped lead which is sharpened of the oilstone rather than distributing the
and for planing end grain. Available in to a chisel edge so that it can be used to wear evenly over the whole stone.
lengths of between 6in and Tin (152mm black in lines scribed on lumber. 32. Small hacksaw. This is a general
to 178mm) and cutter widths of between 26. Phillips or Pozidrive type screw- purpose saw for light metalworking jobs.
1+J-in (49mm) and lfin (41mm). drivers. This tip is designed for use 33. Pincers. These are used for pulling
16. Sliding bevel. This tool is used for with crosshead type screws which are nails and tacks from lumber. If possible,
setting out angles, or bevels. Available in increasingly replacing screws with the always place a scrap of waste lumber
blade sizes of 9in (239mm), lOAin (267 conventional blade head. This crosshead between the jaws of the pincers and the
mm), and 12in (305mm). design allows far greater contact between work piece to avoid bruising.
17. Bradawl or scratch awl. This is a the screwdriver tip and the screwhead 34. Slip-joint pliers. This tool has a thin
chisel pointed boring tool used for mark- providing, of course, that the correct size section so that the jaws can reach into
ing screw position and counterboring for of screwdriver tip is used. This makes for tight places. It has two jaw opening
small size screws. greater torque (twisting power) and positions and shear type wire cutter.


Woodworking joints

i .
I he Imiii joini is the simplest ol
.ill joints in carpentry. It nut)

be made right-angled, and also needs naili or

eithei Btraighi 01
sinus, sometimes with the addition ol glue, to hold il firmly

2. The dowelled joini is basically butt joint reinforced with


dowels - lengths ol wooden rod. Moth halves ol the joint are often
drilled al once to make the holes line up.

3. The secret dowelled joint is better-looking because th< end ol

the dowels do not show. The tWO rows of holes are drilled
separately, so great accuracy is essential.

4. The 45 mitered joint has a very neat appearance, because no

end grain visible. Unfortunately, it is a very weak type of

joint unless it is reinforced in some way, for instance, with a

corrugated staple.

5. The end-lap joint is used at the corners of a rectangular

frame. It is simple to make, has a reasonably neat appearance,
and is quite strong if glued together.

Woodworking joints

6. The middle-lap joint is a variant of the usual end-lap. It is

generally used in conjunction with the previous type of lap-
joint in the construction of simple frameworks, for instance.

7. Thecross-lap joint is the third member of this versatile

family. This type of joint should be used where two pieces of
lumber have to cross without increasing the thickness of the

8. The lapped-dovetail joint is an extra-strong lap joint. Its

angled sides make it impossible for it to be pulled apart in a
straight line, though it is important to note that it still needs
glue to hold it together.

9. The housed joint is used for supporting the ends of shelves,

because it resists a downward pull very well. It, too, must be
reinforced with glue or screws.

10. The stopped-dado joint has a neater appearance, but is

harder to make because of the difficulty of cutting out the bottom
of the rectangular slot neatly.

Woodworking joints
//. Tongue-and-groovi joint 11. Tongue-and-groove joints are most often found along tli<-

edge oi ready-made boarding. Bui right-angled version of

.i tins
joint is also found, for example, al the corners oi boxes.

12. The end rabbel joint lus .1 rabbet cut in one side to lade
most oi the end grain. This type oi joint is quite often found in
inexpensive cabinet work, because it is very easy to make with
power tools.

[3. The mortise-and-tenon joint is very strong joint used to


form T-shapes in frames. The mortise is the slot on the left; the
tenon is the tongue on the right.

14. The through mortise-and-tenon joint is stronger than the

simple type just described. It is sometimes locked with small
hardwood wedges)driven in beside, or into, saw cuts in the tenon.

15. The haunched mortise-and-tenon is used at the top of a

frame. The top of the tenon is cut away so that the mortises can
be closed at both ends, and so retain its strength.

14. Through mortise-and-tenon joint

r ft. \ 7

I 1

Woodworking joints
1 6. The bare-faced tenon is offset, with a "shoulder" on one side Forked tenon joint
only. It is used for joining pieces of different thicknesses.

17. Twin tenons are used in very thick lumber. They give the
joint extra rigidity and do not weaken the wood as much as
usual. These are ideal for the construction of large items, such as

18. Forked tenons add rigidity to a deep narrow joint. The

angled edge of the tenon is sometimes found in a haunched
mortise-and-tenon joint.

19. Stub tenons are generally used on even deeper joints, but
they are weaker and less rigid than the forked tenons just

20. The
bridle joint is most often used where a long horizontal
piece of lumber has to be fitted into the tops of several vertical
pieces. This joint is best used for interior work as the end grain
is exposed.

Woodworking joints

Vhe Black & Decker dual height
Workmate in the higher, tvorkbench

For anyone who enjoys carpentry and ventional vise. A series of holes is drilled
wants to organize his workshop more into each of the vise jaws to take swivel
efficiently, a Workmate will prove a pegs, which not only extends the maxi-
valuable addition to his equipment. mum width of the object which the Work-
The Workmate is not just a work- mate will hold securely, but enables it to
bench, but a giant vise and sawhorse, as grip irregularly shaped objects firmly,
well as being a completely portable even something as awkwardly shaped as a
bench. It folds flat for easy storage and guitar! Horizontal V-grooves along the
can, in fact, be hung on hooks on the wall. inner edges of the vise jaws permit
Its other great advantage is that instead tubular objects to be securely gripped.
of having to take the work to your bench, The more expensive models have a dual-
you can take the Workmate to the height facility a set of folding legs, which,

location where you want to do the work, when folded away, give the lower height
be it workshop, garage, any room in the which is more appropriate to use as a
house or even outside in the garden. Yet, sawhorse and, when erected, raise the
despite its portability, any model of the height of the whole structure to a more
Workmate is strong enough to take comfortable height for bench use. Also,
loads up to 35olbs (159kg). on more expensive models, adjustable
The basic construction is a framework, feet are provided at both heights to
either of aluminum or pressed steel, with permit the Workmate to be levelled on
two long, flat vise jaws which enable it to uneven surfaces.
be used either as a working surface or a Apart from its versatility in being
vise. Independently operated handles at capable of holding large objects - such as
each end allow it to hold wedge-shaped a door - or irregular shapes, another
objects - a big advantage over a con- great advantage is that, unlike many con-


The Gripmate IM
clamp fitt into hole* in
II orkmatt \ ite jau ito hold work \>\< ,


ventional fixed benches, you can walk When sawing30 the maximum width
at ,

around it to work on your project from of material yfin (197mm), but this in-

any angle. creases to 17m (432mm) at 90". The base

of the Mitremate clamps to one of the
Attachments Workmate vise jaws, and the protractor
To add to the versatility of the Work- is set to the required angle. The work-

mate, a range of attachments is available. piece is then held against the protractor,
The Gripmate is a device for clamping while the saw, clamped to the flat metal

work down to the working surface of the base, is fed into the work to give a clean
bench, similar in function to a C clamp. It cut and an accurate angle. The maximum
consists of a vertical shaft, which, seated thickness of board which can be cut is
in a plastic liner, can be located in any of 2|in (73 mm )-

the swivel peg holes. A horizontal arm is The Routermate Shaping Guide is

lowered to the necessary level to grip the designed to be used with most routers
workpiece securely to the bench top, and with a base-plate diameter of 6in (152mm)
a lever action then clamps it firmly in or less, to perform routing and shaping in
place. A rubber pad at the point of con- conjunction with the Workmate. The
tact prevents damage to the work. guide fence clamped between the Work-

The Mitremate Saw Guide is designed mate vise jaws and the guide plate, with
for use with the Workmate and any the router secured to it, slides along the
Black & Decker jl'm (184.14mm) circular channel in the guide fence. This can only
saw, and provides a much greater degree be used with wood less than ifin (41.3
of accuracy than more traditional methods. mm) thick, but enables one to route
It can be used for cutting mitres from edges, make headings, and carry out your
30 to 90, and adjusts at increments of 5 . own freehand designs.


Power tool safety


KNOW YOUR POWER TOOL read WRENCHES make a habit of checking
instruction leaflets carefully. that all such adjusting tools are removed
KEEP THE WORK AREA CLEAN before switching on your power tools.
untidy work surfaces and benches invite STORE POWER TOOLS SECURELY
accidents. when not in use, store your power
WEAR PROPER CLOTHING do not tool in a dry, lockable place away from
wear loose clothing, aprons or unbuttoned children.
cuffs, or jewelery which could get caught
in moving parts. Rubber footwear is DO NOT
recommended for outdoor work. USE YOUR POWER TOOL IN DAN-
power tools. damp or combustible atmospheres. Keep
USE THE SAFETY GUARD PRO- the work area well lit.

VIDED keep it in place, and in good LET CHILDREN STAND TOO

working order. CLOSE all onlookers should be kept
SECURE WORKclamp down work, a safe distance from the work area.

or use a vise. It leaves both hands free FORCE YOUR POWER TOOL it will

and ensures that work

to operate the tool, perform better and more safely at the
cannot be snatched from your grasp. which it was designed.
rate for
ABUSE CABLES never carry power
TAINED Keep blades and drill bits tools by the cable, or tug it to dis-

sharp at all times for optimum safety connect the plug from the socket. Keep
and performance. Ensure that tools are the cable clear of sharp edges, oil and
regularly cleaned and serviced. heat.
IN USE so that they cannot be and proper footing at all times.

switched on accidentally. Check this START THE TOOL ACCIDENT-

especially when fitting attachments and ALLY never carry a plugged-in tool
making adjustments. with your finger on the switch.

The drill
The Drill
Power drills can be used for far more
than just boring holes. A large number of
accessories can be fitted to the basic
drill unit, enabling it to do many types of
work would otherwise require a
specialized power tool.
Basically, a power drill is a compact
electric motor fitted with a projecting
shaft at one end on which is mounted a
chuck, a revolving clamp that grips and
drives drill bits or other attachments. The
motor unit is held in the hand by a pistol
grip and the motor is started by pressing
a trigger at the top of the grip. For safety
reasons, the motor stops if pressure is

released on the trigger. But most drills

have a locking pin that can be engaged to
hold the trigger in the 'on' position.
Electric power is supplied to the drill

by a cord that enters the machine through

the bottom of the handle. On many
modern drills, a complex system of
insulation, known as double insulation, is

built in to keep the user from getting an

electric shock. In addition to extra user-
safety, it is not necessary to earth such
The motor is cooled by a built-in fan
that draws air through slots in the sides
of the These slots must be kept

uncovered and free of sawdust or the

motor may overheat and burn out.
Should any power tool become hot,
through heavy or prolonged use, the
quickest way to cool the motor is to hold
it safely away from yourself and the which enables speed to be 'dialed' and
a |in (13mm). These refer to their drilling
work, and run speed in free air.
it at full then maintains it constantly, whatever capacities in mild steel. In most cases,
This allows for the fan to provide maxi- the applied load. using a narrow-shanked bit, they will
mum ventilation. Although no practical use in
with drill holes at least double these diameters
Many drills can be adjusted to run at carpentry, when choosing a drill, con- in wood, and even more, using that bit.
different speeds. The normal type is a sideration should be given to drills The larger machines have more powerful
drill with a two-speed geared reduction, incorporating rotary hammer action. motors. A medium-sized machine should
to run at up to 1,000 rpm and 2,500- These are most useful when drilling be adequate for all ordinary jobs. The
3,000 rpm. These two speeds are suitable into brick, concrete or masonry is |in (6mm) and |in (10mm) sizes fall into
for most household jobs, and a machine required. At the flick of a selector switch, this category and are the most suitable
with a two-speed gearbox is the best buy the rotary hammer action can be en- for the household carpenter.
for the ambitious amateur. Some drills gaged for easy drilling into such materials. An indispensable accessory that every
have been made with two speeds achieved As the drill bit rotates, it also hammers up drill user will need
is an extension cord.

electronically, through a diode switch. and down, to break up hard aggregate This enables him to use the tool at a
This is certainly a low-cost method, but in its path.Disengage the hammer distance from a power source. Cords are
the speed range is narrower, typically selector for normal rotary drilling and available in standard lengths from 25ft
1,700 rpm and 2,500-3,000 rpm, and attachment driving. This feature adds (8m) to 100ft (33m) or more, or you can
there is some power loss at the lower to the cost of the drill, but is well worth make up your own. The longer the cable,
speed. it for the additional scope it offers around the thicker the wires must be to prevent
Variable-speed drills, where the speed the home. power loss. Larger drills also need
can be infinitely varied by an electronic Power drills come in various sizes, heavier cords. You should have a ground
device, are also available. This control which are graded by the capacity of their fault interrupter if using a grounding
can either be built into the trigger, chucks, that is by the largest drill bit type power tool outdoors. You can buy a
working by finger pressure, or through a that can be fitted into the chuck. Common portable GFI from large electrical supply
feedback system, an electronic chip sizes are in (6mm), fin (10mm) and outlets.

Drill bits

Drill bits and fittings

Mam types of drill bits are sold for
cutting different size holes in different
materials. The most common sort are Twist Hit
twist bits, used for drilling holes in metal
and in wood up to the drill's capacity.
The smallest common size of twist bit
is i^ in (1.6mm) and sizes increase in Jennings Hit
steps of }in (6mm) up from this.
Larger holes in wood are drilled with
spade type or Power Bore bits. The spade
bit has a flat tip with a center point and
Power Bore
two cutting edges. The Power Bore bit
has a round cutting tip for a somewhat
smoother cut. Forstner bits are used in a
drill press. They cut neat, flat-bottomed
holes, but theyhave to be withdrawn and Dowel Bit
cleaned out during the drilling.
Very large holes are drilled with spade
bits (up to 1 Jin [31mm] or hole saws up
to 3in[75mm]). The hole saw (also called
a trepanning bit) has a revolving toothed
ring attached to a central twist bit. The
ring removes wood like a revolving pastry
cutter. Different sizes of ring are available.
Very long holes, such as those up the
shaft of standard lamps, are drilled with
Hole Saw
a power bit extension. This is a shaft
held in the chuck with the bit held in a
small setscrew chuck at the other end.
Other types of bit include countersink
bits, for countersinking screw holes, and
combination bits like the 'Screw Mate,'
Shell Auger {special)
which are specially shaped to drill and
countersink (or counterbore) a hole for
a particular size of screw.
A plug cutter is often used in conjunc-
tion with screw work to conceal screw Countersink Bit
heads in wood. A bit the size of the screw
head is used to counterbore a screw hole
(to recess the screw head some way into
the wood) and then a plug, like a short Screw Pilot Drill
cylindrical piece of wood, is cut from a
matching piece of wood, glued into the
recess over the screw head, and planed
flat to give almost an invisible result. The

grain of the plug runs across its diameter. d Plug Cutter

For drilling hard masonry, special
masonry bits are available. They look
like twist bits, but have cutting tips made
of a special hard alloy. If using a drill Spear Point Drill
with rotary hammer action, then masonry
percussion bits are required. These
have specially hardened shoulders at the have squared shanks which don't fit the Some drill bits have a thickness of
tip, to withstand vibration shock. power drill chuck. plastic wrapped around the shank of the
Glass and tiles are drilled with a spear Twist bits possess heads no wider than drill to provide depth indication. This
point which also has a hardened tip.
drill, the shanks and are made intwo types of can be moved up and down. You can make
Drill bits for power drills have rounded steel, carbon and high-speed. High- a homemade depth stop by sticking
shanks to fit into the chuck. For this speed steel is best for general use. It has a adhesive tape around the bit. Bright
reason hand-tool bits (for a bit brace) much longer life than carbon steel which fluorescent tape is best. Drill to the
can't be used in a power drill. These dulls quickly when drilling metal. lower edge of the tape.

Bit sharpener

Drill stands
There are two types of drill stand or
press: the vertical and horizontal. With
the vertical you can drill accurately at an
angle of 90. The stand is
used mainly for driving rotary sanders,
abrasive discs, polishing buffs and bon-
nets, grinding wheels and wire brushes.
By adding asanding table to the hori-
zontal stand you can shape, sand and
grind objects.
The vertical drill stand consists of a
base with slots for bolting to a work
bench or Workmate, and clamp-
a collar
ing bolt for the upright column and the
drill carriage. The carriage is raised or
lowered by a feed lever and you can
adjust for depth of hole and the travel
of the drill on the column by adjusting the
height of the collar which clamps on the
column. A spring returns the carriage to
the raised position.
When using the drill on the stand it is

important to keep the cable out of the

way by leading it awav from the cradle of
the drill. Lightly oil the column fairly
frequently to prevent rust and also to
enable the carriage to slide more freely.

Drill stand vises

This unit enables you to do accurate
work on the base of the stand. Clamp the
lumber to be drilled in the vise and then
mm e the vise so that the center line of the
hole to be drilled is exactly underneath
the center point of the drill bit.

Above: The electric drill bit sharpener has into a larger hole it will result in the bit Tighten the vise by securing the bolts
a special grinding wheel designed to sharpen being misshaped. The point of the bit with a small wrench. Make sure it is

drill bits at the correct angle. The bit should be in the center, otherwise the bit tightly clamped.
drops into the appropriate hole in the top will drill oversized holeswhich will result
and is rotated gently while operating the in badly finished work and possibly waste Right-angle attachment
machine. Tungsten carbide-tipped bits of a valuable piece of lumber. A right-angle attachment converts the
should not be used. You can control the point position by drill so that vou can drill at angles or in
the pressure you apply to the bit during awkward places. To use it with the drill

The bit sharpener sharpening. Turn the knob in a clockwise you mav need adaptors. You can halve
Sharp and accurate drill bits will produce direction to increase the angle of cutting or double the speed of the drill (with
better quality work, without undue time and in a counterclockwise direction to some tvpes) depending on which way
losses or frustration and the bits lose decrease the cutting relief. around the attachment is fitted into the
their sharpness with continued use. You Drill should be sharpened only
bits spindle of the drill. You may want to buy
can restore the edge on a grinder or use when they are dry. When sharpening do an extra chuck for the attachment.
special drill-bit sharpeners now on the not use water or any other liquid as a You can also fit a grinding attachment
market. coolant. Sharpening makes the bit hot so to the chuck. But these should not be
You can change the position of the bit do not touch it your fingertips
with used at high speeds. Carefully follow the
inside the sharpener by an adjusting knob. immediately after you have extracted it instructions of the manufacturer.
In this way you can control the cutting from the machine. The right angle attachment enables you
of the first two angles. When using the Only high-speed steel or carbon steel to drill at an angle of 90 to the drive line.
sharpener the following procedure should bits can be sharpened in the machine. The slow and 'F' for fast
letters 'S' for
be followed: set the adjusting knob on the Masonry, percussion and other bits with are stamped on the flat face of the
front in the vertical position and insert specially hard tips, or of a different tip- hexagonal drive adaptors at the ends of
the drill into the smallest hole of the top shape, should not be put into the machine, the accessory. When the drill is con-
plate into which it will fit. If you insert it or they will be ruined. nected to S and the chuck fitted to F. the


Drill stands

chuck rotates .it twice the rated ihill drilling structural members Buch aa
speed. When these two positions are Aooi joists,where the overall length ol
reversed the speed is halved. Fasl speeds the drill bil and the length of the <l 1 1

are used for drilling small holes and for would exceed the space between joists,
high-speed sanding. Place the tip of the drill bil al the point to
The attachment swing through
can be drilled and align the 1>k as nearlv
360 merely by rotating it by hand. The perpendicular to the work surface as
shape of the unit also allows access to possible.

Left: The use of a drill itandvite maket

sure that thenark does not move when
using a vertical drill ft and.

Bottom left : A vertical drill stand makes

for greater precision, particularly where
a series of holes is required.

drilling techniques

Drilling techniques
The great imperative when drilling is

always to be careful that you are drilling

at right angles to the work surface. The
best and surest way of doing this is by
using a drill stand. If you haven't got a

drill stand you can use a try square,

sighting the bit against the square.
A surer alternative one of the
is to use
jigs now on Dowelling jigs,
the market.
for example, give accurate siting and
drilling of holes to take wooden dowels.
These range from a simple drilled metal
block to more calibrated and complicated
To position dowel holes without a jig,
mark out the center of the hole on one of hand or even by foot. But always hold
the two pieces of lumber to be joined. smaller pieces in a clamp or vise onto the
Insert brads into the marks. Nip the bench or Workmate. Otherwise the drill
heads of the brads until only about may suddenly snatch the piece out of your
^in (6mm) of shank is protruding. Then hand and spin it around.
position and press the second piece of With a drill stand you can considerably
lumber down onto the first. Separate the widen the scope of your woodwork
pieces and remove the pins. You can then operations. Mortise cutting, for example
drill the dowel holes through the brad is easy. After marking out the mortise

marks. Always make sure that the lumber you can drill out most of the waste to a
is firmly clamped when you are drilling. finely controlled depth, finishing the
Large pieces can be held firmly by resulting slot with a chisel.



Figs. 1-8. The best results are achieved by
marking accurately before drilling (Figs.
1-4) It is a good idea to use a try square

for right angle drilling (Fig. 5)

6, 7). Avoid ragged holes

turning the lumber.
; and when
cutting mortises to drill out most of the
waste before finishing with a chisel (Figs.
(Fig. 8) by

In orbital lander with dust extraction.
This will produce a really smooth finish
writable for tanding, varnishing or even

Sanders circularmarks called swirl marks, which The drum sander consists of a wide
Several types of sander can be fitted to a mav be deep and difficult to remove. Even revolvingdrum made of rubber, with an
power drill. The most commonly used is with the disc used at the correct angle, abrasive belt fastened around its perim-
the disc sander. A flexible rubber disc is slight swirl marks are unavoidable. eter. It makes no swirl marks, but should
mounted in the chuck of the machine and A special type of disc called the 'Swirl- only be used for sanding curved edges of
an abrasive paper disc is fastened to it awav' reduces these marks to a minimum. small objects or narrow strips of wood.
with a recessed central screw. The disc is made of metal and is flat and On large, flat surfaces it tends to give an
The sander is used at an angle so that completely rigid. To give it flexibility in uneven result. This type of sander is

only one side of the disc touches the use, the shaft on which it is mounted also operated by a power drill.
surface being sanded. If the disc is laid can be tilted (by means of a ball joint) at a The orbital sander, on the other hand,
flat against the surface or pressed too slight angle while it is turning. This can be used to give a fine finish to any
hard against the surface, it produces allows for normal power drill operation. flatsurface. It is an integral tool with its


Right: Orbital sanders art available in

.',- and \-sheet sizes. This particular model
can be fitted with a dust extractor. These
power tools are suitable for use on lumber,

plaster, most metal surfaces and paintwork.

To achieve a fine finish, work through
grades of sandpaper.

own motor and a large, flat sanding pad Drum sanders

covered by an abrasive sheet. This moves Drum sanders are available in a wide
backward and forward in a small circle range of widths and sizes. Thev can be
and leaves no visible swirl marks. Many used on convex and small flat surfaces,
can also be adjusted for reciprocal (back across or with the grain.
and forth) motion. The arbor of the drum is fitted into the
The abrasive discs, belts and sheets for chuck of the drill. A tubular cover of
all these tools are available in many abrasive material makes a band that fits

coarse, medium and fine grades as well around the cylinder. When the cylinder
as special types, such as 'wet-or-drv' and spins itmoved against the surface of

'preparation' for rubbing down paint- the lumber. The abrasive is held on the
work. drum by tightening a nut on the shaft,
The finish on sandpaper depends on which expands the rubber.
the number of particles or granules. The
grains are widely spaced on 'open coat' Belt sanders
paper to allow the dust to from thefall It is of great advantage to have an integral
sander when it is removed from the belt sander. The belt sander is powered
lumber. This minimizes clogging when by a motor housed in the sander body.
sanding paint or pitchy wood. The back- There is an 'on' and 'off' switch and a
ing paper is tough and specially made to second handle so that you can control it

withstand the harsh action of the power with two hands.

sander. Note: ordinary sandpaper is not The sanding belt travels over two
suitable for use with a power sander. rollers, one at the front of the sander,
Check with your local dealer. the other at the rear, driven by the
motor-operated roller, usually the rear
Disc attachments one. To remove material fast, the sander
The disc attachment is the most widely can be used at about 45 to the grain of
used for rough sanding wood. It con- the wood, first pointed to one side, then
sistsof a 5in (125mm) rubber backing the other. Keep the sander moving over
disc which fits into the chuck of the drill. the area to be sanded, so as not to make
Work with light sweeping strokes, hollows in the surface. On
rough work
starting with a coarse paper and working start with a fairly coarse sanding belt, and
through all the grades to a fine paper. It is progress through medium to fine. Belt
most important to keep the disc moving changing in most tvpes takes less than a
over the surface. minute.

Power sowing

Power Sawing The fence

Three basic types of circular saws are both types of bench, or table, saws men-
generally two of which are
available, tioned arc usually equipped with a 'fence'.
stationary shop tools. The most familiar This is an adjustable metal guide running
form is the- 'bench tabic saw'. It con- parallel to the saw blade. It can be. mused
sists of a metal tabic with a circular and locked to provide tin; desired space
saw blade protruding upward through a between itself and the blade, thus auto-
slot near the table center. The blade can matically setting the width of the piece
be raised or lowered by means of a saw cut, as when ripping a wide board length-
projection hand wheel. This makes it wise to make two narrower boards. In
possible to set the blade height to the most cases the space between the blade
depth of cut desired. For example, you ami the fence should be measured with a
can set the blade to cut only half an inch ruler for accuracy, even if tin; saw has its
into a thicker piece of wood, if you merely own measuring scale. In all cutting of this
want to cut a slot in it, rather than cut type, however, allow for the thickness of
all the way through it. the blade's cut (kerf), as it must be sub-
The blade can also be tilted to an tracted from the total width of the
angle to cut a bevel rather than a square remaining wood.
edge. The angle of tilt is controlled by
a saw tilt hand wheel. This angle of tilt The miter gauge
in some saws, chiefly older ones, is con- In addition to the fence, most table saws
trolled by tilting the table rather than the are equipped with a miter gauge. This is
blade. Saws that control the angle of cut a guide that slides in slots parallel to the
by tilting the blade are called 'tilt arbor' saw blade, and can be adjusted to any
saws, those that control the angle by required angle. Thus, it is possible to
tilting the table, 'tilt table' saws. set the edge of a piece of wood against the

Left : A circular saw being used to rip a

length of softwood. Always make sure thai
the blades are sharp; otherivise, these
machines are liable to stall.


Power sowing

adjusted miter gauge, and push the raises or lowers the blade to cut to various through occasional nails. Use this type of
piece through the saw so as to cut off depths, as in grooving work. On most blade also if you're cutting used lumber
the end of the piece at the pre-set angle. portable saws there's also an adjustable that may contain nails. For light gauge
You can, for example, set the miter rip guide that can be set and locked at metal there are metal cutting blades, and
gauge at 45 to cut a miter, or at any other varied distances from the blade to act like for heavier metals, there are abrasive
angle that happens to be required. Most the fence of a stationary saw in ripping discs that replace the blade. Similar
miter gauges are also provided with boards to specified widths. Angle cuts, as discs are available for cutting mason rv
removeable 'rod stops' that make it in mitering, may be made by guiding the block and other like materials. If you

possible to cut any desired number of saw along a marked line. Various types of need a blade for any special job or material
duplicate parts. As designs vary with the miter and angle guides are also available. tell your hardware dealer what the blade

brand, follow the manufacturer's in- Before buying one, however, make cer- must do. He can then recommend the
structions in adjusting and operating the tain that can be used with the brand of
it right blade for the job.
saw and its accessories. saw you own.

The radial arm saw Blade sizes

The radial arm saw (often called a radial Power saw sizes are commonly designated
saw) does much the same type ot work as according to the diameter of their blades,
the table saw, and is extremely versatile. and the diameter varies over a consider-
Basically, it consists of a table at the able range, depending on the type of
usual height, with a vertical column at use. Typically, table saws likely to be
the rear, topped with an extending 'over used in the home shop take blade
arm' that supports the'saw and its motor diameters from 7^in (181mm) to as large
aboze the work. The over-arm assembly is as 12in (300mm). Radial saws are likelv
made in several types, but their general to be in the Sin (200mm) to lOin (250mm)
operation is similar. Unlike the con- blade diameter range. The portable
ventional table saw, the blade cuts circular saw ranges in blade size from as
downward into the work. For operations small as 4|in (106mm) (for special work)
like miter cutting, the saw is swivekd to to more than lOin (250mm). The smallest
the required angle on the over-arm assem- size, used for such things as trim, plastic
bly, and locked, then pushed across laminates, and composition boards, may
the work on the over-arm's sliding track be available only on order from average
to make the cut. To make a square end outlets, as is often the case with the very
cut, the blade is swiveled and locked at large sizes, used for heavy work. A very
90 to the front of the table, and pushed popular size, with 7^in (181mm) blade
into the work, as described for miter diameter is readily available at most tool
cutting. For ripping, the blade is set and hardware suppliers. The important
and locked parallel to the front of the point in selecting any circular saw bv
table, with the required distance between blade size is its ability to cut the thickest
it and the fence, which is fixed at the rear material you're likely to use. A typical
of the table. Then the work is pushed 7|in (181mm) saw, for example, can cut
through the blade. The blade can also be through a lumber 2 7/16in
piece of
tilted to cut bevels. Many other opera- (62mm) thick and through a
at 90,
tions, such as rabbeting and dadoing can l|in (46mm) piece at 45. This is
be done on both the table saw and the adequate to handle most house framing
radial saw. Because of design differences work and, of course, work on thinner
in different brands, however, these materials.
operations and others should be done
according to the manufacturer's in- Blade types
you plan to buy either type
structions. If You buy blades for your power saws About saw guards
of saw, it's best to examine it at the according to the type of work to be done. When using any power saw equipped with
source from which vou'll be buving, and One most popular blades for general
of the a blade guard, use the guard on all work
look over the instructions at the same time. use in rough cutting is the combination where its use is possible. On a typical

or all-purpose wood cutting blade. This bench, or table, saw, the guard (which
The portable circular saw cuts both across the grain and with the covers the exposed portion of the blade
With the portable circular saw you can do grain. For plywood, you'll do best with above the table) can be used on practically
many of the jobs possible with the table a blade made for the purpose, with fine all work where the blade cuts all the way
saw and arm saw. But instead of
radial teeth that don't frav the surface. If vou're through the wood, as in ripping and end
moving the work through the saw, you cutting into wood that may contain nails cutting. In most cases where the cut is
move the saw along the work. The saw you use a flooring blade. This tvpe has not a through-cut, as in grooving, how-
can be adjusted to tilt the blade to various specially hardened teeth that can retain ever, the guard must be removed. The
angles to cut bevels. Another adjustment their sharpness even if the blade shears guard on a portable circular saw con-

Power sowing
sists ot two secti >ns, the upper one fixed
in position, the lower one retractable. As
you push the saw into the work, as in
cutting the end off a board, the retractable
(spring-loaded) section of the guard
springs upward as it comes in contact
with the wood being cut, and snaps back
in position as it passes over the far side
of the wood. It can be used in practically
all work except where the saw moves into
the wood at a very fine angle. If this
results in jamming the guard against the
wood during entry, the lower guard may
be retracted manually by means of a
retracting lever on the guard. Follow the
manufacturer's instructions on this, as in
all phases of operation. And in all types
of power saw operation, keep your hands
well clear of the blade at all times, and
never attempt repairs or adjustments with
the saw plugged into the power outlet.

The portable jigsaw (also called a

sabre saw)
This type of power saw cuts by means of
a rapidly reciprocating straight blade that
projects downward through the saw's
base plate or 'shoe'. (This is the flat

metal plate that rests on the work.) It

can make either straight or curved cuts,
starting from the edge of the lumber or
from a hole bored through it avvav from
the edge, as in cutting an opening in the
mid-area of a plywood panel. It can also
make its own starting hole. To do this, the
saw is tipped, nose down, resting on the
projecting front portion of the base plate,
with the tip of the blade resting lightly
on the surface of the wood. Then, after
lifting the blade tip just out of contact
with the wood, the saw motor is started
with the trigger switch. When the
reciprocating blade reaches full speed, the
blade tip is very gradually brought into
contact with the wood by tipping the saw- The choice of coarseness in metal cutting Above: A jigsaic used for intricate shapes.
backward. By tipping the saw farther is keved to the thickness of the metal.
backward, the blade is brought more At least two teeth should be in contact teeth for smooth cuts, coarse teeth for
deeply into the wood until it cuts all the with the metal being cut, so that the work fast cuts. Blades are also available with
way through. This is an operation that metal can't project between teeth, break- teeth on both edges for work where cut-
has many applications, but must be done ing them. In buying blades for a sabre ting in forward and backward
with considerable care in order not to saw be sure to select them to fit the saw directions may be required. It's wise to
break the blade. vou own. Some types are simply inserted keep a supply of the blades you use most,
into a slot in the lower end of the re- so that you have spares in the event of
Blades ciprocating shaft and clamped there by a breakages. If you find your saw cutting
A wide variety of blades are available for setscrew. Others are held by a screw that more slowly than usual, unplug it and
the sabre saw, including fine-toothed passes through a hole in the upper end of feel the tips of the teeth. If they're dull
types for cuts requiring a smooth finish, the blade. In many cases, the package from wear, replace the blade. Using dull
and coarse-toothed tvpes for work where containing the blade specifies the type of blades prolongs the saw's operation un-
cutting speed is more important than use for which the blade is suited. If not, necessarily and results in more than
smoothness. Both fine and coarse toothed inquire where you buy. Choose narrow- usual wear of the working parts plus
metal-cutting blades are also available. blades for small radius curves, fine possible overheating.

Power sowing

Guides for portable saws plan to use with it, will fit. In the event gauge at an angle.
Readv-made guides are available for you can't find a suitable ready-made Small pieces of lumber should be
portable jigsaws (sabre and for
saws) guide, keep in mind the battens (like pushed towards the blade with a push
portable circular saws, though you may lin x 2in [25mm x 50mm] stock) clamped stick, a piece of lumber with a V-shape

have to make inquiries to find one, as the to the work can also serve as accurate cut out of the end so that it can hold the
type you want may be made by one of the guides. A clamped batten, for example, piece of wood firmly. It does not matter
smaller manufacturers. The more elaborate lets you make a long straight cut (that if the push stick gets cut because you can
t\ pes enable a portable circular saw to might otherwise be wavy) with a sabre make another one in seconds. Fingers are
accurately duplicate many of the opera- saw. not so easily replaced.
tions of the radial arm saw. Typically, this
tvpe consists of adjustable tracks, along Sawing techniques, bench saw Mitering
which the saw moves after the angle, It dangerous to feed small pieces of
is Mitering, or cutting wood at a 45
width, or depth of cut has been set. wood into the blade with your hands, angle to make a mitered joint, can be done
Simpler forms may merely guide the saw because your fingers get uncomfortably quickly and accurately. To cut a miter
in angle or circle cutting. close to the blade and the slightest slip across the face of a piece of wood, as if

Some of these guides, such as the may cause a serious accident. Wood is making a picture frame, set the protractor
Trik-Trak, may be used not only with the very likely to slip on a bench saw because on the miter gauge accuratelv to 45.
jig saw or circular saw, but also with the of possible flaws in the wood, and the Then lay the wood against the guide and
router. Before buying, obtain full details tremendous torque of the blade. This is a slide the guide and wood together town
of the guide to make sure the tools you problem especially when using the miter the table into the saw blade.

Right: i sing a push stick fur safety

when working with small pieces of wood on a
saw table.


Power sowing

As general rule, when crosscutting

;i is narrower at one end than the other. It

the lumber should be held with botli is used, for example, when cutting legs
hands on one side of ho blade and thet lor tables, so that the finished result is

offcul allowed to fall away freely. If you smooth and graceful.

push from both sides, the pressure tends Taper work is best done by making an
to elose up the cut around the blade, adjustable jig out of two moderately long
causing it to jam and buck dangerously, battens. Set them face to face and fasten
[f you must hold both sides, apply them together by a hinge at one end and a
pressure in such a way as to hold the cut slotted metal strip fastened with wing
open nuts on the other. By moving the free
To cut a bevel or miter along the edge ends a distance apart and locking them
of a piece of lumber set the tilt protractor at this distance with the strip and wing

to a 45 angle. On some bench saws the nuts, the jig can be set at any shallow
table tilts instead of the blade. Slide the angle.
wood along the fence towards the blade In use, the jig is slid along the fence
in the normal way, but be sure the cut as together with the wood to be cut. This
it is finally produced is of the correct method is particularly convenient when
width you require. there are a large number of identical
Taper ripping is cutting a very shallow designs or shapes that must be cut, to
taper on a long length of wood so that it make sure they match exactly.

Left: The miter guide enables

accurate cuts across lumber at any angle.

Power sowing

Housed joints and dadoes When you have set the blade on its

Housed joints and other grooves can be washers, fasten a piece of scrap wood to
cut simply and accurately by setting the the fence to protect it and move it until
saw blade to the required depth of cut the blade just brushes the scrap wood at
and cutting the sides of the groove first, the apex of its wobble. Now anv piece of
using the fence to keep them straight. wood that is slid along the scrap wood will
Then slide the fence away and remove the have a rabbet cut out of it the same width
wood between the cuts by repeatedly as wobble of the blade or even
passing it over the saw blade. Mark the narrower if you adjust the blade to cut
extent of the groove on top of the wood or farther into the temporary scrap wood
you may cut past the edges. Except with fence. The depth of cut can still be
very narrow grooves or housings, this adjusted in the normal way.
method is faster than chiseling the whole Great care should be taken when using
thing by hand, although for a stopped wobble washers because the oscillation
dado you will have to cut the last inch or of the blade makes it more difficult to see
two by hand since the curved saw blade in operation. At all costs, keep vour
cannot reach the inside corner of the fingers well awav from it.
joint. It is also more accurate because the

depth of cut is constant all over the Kerfing

groove. When cutting tenons, wood can Kerfing is a special technique that enables
be removed in the same way. (A stopped a piece of solid wood to be bent in a curve.
dado is one in which the groove does not Rows of close parallel cuts are made
extend all the way to the edge of the wood.) wood on the inside of the curve
across the
through half to three-quarters of the
Rabbets wood's thickness, and all the way along
There are two ways of cutting rabbets on Fig 1 section to be removed
a bench saw me way is to cut along one
. (

side of the rabbet, using the fence to

ensure accuracy, and then turn the wood
through 90 and cut the other side.
This involves two operations for each
Fig. i . A circular saw fitted with a rabbet. A faster way is to mount the
"wobble washer" enables you to cut slots in blade on 'wobble washers', a pair of
lumber. angled washers that make the blade wobble
from side to side as it revolves. As a
( 'utting a housed joint using a
Figs. _' 4. result, the blade cuts a wide groove
circular saw. Fig. J shows the first cut being instead of a neat line. The width of the
made on the far right-hand side of the groove is restricted by the size of the
section to be removed. A further series of slot in the saw table, because if the blade
cuts is made on the left-hand extremity. 'wobbled' too far it would cut the table.
The remaining stock can be removed with a But you can always make several passes to
chisel. cut a wide rabbet.


Power sowing

the part that is to he curved. The wood Left I In hi i,l ,i

can then he bent and it helps it" you wet or 'a! ili 1 1 n Umg
steam it as well. L'se a crosscut or i Ills li a, i \ linlh
planer blade to make the cuts. A combina- handi fret in
tion blade is too coarse and may break guide the lumbet
out the wood between cuts.
Kerfing reduces the strength of wood
sharply, and should not be used for load-
bearing frames. It is really only suitable
for outside curves, with the saw cuts on
the narrower radius. The wood
could be
bent the other way but the surface would
probably wrinkle unattractively. When
used correctly kerfing produces a neat
curve that is more difficult to make by
other methods.

Tenon joints
To cut a tenon on a bench saw, first

cross-cut the lumber to length and make

sure that the ends are square. There are
two ways of making a tenon. In some
circumstances the first is less satisfactory.
The first method uses a series of cross-
cuts. First adjust the depth of cut and use
a batten as a guide. Make the first cut on
the shoulder of the tenon. Then make a
series of crosscuts along the length of the
marked tenon and complete. Lap joints
can also be made in this way.
The second method is the more ob-
Make a crosscut and an endwise cut
vious. Left : Setting
for each shoulder. When making the the depth of cut on
endwise cut use a push stick with your a circular saw.
right hand to slide the tenon towards the
The rip fence will need two settings so
that you will save time by completing all
the crosscuts before completing the end-
wise cuts. The corresponding mortise can
be made by the method described in the
chapter on the power drill.

Fig. I . A tenon
being cut using a
circular saw.


Power sowing

The jigsaw (sabre saw)

A power driven jigsaw is used for the
same jobs as a coping saw, that is for
cutting curves and complex shapes. Its
blade is small and pointed and moves
rapidly up and down with a reciprocating
motion. Various types of blade are
available for cutting wood, plastic and
sheet metal. But they will not cut very
thick boards or sheets. Typically they
can manage a 2in (50mm) thick softwood
board or hardwood half as thick.
Jigsaws should not be pressed forward
too hard or the highly tempered blade
may snap. But they should be held
firmlv down onto the material you are
cutting to resist the downstroke of the
The average blade is narrow enough to
cut |in (13mm) radius curves but will not
turn a right-angled corner. It can, how-
ever, be started in the middle of a piece of
wood bv tilting the machine forward on
its nose and graduallv lowering the blade
into the wood until it is upright.
Jigsaws are available in a variety of
sizes and power ranges. Tables are
available for some, making it possible to
use them as stationary tools, with the
blade pointing upward through the table.
Always make sure that the blade is
mounted tightly and that it remains that A jigsaw is at its best when cutting curves place hands or fingers under the work, as
way. If vou should drop the jigsaw, if it and intricate shapes. the blade projects down through it.

is hand-held, never attempt to catch it.

This may sound obvious but your in- blade a short distance from the edge (with General cuts
be to grab.
stinctive reaction will the saw resting on the work) when you A rounded cut can be cut one careful
start the saw. Allow few seconds for the
a operation but several passes are needed
Cutting saw you move
to reach full speed before for oblongs and squares. The first side
The jigsaw has a built-in blower to pre- the blade into the work, and move it should be cut to its fullest extent before
vent wood dust from obscuring the mark- gently. Don't force the saw along the cut bringing the blade back down the cut and
ed line you are sawing along. Air is move it at a rate that results in a steady curving it gently away from the cut to
directed from the drill to behind the saw- cutting speed without noticeable slowing carve out the second side. The piece left
blade through a tube. of the motor. Low powered saws will, of in the corner can be cut out later. Keep
Always support large panels of wood course, cut at a slower rate than high the motor running throughout this
to prevent the usual pinching and jam- powered ones. Suit the rate of cut to the procedure. Cut the remaining sides in the
ming of the blade. If there is any vibra- saw. Practice on scrap material before you same way.
tion stop and check the wood supports tackle an actual job, if you've never used A key-hole size opening can be cut b\
before proceeding. To start a cut, rest the a sabre saw before. Usually, it takes only a moving the blade backwards and forwards
base plate on the surface of the wood and few minutes to get the feel of the saw and making slight stabs at the wood.
slowly move the blade toward the edge of the knack of using it. In making curved The saw can also be used to cut straight
the lumber. cuts, keep the saw moving forward and lines although a circular saw is preferable.
steer it along the line to be cut. Don't try Keep long lines accurate by using a
General operation to make right-angle turns. If you must clamped batten as a guide.
In using the sabre saw always hold the cut out an opening, as in plvwood, with
saw firmly on the work, which should be sharply squared corners, first cut it out Pocket cutting
solidly supported. Be sure that the blade with rounded corners inside the square- To start a cut in the middle of the lumber,
can cut along the required course without cornered out-line. Then use the saw to tilt the saw forward and allow it to make its

striking the work support. (If the work is square the corners by cutting inward to own starting hole, as described earlier.
resting on saw horses you don't want to the sharp corner from both adjoining This works less well on thicker wood and
cut the saw horse.) If you're cutting into sides. In all sabre saw w ork, keep your
itmay be necessary to drill a hole first
the work from the edge, keep the saw hands out of the saw's path, and do not before inserting the blade.


Power sowing

\\ being vertically adjustable Co allow lor

Fig 1

varying thicknesses Both

of lumber.
guides should be adjusted so that they
will almost touch the blade, a piece of

notepaper between the blade and guide

will provide sufficient clearance. The
upper guide assembly will also have a
thrust roller placed at the rear of the
k blade to prevent the saw blades being
pushed away from the work. The
adjustment should allow the blade to run
clear of the roller when not cutting, again
a thin sheet of cardboard can be used as a
feeler to check this. The blade must run
under tension and to enable tensioning
to be carried out, the upper bandwheel is
adjusted vertically by a tensioning knob
on top of the bandsaw. To enable the saw
to run accurately on the crown of the
bandwheels, a side knob, which is locked
after setting by a lock nut, can be used to
set the verticality of the bandwheel.
Correct tension can be ascertained by
checking the blade at a point between the
upper and lower guards, i.e. just above the
table it should have a maximum of flex.

The experienced user will instinctively be

able to tell that the blade is in correct
tension. Typically, the blade should have
a flex of about jin (6mm) in a 6in (150
mm) span.
The saw table may be fitted with a slot
in which a miter guide can slide. This
guide is used when cutting miters and
angles and also when cutting off battens.
Most bandsaw tables can be tilted for
The handsaw angled cutting.
The handsaw is a machine designed for Before commencing to cut a particular
cutting curved shapes primarily in wood job it is as well to make several cuts in a
however, special blades can be obtained waste piece to ensure even and accurate
for cutting plastics and metals. It can cutting. Mark a straight line on a piece of
also be used for straight cutting. A num- lumber, set the upper guide to just allow
ber of handsaws are available either as the passage of the lumber. Switch on the
bench or floor models. They all have the machine and cut along the line; no great
same basic components. The type and pushing effort should be required. If the
size selected will largely depend upon saw doesn't cut accurately, incorrect
individual requirements. setting of the guides, incorrect tension
The bandsaw consists of a continuous or bad sharpening and setting of the blade
length of narrow flexible blade which is may be the cause. Crosscutting is easier
mounted like a beltrunning over band- than cutting with the grain always begin ;

wheels, one of which is driven by an a curved cut at a point on the cross-grain.

electric motor. The bandwheels have Never backtrack, if the blade should get
peripheries these tires are an to the position where no further cutting
Keep the saw vertical when cutting a curved integral part of the wheel and are slightly can take place, stop the machine and with-
shape (Fig. i). Make a pocket cut into convex. This convexity allows the blade draw the lumber.
the center. Cut to the edge, then around the to run centrally on the wheel and counters When ordering a band, remember to
perimeter (Figs. 2, 3). A jigsaw is very the tendency for the blade to run off. In state the length of the band, its width and
useful for general sawing and trimming jobs order to keep the blade running vertically the material you intend to use it on. The
(Fig. 4), particularly where a section has through the saw table and to support the following points should be borne in mind
to be removed from the material of a blade when cutting, upper and lower when deciding the saw blade width for a
surrounding surface area (Fig. 5).
guide assemblies are provided the upper typical home shop bandsaw, such as a


Right above : A 14in (350mm) model. (Size based di-

powered plane is ameter of the band wheels sometimes
used in the same called pulleys.) Basically, the smaller the
way as a radius to be cut the narrower the blade
conventional required. For ]in (6mm) radius you'll
plane, but with need a Jin (3mm) blade; for fin (18mm)
much faster radius you can use a jin (6mm) blade, a
results. popular size. For additional sizes of
radii, you will have to check the manu-
facturer's specifications.

The planing machine (jointer)

One of the most useful of the workshop
machines, it can be used not only for
planing wood and smooth,
straight, flat
but also for tenoning and
chamfering. The planing machine is
usually referred to as the jointer, because
of its use in jointing (straightening) wood
surfaces. It can also be used to make some
types of molding and to plane wood to a
specified thickness.
Cutters may be honed in the machine
by resting an oilstone on the rear table,
suitably protected by thin cardboard and
rubbing lightly across each blade. The
blade must be held in its highest position
and the cutter block locked with a small
wooden wedge. When badly blunt and
possibly nicked they will have to be
removed and reground. Grinding is a job
Right below: A best left to the expert.
router can be used
with various Using the jointer
cutters to apply Follow the same rules when using the
shape and jointer as when planing on the bench.
finishing detail to Examine the lumber for loose knots and
woodworking always plane with the grain. Generally
projects. take thin cuts, particularly where the
lumber appears to be coarse and cross-
grained. Feed the lumber carefully, at a
steady rate of feed, particularly when
planing end grain. Should the lumber be
planed on all four edges always plane the
end grain first, any slight tearing at the
corners will be removed when planing the
long grain. When planing end grain only,
begin cutting from one edge then reverse
the wood to complete the cut from the
the other edge.
When planing, wherever possible use a
push stick, and keep the cutter guard in
position leaving sufficient clearance to
push the wood underneath. To plane
boards wider than the planer, several cuts
will need to be made. When planing a
curved edge remove the 'hump' first.
When cutting a short taper, use a support
stick for the lumber and pull the work
over the cutters. To cut a long taper use I

a push stick on the lumber.



Router/Bench grinder
The router
The router is undoubted!) one of In- t

most versatile machines available to the

home worker, hut unfortunately much of
its versatility remains unexplored.
Grooving, rabbeting, molding of all

kinds, curved cutting, including disc

cutting, housing, dovetailing, tongueing,
mortise and tenoning, carving and a host
of other processes are possible.
The machine consists of a motor,
complete with a collet chuck which can be
fitted with a very wide range of cutters
made either of high speed steel or
tungsten carbide tipped for cutting man-
made boards. The machine fits into a
body or housing which is fitted a means
ot adjusting the depth of cut and also a
method of locking the setting once it has
been made. A straight and circular fence
can be fitted to the body, and to the fence
a device can also be attached for cutting
circles. The fence is drilled to allow a
wooden fence to be secured either for
greater depth or to lengthen the fence for
greater security when cutting. A dove-
tailing attachment together with special
dovetail cutters permits the joining of
wide boards in cabinet construction.

Using the router

The method of securing the cutters and cutting, with the lumber held securelv in Chisel and plane blades are sharpened in
depth adjustment varies according to the a vise. Always wait for the machine two operations: grinding, to get the blade
type of machine; the carpenter would cutter to come to rest before returning the right shape; and honing, to put an
therefore be advised to read the manu- the router to the bench. edge on it. Different grinding wheels are
facturer's instructions with great care The handyman who wishes to increase needed for each operation, so having both
before attempting to use. the versatility of the router mav use an of them on the same machine speeds up
Unlike any of the other machines accessory 'shaper' table made for some work considerable
discussed the speed of the routers is routers, complete with an adjustable Sharpening is done against the front
extremely high, often up to 26,000 rpm. fence. This will prove to be most versatile curved edge of the grinding wheel, and
At these speeds, with cutters in good when long lengths of lumber have to be not against the flat circular face. The
condition, the quality of finish both with cut. Great care must be taken to keep the wheel revolves so that the front edge
and across the rain is extremelv good. hands well away from the router bit moves downward. This keeps sparks and
When using molding cutters it should be w hen using the machine in this way. fragments of metal or abrasive from being
noted that some of these cutters have thrown upward into the eyes (but
pins or pilots placed centrallv below the The bench grinder always wear goggles). Adjustable tool
cutter. The pilot runs on the edge of the One of the most useful tools in any work- rests are provided in front of each wheel
lumber and thus limits the cut to the shop is the bench grinder. It enables all to hold blades steady while they are
exact contour of the router bit. Care must edge tools to be resharpened quickly sharpened.
be taken in use. Should the machine be and sharp tools make for easy work. If Cutting wheels come in various grades.
transversed too quickly, the motor will you have a grinder attachment for a For most jobs, a medium wheel for
be overloaded, conversely too slow a rate power drill, you will have to set it up every grinding and a very fine one for honing
of feed will result in the lumber being time you want to sharpen something should be all you need. Special extra-
burned and possible drawing of the tem- which is often. In practice, this means tough wheels are made for honing the
per of the tool. If cutting to the full that you will not sharpen things often hardened tips of masonry drills.
thickness of the lumber, when using pilot- enough. So a bench grinder, which is not The wheels are fastened to their
type cutters, be necessarv to attach
it will particularly expensive, is a good invest- shafts by nuts screwed onto the threaded
an additional piece of wood underneath ment. ends of the shafts. The wheel on the left
the piece being cut, to provide a running Another advantage of an integral has a left-hand thread to stop from

edge for the pilot. The machine must bench grinder is that it has two revolving coming undone in use. The wheel on the
always be moved from left to right when shafts one on each end of the motor. right has a normal right-hand thread.


surface. Only the tip is honed. drill. Others are designed to clamp on the
To sharpen a blade, first lay it on the workshop grinder.
tool rest of a motorized
tool rest of the grinder with the point Whatever the type, follow the instruc-
touching the stationary wheel, and tions of the manufacturer, as procedures
measure the angle where the point vary with the brand. It is also possible to
touches. Move the
blade until the angle is sharpen drill bits freehand, as experienced
25, and memorize the position of the machinists often do. But don't try it
blade. Now take the blade away, start the without the experience. The basic prin-
wheels and lay the blade lightly against ciples, however, apply to all methods of
the coarse wheel. High speed and light drill bit sharpening.
pressure are the secret of good grinding. Before your first sharpening job, studv
Drill point gauge Move wide blade from side to side
a the point of a new bit, preferablv a
across the wheel, so that its whole edge is you can see the details.
fairly large one, so
ground evenly. If you think of the pointed drill tip as a
Heel of cutting lip

Grind on one side only until the blade cone, the usual angle at its apex will be
is properlv shaped, when the length of the 118
59 on each side. This is satis-
ground surface should be 2\ times the factorv for drilling most materials, in-
thickness of the blade. Every few seconds cluding soft to medium steel. (You can
of grinding, remove the blade from the buy a flat metal drill point gauge at large
wheel and dip it in cold water to stop it hardware stores to check this angle.)
from overheating. An overheated blade The angle, however, is measured at the
'loses its temper' and turns blue. If this cutting edges of the drill tip, often called
happens, grind off the blue part. the cutting lips. The drill must be ground
The freshly ground surface will be so the metal behind the cutting lips slopes
slightlv hollow in shape because of the downward away from the lips so the drill
Above: Maintaining the correct angles is curve of the wheel, but that doesn't can bite into the work. So the angle
essential for accurate sharpening of drill matter. The next stage is to hone it. measured at the trailing edge behind the
bits. Find the correct angle of the blade lip (also called the heel) of each cutting

against the stationary wheel as you did lip is approximately 12 less than at
before, except that it should be 30 and the tip. The principle is simple. The
not 25. Then start the grinder and lay cutting lip must be in contact with the
the sloping side of the blade against the material being and no other
wheel but only for a few seconds. portion of the must be rubbing on
drill tip

The wheel will turn the edge of the blade the material in such a way as to keep the
over, producing a fine 'burr' on the other cutting lip out of contact. Think of the
side. Cool the blade and lay the flat side two cutting lips at the drill tip as two
flat on a flat stone and slide it back and chisels rotating in contact with the
forth to turn the burr the other way. material being drilled.
Then turn the chisel around again then For extensive drilling in specific
give the other side a few strokes at 30. materials angles other than 118 are
This will turn the burr again. sometimes used for peak efficiency. For
Continue doing each side alternately, wood and thermoplastics, an 82 angle
using very light pressure and reducing the mav be used. For verv hard steel it may
honing period each time. Eventually the be 135. For general use, however, you'll
burr will break off, leaving a razor edge. avoid complications by using the 118
Blades can be honed several times angle. As vou gain experience you can try
before they lose their shape and have to be the variations mentioned if you work in
reground. the materials to which they apply.
Drill bits are ground against the flat,
Sharpening twist drills side surface of the grinding wheel, not
Sharpening chisel and plane blades Twist drill bits can be sharpened either on on the perimeter, in order to produce
Chisel and plane blades, though com- a drill sharpener like the motorized Black straight cutting edges. Be sure the wheel
pletely different in shape and use, are & Decker 7980 sharpener or the
bit is suitable for this type of use. The drill

sharpened in exactly the same way. In 79-800 bit sharpener, that is o perated by is rotated during the process so as to
both types of blade, the preliminary a power drill, or on the workshop grind- grind the tip all the way around, forming
grinding to shape of the edge of the blade ing wheel with the aid of a drill bit grind- the conical shape. The clearance is then
should give the ground surface an angle of ing attachment. The attachments, avail- ground behind each cutting lip indi-
25 to the flat face of the blade. Then it able from hardware stores, are made in vidually, by tipping the bit as necessary.
should be honed at the slightly greater several forms. Some are manufactured as Use the method recommended by the
angle of 30. The 5 difference saves vou complete units, including a small grind- manufacturer of the drill grinding attach-
from having to hone the whole ground ing wheel, to be powered by an electric ment, or the drill bit sharpener.


Some of the tools m tins section w ill onlj models thai can make sections foi newel
interest the professional or the ambitious posts that are several feel long. Hut
amateur who wants to indulge lus hobbj it you can afford .1 reasonabl) large-sized
to the fullest. All ofthe tools will vastly lathe you will find it much more versatile
increase the range ol projects you can and uselul 111 the long inn than .1 minia-
tackle, and the standard of work will be ture one.
even higher. All lathes are designed in much the
same way. The main frame, to which all

The lathe other parts are attached, is called the

A lathe adds whole new dimension to
a bed. The size of the lathe bed controls
your carpentry For one point, you
skills. the maximum length of the piece of
move beyond plain, square shapes, and wood that can be fitted into the lathe.
you can make round objects of any On the smallest self contained lathes, it

contour and with as much (or as little) may be as short as 12 in (Jllllmm) or less.
decoration as you like. A typical workshop lathe will have a

Wood-turning lathes are available in a much longer bed, however, for greater
range of sizes, from small ones powered usefulness and practicality.
by electric drills to huge professional The headstock is a strong support

Left : A wide variety of cutting tools

is available for use in wood turning. The

angle at which the cutting tool is held is

critical to the final result. Great accuracy

is required when setting up the lathe.


mounted at the left-hand end of the lathe corners ground further back than the
bed. houses a revolving cylindrical
It center, which makes the gouge right for
spindle. This is threaded on the outside cutting inside curves such as the insides
and has a hole down the middle so that of bowls.
fittings to hold the workpiece can be Gouges come in sizes from ^in (6mm)
attached to it in two ways as described to lin (25mm) wide. The wider sizes are
below. used for roughing straight lengths and the
At the other end of the lathe bed is narrower ones for sharp inside curves. In
another support, the tailstock, used for addition, the ^in (6mm) gouge can be
the turning of long objects such as lamp used for boring, such as is done in the
stands. The tailstock can be slid along middle of a bowl to mark the depth to
the lathe bed to suit the length of the which is should be cut (see below).
workpiece and can any be fixed in Chisels are used for finishing work once
position. In spindle work, the workpiece it has been roughed out with a gouge.
is clamped between headstock and tail- They have a straight cutting edge, which
stock and spins on a dead center, a flat may be ground square across or on the
plate with a blunt central spike, fixed to skew. The range of widths is the same as
the tailstock. for gouges, but unlike gouges (and
In face plate work the turning of wide, ordinary bench chisels) they are ground
flat objects such as bowls the tailstock on both sides at an angle of 15, so they
is not used and the object is fastened to come to an edge at 30. Skew-edged
the headstock only. This is why the head- chisels are more common, because thev
stock spindle provides two methods of are easier to hold in the correct position.
attachment. Spindle work is fixed on a Both types, however, are used for the
morse tapered spur center inserted into the same purpose.
hole in the spindle. Face plate work is There is also a special type of chisel
fixed firmly with large wood screws to a called a parting tool, which is made in one
flat and the face plate is in
face plate, size only. The blade is like that of a
turn screwed onto the threaded end of chisel, but its end is ground in a V-shape
the spindle. rather like a spear. used for cutting It is

On the near side of the lathe bed there a finished piece away from the waste
is a tool rest. The tools used for shaping wood left at its end. It is also useful for
the wood are held against, and slid marking out a block before vou start
along, this rest, which can be adjusted cutting it to shape.
and moved in all directions to suit anv Scraping tools are a form of chisel, but
type of work. are used for fine finishing work. They are
ground at a very shallow angle. One
Lathe tools popular and useful type of scraper has a
Special tools are made for lathework. round 'nose', or sharp edge. Another
There are main kinds: gouges
three commonly available type has a shallow
chisels and scrapers. At first sight, they V-shaped nose which most people re-
may look like ordinary bench chisels, but grind to suit their particular needs. Best
there are important differences and bet : use the original shape if you are a
bench tools should never be used for beginner.
lathe work. All lathe tools are normally sold with
Lathe tools have very robust blades and their handles. If you do happen to buy
extra-long handles which are usuallv made some in 'blade only' form, make sure that
of hardwood and have strong brass the handles you buy for them are the
ferrules. special extra-large lathe tool handles and
All lathe tools are supplied readv- not ordinarv chisel handles. These
ground to shape, but you have to sharpen ordinarv chisel handles are too small
them yourself. This must be done in a either to accept the tang of a lathe tool
special way for each type, as described blade or to hold firmly when working.
Gouges are used for roughing, or Grinding and sharpening
cutting wood roughly to shape. A gouge When you buy lathe tools, they are
blade is an angle of 40
U-shaped at generally ground to shape and sharpened.
around the outside of the L. It can be The method of sharpening differs from
ground in two shapes: straight across, that for ordinary bench gouges and
which makes the gouge suitable for chisels: thesharpening angle is the same
cutting flat, open surfaces, and with the as the grinding angle so that, when they


an- sharpened, an equal thickness of laying the unground side of the scrap* i Safety precautions
metal remov ed from all over the ground
is flat on the stone. Nevei wear loose clothing when working
edge, and its surface lias a single bevel. on a lathe; anything that gets caughl will
Sharpening in tins way takes longer, and Preparing the wood be rapidly wound into the machinery,
needs more care, than the conventional Wood that is to be tinned is normally taking you with it. The ideal clothing is a
method, but is absolutely necessary if the square in cross-section. It is time- buttoned-up overall, but it should not
tools are tobe used in the right waj consuming and messy ami can be have any holes in it; these can be par-
You will need several abrasive blocks
dangerous to cut the corner off en- ticularly dangerous. Remember to use
tor sharpening your chisels, gouges and tirely on the lathe, so it has to be trimmed goggles.
scrapers: two oilstones with flat surfaces very roughly to a circular cross-section Just in case something does happen,
(coarse and fine) and a shaped oilstone before you begin. make sure that the 'off' switch of your
(slipstone) of a suitable size to fit the A piece of wood that is to be spindle- lathe is placed so that you can reach it
inside curve of your gouges. One stone turned should be about 2in (50mm) in a hurry, without looking. Don't allow
should be used for gouges, which wear longer than the finished article to allow anybody to stand near you when turning
stones unevenly and another kept ex- for the waste at either end to be cut off wood.
clusively for chisels and scrapers, which when turning is finished. Before you start work, always make
need a perfectly flat surface. Slipstones Find the exact center of the wood at sure that the workpiece is firmly fixed to
are available with an egg-shaped cross- each end by marking the diagonals from the lathe, the lathe is firmly clamped
section, soone will be suitable for all the corner to corner. Then draw the largest down and all its parts are secure. These
curves on your various gouges if you circle on this center that will fit on to last two points are especially important.
choose one of the correct size. the end of the wood and plane the corners
Gouges should be sharpened at an wood all along its length to make it
off the Lathe speeds
angle of about 40. To do this, hold the roughly octagonal in cross-section. Take The ideal speed for a particular turning
gouge with one hand at each end and care not to cut below the line of the circle job depends both on the operation being
apply the point bevel-side down to the atany point. performed and on the diameter of the
stone with its bevelled edge exactlv Use a tenon saw or a chisel to prepare workpiece. The larger the diameter of a
parallel to the surface of the stone vou one end of the lumber to receive the spur workpiece, the faster is its speed (in
can feel the angle by raising and lowering center, making sure you get a tight fit inches per second) at the outside edge
the handle until the bevel lies flat on the perfectly centered. for a given lathe speed (in revolutions per
stone. Prepare the other end for the dead minute). So for most ordinary operations
Run the gouge
backwards and for- center of the tailstock by denting the (other than end boring, finishing and
wards over the stone and roll it from side center mark with a center punch, and final parting off) the smaller the piece the
to side at the same time, so that all of the apply a little oil or grease to the mark to faster it should turn. A list of ideal speeds
curved surface of the bevel touches the make the wood revolve freelv. is given below.
stone on each pass. Since you are The wood is now ready for clamping If you are using a miniature lathe, you
sharpening the blade only on one side, a between the headstock and tailstock. This are most unlikely to be able to vary its

burr will appear on the upper, visible is done simply by tapping the spur center speed to this extent. Many very small ones
side of the edge. If this burr appears all well home onto its slots, screwing it on have only a single speed around 3000
around the curve it will show that you the headstock, sliding the tailstock firmly rpm. This is all right for miniature
aremoving the blade in the right way. up to the other end and locking it in turning, which the very small lathes are
As soon as the burr has appeared all position. Adjust the tool rest as close as designed to do.
around the edge stop sharpening and possible to the wood, and turn the wood The solution to this problem is to buy
rest the blade, still bevel side down, on the around once by hand to make sure that it a variable speed lathe for your shop, but
tool rest of the lathe or some solid does not catch. The
should be set
rest there is an important point to observe in
surface. Then round slipstone flat
lay the just above the center line of the lathe. choosing one. Any speed-change pulley
in the groove of the gouge and slide it Wood for face-plate turning should systems require space above, below, or
carefully over the edge to remove the be just over lin (25mm) thicker than the behind the lathe. If you're short of space,

burr this should happen quite quickly. finished work. Plane one face perfectly- select a self-contained lathe with built-in
Chisels should be sharpened on both flat,draw the diagonals and the circle as motor and electronic speed control
sides at 15. Apply the chisel to your before, and saw off the corners of the tvpically by means of a dial on the front
perfectly flat oilstone with its bevel block nearly down to the line of the of the headstock. This type requires no
resting flat on the stone as before. Then circle. Lay the face plate exactly over the pulleys, belts, or auxiliary 'jack shafts'.
move it backwards and forwards (but center of the block, mark and pre-drill Another point to watch is that the
not, of course, rocking it) until a burr screw holes in the block through the speed control includes the range you'll
appears as before. Turn the chisel over holes in the face plate, and fasten the require.
and sharpen the other side in the same plate firmly to the block with stout lin
way. Remove the burr very carefully on (25mm) screws. Turning techniques
the flat surface of the stone. Screw the block and plate on to the When removing wood with a gouge or
Scrapers are sharpened in the same spindle and set the tool rest as close as chisel, the tool is held point slightly up-
way but on one side only and at the possible to the face of the work, but ward on the tool rest with its bevel or
original angle. Remove the burr by just below the center line. grind tangent to the revolving surface.

Lot he

The edge of the tool is then tipped slightly slid across the work point first, depending Face plate turning is done in a slightly
in the direction the tool is moving to on the contour of the part you are cutting. different way. The sides of the gouges
make This is why the
a clean shearing cut. Be very careful that the far, upper edge used should be ground well back to make
edge has to be sharpened at the same of the cutting surface does not catch on them fully round-nosed, or they will
angle at which it is ground. If there were the wood through incorrect angling. catch. You will be cutting into a vertical
a double slope the handle would be Once the work is roughly cut to shape surface instead of one that slopes away
likelv to catch and possibly fly out of your it should be smoothed. The correct tool from you, so the tools are positioned for
hand or damage the work. For this reason for this is a skew chisel. Whether you use scraping action.
it must be held with both hands. a straight or skew-edged chisel is entirely A tool should be applied to the wood as
Note that the full width of the cutting a matter of preference. usual, but it should not be angled to cut

edge is not used but only the section of When you switch from gouge to chisel, in, asyou may be working on end grain.
the edge toward the direction of move- adjust the tool rest so the chisel can make Instead, it should just be pushed gently

ment. The tool (in finishing) should be a clean cut on the workpiece and again towards the wood in scraping position,
applied to the workpiece at one end (or move the rest to the wood as possible. which will start the cut more smoothlv.
side for end plate turning) and moved You must stop the lathe to do this. Then When you are working across the face
smoothly across to the other side (or the restart the lathe and lay the chisel on the of a block, you will find that when you
center) in a continuous movement. If tool rest with the skew of its edge (if get to the middle, the rotation of the block
vou stop, it will create a ridge that will anv) tilted towards the center line of the tends to twist the tool around. Fven if
be difficult to remove. workpiece, and the edge itself angled at you hold it firmly to resist this, it will
Finding the correct angle and move- about 45 to the center line. Raise the still not cut properly. There is a special
ment requires careful practice, so you handle until the end of the edge nearer the technique to overcome this difficulty.

should trv the techniques out on worth- tool rest comes into contact with the First use the parting tool to draw a
less scrap lumber until you get them wood, then move it across smoothly as circle ^in (3mm) from the center of the
right. before. block. Then mark the intended depth on
In spindle turning, the length of the Final smoothing is done with a scrap- the blade of a jin (6mm) round-nosed
finished object should first be marked ing type tool such as a 'spear', round gouge by sticking on a piece of adhesive
onto the prepared lumber with the parting nose, or square nose chisel, which are tape. Start a cut with the gouge about
chisel.This tool should be laid flat on the used in a different way from the other kin (13mm) from the center and cut
tool rest and brought into contact with tools. The remains slightly
tool rest towards the center in the conventional
the workpiece to mark it with a neat \ - below the center line and the scraper is way. When the trailing edge, which is
shaped groove. laid on it horizontally and bevel-side doing the cutting, reaches the marked
After the lumber has been marked, it down, so that it meets the work at a circle, swing the handle of the gouge
should be roughly cut to shape with a scraping rather than shearing angle. It around smoothly so that it is at 90
gouge; in some cases the parting chisel should be used with great care and the to the face of the wood. You can then use
can be used. The gouge can be held flat overhang between the tool rest and the the gouge as a drill to cut a hole into the
on the rest and the center of the cutting workpiece should be kept to an absolute wood until the tape is level with the
edge used to cut, or tilted at an angle and minimum to keep the tool from vibrating. surface.

diameter of work nature of work lathe speed (in rpm)

under |in (19mm) roughing and 2600-2800

general turning
fin (19mm) - Tin (18( >> 1400
Tin (180mm) - 12in (300mm) >] 900
all sizes sanding, burnishing 2600 - 2800
all sizes end boring, lathe drill ng. 280 - 300
parting off
under 2in (50mm) roughing 900-1300
general turning 2400-2800

2in (50mm) roughing 600-1000

4in(100mm) general cutting 1800-2400

6in (150mm) roughing 400-600

8in (200mm) general cutting 800-1200

all sizes sanding, burnishing 2600-2800

all sizes end boring, lathe drill n g> 280-300

parting off


Spray pointing

Spray painting part ot the world, do not use a s|iia\ l;uii

Spray painting is a technique which, it outside the house.

used correctly, can save you a lot ot tunc Apart from this difficult] , exterior spray
and trouble in decorating a house or painting is easier than interior spray work.
painting furniture. It is suitable for both There is less to mask, for one tiling.
inside and outside work, and is particu- Doors and windows must be masked, but
larly useful foi painting rough exterior drainpipes, for example, can be left un-
surfaces such as stucco, which are hard to masked and brush-painted, afterwards,
paint with a brush. On wood it gives a on top of the sprayed coat, in the color of
finished, even feel to the furniture you your choice. Lawns, flower beds and
have made. paving at the bottom of the wall can
The type of paint you are planning to simply be covered with a tarpaulin or
use should be thinned according to the weighted down polythene sheet. Hard
manufacturer's instructions. Most con- surfaces such as paving can be masked
ventional paints are suitable for spraying. with a thin layer of earth, which is
Gloss paint sprays well but requires care brushed off afterwards.
to avoid getting sags and runs all over the There no special tricks about
surface. Masonry paints, as used for the preparing lumber for spray painting.
outside of houses, can be sprayed only Exactly the same techniques are used as
with special equipment including an for any other kind of painting. Holes and
extra-wide nozzle (to let the stone particles cracks in the wood should be filled and,
through) and an automatic stirrer (to stop if necessary, the surface should be
them from settling). In some areas this primed. The primer can be sprayed on if

equipment may be rented. necessary, but mask the areas not to be

The state of the weather will affect painted and read the section on cleaning
painting outdoors. Obviously, it must be out the spray gun before you begin.
prevailingly dry. Xo exterior painting,
bv anv method, can be done if it keeps Masking and protection
raining. But spraying is also affected by Sprayed paint gets everywhere. Any-
wind. If it is a windy time of year in your thing that you do not wish to be sprayed

Left: Spray painting will give afar

more professional finish than hand painting
A compressor provides the air power for
the spray gun, which can befitted with
varying nozzles according to application.

Spray pointing

The more thorough the preparation, the

better will be the finished, sprayed article.

must be masked thoroughly before you and well covered with drop cloths. A should be thinned with water; gloss

begin and 'thoroughly' is the operative quick way is to use plastic sheets held to paint with turpentine, or a substitute.
word. It is not good just hanging a sheet the floor with a stapler. The staplescome Most of these are very flammable, SO
of newspaper in front of an object, out easily when the job is done. Make DO NOT SMOKE when spraying with
because the fine mist of paint will easily sure there are no gaps that paint mist it, and turn off all pilot lights when
float around the back of the paper. It can float through. spraying any type of flammable paint.
must be properly wrapped in newspaper When painting indoors, take care to The exact amount add to
of thinner to
and the edges of the paper stuck down give the room proper ventilation. Mask any type of paint can best be found by
all the way around with masking tape. windows open position. You should
in the experience, but follow the manufacturer's
Proper masking takes quite a long time also protect your lungs by buying a instructions. Too little makes the paint
and uses a lot of paper and tape. painter's mask and plenty of replaceable too thick, so that the nozzle clogs in a few
Fortunately,masking tape is not pads for it, because the paint clogs pads seconds. Too much makes the paint so

expensive but do not try to save money up quickly. Do not laugh at this pre- thin that it does not cover the surface
by buying cheap tape. Inferior grades of caution; it is really necessary. Paint properly. Experiment on scrap material
tape stick too well and pull the paint off spray can be harmful to your respiratory till you get it right. Even when the paint
the things they are stuck to. Good mask- system. is the right consistency, the spray nozzle
ing tape will save you a lot of trouble. Buy Wear old clothes for spray painting. willprobably clog occasionally. It should
two widths: fin (19mm) for holding down This applies to garments that would not be cleaned out with a suitable solvent.
newspaper, and 2in (50mm) for covering be touched by ordinary painting, such as Spray the wall with horizontal strokes
small objects such as door handles and socks. Remember to take off your wrist- of the gun, holding it 12-18in (300-
pipes. watch and any rings or bracelets you may 450mm) away from the surface. Move
Interior and exterior woodwork, drain- be wearing. the gun back and forth parallel to the wall,
pipes and other objects that are going rather than sweeping it in an arc. Spray
be gloss-painted later in the course of The equipment on only a thin coat or the paint will run;
redecorating do not need careful masking, Whatever you are using it for, most you may have to put two or three coats on
and may need none at all. They will get spraying equipment should operate at a the surface, but spraying is so quick that
some overspray but will be painted later. pressure of around 401b/sq in (2.8 you will not waste much time doing this.
Natural stonework, on the other hand, kg/sq cm). This does not apply to the Here, again, follow the manufacturer's
should be masked with great care, be- kind of low-pressure spray gun that instructions.
cause it is very hard to get paint off it. attaches to a vacuum cleaner. Every time you stop spraying, even for
Indoors particular care should be taken a few minutes, clean the gun thoroughly
to protect the floor, especially if there is Spraying techniques with the appropriate solvent (the same as
wall-to-wall carpeting. All types of paint must be diluted with you use for diluting the paint). This is
Furniture that cannot be taken out of the appropriate thinner to make them
important once the paint dries, you
the room should be stacked in the middle suitable for spraying. Emulsion paint will have a much harder time.

Hall stand
It you have ever rummaged tor your .md vertical line through tin- center

overcoat among a pile of coats banging on point. Cut out the in le. 1

a solitary hook in the hallway, or stumbled At the points where the CUtVe 18 to be
over carelessly left shoes, then this hall drawn (Fig. ), measure distance ot 4m

stand would be ideal for you. It is not (102111m) from the corner along the two
only easy but also has plenty ot space for lines that form the right angle. La) the
all the family's coats as well as room to Cardboard template on the sheet ot ply-
store shoesand umbrellas. The lower part wood with the ends of the squared lines
of the stand can be used as a telephone touching the marked points. Then mark
table or a stand for a flowerpot. around the template to form the curve in
major parts of the hall stand are
All the the corner.
cut from one standard 4ft X 8ft ((1219mm
X 2438mm) sheet of iin (13mm) birch Cutting the components
plywood. You will need a small extra You will need a power jigsaw to cut out

sheet of plywood for piece F, which is the panels for the hall stand. You must
iin x i4^in x 3o|in (13mm x 368mm X cut accurately, and follow the order ot
775mm) (Fig. 3). The only other wood cutting shown in Fig. 2. To help make
you need is iinx iin (25mm 25mm) or the straight cuts you can clamp a wooden
iin (25mm) triangular molding. The straightedge to the plywood, along the
clothes rack of the hall stand can be made marked lines. This will guide the blade of
from iin (25mm) dowel, but a length of the jigsaw. When you come to the end of
round tubular steel will carry the weight the first cuts, and start to make the second
f of the coats better. cuts, curve the saw out into the waste
The construction of the hall stand, area of the plywood (Fig. 2). These
with its butted joints, is straightforward. corners can be trimmed square with a
The only difficult job is accurate butting crosscut saw later.
of the pieces from the sheet of plywood. When vou have cut the panels for the
A power jigsaw is an essential tool for two large sides of the hall stand, clean
this aspect. them up. Trim off any waste plywood.
Then lav the two panels together, one on
Marking the panels top of the other, and clamp them with a
Accurate marking of the plywood sheet is few C clamps. Plane the edges square
essential, or the finished construction will with a block plane and shape the curves
not be square. To mark the sheet you will neatlv with a spokeshave or comparable
need a tee square, a large framing square, trimming tool. Then unclamp the boards
and a hard pencil. You will also need a and mark the inside faces. The shaped
steel tape measure and a straightedge, or a 'inside' edge of the two large sides should

3ft (im) rule. be rounded slightly this looks better

First, make sure that the plywood sheet than square edges. Don't do this on any
is perfectly square, by measuring the of the straight outer edges of these sides,
diagonals. If it is not, you will have to though, as the other components of the
plane square with a jack plane. Then
it hall stand are butt-jointed to these.
you can mark out the sheet, taking all The other panels for the hall stand can

dimensions from the marking out dia- now be cut from the plywood sheet.

gram (Fig. 1). Mark out the board in a Refer to Figs. 1 and 3 for the dimensions.

series of straight lines, marking the right Trim the panels square, ensuring that
angles from the edges of the sheet with the the i5^in (394mm) dimension is exactly
tee square. Check that the lines are the same on all panels.
parallel with the edges of the sheet. Note There is an alternative method of con-
that ^in (6mm) has been allowed for the struction, if vou are not sure that you can
width of the saw cuts. cut two identical panels for the large
All the curves shown in Fig. 1 have a sides. This method uses two sheets of

radius of 4m (102mm). The best way of plywood w hich are clamped together and
marking these is to make a cardboard shape of the large side has
cut, after the

template of the curve. Draw a circle with been drawn onto one of the sheets. This,
a 4m (102mm) radius on a piece of however, wastes more wood than the
cardboard, and then square a horizontal procedure described above. Another

Hall stand

method, which involves altering the

dimensions of the unit, is to cut one 4ft x
8ft (1219mm x 2438mm) plywood sheet
in half across its width into two 4ft (1219
mm) panels and cut out the outline of
the sides, with scaled down dimensions,
with the two panels clamped together.
This will give you a hall stand about 3ft
ioin (1169mm) high - ideal for children's

Assembling the unit

All the joints used in the construction are
butted and nailed with extra reinforcing
provided iinxiin (25mm X 25mm)
strips of lumber.If you use square-
sectioned lumber for these reinforcing
strips, you should cut it to a triangular
cross-section. Alternatively, buy triangu-
lar-shaped molding. You will have to
miter the ends of the wood at joints, so do
not cut the pieces of reinforcing strip yet
'direct measure' and cut them to length
just before you nail them in place.
Lay one large side of the unit on a flat
surface with the best face down and glue
and nail the strip to it with iin (25mm)
brads in the position shown in Fig. 3.
Miter the ends of the strip where
necessary. The outer edge of the strip
should be flush with the edge of the sides
exceptat the back of the canopy where F
Here the molding must be set in ^in

(13mm) from the edge so that piece F fits

flush with the back edge of the unit.
When you do this job on the other large
side, make sure you nail the strip to the
inside surface to make the sides a 'pair'.
Lay the second side down on the flat

surface with its long edge butting that of

the first side top to top. Then nail the
molding in place on the second side.
The next step is to nail the other panels
to the two large sides. This job can be a
littleawkward, because the large sides
are unwieldy, so you may need some help.
Xail piece A (Fig. 3) from the table, or
lower, section in place, and then pieces
E and F from the canopy, or upper,
section. Piece C from the table section
comes next, followed by pieces B and D,
the tops of the table and canopy sections
of the unit.

The umbrella stand

The next stage is to cut and assemble the
umbrella stand. This is a simple box
construction, glued inside the two large
Cut the sides for the box out of scrap
lumber 4m x i6in (102mm x 406mm). Fig I. The method of laying out the panel for the hall stand.

Hoi stond

Fig 2. The sequence of cutting the panel for the hall stand.

Holl stond

1*x 1" reinforcement

^ ' ' ' ' ' > '
' ' ' ' ' ' ' i ' ' ' ' i '

section a-a


Fig. 3

Fig J.The construction of the hall stand is You can mark the curve on the top of the tively, you can choose one of the fittings
not complicated. The main construction narrow sides of the box using the card- available commercially. There are a wide
details are shown here. The most important board template made earlier. Cut the variety of these and installation is not
point to remember is that the battens at the curve with a jigsaw with the two narrow difficult. Most are just screwed in place
rear of the side units must be set in \in sides held together in a vise. Smooth the and the rod set in place. Expandable
(iijimmjfrom the edge so that piece F can curved top of the sides and then glue and closet rods are also available. Whatever
fit bettceen the sides. nail the front and back panels G and H to hardware you choose, it should be
the sides. At this point the whole assem- secured in place about halfway along the
bly can be glued and nailed into place canopy sides, and about 2in (51mm) up
inside the hall stand as shown in the from the curved bottom edge of these
construction diagram in Fig. 3. pieces.

The coat rack Finishing

The coat rod for the canopy section of the Rub down the edges of the hall stand with
hall stand is I4|in (368mm) long. It can sandpaper and trim off any irregularities
be made from a iin (25mm) closet pole with a finely set block plane. Fill any gaps
or 1 in (25mm) tubular steel rod. This at the joints with wood filler. Then paint
can be fixed at the ends with small blocks the unit in the color of your choice.
of plywood with U-shapes cut into them An method of covering the
to match rod ends. These blocks can be edges is to use |in x fin (13mm x 19mm)
made from cut-offs from the plywood round molding which will have to be
sheet, glued and nailed in place. Alterna- mitered at the corners.

Telephone table


Telephone table

Fig 1



drawer runners




A properly designed table provides a Preliminaries straight. Ones that are warped will create
permanent, safe place for your telephone, The joints for the legs, uprights and cross construction problems. Lumbervard
as well as ahome for those directories. In members are all stopped mortise and dealers will usually allow vou to select the
this way it will help make your home a tenons. The mortise and tenon is a pieces from their stock. Clean up all
neater, more attractive place. And making relatively simple joint but, if you prefer, pieces prior to assembly as it would be
a phone call becomes much easier when you could use a doweled joint. difficult to obtain a good finish when the
the telephone can rest securely on a sur- ^in (13mm) plywood is used for the unit is completed.
face which also can hold a notepad for sides of the table. This is laid across the
added convenience. inside of the cross members and is glued Construction
This table has been built to a tradi- and nailed. The top is cut and trimmed Cut all four legs from \\\x\ / i|in (38mm
tional design, and the baroque scroll to size. Cut from a single piece of fin 38mm) lumber to the finished length
around the b^ck and sides of the top i6^in y 26|in (19mm
413mm -
673mm) 3oin (762mm). On the end-grain of one
lends a touch that would enliven a pine. end of each piece make a mark. The
modern hallway. If you prefer a simpler A jigsaw will be required to cut the marked ends indicate the tops of the legs.
style, just omit the scroll or, alternativelv, curved baroque pattern on the scroll. Place one of the legs on a table and
alter the outline as shown to a more This is quite easy to mark if vou make a mark off a line i8in (459mm) from the
modern pattern. cardboard template, but considerable care top of the leg. Continue the line around
L nder the table top, one half com- is needed in cutting if you don't want to all four sides.
prises a directory storage cabinet,and the end up trying to remove irregularities in On the end-grain of the bottom of the
other half provides a drawer and a recess the curves with a spokeshave. leg, mark jin (6mm) all around to form
to enable a small stool to be housed - out The joints for the corners of the drawers square as shown in Fig.
a 2. Place the leg
of the way and ready for those long are rabbeted. horizontally in a wood vise, with enough
conversations Try always to purchase boards that are of it clear of the vise to enable vou to

Telephone toble
plane the leg down both easily and Fig 1 . Front and
efficiently. side elevations of
With a jack plane set to fine, carefully the telephone
dress down to the marked taper. Starting table showing
at the bottom of the leg remove waste overall
and gradually work back up the leg so dimensions.
that the plane is cutting parallel to the
Fig 2. Detail of
marked taper. Plane the taper one down to
the legs showing
side of the square marked on the end and
the dimensions of
repeat on the remaining three sides, and
the tapers.
on the remaining three legs.
Fig j. Details of
The side frames the cross member
First build the two side frames. The out- joints.
shown in Fig.
line for these is i. Cut four
cross members (D) iin x i^in X 14m
(25mm x 38mm x 356mm) to then size,

cut tenons on both ends of each side

frame. The dimensions for these are
shown in Fig. 3.
Lay two legs down on a flat surface,
about 14m (356mm) apart, then place
two cross members (D) in position in
between. One member must run between
the leg tops, flush with the end, and the
other one below this, with i2in (305mm) piece C
in between as shown in Fig. 1. Mark off
the positions of the mortises, using the
tenons on the cross members as templates,
then cut out the mortises in the legs.
Repeat this with the remaining two legs
and cross members.
When everything fits properly, glue and
fit all square the frames one on top
of the other and hold the joints in place
with two bar clamps while the glue sets.
Finish off by fitting the plywood ends
between the D members of each frame.
The ends of the ply are cut to fit flush
with the top of the upper D member, and
flush with the bottom of the lower one.
When these parts are joined up, they
should be glued and nailed with i^in

The center frame

Using the procedure described above,
construct the center frame which com-
x i\ X 15m
prises the uprights (A) i\
(38mm x 38mm X 381mm) the remain-
ing two D members, and the plyboard. lower cross piece D
Note that the top mortise in piece A goes
right through to receive pieces B and C
while a third mortise enters at the back to
receive cross piece D. The tenons may
require slight trimming to make sure of an
absolutely accurate fit. Therefore, it is

essential that each tenon be trial-fitted

before final gluing.
To ensure that the eventual fit will
match, lay the right-hand frame (on the jU. A.

elephone table
left in Fig. i) down on a flat surface, and between the inside ends of the lower C
mark and fit the center frame using the runners, and are simply butted, glued and

^^^ frame underneath as a guide.

The directory cabinet

nailed in place.
has set on the

Fitting the top

Do this
C members.
when the glue

next stage is to build the directory
cabinet onto the end frame. Stand the frame upright, on its legs.
Stand the end and center frames on Place the uncut table top in position, and
their back edges on a flat surface about cut and trim where necessary.
N^ 7in (178mm) apart. They should be in the Take the top off and, with a bench

|:^iP same positions as shown in Fig. 1, resting

on what will eventually be the back ot the
plane set to
(the front
fine, round off three top edges
and two sides) so that each

^^ table.
Mark and cut the four cross pieces B,
iin X iiin X 8|in (25mm X 38mm X
2 1 6mm), then cut tenon joints in both ends
edge has a similar surface.
Drill screw holes around the top frame
members, place the table top back in
position and drive the screws home from
of each piece as shown in Fig. 3. underneath.
Using the same procedure as that just
described use the tenon joints as templates Fitting the back
to mark out mortise joints in the legs and There will be two openings left in the
uprights. When this has been done, glue rear of the frame - the cabinet and drawer
and clamp all joints until the glue has set. spaces. Mark a line iin (13mm) from the
Finish off this section by cutting and fit- inner edges ot openings and cut a rabbet
ting theplywood base of the cabinet. This recess {in (6mm) deep around each
must overlap the cross members and is opening. This is best done with a router;
glued and nailed in position. clear the corners out with a sharp chisel.
Note that the bottom of the directory case
Finishing the frame forms the rabbet on this side.
When the adhesive has set properly, use Cut the plywood backs to fit into these
Fig 4
the same technique to fit the four cross recesses, and glue and nail them in place.
members(C) iin X i|in X I4^in (25mm
X 38mm X 373mm) and the remaining The drawer
end frame. The drawer is constructed as in Fig. 4,
While the glue is setting, mark the using a router to cut the rabbets in the
lengths of the drawer runners, then cut front and back. The front panel is
them to size. The drawer runners lie chamfered ]in (6mm) deep around the
edges and iin (25mm) onto the face of the
Cutting list drawer. Mark the lumber with pencil
Solid wood standard metric lines and using a smoothing plane set very

i|xi|x 30 38x38 X762 fine, gently plane down to the chamfer

4 legs
2 uprights (A) i|xi|xis 38x38x381 lines. Glue and nail {in (6mm) square
4 cross pieces (B) 1 xix8^ 25x38x216 strips to the inside, flush with the bottom,
4 cross pieces (C) 1x1^x14$ 25x38x373 to support the base. Fit the drawer into
6 cross pieces (D) I X i|x 14 25 XX35 6
the table. Guides of thin strips of
i table top f xi6lx26| 19x413x673 wood can be glued to the runners if

2 drawer runners 5X^x13 13x13x330 required.

2 drawer base supports 4 x jX 145 6x6x365
i drawer front 1x3x13 19x76x330 Cutting the scrolls
i drawer back 1X3x13 10x76x330 These are an optional part of the struc-
2 drawer sides IX3X15 10x76x381 ture. Mark out an outline with tracing
i rear scroll f x z\ x 26^ 19X64X 673 paper, then transfer the outline to the
2 side scrolls |X2^X IO 19x64x254 fin X 2iin(i9mm X 64mm) lumber.
Plywood Use a jigsaw for cutting along the out-
3 sides XI2XI5 13x318x381 line, smoothing down any rough edges
i storage box base 2x7x151 13x178x387 with a spokeshave or other smoothing tool.
i storage box rear iX 7 iXI2i 6x191 X318 The scroll is held in position with a
i drawer base Jxizjx 14! 6x311 x 365 good woodworking adhesive. It remains
only to varnish or paint the unit, and add
You will also require : an attractive handle to the drawer. You
Adhesive. Nails and screws. Paint or varnish. Turpentine or turpentine substitute. willsoon be wondering how on earth you
ever managed without a telephone stand.

Victorian butlers tray

Above: The I 'ictorian butler's tray is ideal First used in the eighteenth century, these construction is readily adaptable to

for casual meals or snacks. When not in use trays were used as a sideboard by the changing times.
it can be folded up for convenient storage. butler. Later, in the Victorian and
Edwardian eras, they acted as dumb- The tray
waiters in the ritual of afternoon tea. The unit is two parts: the tray, which

Nowadays they are useful for holding has one short side cut away to allow easy
everything from drinks to television access to glasses or plates; and a folding
snacks - the simple design and foldaway X-shaped stand on which the tray rests.

Victorian butler's troy

To prevent the tray slipping off the stand,

the bottomis covered in felt or baize; and

two canvas webbing pieces attached

between the tops of the frames hold the
frames open.

Choosing wood
Hardwood should be used because it does
not stain as much as softwood. Tradi-
tionally, mahogany is used but there are
attractive alternatives. Ideally, try to use
a good quality wood possessing all the
essential qualities and having an attractive
finish. In this project the whole frame and
the sides and tray edgings are constructed
from a high quality wood, while the tray
base is made from .jin (13mm) plywood
veneered with matching mahogany.

Cutting out and preliminaries

Cut out all the pieces to the sizes given in
the cutting list. The two long sides are
cut down at one end and handles cut in
them. Figs. 2 and 3 are templates which
give the exact dimensions of these features.
Use a jigsaw for cutting them but do not
attempt to cut exactly to the mark; you
will find it easier to leave a small margin
which can be sanded down later. You will
need to bore a large hole in the handle
opening to insert the jigsaw blade.
The top edges of the tray sides and the
outer edges of the edging strips are
rounded with a spokeshave.
Miter joints are used in the construc-
tion of the tray sides. Cut these joints on
the ends of the side pieces and edging
strips taking care they will butt together
At this stage, sand all the pieces, and if

there are any irregularities on the joints

they must be removed.

Assembling the tray

Begin by attaching the edging strips to
the base of the tray with glue and brads.
The pins should be skew nailed and
punched under the surface of the wood,
and the holes filled with a filler to match
the wood.
The sides of the tray are attached to the
base so that they overlap the edging to
the base joint by Jin (3mm) all around.

Fig 1. The butler's tray has a simple

construction. The tray rests on the stand and
a layer offelt backing prevents its slipping.

The style of the center cross member

shown may be changed to straight dowel
or square lumber if you do not have access
to lathe facilities.

Victorian butler's troy

Attach bj gluing and pinning initially, and

to assist in keeping the miter joints
correctly aligned, clamp blocks of soft-
wood to the internal corners of the tray.
Final attaching is done by screwing iin
(25111111) No. 6 flathead wood screws
through the base into the sides. Four
screws on each side are sufficient; their '
heads must be recessed flush with the

Assembling the stand
The stand is made up of two leg frames
which are made separately. One leg frame
is narrower than the other so that it will
fit closely inside the wider frame. Make <
the wider frame first.

Dado joints are made at the junctions

of the legs and crossmembers. Mark two
lines fin (19mm) apart, 6in (153mm) from
the bottom of each leg. Mark or gauge a
Fig 2
depth line jin (6mm) down the edge of the
leg. Cut down to this line with a crosscut
saw and then remove the waste with a
chisel. Ensure that the bottom of the
housing recess is perfectly flat. On one
cross member the housings are made
|in (19mm) from the ends and on the
other, for the smaller frame, the housings
are made iiin (38mm) from the ends.
Assemble the frames with glue and
flathead ifin (45mm) X0.6 steel screws.

The center cross member

If you own a lathe this piece can be
turned on the same pattern shown in Fig.
1. Otherwise you can fit a i|in (38mm)

diameter piece of dowel without shaping ^>

it. Lathework is described in the Tech-

niques section of this book.

I in (10mm) diameter hole is bored z\
in (57mm) deep into the center cross
member. A corresponding |in (10mm)
hole is bored right through the center
point of the inner leg frame and ^in (13
mm) deep into the center point of the
inside of the outer framemember. Take
two (89mm) hardwood dowels and
3 iin
drive them through the inner leg frame
into the center cross member. Slip the
outer frame over the inner and locate
it on the projecting dowels by 'springing'
it into position. The frame will now move

Figs 2, 3. Patterns for the side and handle


Fig 4. Section through the tray illustrating

themethod of construction. Care must be
taken when screwing the base to the sides not
to hit the nails attaching the edging strip.

Victorian butler's troy

around the dowels which allows you to the diameter of a pencil through the
fold the stand when not in use. center of the 3m (76mm) edge. Push a
pencil into this hole so that about iin
Attaching the canvas straps (25mm) protrudes, then lay the waste
The stand when open should be fixed so block on the flat surface so that the
between frame
that the angle at the center pencil is and i|in
parallel to the floor
members is 6o. This is achieved by (38mm) above it. Carefully draw a line
fitting canvas webbing strips between the around the bottom of each leg and
top cross members. Take a 30m (762mm) carefully cut through the legs around
length of webbing and mark lines 4^in these lines.
(114mm) from each end. Place the web-
bing across the two top cross members Finishing and varnishing
and open the stand so that 4^111 (114mm) Sand all the surfaces for a fine finish.
of webbing projects at both ends. Tack With a soft cloth dampened with turpen-
the webbing in position. The free ends tine substitute wipe all the surfaces so
of the strap are wrapped around iin X 2in that the fine dust caused by sanding is

(25mm X 51mm) hardboard plates which picked up.

are then screwed underneath the leg Using a good quality 2U1 (51mm)
frame top cross members. Repeat the brush, sparingly apply a varnish of clear
procedure with the other strap and when matt polyurethane and turpentine substi-
both are firmly secured, remove the tute diluted 50 50. When this coat has
tacks. dried rub down with fine sandpaper, wipe
the surface with the cloth again and re-
Levelling the legs coat with the same mixture. Leave this
To give greater stability to the stand the coat to dry, then finish with grade '()'

legs must be levelled off so that their steel wool. Clean the surface with full-

bases are flush with the floor. This strength turpentine substitute, then leave
involves cutting a section orl each leg. overnight, and apply undiluted poly-
The easiest method of measuring and urethane as sparingly as possible.
cutting the right amount is as follows. Add the piece of baize or felt to the
First, place the stand on a perfectly base of the tray. After a few days the
flat surface. If there is any wobble, unit can be polished with a soft, dry
caused by one leg being shorter than the cloth to give deep rich, lasting sheen.
it a
others, place waste pieces of wood under With only a few hours of work you will
the short leg until the frame stands level. have built a butler's tray that is a perfect
Now take a waste block of wood measur- reproduction of a valuable antique. The
ing about 1 in X 3m X 4m (25mm X 76mm simple, but strong, construction ensures
X 102mm). Drill a hole slightly less than that it will give years of useful service.

Cutting list
Solid wood standard metric
2 tray sides I x 3 x 27 13 x 76x686
1 tray end 1x3x20 X76X508
1 tray end |Xl|X20 13x45x508
2 tray edge strips 2 X 2 X275 13x13x705
2 tray edge strips 2 ^n 2 ^ 20j 13x13x527
1 tray base xiof X26| 13 x 502x680
4 stand legs f xif X37 19x45x940
2 stand top cross members f Xif Xl8 19x45x457
1 stand lower cross member fxif xi4 19x45x363
1 member
stand lower cross I xif X15I 19x45x490
1 turned center cross member 2X2X 13! 51x51x340
or round center cross member i| diameter > 38 diameter x 340
2|in leg pivot dowels 3^in length 89mm in length

You will also require :

40 brads. Wood
adhesive. Finishing nails. 16 iin (25mm) N0.6 flathead steel wood
screws. 20 ifin (19mm) No. 6 flathead steel screws with furniture plugs. 2 canvas
webbing straps 30m x 2in (762mm X 51mm). 1 piece of baize or felt 26|in x i9fin
(680mm x 502 mm). Clear matt polyurethane. Turpentine substitute.


Coffee table

The versatile top of this coffee table fits depth equal to the thickness of the table This top is of flakeboard covered with a
neatly into the frame and can be lifted off top. The remaining rails are fixed at right laminated plastic on both faces and on
and turned over. angles to these, immediately underneath. the edges. But you could use lumber core
The lower rails are screwed into the leg plywood or even solid wood if you prefer,
Construction members. The top rails are secured by with any suitable covering.
The construction outline is shown in Fig. screwing through the legs, into the end-
i. The main point to bear in mind is that grain of the rails. Screwing or nailing Assembling the frame
the four side rails must be the same into end-grain does not provide a very First cut the four legs. The length of each
length as the long dimensions of the table strong joint and, for this reason, the end- leg will be the eventual height of the
top: in this case I7fin (455mm). grain of the top rails is drilled to take surface of the table. So you require a

The base frame, as shown in Fig. 1, is X0.8 size fiber screw plugs. The plugs lower, or taller, table, do this by cutting
very easy to make, and consists of four are glued into these holes and, when the the legs to the desired length.
leg members joined by four rails. Two adhesive has set, provide a strong Next cut the rails. Use fine sandpaper
of the rails are fixed so that their top anchoring location for the screws. A to smooth down all surfaces, particularly
edges are below the tops of the legs at a detail of this joint is shown in Fig. 1 the end-grain, because this will be


Coffee table

showing on some parts of the construc- and use the leg as a jig to mark the into place, keeping the ends of the rails flush
tion. corresponding holes for the screws in the with the outside edges of the legs. Sand
Now prepare the top. You may have rails. Glue and screw these rails to the smooth, clean with turpentine substitute
purchased a laminated or veneered top legs. and apply two coatsof 50/50 clear matt polv-
already. If it is veneered with a particular Next, drill the lower rails for two screws urethane and turpentine, sanding between
wood on the two faces and the edges you at each end. Glue and screw these rails each. Finish with undiluted polvurethane.
may wish to apply different veneer to one
of the surfaces. In any case the top should Cutting list
have its final finish before you start to Solid wood standard metric
screw the frame together. In this way 4 legs ixif X13 22 x 45 x 33
you can make any small alterations on the 4 rails |xifxi7f 22x45x455
rail members at this stage.

Set out the table legs by marking iin Flakeboard or plywood

(25mm) from the top of each leg to Table top 1x17! x 17! 25x455x455
represent the thickness of the table top.
Make another mark ifin (45mm) below You will also require
this to indicate the top railand another Covering material (self-adhesive vinyl, plastic laminate or other veneers), or anv other
mark i^in (45mm) further down to covering you may prefer. 16 i|in (38mm) No. 8 screws with plastic screw caps. Wood-
indicate the lower rail. two holes
Drill working adhesive. Varnish or paint for the legs and rails. 8 fiber plugs. Turpentine.
through the leg at the top rail marking


Fig 1 . The coffee table has a simple

construction. The plugs are inserted in the
end grain to strengthen the joint by
preventing the screws from -working loose.
The top is finished toth a covering material
ofyour choice before fitting.

Serving cart

Serving cort



Fig. 1

Figs The const ruction details of the

I, 2. As living space becomes increasingly problems that cannot be solved both
serving cart. The position of the center more precious, furniture designers have easily and quickly.
cross member is important - if it is too ///;'// concentrated on producing compact units Briefly, the trolley is made up of seven
the table top will be difficult to more. which combine two or more functions. parts, consisting of the two sides, two
This serving cart certainly fits this design laminated trays, the top cross members
concept. It doubles as a trolley equipped and runners, and the laminated table top.
with two easy-to-clean trays for holding These are assembled in a strict order of
food and cutlery, and a folding table top working, which should be followed
which is large enough to allow two people closely, so that the ultimate result is a
to eat in comfort. So, with one unique truly professional one.
piece of furniture, you have solved two
age-old problems: kitchen storage and a Preliminaries
place for casual dining. When you have checked that you have all

Construction of the serving cart reflects the necessary tools and materials, mark
the straightforward and uncluttered de- out all the pieces to the sizes given in the
no complicated techniques
sign; there are cutting list. Do not cut all the pieces out
involved, and
any properlv equipped yet; greater accuracy will be achieved by
home handyman should be able to build working in stages, checking each piece as
the unit without encountering any it is cut.

Serving cort

Fig ?

O O table lop

9 '


anchor lunner

anchor flush \o side panel


The cart sides which houses the tray bottoms. The corners. Clean up and sand all the parts
These are constructed of |in (13mm) rabbets are fin (10mm) square (Figs. and fill any holes or cracks.
plywood panels cut to size with a circular iB and C), and run the whole length of
saw with a combination blade. Sand all each member. Rabbeting is relatively Fitting the frame to the side panels
the cut edges with medium, then fine, simple when done with a router, radial First cut out the two top main cross
sandpaper and check that the edges are arm saw or table saw. members and measure these against the
flat and smooth enough to take the .'in The tray side members are housed in shorter side of the tray frame to ensure
(13mm) edging strip. Now cut the edging rabbets cut in the ends of the cross that they are the same length. Then cut
strip to the correct lengths. These strips members. These rabbets are fin (19mm) the top center member to size.
are located on the top and side edges of wide and ;^in (10mm) deep and can be cut Refer to the section shown in Fig. 1 to
the panels and are fixed bv gluing and out with a router. When the rabbets have mark the correct location of the trays and
nailing. Using a small punch, sink the been cut and tested for fit, assemble the top cross members onto the side panels.
below the surface to
finishing nails well tray frames with glue and i^in (32mm) The bottom edge of the lower tray is
allow the surfaces to be rounded at a screws countersunk below the surface. located fin (19mm) from the bottom edge
later stage. Now round off the entire top edges of the of the side panel, the bottom edge of the
ends (Fig. iC) and the internal half of the center tray is situated i2iin (318mm)
The tray frames top edges of the sides ( Fig. 1 B). above this point. Each top cross member
Cut the sides and ends from fin (19mm) At this stage round the edges of the is positioned iin (41mm) below the top

softwood. All these pieces need a rabbet cart's side panels and round off the edge of the side panels.

Serving cort

Fig 3

Fig J. The completed serving cart. The

when open should project about ioin
(240mm) on either side of the cart.

Take one and secure the

side panel members so that the sliding table top at Now cut the laminate to the same size
tray frames into position, using glue and no point comes into contact with them. as the tray bottoms, using a router with a
iin (25mm) screws inserted through the The hardwood runners are fixed with carbide-tipped bit and straightedge. You
tray sides into the side panel. The top glue and fin (19mm) screws to the side can also use a table saw with a carbide-
cross members are secured with glue and panels; the center member is glued and tipped blade. The chances of chipping
i|in (38mm) nails. Then turn the struc- nailed between the cross members. At the material is slight with these tools.
ture over and secure the second panel in this stage sand the entire structure and Ensure that the rough sides of the
position in the same way. fill any holes with wood filler. hardboard tray bottoms are dry and
grease-free, then apply a thin but even
The table top runners The tray bottoms layer of contact adhesive onto them.
The table top runs on three bearing The bottoms of the trays are made of In the same way, apply the adhesive to
points, the center member which has hardboard covered with a rigid plastic the back of the laminate and wait until
already been cut and two fin (9mm) laminate ^-in (2mm) thick. If you intend the adhesive on both surfaces is nearly dry
square hardwood runners which are putting hot food containers on the trays, before pressing the two surfaces together.
fixed to the side panels. Cut these hard- choose a laminate that is heat resistant. Clamp the two materials together to give
wood runners to size and fit these and the Cut out the hardboard tray bottoms to a strong bond, pounding them together
center member into position according to size and test for fit by temporarily with your hand.
the plan shown in Fig. 2. All the runners locating them in the rabbets cut into the When the adhesive has set properly,
must stand ^in (2mm) clear of the cross bottom of the tray frames. drill No. 4 countersunk screw holes at


Serving cort

5in (127mm) intervals around the tray technique detailed previously for the recessed slightly just below the surface.
bottom. The center of each screw hole is trays. Hinge the two flaps together with Turn the whole structure the correct
situated ^in (6mm) from each edge to brass hinges, after first having cut out way up and test the operation of the table
coincide with the center of the rabbet. the recesses in the table tops to the re- top. The closed flaps should slide to
The tray bottoms be secured at a
will quired depth, thereby allowing the hinges project approximately ioin (254mm)
later stage in construction - do not do to be properly flushed. beyond the main structure and the hinged
this now. table top should then turn over to project
Attaching the table to the frame approximately ioin (254mm) on the other
The table top Lay the folded table top on a flat, clean side. If there are large discrepancies in
This is constructed from two iin (13mm) surface and pack it up |in (13mm) clear these measurements, or if the table top
panels entirely covered by laminate and of the surface. Now turn the frame upside does not slide easily, adjust the runner
hinged together. The size of these panels down and place it on the table top, and anchors.
is given in the cutting list but, due to carefully align it all around to give the
errors in cutting the other pieces, the correct location. One flap of the table top Painting the cart
measurements may have to be modified is secured to the frame by anchors which It is easier to paint the cart before fixing
very slightly. In order to construct a well- slide along the two outer hardwood the tray bottoms in place and with the
measure the width
fitting table top, first runners. Cut these anchors to the size table top removed. It is a simple operation
between the tops of the side panels, then given in the cutting list and make a jg-in to unscrew the anchor runners and the
subtract ^in (6mm) from this measure- (iimm) square rabbet in them as shown job of painting will be made much simpler.
ment to give the exact width of the table in Fig. 1 A. This rabbet loosely houses Make sure to apply a coat of primer to
top. The subtraction represents y^in the hardwood runner and so, when the the surface before one, if not two, under-
(2mm) clearance on each side of the table anchor runner is fixed to one table flap, coats, allowing each coat to dry thoroughly
between table and side panel, and the the whole table top slides easily along the before applying the next. Finally, finish
thickness of the two laminate edging runners. with a and heat-resistant
coat of a dirt
strips. To attach the anchors when the table paint, giving you an attractive and ex-
Mark out the correct dimensions of the top and frame are correctly aligned, lay tremely durable addition to your home.
table tops and cut these pieces out. Now them on the table flap with the rabbet When the paint has thoroughly dried,
mark out and cut the laminate sheets and enclosing the runners. Having checked re-attach the table top and add the tray
edging strips, remembering to allow that there is sufficient clearance between bottoms by screwing them into the rabbet
in (3mm) excess all around which can be the rabbets and runners, locate the long housings in the tray frames. Attach ball-
trimmed down later. One other way to edges of the anchors almost flush against type castors to the base of the cart by
cut the laminate is to lay a straightedge the inside faces of the side panels, with screwing them onto small hardboard
in place along the line to be cut and, their ends butting against one of the top plates glued to the corners of the lower
using a utility knife or straight laminate main cross members. Once in position tray base. Finally, lubricate all the runners
cutter, start scoring gently from one end they are screwed to the table with iin with candlewax to ensure that the table
of the sheet. Hold the cutting blade (25mm) screws whose heads should be top slides easily.
against the straightedge to keep it straight
while it travels the entire length of the Cutting list
pencilled guideline. Do this at least three Solid wood standard metric
or four times, increasing the pressure of 4 softwood tray ends f x 2 x 22 19x51x559
cut each time, until the dark under- 4 softwood tray sides f X2X22| 19x51x572
surface of the laminate appears as a clean, 2 softwood top main cross members I X 2 X 20 25x51x508
unbroken line. 1 softwood top center member I X2X2l| 25x51x540
Work and do not rush, what-
steadily 2 hardwood table top runners |x|X2li 10 x 10x540
ever method you use. Laminate, while 2 hardwood table top runner anchors fxixio 19x25x254
extremely hard and durable, is also 4 softwood edging strips xx26 13 X13 x66o
relatively brittle and it can be cracked or 2 softwood edging strips ixx24 13 X13X610
chipped fairly easily. Since it is expensive Plywood
material it will definitely pay to go 2 plywood panels \ x 24 x 26 13 x 610x660
slowly. If the straightedge is solid (a 2 plywood table flaps xi9|x23 13 x 55><5 8 4
length of particleboard with a laminate Hardboard
edging is most suitable for this purpose), 2 hardwood tray bottoms |x 19^x22^ 6x495x572
you should encounter no difficulty in the Laminate
cutting operation. 4 sheets plastic laminate ^-X20iX23i 1.5x510x590
When all the laminate has been cut to 2 sheets plastic laminate t^x 19^x22^ 1.5x495x572
size, glue the shorter edging strips to the 1 strip plastic laminate WX|XI92 1.5 x 19x4877

shorter edges of the table and use a belt

sander to sand these down flush with the You will also require
table top and sides before adding the 2 iin (25mm) hinges, 4 mini ball-type castors. Wood adhesive, contact adhesive.
long edging strips. Cut these to size, then 60 iin (32mm) finishing nails, 48 iin (32 mm) wood screws.
cover the laminated surfaces using the

Sofa bed
The design <>t the couch has been kept as the vertical side members and, having
simple as possible ami this is reflected in marked in a line from one corner, at an

the wide choice ot materials available for angle ot 45 to tin- long edge, cut the
the construction. )epending on how much
1 mitered end. In the same way, miter the
you are prepared to spend and the parti- ends of the top horizontal member, but
cular finish you desire, you can use flake- remember that this piece has a tongue cut
board, plywood, softwood or hardwood on it and, therefore, has to be cut a
for the basic frame or any combination minimum of iin (25111111) overlength at

of these materials. For example, you each end.

could use laminated plywood for the sides, Now take the vertical members and
back, base and fascia, and softwood for make a groove iin (25111111) deep and iin
the base supporting frame. In this way, (13mm) wide down each miter and the
you reproduce the design economically, inside long edge. Clean up these grooves
and the finished couch lends itself well to with a chisel and sandpaper. Then take
a fine paint finish. Or, you can use solid the top horizontal member and, with a
wood throughout to produce a more solid rabbet plane, cut a tongue on each mitered
and sophisticated result. This latter end (25mm) long and |in (13mm)
method lends itself to further modifica- wide. Similarly, make tongues on each
tion. The sides can be built of single wood short edge of the other horizontal mem-
panels or can be made up of separate- bers as shown in Fig. 5.
strips of wood joined together, as shown If you have no rabbet plane, you can
in Fig. 3. It is this construction which is cut the tongues in the ends of the lumber
described here, but the basic construction like cutting tenons. First saw down the
method is the same whatever materials grain to make a central Jin (13mm) tenon,
you use. then cut across the grain to form the
There are several different ways of shoulders of the joint.
making the cushion-supporting base. With the pieces of both side panels cut
Perhaps the simplest is to fit a single ply- to shape, assemble and, when you

wood panel across the frame. Provided are satisfied that each joint fits perfectly,
you supplv adequate cushioning, the begin construction by gluing the lower
result will be perfectly comfortable. horizontal members into the grooves on
Another, but more expensive, method is the vertical members. Complete the
tofit rubber webbing across the frame. construction by adding the top in the
Store-bought cushions are expensive same way. Allow the glue to set, then trim
and it is unlikely that you will be able to off that part of the miter-tongue which
obtain them in a size to fit the couch. By protrudes beyond the outer edge of the
following the instructions given in this vertical members.
project you can easily make up the
necessary cushioning yourself. Sides and back assembly
Assembling the side panels to the back is
Making the sides straightforward. However, you must
Having decided on what materials to use, ensure that the butt joints between side
begin by cutting out the side panels; or, and back panels are completely secure,
if you intend making up the side panels and this cannot be achieved by simply
from strips of lumber, cut each piece to screwing through the side panels into the
the size given in the cutting list. Each end-grain of the back panel. One way to
side consists of four parallel members attach them is with dowels. Or, you can
with a cross-section of i|inX5jin (45mm bore the short edges of the back panel at
X 133mm), which are flanked by two 4in (102mm) centers to receive fiber

vertical members of the same section. plugs. Fit the sides into position and
Fig. 5 shows how the side and top screw through them, at previously marked
members are mitered together for greater locations, using 3m (76mm) wood screws
strength, and also shows the tongue-and- countersunk below the surface. The
groove joints by which the separate surface should be filled with a suitable
pieces are fixed to the sides. filler. A special countersink bit can be

To make these joints, first take each of fitted to vour drill.

Sofa bed

Fig I. The exploded diagram of the sofa Making the base frame fitted across the front rail, but this piece
bed shows the main components. The frame which supports the seat is is not added until the base of the seat has
constructed separately, then fitted, pre- been fixed to the frame. It is then glued
Figs 2-6. Details of the construction. The assembled, to the back and sides. To and screwed to the front rail of the seat
conduit is very important as it strengthens make it, begin by cutting the rails to the and the side frames.
the frame. It is these two components which sizes given in the cutting list, then miter Next, fit the frame inside the side and
take the stress when the unit is in use. all the ends to an angle of 45 . Ensure back panels, with its lower edges located
that each mitered end joint is smooth, 5 Jin (133mm) above the floor. Fasten the
then glue and nail the rails together, frame with 3m (76mm) wood screws
checking that the structure is square by driven through the frame members at
measuring the diagonals. A fascia panel is 6in (152mm) intervals. The frame must

Sofa bed
flatten tin- ends with > hammer, drill the
ends to receive screws, then Bcretn the
tubing across the underside oi the tr.nin

at tin- locations shown in Fig. 2.

Making the base

As mentioned above, you can make the
base from a single sheet of laminated
plywood in (13mm) thick. This is a good
strong material. Simply cut the base panel
to the correct size and screw onto the top
edges of the frame.
The only disadvantage of plywood as a
material for the base of the couch is its

rigidity. It will not yield under pressure

and, consequently, you must make
cushions extra thick. An alternative, more
luxurious base is provided by plastic
webbing stretched between the frame
sides. Webbing can be obtained in a
continuous roll and there are several

methods of fixing it in place. The easiest

way is simply to tack or staple it to the top
edges of the frame, having first removed
any sharp edges with which the plastic-
may come in contact. Another method is
to attach clips to the ends of the webbing,
then anchor the clips in a groove cut in
the top of the frame. Whatever method
you choose to fix the webbing, make sure
that it is installed under the correct
tension and will give complete support.

Making the cushions

Both the seat and the back cushions use
foam rubber as a foundation. This is both
inexpensive and easy to cut and the only
problem occurs in choosing a foam filling
of the correct density. It is this density
which determines the resilience of the
finished cushion. As the unit will be used
for sleeping on, you must take extra care
in choosing and making up the founda-
This will depend, to some degree, on
how firm you want the foundation to be.
It is best to seek the advice of an uphol-
stery supplies dealer.
You have between natural and
a choice
synthetic foam. The former is, of course,
be pre-drilled to a depth of i^in (38mm) more expensive but will last longer,

in order to make starting holes for the Different foams also have different

screws in the side panels. densities.

Because the couch is long and must bear Cut the foam to size, using a fine-
the weight of more than one person, toothed hacksaw or an electric carving
reinforcement members must be fixed knife. All the foundations should be cut
across the frame to maintain its strength slightly oversize the reason for this being

and rigidity. Conduit tubing cut and bent that when they are covered by fabric of
to the shape shown in Fig. 4 is ideal. To the size, they will be slightly
make these pieces, cut fin (19mm) tubing compressed, preventing wrinkles forming
to the lengths given in the cutting list, in the fabric cover.

Sofo bed
Right: An alternativemethod oj
construction. The dowels for the fascia
panel are allowt </ ta show as a decor at tic

Cutting list
Solid wood standard metric
2 top side members i| -5i
342 45 '
133 -- 86 9
8 horizontal side members if X 5>2 4 45 XI 33x6io
4 vertical members ifxsiX26| 45 '
133 ' 666
3 horizontal back members i|X5jx66| 45x133x1682
i top back member i|x5?X75 45^133x1905
2 vertical back members l|X5iX2I 45X133X533
2 frame cross rails If X3X29I 38x76x756
2 frame long rails I2X3X75 38x76x1905
i fascia panel 1 X6X75 25x152x1905

The size of the couch can be modified to suit individual requirements. For economy,
man-made wood, such as plywood, can be substituted for solid wood.
You will also require :

Plastic webbing or a plywood base. 3 lengths |in X 29 Jin (19mm X 749mm) tubing. Foam
cushion foundations and fabric covers. Wood glue. 12 fiber plugs. 3111 (76mm) wood
screws. Wood filler. Sandpaper. Wood stain and varnish, or paint.

Studio couch & choir
Studio couch & choir

These two units comprise a studio couch chased from a lumber dealer who rest to be brought up to a seating position
and chair, built to the same design. The specializes in hardwoods. You will require (Fig- 5)-
couch 6ft 9m (2.1m) long and the chair 'prepared' lumber - which is supplied Mark the tenons on the rails and cut
2ft 6in (763mm) can be built as indivi- machined and planed in exact widths, but them out. Then mark the legs using the
dual units or as a complete living room only approximate lenghts. So, when you tenons as a guide. Cut the mortises using
suite. The couch is perfectly adequate for give your order, give the exact measure- the measurements given in Figs. 4 and 5.
sleeping adults, while the chair can ments for the widths, but add an inch Most of the waste can be drilled out with
convert to a small bed suitable for a child. (25mm) to each length illustrated in a suitable sized bit and the mortise hole
The unit consists of a basic frame, Figs. 3 to 5 just to be certain. can then be squared up with a chisel. Do
which the support structure, and two
is Before you order the lumber inquire not forget that the haunch only goes into
additional frames for the seat and back- whether your dealer will exchange any the leg |in (13mm).
rest. When you wish to convert the unit pieces that have unsightly blemishes. The open mortises for the chair arms
for sleeping, two bolts, which secure the Most reputable lumber dealers will agree and the combed joints for the seat and
backrest to the rear legs, are withdrawn. to this. back carcasses are cut with a tenon saw
This allows the hinged backrest to fall and then the waste is chopped out with a
into a horizontal position, supported at Marking out chisel working from each side of the wood
the far end by two retractable legs as in Before attempting to mark out the lumber to give a neat finish and avoid splitting the
Fig. 2. read through the instructions with lumber faces. When marking out the
Although the backrest is fully uphol- reference to the drawings in order to combed joint shade the waste pieces with
stered, the retaining bolts and legs, familiarize yourself with the design and a pencil, as it is very easy to start cutting
situated in the interior of the backrest, function of each part. on the wrong line.
are easily reached through an opening. Using the try square and marking Cut out the two blocks which are used
knife, mark off the exact length of each to house the center brace of the seat frame.
The type of lumber piece of wood. As each piece is marked, Do not at this stage drill any holes for the
The lumber used in this couch is African carefully examine each surface to ensure bolts or screws.
mahogany, a hardwood suitable for furni- that the best face on each piece will be
ture, flooring, veneers, joineryand con- placed where it is visible. It is pointless, Pre-assembly finishing
struction work. Other hardwoods could for instance, having the most attractive The final finish of the woodwork is a
also be used. You may prefer something a surface of an armrest on the underside, matter of personal preference. But what-
little lighter, or darker, or with a richer where it will be out of sight. ever method you choose, there will be
grain. Or, other woods may be dictated Mark out the joints. The rails are surfaces like the underside of the arms,
by your budget. joined to the legs by stopped mortise and for example, that are almost impossible to
tenon joints. To avoid weakening the treatonce the couch has been built. All
Tools and materials legs, the mortise and tenon of each side such surfaces should be finished at this
In addition to commonly used tools you rail are 'haunched'. In this way they will stage.
will require a bit for your power drill, not meet the front and rear tail tenons at
capable of drilling a hole through a right angles. The arms are joined at the Assembling the frame
carriage bolt and nut. rear legsby twin mortise and tenon, and at The first parts to assemble are the sides of
For the studio chair, you will need two the front legs by open twin mortise and the main frame. Each comprises a front
6ft (2m) bar or pipe clamps and, if a couch tenon. The joint at each corner of the seat and rear leg, an armrest, and a side rail.
is being made, two extension bars will be and back carcasses formed by a box or
is Each side should be glued and clamped,
needed for the clamps. It is not usually comb joint. Details for the making of these one on top of the other to ensure that they
necessary to go to the expense of buying joints can be found in the Techniques are exactly the same, and left for the glue
bar clamps, as they can often be rented. section. to set.
Ask at your local hardware or do-it- For the plywood panels, which support While the sides are setting, the seat and
yourself store. the cushions, a grid of 3m (76mm) backrest frames could also be glued,
There are several items of hardware squares is drawn on the surface of each providing you have additional bar clamps.
you will need: four fin (9.5mm) carriage panel. This will provide a network of If not, you might be able to improvise by
bolts, 4in (100mm) in length and washers 'crosses' created by lines meeting at right wedging, as shown in Fig. 6. The unit to
shown in Fig. 8 used to cover the carriage
; angles. Each cross is drilled with a brace be clamped is placed between two battens
bolt recesses; four hinges for the couch, and fin (19mm) bit to form the rows of screwed to the bench, and wood wedges
two for the chair, each 2^in (64mm) two ;
holes as illustrated. are driven between one batten and the unit
2in (50mm) casement screws (Fig. 9) to to force the clamping action. If you have a
lock the backrest. Cutting the joints really solid bench you could get away
The method of upholstering will be It is best to cut out all the joints before with placing one end of the frame against
detailed later. But it is a mistake to do anything is fitted. Note that some of the a wall and using only one batten or block.
more than provisionally decide on a box joints are mitered at a 45 angle. When the glue has set on the sides of
color scheme and material at this stage. These are at 1, the bottom of the front the main frame, the front and rear rails

edges of the backrest frame panels and 2, (the 'long' rails if you are making a couch)
Buying the lumber the top of the back edges of the seat frame are glued and fitted to the sides, and
Hardwood for furniture should be pur- panels. These miters will allow the back- clamped. The bar clamp will be adequate


Studio couch & choir

for a chair, but you willneed extension

bars tor the clamp it you are making a seat back cross rail

When the glue has set on the back and
back frame brace
seat frames, fit all interior battens. Glue
these and screw them at 2in (51mm)
Glue and screw the blocks for the
center brace (or blocks for both braces for
a couch) and then glue the center brace
into the block slots.
At this point you will have to cut
recesses at the front of the front panel of
the seat frame just behind the box joint
(Fig. 1). This is necessary in order to
accommodate a double thickness of
upholstery. Using the crosscut saw, cut
to a depth of about ^in (6mm) just inside
each joint. Mark lines across the width of
the panel i|in (35mm) in from the ends of
the panel. Chisel down from these lines to
the bottom of the Jin (6mm) cut.
Chisel recesses to house the hinges. Fit
and screw the hinges for the junction of
the back and seat frames. Place the seat
frame in position. This will enable you to
mark and drill the carriage bolt holes in
the correct positions. Insert the carriage
bolts, but don't screw them in firmly.
basic frame cross member
Raise the backrest up to seating posi-
tion. Drill the holes for the wing screws.
Fit and secure the screws.
The folding legs are now fitted to the
inside side panels of the backrest.
Drill the holes in the plywood panels,
plane the panels to and glue and screw

them to the interior battens of the seat and seat frame end rail seal frame brace block
backrest frames.
The studio couch or chair is now fully
assembled ready for the upholstery.

For upholstering the couch you will need shops, or see your Yellow Pages. Fig 1. The component parts for the couch
a 6inX3oinX75in (152mm X 762mm X Other materials you No. will need are: and chair. The seat center brace and blocks
1905mm) foam for the seat and a 6inx or 4 piping cord, contact adhesive (make are omitted from the construction of the
24m X 75m (152mm x6iommx 1905mm) certain that it is a kind that will not dis- chair.
one for the back; to pad the seat and the solve foam), decorative upholstery tacks
back, two strips each of iin X2jin X75in and gimp pins.
(25mm X 64mm X 1905mm) and |inx
ioinX75in (13mm x 254mm x 1905mm). Cushion covers
For the chair you will need a 6in x 24m If you are using plain fabric allow a piece
X24in (152mm x6iomm x6iomm) foam of furnishing fabric (minimum 48m
for the back, and a 6in x 24m X 30m [1220mm] wide) equal to tw-ice the length
(152mm x6iomm X 762mm) one for the of each foam biscuit, plus 2in (51mm)
seat; for padding, two strips each of 1 in X seam allowance (the box strips can be cut
2^inx 24m (25mm x64mm x6iomm)and from the leftover fabric of the main
in x ioin X 24m (13mm X 254mm X pieces).
610mm). with a one-way design,
If using a fabric
The foam slabs should be of medium you have to make up the length for
hard density and the padding of hard the cushion cover by joining widths of
foam. These are available
at upholstery fabric so that the pattern will run the


Studio couch & choir

right way on both the backrest and the dimensions lor chair in brackets

seat cushion, i.e. from top to bottom for f 6 3' 12 1

the back, and back to front for the seat.
To determine the number of widths of
fabric you need double the length of each
foam slab to give the amount of fabric
needed for the top and bottom sections of
the cover.
Follow the same method to calculate
the amount needed tor the box strips on
each side of the foam, multiplying the
total of fabric widths by the cushion's
depth plus i in seam allowance.
To cover the fascia and back, allow
2yd (i.8m) of 48 in (1220mm) wide fabric
for the couch and iyd (91.4cm) for the
chair. For the amount ot bias-cut casing
fabric and piping, measure the perimeter
of each biscuit and double it, allowing an
extra 6in (157mm) for joining. For the
fascia piping, you will need an additional
1 Sin (457mm). (As a guide iyd of 48m
[91.4cm of 1220mm] fabric will make-
about 2Syd [25.0m] bias strip, iiin
[38mm] wide.)

Cutting out and making up

Cut out the tabric tor the top and bottom
sections of the cover, leaving |in (13mm)
seam allowance, and join the widths for
each side it using one-way patterned
fabric. Cut the box strips for each side
separately . again leaving iin ( 13mm) seam
allowance on sides. Join all the box

stripstogether along their short edf

with a ^in (13mm) plain scam, tapering
the stitching into the corners lin ( 13mm)
from both ends. Make the casing for the
piping and attach it to both sides of
the box strip so that the line of stitching is
sin (13mm) from the edges.
W ith the "right' sides together, pin one
edge of the box strip to the outer edge of
the cover top. Clip the casing at the
corners - the tapered seam of the strip
will give enough case' to go around the
corners smoothly, so there will be no need
to clip this. Haste and machine stitch and
pink the raw edges if the fabric is likelv to
fray. Pn. -
Attach the bottom cover to the other
edge of the box strip in a similar way, but
leave one of the long sides open. Turn the 2 5. Overall dimensions and main
cover right-side out and press it. Insert construction details for the studio
the foam and slip stitch the opening couch.
together, using a curved needle (these
stitches can be unpicked easilv for 6. Method of clamping the basicframes
removing the cover for cleaning). while gluing.

Covering the fascia and back /-'/:,< ~. The seathack locking mechanisms
For the padding, use contact adhesive to may he cut from ordinary door bolts.
Studio couch & choir

For the back, cut a piece of fabric the open 8in-ioin (203111111-254111111) to pro-
same size as the Jin (13mm) loam plus vide either for the insertion ol zippers, or
iin (25mm) all around. Then cul another hooks and eves. Turn under the outside
piece to lit the inset section of the back, edge8 Ain (13mm) and ess down. Basti

plus iin (13mm) seam, leaving the ends the fabric over the foam.

Cutting list: Couch

Solid wood standard metric
Basic frame
2 legs 2x3x17;! 5 1 76 / 442
2 legs 2x3 x 27 5 1 < 76 X 686
2 arms ifX3X33-fc 45 76 -
2 cross members 2x6^x32 \l 51X165
2 cross rails i|X4x8o{ 31 X 102 > 2038
Seat frame
2 cross rails 1 X4X77 25 x 102 / 1956
2 end rails 1x5x29' 25 I2 7 '
1 front interior batten 1x2x75 25/52/1905
1 back interior batten 1x1x75 25 -25/1905
1 end interior batten I XI X25I 25x25x641
1 center brace IX3IX27I 25x92x708
4 center brace blocks IX3IX3I 25x92/92
Back frame
2 cross rails I X4X77 25 x 102 x 1956
2 end rails 1 x 5 x 29I 25x127/745
1 center brace 1x3x75 25x76/1905
2 interior battens I xi X73 25/25/1854
1 interior end batten I XI X27I 25 x 25 X 699
Seat frame 5X27^X75 10x699 X 1905
Back frame |x 271x75 10 x 698 x 1905

Cutting list: Chair

Solid wood standard metric
Fig 8. The pivot for the scat. Note the Basic frame
roller pin through the nut and bolt to 2 legs 2x3x17! 51 x 76x442
prevent the assembly coming undone. 2 legs 2x3 x 27 51 x 76x686
2 arms ifx 3 X33^ 45 x 76 x 840
Fig 9. As an alternative to the door 2 cross members 2x6^x32^ 51 x 165x834
catch, a casement screw can be used. 2 cross rails 1^x4x29^ 32x102x743
This is a better arrangement, which Seat frame
will give a more professional 2 cross rails 1 X4X26 25 x 102x660
finish. 2 end rails 1 x 5 x 29^ 25x127x743
1 front interior batten 1x2x24 25x51 x6io
1 back interior batten I X I X 24 25 X25 x6io
stick on the strips of iin (25mm) thick 2end interior battens 1 xi X25^ 25x25x641
foam to the front edge of the seat and the Back frame V
top of the back. Wrap the -|in (25mm) 2 cross rails I X4X26 25 x 102 x66o
thickfoam around these and the seat or 2 end rails 1 x 5 x 29I 25x127x745
behind the back, and stick them in 1 center brace 1 X3X24 25 X76X610
position. 2 interior battens I XI X22 25 x 25 x 569
For the fascia, cut out a strip of fabric 2 end interior battens I XI X27I 25 X25 X698
the same size as the |in (25mm) foam, riywooa
plus 1 in on all sides. Stitch piping to the Seat frame 1x24x271 10x610 X699
short sides and then turn under the jin Back frame 1x24x271 10x610x698
(6mm) seam allowance and piping casing,
and press. Fix the fabric over the foam, You will also require :

using plain or decorative-headed uphol- For couch and chair-2 2in (51mm) casement screws or door bolts. 4 carriage bolts, nuts
stery tacks. To secure the sides, lift up and washers |in x 4m (10mm X 102mm). 4 2^in (64mm) back flaps. Screws. Nails.
the piping and fasten with gimp pins.

Mix~and~match living room suite

Above: Three of the suite units. The These units are constructed mainlv of for a specific job depends not only on
staggered legs enable the stools ( but not the utile. This is a medium-priced African appearance but also price, type, and how
chairs) to be placed together along a wall. wood, similar to mahogany and is suitable it will eventually be finished.

for most joinery projects. You mav, Basicallv the main frame consists of
however, prefer a lighter or darker wood, iinX-j-in (25mm > 102mm) hardwood
or one with a richer grain, in which case that has been rounded off. This should be
most hardwoods will do. If you have no carefully done; if it isn't it can easily
experience in the selection of various result in uneven edges, and for this
woods, talk the matter over with your reason it is advisable to make a radius
lumber dealer because the correct wood template, as in Fig. 1, to obtain the


correct curvature. Use a router with a

carbide bit to cut.

Where frame members cross by lap-

ping, they are joined with tour bolts as in
Fig. 5. The positioning ot the holes is

extremely critical and it is essential that a

hole template be made as in Fig. 2. This
will ensure that drill holes match perfectly.
Where main frame members butt
against one another, they are joined with
three dowel rods drilled and fitted in
dovetail fashion as in Fig. 3. Here again,
the positioning of the holes - in this case
to take the dowel rods - is extremely
critical and it is essential to use a dowel jig
(Fig. 3) if the members are to be joined
level and at right angles. If you do not
wish to make your own jig you can buy a
steel jig specially made to be used with a
power drill.
Figs lA, ttt. The
The method of upholstering the suite pattern for the radius

is detailed at the end of the project. template.

Hardware Left : Method of using

These units are secured or joined with the dowelling jig.
The bolts are hexagonal
special fixings.
countersunk and the nuts pronged 'T'
types. The screws are Pozidriv No.
Some of this hardware may not be
readily available, in all localities, but
there are substitutes. You could also use
chrome-plated oval head No. 10 machine
screws with 'T' nuts or, use carriage bolts
and screws. (See parts list for sizes.) And
where bolts or screws are not attractive
their heads can be hidden with small
domes, usually nickelled or chromed,
with prongs which allow you to fasten
them to the wood. There are other
alternatives, but the hardwareshouldshow.
Below left : Detail of
leg and rail assembly
Making a radius template
showing hoth holts
This aid is used to make sure that the
and dowels.
rounded edges of the members are uni-
formly curved. When held over the
rounded edge, any irregularities can be
seen. Note the template in Fig. 1 is
drilled out with a i|in (32mm) bit,
making the diameter slightly wider than
the wood being worked. This is because
only the corners are being rounded, and
this is achieved with a template curve
slightly larger than the thickness of the
wood. you wanted to make a template
for a completely rounded edge, the drilled
hole would have to be the same diameter
as the wood's thickness.
It is important that the wood you use

be really square and that any jagged edges

inside the hole be sanded smooth.


Mix -and -match living room suite

A hole template
The holes to take securing bolts must be
drilled with precision, tor this reason

a template must be made to ensure that

the positions oi the bolt holes tor the legs
and rails will match.
To make the template you will require
two pieces of hardboard or thin plywood,
at least 2111 151111ml longer and wider than
a 'long' leg member; sufficient iinxiin
(25mm \25mm) battening to run around
three edges as in Fig. 2 ; finishing nails
ami adhesive.
Lay one piece of hardboard on a Hat
surface and place one ot the long legs on
it. Cut and fit three iinxiin (25mm X 25

mm) lengths of batten around the two

short edges and one long side as in Fig. 2.
Glue and nail the battening in position.
Place the other piece of hardboard oxer
the battening and glue and nail to com-
plete the template body.
You now have an 'envelope' into which
long or short leg members, or the end of a
rail, will rit. Trim the hardboard flush
with the outside edges of the battening.
The next step is to mark out two sets of Fig 2. The drill hole template and its Mark the 'inside' of such members
holes. First ensure that the 'open' side of method of use. lightly with a pencil to identify them.
the template is absolutely Hush with the
edge ot a long leg member placed inside it, their positions on the base board as Cutting
so that accurate measurements can be detailed in Fig. 3. Glue and nail the Cut all lengths and right angles accurately
taken. battens in position. to their final dimensions. This is easily-

Mark out the position ot the holes as The guide block 'B' correctly positions achieved by nailing three lengths ot batten
illustrated in Fig. 2, then carefully drill the overlap of the rails 'E', and also around the edges ot a leg so that it tonus
the holes. If you do not wish to repeat the guides the drill bit for the dowel holes. a three-sided stop. Next construct a
marking process you can lay a sheet of This block should be made from hard- 'bridge' that will exactly span the leg
paper over the first set of marks, outline wood - the harder the better and is from side two
to side; this will require
the hole positions, and transfer the paper hinged to block 'D' with a 2in (51mm) short pieces and one piece
of batten,
along, as you work, to position the next back-flap hinge. This allows accumulated sufficiently long to span the width ot the
set of holes. sawdust to be removed from the jig leg and be nailed securely onto the two
It is absolutely essential that the holes between drillings. When the jig is being shorter battens. The whole assembly can
are drilled at right angles to the surface of used it should be screwed or clamped to be made in a few minutes. The bridge is
the hardboard. If possible, a drill stand the working surface. held in place by a clamp at the correct
should be used for the job. If this is not Having completed the bolt hole tem- distance along the leg, rail or arm, and will
possible align the drill bit with a try- plate and the dowelling jig, you can start enable you to cut several lengths of
square. on the construction of the furniture. lumber to the same length while guiding
First decide whether you want to build the tenon saw blade at right angles.
Making a dowelling jig the 'formal' suite or the 'dovetail' suite Using a try square and marking knife,
A dowelling jig must be made to ensure the construction outline ot which is in mark one leg, rail (and arm, if required),
that the dowel rods are accurately and Fig. 8. to the correct length. Do this carefully
consistently placed. You can see the com- Place the lengths of stock tor assembling toensure that you do not make a mistake -
plete dowel jig assembly shown in the one unit of furniture to one side, and you can measure as many times as you
illustration in Fig. 3. examine these for 'matching'. This is like, but you can cut only once
The base is constructed from plywood done to ensure that all lumber surfaces The be done with a
cutting should
about fin ( 19mm) thick and 30m (762mm) that can easily be seen such as the out- fine-toothed tenon saw with at least 14
square, and iin 2in (25mm X 51mm)
- side faces of legs or rails harmonize with teeth to the inch.
battening. It is essential that the support one another. For instance, the leg mem-
marked 'A' in Fig. 3 is of the same thick- bers might come with a prominent grain Rounding off (hand tool method)
ness as the leg or rail members of the on one side, and little or no grain on the Rounding the corners of the members
furniture. other, which could present a jumbled eliminates sharp edges. It is done here to
Cut the battens to length and mark out visual appearance if fitted at random. soften the lines of the furniture which, by

Mix~ond~motch living room suite

Beltnc: The construction of the jig, which Fig j. The cross rail dowelling jig. Again, chisel, hammer, smoothing plane, block
is used to make sure the legs are square. care is required to ensure a good fit. plane, tine-toothed flat rile, and grade '(

sandpaper. (Of course, you can also use

design, tends to be angular in appearance. a router.)

The radius, in this case, is carried out to Set the marking gauge at Jin (6mm)
the extent that only the corners are and run a light line at this depth along the
rounded off, not the complete edge. edge of each piece of lumber, including
While it is a simple technique, rounding the ends. Repeat this by drawing another
off requires a certain amount of skill and line, in between the first line and the

care if you are to avoid bumpy, undulating edge, setting the marking gauge at Ain
edges. If you have not done this before (2mm). You will now have two parallel
you should either get your lumber dealer lines marked all around the edges of the

to supplv the lumber ready-cut this will lumber.

cost more and not all dealers will do it
- Place one piece of lumber in a wood
or practice on some spare pieces of wood vise so that one long edge is facing up. If

until you get the hang of it. you do not have a vise, the piece can be
To round b\ hand you will need a clamped to a table top (Fig. 4); but in this
marking gauge, Jin (13mm) bevel-ed^cd case the edge will be placed horizontally.
Mix~ond~motch living room suite

Above: Leg and rail corners must be toward the middle. Check with the marked in the correct places, put each
rounded using a block plane or Surform. template that the curvature is uniform. If piece in turn in the drill template and
it is, continue with the block plane, mark each drill hole position positively,
Fig 4. Each component must be clamped to chamfering down to the second line all with an awl or a drill bit, through the
a bench for rounding. around. After a final check with the template holes.
template, sand down to a fine finish. Drill the holes for the bolts through
which is slightly more inconvenient as each marked position. It is essential that
you will have to turn the lumber over to Rounding edges (power tool way) the holes are drilled through at exactly
radius the other edge. To do this it's best to use a router right angles and for this you will need a
With the smoothing plane, chamfer the equipped with a carbide bit and a ball drill press. It is possible to drill the holes
corners of one long edge down to the bearing guide. The ball bearing guide by hand.
^ in (4mm)
3 line. Do not forget to plane serves two purposes. First, it acts as a Next, bore the 'T' nut and screw cup
with the grain, not against it, and make guide: it ensures that the cutter slices recesses. The depths to which these
sure that your strokes are long and even away material at the proper depth. recesses are taken will depend on the
to prevent the radius from being ir- Second, it ensures that no burning of the type of bolt and nut used. And, of course,
regularly shaped and bumpy. Repeat this wood will take place, as can happen when the countersink bit, in each case, should

along the corner of the opposite edge. a cutter alone is used. These burn marks be of a diameter equal to either the nut or
You should now have a piece with flat then have to be removed - a time cup, whichever is being used.
bevels on both edges. consuming process. It's best, when
Now, still using the smoothing plane, working with the router, to start at the Do welling preparation
round the same corners down to the jin middle of the board and work completely The dowel holes are drilled and the
(6mm) line. Use a very light, smooth around the board in one direction and end dowels inserted in dovetail fashion, as in
stroke for this because if you plane deeper where you started. Fig. 3G. Once again, mark the intended
than the line you will have to end up dowel hole positions with chalk and 'trial
rounding the edges completely. Applying a protective coat assemble' the unit. It will be even easier
When you have rounded the long edges At this stage it is best to apply a protective this time because you can insert the bolts
of all the lumber finish off the work with coating so that any stains or marks that tightening them gently by hand - to
the fine sandpaper. occur as the result of working can easily hold part of the unit together.
Next, you will have to round the ends, be wiped off. For economy, dilute the Insert each piece of lumber in turn in
which is slightly more difficult because coating. A varnish consisting of clear the dowelling jig and drill holes through
you are working with end grain, and this polyurethane and turpentine or turpen- the outside members only. Note that the
is liable to splinter or split much more tine substitute in the proportions of 1 :i is internal holes - which in all cases are
easily. perfectly adequate. Rub off all pencil and drilled in the edge or end grain - are
Lay the length of lumber down on the finger marks first, and wait for the coating drilled when the unit is being assembled.
bench or table top and, with the hammer to dry thoroughly before starting work If you drill both external and internal
and chisel, take a triangle of wood off the again. dowel holes together, it is almost certain
tip of each end corner down to the first that they will not match the bolt holes
marked line. Drilling bolt holes exactly when assembling, which will
With the block plane, chamfer all Mark out the positions of all the bolt necessitate some alterations.
around the end, down to the first line. As holes with something that is easily The dowelling rods must now be
you are working on end grain, do not erased, such as chalk. Now run through a slightly chamfered. This consists of
plane along the line as you did with the 'trial assembly', to ensure that the bolt planing a 'flat' along the length of the
side edges because the wood will only holes are in the correct positions. When rods. The chamfer allows air and excess
splinter. Plane starting from each end you are sure that all the pieces have been glue to be forced out of the dowel holes

Mix -and -match living room suite

when the dowel is being inserted. It this is

not done, it will be impossible to insert
the dowel to the full depth because of the
excess glue.
Cut the dowelling into lengths of 2$in
(70mm). Then, to facilitate the insertion
of each dowel, radius or 'round' one end.
The method is the same as sharpening a
pencil and can be carried out with a
trimming knife or block plane. These
dowels - called glue dowels - are also
available ready-made.

Place a dab of adhesive in all the screw
cup holes and insert the screw cups.
Insert the four bolts through the two
members for one of the joints and tighten
down with your fingers the pronged 'T'
nuts on the ends of the bolts. Then screw
them in fully. Repeat this for all the
lapped joints. You will now have several
parts of the unit ready, and these have to
be butt-jointed with the dowelling.
Position two of these parts so that they
are ready for drilling the dowel holes.
This is quite simple because they will be
at right angles to one another. Now clamp
the corner together as shown in Fig. 6;
the near end of the clamp, pressing on the
surface containing the dowel holes, will be
fixed directiv over the middle dowel
hole. Remember to use waste blocks
under the clamp, otherwise unsightly
dents will be left in the wood. When the
assembly has been clamped firmly, place
the drill bit in one of the exposed dowel
holes and drill through into the second
member. Repeat this on the other hole.
You have now drilled the holes for the
dowels that actually 'dovetail' toward the
middle dowel. Smear some adhesive
around the dowels, and put some of it
into the dowel holes. Tap the two dowels
in position. There will be a small portion
of dowel protruding but ignore it at this
stage - it will be planed down later.
Having completed the dowelling for
the outside holes, you can remove the
clamp. Now drill and fit the dowel for the
center hole. This procedure is repeated
for all the dowelled joints.
When the glue has set, fix the support
battens around the inside of the frame-

Fig $A. Exploded view of the chair unit.

Fig 5S. Exploded view of the corner unit of

the suite. The seats of these units must be
mounted level in contrast to the elevated
front edge of the main seat units.
ix -and -match living room suite

work to take the seat base plywood. For the Fig 6. The corners of the units must be
conventional chairs these battens are clamped and the outer dowels inserted
positioned at an angle on the side rails from fu \t. When these are dry the clamps are
|in (9mm) below the front edge to .Wn removed ami the remaining dowel
(13mm) above the bottom edge of the installed.
back r.iil as shown in Fig. a. For the
corner chairs the battens are parallel with Fig -. Detail of tin construction of the
the rails. and countersink the
Drill corners ami a plan view of the suite unit
battens, then glue and screw them into illustrating the staggered legs.
The battens for the table top must be Fig 8. I 'Ian view of the completed suite.
fixed exactly to the thickness of the tabic'
top below the top of the rails. You can
either measure the position, or you can
cut the top to si/e, placing it lace down on
a flat surface. Turn the unit frame
upside down placing this over the table-
Fig 7
top; the whole unit will now be upside
down, and the top of the table will be
level with the top rim of the table frame.
.lower rail
You can now measure and fit the batten-
ing from underneath.

Plane the protruding dowelling down
carefull) to prevent marking the wood
and finish off with sandpaper. &
Smooth all the remaining surfaces with

grade '( >' sandpaper and wipe all over w ith

a cloth dampened with turpentine to
remove any dust. Then go over the wood
with tine steel wool and wipe again with
the cloth. T
For the final finish use wax and polish,
a polyurethane varnish, or paint. Allow
varnish or paint to dry thoroughb .

The final touch is added to your suite -i
with the construction of seat, back and
side cushions for upholstery. The style of
the suite is such that it blends with most 1 J J_

modern fabric patterns.

The cushions for the suite can be made
intwo ways. If Dacron filling is wrapped
around the foam shape before covering,
you will end up with deep, pliant cushions.
This is the type shown in the photo-
graphs. Hut if the Dacron is omitted and
the foam used on its own, the cushions

will be firmer, with more pronounced

edges and cheaper to make.

It is important that the foam shape for the
cushions is of the correct type. A foam
cushion tor seating should be firmer, or
denser, at the inner core with a softer
exterior. The foam used here consists of a
layer of hard foam sandwiched between
two layers of a slightly softer foam.


Mix~ond~motch living room suite

Fig y. Side 1I1 . nl mn / ///, ,//,/// \i,i,

Fig 9
thai the battens supporting tin teal must
In fixed 1 in (25mm) abovi tht bottom of th*
rails at the back. Tht method of attach
tin feat panel f~ also thou // //;/ < anted
nails pi m hit 11 In Hi I ;>/ //; nn I hi

surrounding battt n.

pieces ot hardboard overlapping tin edge

ol a table or workbench .1^ shown in

Fig. 10. The hardboard must be wide

enough to spread any pressure evenly
over the foam. Short strips ot hardboard
will not allow you to hold the foam
securely over the whole area, and will
tend to make you exert too much pressure
at the edge, which will result in concave
edges alter being cut. This effect is

shown in Fig. I I.

If a curved or irregular shape has to be

cut, the pieces ot hardboard should be
tied with the foam in the center as in
Fig. 12. This will enable you to handle
the complete sandwich' as a unit instead
of three separate pieces which keep
i ii^ ___fcl drifting out of place.
A felt pen is ideal tor marking the
surfaces of the foam, and the best tool tor
cutting it is an electric carving knife.
Failing this a hacksaw can be used with
01 without the saw frame. It you use a

hacksaw frame, ensure that the blade is

set at 90 to the frame.

Shaping the edge is easily done by
The thickness of the foam depends on bases and cover them yourself, or ask in spreading contact ('impact') adhesive
which type of cushion you are making. If the store where you purchase the buttons along the edges, then folding the ends
you are adding a Dacron filling, then foam it they can arrange to have this done. toward the middle as shown in Fig. 14.
3in (76mm) be quite adequate;
thick will The backrest and side cushions should Before you do this, check with your
but if you are not using any additional be fastened to the frame - especially it supplier to ensure that the adhesive you
rilling, the foam must be around 4] in you are going to omit the straps to stop use will have no adverse effect on the
(106mm) thick. them from slipping out ot place. There foam. Some adhesives will dissolve
The Dacron tilling is made specifically are several methods of doing this, such as certain foams.
tor upholstery and is sold in sheets, heavy-duty snap fasteners, or Velcro
something like a giant roll of sterile tape. Padding the foam
cotton. It can be obtained from many A final covering can be made from any If the foam is to be covered with filling.

large stores. type of fabric. But it is best to use a soft to estimate the quantity required, mea-
Piping cord will be required lor run- fabric such as velvet or linen, you are if sure the length and width ot a cushion
ning a piping seam around the joins. Buy covering the foam with Dacron; it not and add the thickness of the foam to each
size 1 I or 2; you will need 8ft (2.4m) per adding Dacron, you should use a firmer measurement. In this case, your 24m

cushion, plus 10% margin. material such as denim. 24m x 3in (610mm x6iomm X 76mm)
The cushions are mainly held in place foam will require filling 27m 27m
by straps, which can be made from the Preparing the foam (686mm X 686mm) and you will need two
same material as the main covering or If foam shapes are to be covered with
the such pieces for each cushion. Lay the
from any strapping or webbing that you Dacron filling, then they will need only pieces along each side of the foam with
think will match or contrast well. to be cut into squares or rectangles of a the edges slightly overlapping the edges
Buttons are used on some of the suitable size. But if the Dacron is not of the foam and then sew it along the
upholstery shown. These can be orna- being used, the edges of the foam should join.

mental or plain buttons chosen for a 1h rounded in order to prevent the

specific effect; or they can be covered appearance from being chunky and Making the cushion cover
with the main covering material. It you angular. For the length, measure the cushion
wish the buttons to be covered, buy the Cutting should be done between two length along the inside of the frame. To

Vlix -and -match living room suite

this measurement add 4111 (102mm) to cut away. This will enable the material
allow for the swell of the cushion and an to lie flat.

extra iin (25mm) For the

for the seams. Make sure that the bottom edge of the
depth, measure the depth of the frame and material square at the corners. This is

add 4m (102mm) plus iin (25mm) as ideally done with a tailor's square, but
before. This will give you one panel. any similar instrument such as a try
You will obviously need two panels like square could be used.
this for each cushion. Mark out - preferably with a yardstick
Figs 10-14. The "let hud of cutting the foam Lay the fabric out on a table. Some- - one of the panels, using tailor's chalk.
for the cushions. The cutting should he done times the selvage will cause the edges of Make sure, if a patterned fabric is being
betueen two pieces of hardboard overlapping the material to wrinkle or pucker, in used, that the pattern is the right way up
the edge of a table or workbench. which case the selvage should be carefully and in the center of the pieces to be cut.

hardboard cutting line-



- table

Fig. 10

c '| 00

Fig. 13

1 t


\ 1
k o


> o
C \.

r J
^^^^ 1

fo\o 1 r
c / 1 " a
1 1

Fig. 14

Mix -and -match living room suite

Lav one panel on the from

table. Starting corners of the suite cushion covers.
the top left-hand measure
corner, 2in Piping will have to be done on a aewing
(51mm) inward along the horizontal edge machine. Cut [in (6mm) strips of material
and mark with chalk. Repeat this down on the bias (diagonally) across the
the vertical edge. Draw a chalk line material. Join these pieces end to end
between these marks and cut along the using iin (13mm) seams. Press the seams
line with scissors. This will snip off the with an iron.
corner of the panel. Each corner of both Fold the piping strips evenly, placing
panels must be cut off in the same way. piping cord inside the fold. Sew the cord
These corners are now stitched with a into the piping strip (using a piping foot Below: The suite may be finished in either
running stitch (or a long stitch if using a or one-sided foot on the machine) until clear or colored poly ur ethane. The cushions
sewing machine) to form the gathered you have enough piping to go around all are attached underneath with snap fasteners.


Mix-ond-motch living room suite

tour sides of one of the panels. Sew this Straps and fixings seat cushions, rix them to the center ot

piping strip around the edges ol one For the strap fastening, use curtain the cushion with a button threaded
panel, starting at the center of the hack. heading tape tor contrast, or make up through the straps and cushion with
Join the piping on the right side <>t the matching straps bj covering the tape nylon tufting twine. Fasten it underneath
material using ]in (6mm) seams, butting with the cushion material. Heading tape- with another button (Fig. 13).
up the cord to make a neat finish. can he obtained in various colours and At any point where the cushion should
Place the second panel on top ol the widths. For a 'different' strap, you could be more permanently fixed to the frame
piped cushion panel and, starting at one e\ en try leather. to stop it moving, heavy-duty snap
ot the back corners, join together with The straps are joined underneath, or tastcners can be fixed to the frame and
.'.in (13111111) seams making sure that behind, the furniture, using an ordinary stitched to the fabric. A better alternative
gathered corners conic together. Leave buckle, or Velcro tape, or any other is Velcro tape, which can be stitched to
the back edge open tor insertion ot the fastening that is convenient. the cusion and glued to the frame with a
foam. Where the straps cross, as with the contact adhesive.

Parts List
Part Description Quantity Length Cut length Size
to allow
for waste
Legs 3 24; (627mm) 25 (645mm)
8 1 X4I
1 1 1
f (298mm) 12] (3Iimm) 1 X4 M25mmx
Rails/arms 6 26 (660mm) 2 6o (674mm) X4J 102mm) 1

Seat supports 2 24! (629mm) 25] (642mm) X i"\ (25mm X 1

2 22 (581mm) 238 (594mm) 1 X

J 25mm)
Seat plywood 1 24! 24J (629mm

629mm) 25x25 (635mm/ 635mm) 8 (9mm)
Dowels hardwood dowelling 18 z\ (64mm) 2| (70mm) I (9mm) diameter

Bolts GKN 2025 24 1 1 (38mm) { (6mm)

Nuts pronged 'T" Nuts 24 ] (6mm)
Screw-cups Mi 2 countersunk 24 No. 1
Screws Twinfast Pozidriv 12 I
5 (38mm) N0.8

Legs 2 24A (627mm) 252 (645mm) IX 41
(25mm X

2 I (298mm)
l| \z\ (31 imm)
> hardwood 102mm)
Rails/arms 26 (660mm) 26J (674mm) 1 X4J '
Seat supports 2 24! (629mm) (642mm) I X i\ (25mm X
2 22 A (581mm) 22^ (594mm) 1x1/ 25mm)
Seat plywood 1 24! (629mm
629mm) 25 X25 (635mm '635mm)
8 (9mm)
I )owels hardwood dowelling !5 z\ (64mm) 2| (70mm) I (9mm) diameter
Bolts GKN 2025 20 l\ (38mm) \ (6mm)
"T Nuts pronged 'T' Nuts 20 ] (6mm)
Screw-cups M12 countersunk 20 No. 1
Screws Twinfast Pozidriv 12 I (38mm) N0.8

Legs 4 1 if (298mm) i2| (31 1 mm) i X4~\ (25mm x
Rails hardwood 4 26 (660mm) 26| (674mm) X4J 1 102mm)
Seat/top supports 2 24! (629mm) 25 j (642mm) I x i\ (25mm X
2 22 (581mm) 23 8 (594mm) J I 25mm)I

Seat/top plywood 1 24! x 24! (629mm 629mm) 25x25 (635mm 635mm) (9mm)
Dowels hardwood dowelling 12 z\ (64mm) 2j (70mm) I (9mm) diameter
Bolts GKN 2025 16 i|(38mm) I (6mm)
Nuts pronged 'T' Nuts 16 I (6mm)
Screw-cups M12 countersunk 16 ii(38mm) No. 1
Screws Twinfast Pozidriv 12 l|(38mm) N0.8

Round table

There two simple types of joint

are only clamps for the main frame joints. If you finished table you may use a cheaper

used in the construction of this round do not own bar clamps, it should not be grade of material. The dimensions of the
table. The most complicated part is the too difficult to rent them locally. parts are given in the cutting list.

top and even this really requires little The top is screwed to the frame under-
more than patience to make, providing Materials neath with No. 8 steel screws. The joints
you use the correct tools. You will The table shown here is made from clear should be glued with white glue, but
require three 5ft (1.5m) bar clamps to pine, which was chosen for its attractive only if the unit is to be used exclusively
clamp the five table top planks together grain, but there are many other woods indoors. If it will be used in the open,
you wish to paint the or somewhere where could get damp, a
while the glue is setting, and four C
you could use. If
Round table
waterproof adhesive such as a plastic When you have finished fitting the Figs 1 A, B, C, D. The construction of the
resin or epoxy should be used. planks together in a 'dry run' mark all the round table basic frame. The construction
For cutting out the circular table top, joints in sequence with one pencil line consists entirely of halving joints as shown
you will need an integral power jigsaw, across the first joint and two across the in Fig iF.
or a jigsaw attachment for your power second joint and so on, so that they can be
drill. lined up again in the correct order. Fig iE. The completed table top.
Next, glue the planks together, ensur-
Construction details all the joint marks line up exactly.
ing that
The support which in this case
structure Apply the three bar clamps using a small
means all the members below the table piece of wood at each clamp-shoe to
top - consists of two interlocking frames prevent the clamp marking the lumber.
as shown in Fig. i. Each horizontal Apply the glue and clamp the pieces
piece has an 'X' cross-lap joint cut out of together. Spread adhesive evenly along
the center of narrow edge, flanked by
its the edges of the planks that are to butt,
two 'T" half-lap joints cut out of its wide and clamp them together carefully. Place
face (Fig. iD). The pairs of horizontal the first two clamps near each end of the
pieces intersect at the center 'X' halving; planks with their bars running along and
the additional cut-outs are to accept the touching the underside of the planks.
vertical pieces for legs, which are halved Place the third clamp near the middle of
at each end to form the 'T' halving joints. the planks with its bar running over the
The top is formed by gluing five pieces top surface of the planks. In this way, the
of lumber together to form a square planks are held flat on each side, which
approximately 48m (1219mm) each way, prevents them from jack-knifing when the
from which the circular top is then cut. clamps are tightened.
With regard to the top, when ordering The planks must fit together perfectly
these five pieces, ensure that the lumber to ensure that the top surface will be
is smooth and straight. If the pieces are completely level. If one plank is slightly the top is held securely while you are
not good and you have to plane them or higher than the other, loosen the clamps running the jigsaw around the line. It
compensate for their warp during as- a little, place a piece of waste wood on must be clamped to a bench or table top
sembly, the chances are that you'll end up the raised plank and bang with a mallet.
it with sufficient material protruding over
with a poor job. Getting good boards to This will force the raised plank down the edge to allow you to make a part
start with is a far easier course of action. without marring the surface. sweep around the line. Protect the surface
Re-tighten the clamps and wipe every with scrap wood blocks. When you have
Making the top trace of adhesive from the surface of the cut each sweep, loosen the clamps and
The table top is made from wood ifin planks with a damp cloth. If you
soft, move the top around to a position where
(45mm) thick and is a circle 48m don't do this thoroughly, any trace of you can continue to cut.
(1219mm) in diameter when finished. adhesive will show through as a white When you have cut the circle out,
You won't be able to purchase a plank as patch when the wood is eventually finish the edge with a plane, then sand
wide as this, so five ioin (254mm) wide varnished. it down.
planks should be butted together and Allow adequate time for the adhesive
glued along their long edges. to dry. 24 hours is usually enough, but Cutting the joints
First arrange the planks side by side on follow the manufactuer's instructions. It Check your lumber dimensions when set-
a flat surface so that a 48m x 50m (1219 is better to be overcautious than to spoil ting out the joints because the lumber you
mm x 1270mm) (approx) rectangle is the job and have to do the work all over purchase may not be exactly ifinX2^in
formed. The
edges should butt against again. (45mm x 57mm). It will probably be
one another with no unsightly gaps in The circle of the table top must now slightly less, so mark out all joint recesses
between but if there are some high spots
; be marked out. Do this on the underside directly using the mating piece of lumber
on the edges of the planks, carefully of the table top, using a nail, pencil and for accuracy.
plane these down. Be very careful when a length of string. Lightly tap a nail about Each horizontal member has an 'X'
doing this; set the blade very fine and |in (13mm) into the exact center of the halving joint cut in the middle of its

make only a stroke or two at a time to panel. Tie a length of string to this, let narrow edge. This should be as long as
avoid taking off too much wood. Other- the string out 24m (610mm) and tie the the member is wide, and exactly half the
wise, you may have to take off the whole other end around a pencil as near the depth of the member, so that it will fit the
edge to level it off again. If the high spots writing tip as possible. You can now swing mating horizontal piece tightly.
are only slight, buff them down with fine the pencil around in a complete circle, Next, cut the 'T halving recesses for
sandpaper wrapped around a block of marking the surface ready for cutting. the legs. These must be the width of the
wood. For cutting the circle out of the glued member and as deep as half its thickness.
Unless the top is to be painted, arrange planks, you will need a jigsaw. A thin One of these is cut on each side of the
these planks so that the grain forms an piece of wood may be used in place of the central cut-out with a space 2|in (57mm)
attractive pattern. Remember, this is the string. between each of the joints as shown in
surface that will constantly be in view. The important part is to ensure that Fig. iD.

Round table

Round table
Now cut the halving recesses in the underside of the top.
ends of the legs following the same direct Drill countersink holes at 3111 (76mm)
marking procedure and cutting to the intervals from edge to edge through the
same depth. top horizontal members. The countersunk
Using Fig. i as a guide, dry-assemble ends of the holes should be underneath
the two frames and interlock them. This the members. Place the table top on the
will enable you to adjust any of the joints framework, making sure that it is
so that the surfaces are absolutely flush. centered properly - the end of each top
When this has been done, with a pencil member of the leg framework should be
lightlymark the two mating parts of each the same distance away from the edge of
joint with a number, so that you can the table top. Mark the position of pilot
re-assemble them in the same order. holes through the holes in the frame with
an awl, remove the top, drill the pilot
Assembling the frames holes, and then replace the top and screw
The construction and fitting sequence for it firmly in position.
the frames is iA-C. Make
shown in Figs.
up the first frame as in A. To do this Finishing
properly, you need four C clamps, one at Ifyou are painting the table remember to
each halving joint. Spread adhesive on use a good quality paint, particularly on
the surfaces of each halving joint and the table top, because it will take a great
clamp the joints firmly in position, deal of wear and this is one surface you
making sure that the assembly is square don't want to look unsightly.
by measuring the inside diagonals of the Ifyou have chosen a natural wood
rectangle formed in the center. Both finish, you will have to prepare the
diagonals should be the same length. If surface thoroughly so that it doesn't wear
they are not, adjust the frame until they or mark easily, and at the same time
are. Wipe any excess glue from the joints bring out the rich grain of the wood.
and leave the frame for the adhesive to Sand all surfaces with 100 grit sand-
set. paper down to a smooth finish using an
When the adhesive has set, make up the orbital finishing sander. Then use a soft
second frame as shown in Figs. iB and C. cloth dampened with turpentine substi-
First, fit the two legs into the halvings tute to wipe all up the
surfaces, to pick
on the bottom rail. When these joints are fine dust caused by sanding. With a good
set, put the assembly in position and glue quality 2in (51mm) brush, sparingly
the cross-halving joint between the two apply a varnish of clear matt poly-
bottom rails. urethane and turpentine substitute di-
Finally, fit the top rail in place gluing luted 50/50. When dry, rub down again
the rail halving and the leg joints at the with sandpaper and wipe the surface with
same time. The base, or leg frame, is now the cloth. Now re-coat with the same
complete. varnish; when it is dry smooth it with
grade 'O' steel wool and apply a final coat

Fitting the top of undiluted polyurethane.

The table top is secured to the framework After few days the unit can be
underneath with screws passing through polished with a soft cloth, and you will be
members and into the
the top horizontal the proud owner of a superb dining table.

Cutting list
Pine standard metric
4 horizontal members 2jXlf X43 57x45x1092
4 vertical members 2^Xlf X27 57x45x686
5 table top planks if XIOX48 45x254x1219

You will also require :

16 3^in (93mm) No. 8 flathead wood screw's. Adhesive. Varnish and turpentine
substitute or paint.
For this project you will need 5ft (1524mm) bar clamps.
The sizes for the members are the finished dimensions and do not include any
allowance for waste. The sizes for the table top planks are the dimensions before the
pieces have been glued together and the circle cut out.

Table with o rural look

Toble with o rurol look

Fig i. Exploded vine of the rural table. All This solidly built furniture will comple- woodworker. The only jointing involved
leg to rail joints are half laps. Each side is ment any home. The strong grain pattern is the cutting of the lap joints.
constructed as a separate unit and joined at of the tops give a hint of old fashioned
a later stage. country charm, blending well with the Materials
more modern finish on the legs. The The dimensions of the finished com-
simple construction of the table and ponents of the table and benches are
benches makes them an attractive pro- given in the cutting list. The wood used
proposition for the less experienced in the units illustrated is pine, but any

Toble with a rural look

softwood with an attractive grain and [in 1 |in (19mm -


capable of being sanded to a smooth So select youi pieces carefully at th<

finish will tlo. lumberyard. If you have

you difficult}
You will also need some No. 8 flathead can butl two planks of half this width
steel screws and some glue. If you intend along their long edges, bill this obviously
to use the furniture solely indoors, a takes longer ami docs not give so ncil .1

carpenter's glue is ideal, but a waterprool finish.

glue such as Resorcinol should be used if The first step in making the table top
the table and benches are likely to be is to cut the planks slightly longer than
used outdoors. the finished length about lin (25mm) too
long. Then lay the planks together with
Construction their long edges touching. Since tin- top
The main feature of these units is a is later finished in clear polyurethane,
compound leg, stronger than the usual choose the face of each plank which has
type of kitchen table leg but lighter and the most attractive grain and lay them out
hence more attractive looking. In these to make the best pattern as a whole. Do
instructions, the larger component is this on a dead-flat surface to make sure
described as the 'outer leg' and the smaller that any cupping or bowing in the pieces
as the 'inner leg'. is in the same direction; otherwise you Fig 2

The two rails that run parallel to the will have difficulty obtaining a smooth top
long sides of the table and bench tops are surface. Then mark the faces lightly with Fig j. When planing the planks for the lop
half-lap jointed to the outer legs. The a pencil (fig. 3) to ensure that the right a jack plane will give better results.

rails that run parallel to the short sides edges are butted and that you do not
are half-lap jointed to the inner legs, and accidentally reverse one of the planks. bang it with hammer. This will force

this U-shaped construction is fixed in Now plane the edges that are to butt the raised plank downwards so that its
place between the long rails and the outer exactly square. Use a long plane (jack or surface is flush with the other planks.
legs. Fig. 6 shows a cross-section of the jointer) to do this - a short smoothing Now re-tighten the clamps. Wipe
finished legs. plane will simply follow the contours of every trace of adhesive from the faces of
The rails and legs are screwed to the the wood (Fig. 2). Check that the planed the planks, using a soft damp cloth. Any
underside of the benches and table. On edges are perfectly flat and level by adhesive left on the surface will show as a
the table only, extra support for the top is drawing a straightedge along their sur- white patch under the polyurethane finish
provided by two bearers which run faces. that is applied later.

parallel to the two short railsand are The next step is to glue the planks to- Check that there are no irregularities
butted against them. gether, using either a carpenter's glue or in the planks by running your finger
The cross-sections of the wood in the a waterproof glue. To do this you will along the joints. Allow adequate time for
legs and rails of the table are exactly the need three bar clamps and some waste the adhesive to dry. A day is usually long
same as those used for the legs and rails blocks of wood. So that you can quickly enough, but follow the manufacturer's
of the benches. join the planks once the adhesive has instructions. It is better to be over-
been applied, pre-set the clamps to the cautious than spoil the job and have to do
Making the top correct length by clamping the planks the work all over again.
The top of the table is made from wood together dry. Place the waste blocks When the adhesive has dried the top
|in (19mm) thick and has a finished width between the shoes of the clamps and the can be cut exactly to length and width.
of 3oin (762mm). You will not be able to edges of the planks. This will spread the Square a line near the end of the planks
buy a single plank of this width so three clamping pressure more evenly and pro- right across the top face. The finished

planks, each ioin (254mm) wide, are tect the edges of the planks from damage. length of the table top is 4ft 6in (!-37 m )

butted and glued along their long edges. Now glue can be applied and the pieces and the finished dimensions of the bench
You (254mm) is not a
will find that ioin clamped together. To do this, first release tops will be 1 1 fin x 3ft n|in (298mm X
standard width of wood dressed on four the clamps. Spread adhesive evenly on 1.20m). Measure these distances on the
sides (D4S); so-called noin (254mm) the edges of the planks that are to butt. relevant pieces from the squared line.
board starts out ioin (254mm) wide when Clamp them together again. Position one Square lines through these new marks.
rough sawn, but is reduced in the planing clamp near each end of the plank with their Thenext steps are to saw just outside
process. So you will have to buy wider bars running along the undersurface of the marked lines, then plane away the
boards and, for reasons which follow, it the planks. Place the third clamp near waste. You must be careful, however, not
might be wise to buy three I2in (305mm) the middle of the planks with its bar to damage the corners of the planks,

planks for the table top and one 14m running across the top surface of the which is always a danger when planing
(356mm) for each bench top. planks. end grain. There are three ways of doing
The finished width of the bench tops The planks must fit together perfectly this.

is 1 if in (299mm). You should be able to with their surfaces completely level. If one The first method is clamp a waste

obtain single planks of this width, but plank is slightly higher than the others, block of wood to the end which you will
as I2in (305mm) D4 lumber is now only loosen the clamps a little. Place a waste be planing. The top of the waste block
1 1 Jin (287mm), you will have to buy piece of wood on the raised plank and should be level with the top edges of the

1 - i

Toble with o rural look

* >r Fig 3. 77/<' planks should be checked fur fit

yv v-^ v r and marked to make sure the final fit is tight.

- 1
Fig _/. The method used to mark the half lap
joints for the legs and cross rails.

- r Fig 5. The legs

together using two

and cross rails are

C clamps and one bar


Fig 6. The uav in which the legs and cross

rails join together.


Fig. 6
i //

Toble with o rural look

planks so an\ damage tliat is done now be cut. Tin- method is exactl) the When the glue has dried, use 1 Bharp
when planing will 'Ik- to the waste block. same as that lor the rails. \s each leg IS smoothing plane to remove the small
The second method involves planing nit, lightl) with a pencil both tin pieces of the lap joints thai protrude.
from each end of the planks toward their leg and the rail into which it tits, 80 that
center. The third method is to chisel the components do not get mixed up Fixing the frame- together
,iw.i\ the waste .it one court for up to tin during final assembly. When the legs and rails of the table .ind
(25111m) and then plane from the opposite ben< hes are of the finished Bize, the inner
corner, lint you must be careful, when The short rails and inner legs lens can be fixed inside the long rails and
chiselling, not to cut away any wood Now cut the short rails and the inner legs. the- outer legs. The outside lace of the
below the squared line. The rails are the same width and thickness inner let's is hutted to the inside face of

Using one of these methods, finish the as the long rails [Jin 2|in (5X111111 the outer legs. It is essential to work
top to the required size with the ends 70mm) and are a finished length of accurately here or the frame will not be-

perfectly square. 2ft 2in (660mm) for the table legs and square.
Sjin (209mm) for the bench legs. The First mark out the correct positions of
Jointing the rails and legs legs are igin x ii-in X;2ft 5m (34mm X the inner legs on the insides of the outer
The thickness of the legs and rails ot the 38mm < 737mm). These again are jointed legs. The center of the edge ot the inner
table is the same as that of the rails and with lap joints which are marked out and legs should run along the exact center ol
legs of the benches. The method described cut in the manner described above with, the inside face of the outer legs. In order
below of making one joint therefore, of course, the necessary adjustment for to find the correct position, first mark a
applies to all the joints. the different dimensions. Note : The di- line along the center of the inside face ot
Joint the outer legs and rails first. Cut mension of the leg length is the finished the outer legs. Then mark on each side of
the rails tin (25mm) oversize and mark dimension. At this stage in the con- this line half the thickness of the inner
out the positions of the joints on both struction, you should be sure to allow leg which is i -gin (35mm). Mark a line-

pieces at the same time. Place the rails 1 in (25mm) waste for levelling. through this point parallel with the long
together face-side to face-side, then edges of the legs.
square a line across one end and, from Fixing the legs to the rails Fix the short and leg assembly and

that line, measure the length of the rail Now the rails and legs can be glued to- the long rail and leg assembly together
and square a line across at the other end gether. Apply adhesive to both faces of with adhesive. To ensure that the pieces
of the lumber. From these lines set out the lap joints and push the pieces together. do not move out of position while the glue
the width of the legs, using the prepared Lightly clamp the two laps at each end is wet, knock finishing nails partway
timber as a pattern. Separate the rails, together with a C clamp. The C shaped into the inside face of the outer leg along
mark the face sides and square the lines bar should run over the top edge of the the two lines that indicate the correct
around all sides. rail. Then apply a bar clamp so that the position of the inner legs. Space the nails
Set a marking gauge to exactly half the bar of the clamp runs along and parallel about 2in (50mm) apart and knock them
thickness lumber and working
of the to one face of the rail (Fig. 5). Check with in at an angle as shown in Fig. 7. This
from the face-side score a line on the edge a try-square that the angles between the will enable you to remove them more
of the rail and across the end grain (Fig. 4) legs and rails are perfectly square and easily when the adhesive has dried.
to indicate the depth of the halved joint. tighten all the clamps. Wipe any excess Now glue the pieces together. Apply
Set out the legs in the same way. First, adhesive from the surfaces of the pieces adhesive to the face of the inner legs and
cut them overlength and mark the length. and allow adequate time for the glue to
Use the rails to set out the width of the dry. Fig 7. Nails are used to align the inside legs.

joint. Score the depth of the joint with

the marking gauge working from the face-
side as before. Shade the inside face of the
rail joints with a pencil so that you will

know this is to be cut out. Then shade or

mark with a cross the outside of the leg
joint as this will be the waste side.
Cut down the waste side of the line
using a tenon saw. Then, score over the
pencil joint-line, across the grain, using
a handyman's knife and a try-square. Saw
down this line to remove the waste. The
scored line will give a neater finish to the
shoulders of the joint.
When all the half laps in the long rails
have been cut and tried for fit, the rails
can be sawn to only ^-m (1.5mm) longer
than their finished length at each end.
This will be smoothed off later.

The half lap at the top of the legs can

Toble with o rural look

Fig The finished leg and rail assemblies

8. push the four components of the frame filler, but they are not in a conspicuous
are glued and clamped together using bar together. Before clamping them, turn the place.
and C clamps. assembly upside down on a perfectly flat
surface so that the legs stick up in the air. Finishing the furniture
Use bar clamps along the level of, and The frame and legs and the top are
parallel to, the rail of the inner leg finished before the assembly is complete.
assembly. Apply only light pressure at Sand down all surfaces. Apply a clear
first. Then check that the frame is polyurethane to the tops of the tables and
perfectly square and tighten the bar benches. Use several coats, rubbing down
clamps. Use C clamps to clamp the outer the previous coat with steel wool before
legs to the inner legs (Fig. 8). Wipe any applying thesubsequent coats. The
excess adhesive from the surfaces of the varnish should be applied to both the top
legs. Allow the adhesive to dry. When the surface and the undersurface of the tops.
adhesive has dried remove the finishing The finish applied to the legs is a matter
nails. The holes can be filled with wood The entire unit can have a natural
of taste.

Table with o rural look

Fig 9. The table top it tcrewed to the table

via a bearer which fiti inside the ends of the

table. If the color of the top is to be different
to that of the frame it is advisable to finish
both components before serening together.

Fig 10. Exploded view of the bench. The

method of construction is exactly the same
as that of the table.

Toble with o rural look

finish, like the top; or you can choose a top you must be very careful not to cut of each bearer and one screw about 7m
contrasting color such as the polyurethane the holes too deeply. The rails are 24111 (180mm) from the first, toward the center
finish in the photograph. (70mm) wide and the tops of both the of the bearer.
tables and the benches are fin (19mm)
Fixing the frame to the top thick. The first drilled holes, therefore, Cutting the legs to length
The framework of the tables and benches should be about 3m (76mm) deep. To This is the final stage in the construction
is screwed to the tops. They cannot be cut these holes to an accurate depth, wrap of the table and benches. The legs were
glued in place first as this will spoil the a piece of colored adhesive tape around originally cut Jin (12mm) too long. You
polyurethane finish - and the two-color the drill this distance from the drill tip. do not have to remove exactly Jin (12mm),
finish cannot be applied neatly once the You can then stop drilling as soon as you provided you cut the right amount of
pieces ha\ e been fixed. reach the tape. The same method can be wood from all the legs of each article. It is
The frame must be held in its correct used to drill the countersinking holes, also likely that at least one of the pieces
position while it is being screwed to the which are the diameter of the screw heads. will wobble when placed on a fiat surface.
top. This can be done by laying a plank These should be drilled to a depth of This is because ot unavoidable in-
across the bottom edge of the rails and i

in (44mm). accuracies occurring while working.
kneeling on it two screws.
while you fix Mark
the positions of the holes on the To cut the legs to an equal length
In the case of the benches these first rails, for the benches use one screw in stand the bench on a fiat surface. If there
screws can be fixed in the center of each tlie center of each short rail and three is any wobble, caused by one leg being
short rail. For the table, however, the along the long rails. Position one centrally shorter than the other, place waste pieces
firsttwo screws should be fixed through and one near each end. For the table use of wood under the short leg until the
the long rails, one at each end and three screws in each long rail, positioned piece stands level.
diagonally opposite. This is because holes as for the benches. Do not drill any holes 'Then take a waste block of wood
drilled through the bottom edge ot the in the short rails of the table. measuring about 1 in X 2in X 6in (25mm X
short rails of the table will tend to be con- 50mm x 152mm). Drill a hole slightlv
spicuous (this however, the case
is not, Table top bearers less than the diameter of a pencil, through
with the benches). The inner leg assembly The next step in the construction of the the 1 in (25mm) edge. With a mallet
of the table is fixed to the top by means ot furniture is to fix bearers to the table top. knock the pencil through the hole so that
bearers which are screwed to the table These measure iJinX2inX2ft ifin (38 about 1 in (25mm) of it protrudes. Then
top and to the inside face of the short rails, mm x 50mm X 654mm) and fixed so that lay the waste block on the flat surface so
creating a neater finished appearance. one face butts against the inside face of that the pencil is parallel with the floor
The frame is fixed to the top with i Jin the short rails of the inner leg assemblies. and its point is touching the leg. Draw a

58mm) No. S flathead steel screws. The Use two 2in (50mm) No. 9 countersunk line around the bottom of each leg. Now
heads of the screws are buried in the rail steel screws to fix the bearers and ensure carefullv cut through the legs, around
through a second hole the diameter ot the that you do not drill too deeply by using these lines.
screw head, which should be drilled part colored tape around the drill, as described Sand the sawn ends smooth and,
of the way into the rail down the first hole. previously. To fix the bearers to the top, finally, touch up any damage to the ends
This do away with the need for un-
will use four 2in (50mm) No. X flathead steel of the legs with polyurethane paint or
necessarily long screws on the job. screws for each bearer. Position one varnish, depending on the finish vou
When drilling through the rails into the screw about 2in (50mm) from each end have chosen.

Cutting lists
Solid wood standard metric
3 tops |in x ioin X4ft 6in 19mm x 254mm x .37m 1

2 long rails 1 Jin X 2|in X 4ft 5 Ain 38mm x 70mm x 1.36m

2 short rails 1 Jin X2|inX2ft 2in 38mm x 70mm X 660mm
4 outer legs i.Un X2finx 2ft 5in 38mm x 70mm x 737mm
4 inner legs ifinx ii;inx 2ft 5m 34mm x 38mm x 737mm
2 top bearers 1 Jin X2inX2ft ifin 38mm x 50mm x 654mm

For each bench

Solid wood
1 top finx iifin X3ft 11 Jin 19mm x 299mm x 1. 20m
2 long rails 1 Jin X2|inX3ft 11 in 38mm x 70mm X .19m 1

2 short rails iJinX2finx8 4Mn 38mm X 70mm x 209mm

4 outer legs iUn X2fin x i7Jin 38mm x 70mm x 438mm
4 inner legs 1 fin X 1 Jin x iyjin 35mm X 38mm x 438mm

These sizes are to the finished dimensions of the table and benches and do not include
any allowances for waste.

Dining choirs

plywood panel

Fig. 1 Chair A

Fig I. Details of the construction of Chair A Of the four chairs described, the first who wishes to build a matching set of
suitable for use as either a dining room or three are allaround one design. This
built chairs without an overwhelming amount
kitchen chair. design has been carefully worked out of work and expense. For simplicity the
with four aims in mind: first, to be chairs are called A, B, C and D.
attractive; second, to be of sturdy con-
struction; third, to be simple to sonstruct Chair A
and last, to be adaptable enough to allow Chair A (illustrated in Fig. i) is suitable
individual modifications. for use both as a dining chair and a
These aims have been met. All the kitchen chair. You have a wide choice of
chairs are constructed using simple but wood, and this can largely be dictated by
strong joints and they are devoid of un- the intended use of the chair. If, for
necessary details. In this respect they are example, it is to be a dining chair, a hard-
ideally suitable for the home carpenter wood, such as beech, elm, teak or

Dining choirs

mahogany gives pleasantly sophisticated out a conventional tenon \u\ ( 13mm) thick materials tor final covering, including
appearance. On the other hand, it' you and tin (25111111) wide. Then, using Fig. 1 both fabrics and leather.
intend using the chair in the kitchen, a as a guide, cut a Jin (6mm) strip off the Depending on what wood you have
softwood, such as pine (painted or top of the tenon. Next, form the haunch used, you can give the chair a varnish,
naturally finished) presents a more casual by cutting a piece |in (16mm) square out paint or natural finish.
appearance. of the top edge of the tenon.
When the side rails have been com- Chair B
Cutting out pleted, cut the mortises for the front and Popularly called a carver chair, the design
Cut out all the pieces to the sizes given back rails. The tenons are the same as for ot this chair differs in that it includes a
in the cutting list, taking particular care the front rails, but the haunch is reversed pair of armrests. There are some other
to ensure that the legs are all the correct so that is will interlock with the side rail modifications, including a longer upper
length. You will find it easier to sand all tenons. Fit all the joints dry to ensure front rail and shorter front legs.
the separate members at this stage, rather thet they are tight and that the rails are To make it, first cut out all the pieces
than when the chair is assembled. Use parallel. to the sizes given in the cutting list. The
coarse sandpaper, then fine, and take off rear of the chair (including the backrest),
the sharp edges but do not round them. The backrest the lower rails and the seat are assembled
First cut out mortises 4m (102mm) long, in exactly the same way as described for
The joints fin (19mm) deep and fin (6mm) wide in chair A. Where the front construction
You can follow one of two procedures to the rear legs. These mortises are located differs is in the assembly of the front legs
cut out the joints. You can either cut out so that their top edges are ijin (38mm) to the top front rail, and the addition of
all the mortises at once, then all the from the top ends of the rear legs. Make the armrests.
tenons, or you can work in strict order corresponding tongues on the plywood The front legs are recessed into the
and make each matching mortise and back, as shown in Fig. 1. Take the two top front and are located so that their
tenon before going on to the next. The wood blocks and cut them out to the outside edges are 3m (76mm) from the
second method is more suitable for the shape shown in Fig. 1. Glue and screw ends of the front rail. The joints used are
home handyman as it allows you to check the blocks to the plywood back, then glue mortise and tenon types and these lock
each joint for fit as it is cut. and screw the hardboard back to the into corresponding joints cut in the upper
Start by putting all four legs together blocks. This hardboard back is then held side rails (Fig. 2). The armrests are
with the bottom ends exactly level. Then in a curved position by nailing it, at the supported at the front on two members
square lines across them to mark the center, to the plywood back panel. which are through-mortise and tenoned
positions of the upper and lower rails. into the front rail, as shown in Fig. 2.
This will ensure that all the mortises are The seat Mortise and tenon joints are also used to
in line with each other. You can either This part is assembled same way as
in the join the armrests to the supports.
set out all the mortises together or one the backrest. A fin (6mm) plywood panel A different jointing technique is em-
at a time using the squared lines for is situated on battens which are glued ployed to attach the armrests to the rear
getting the correct position. and screwed to the top rails (Fig. 1), legs. The holes are bored in the narrow-
The do not have tenons cut
lower rails and to this panel are fixed full-length edges of the armrests where they coincide
in them, they simply slot straight into shaped blocks and a curved hardboard with the rear legs. Matching holes are
the mortised holes. The lower rails are seat panel. then bored in the rear legs, and short
8 Jin (216mm) from the bottom of the lengths of dowelling glued into the
leg to the bottom edge of the rail. Cut the Final assembly matching holes to form a blind dowelled
mortises to a depth of fin (19mm), and With all the joints cut, assemble the chair joint.
when the waste wood has been removed, in the following order. Final assembly follows the same order
trial assemble the lower rails to the legs Glue one of the lower side rails into as that employed for chair A, and the
and, if necessary, trim for fit. the front and back legs. Before the glue chair can be finished in the same ways.
Now cut the joints for the upper side sets, add the upper side rail. Lay this
rails. These are more complicated but, if assembly on its side and fix the upper Chair C
care is taken, should present no real front and back rails into position, followed This sling-back chair uses the same basic"
problems. Begin by cutting out the by the lower front and back rails. framework as the previous chairs, but its
mortises for the side rails in the front Leave this assembly while you add the appearance is transformed by the substi-
legs. These mortises are i^in(32mm) other side rails and legs. Then fix them to tution of a canvas slung seat for the rigid
deep, iin (25mm) long, Jin (13mm) wide the chair assembly and add the backrest. wooden seat. Apart from this feature, the
and are located fin (6mm) below the top Allow the glue to set and, if possible, use only other modification upper is that the
edges of the front legs. Then cut the clamps to hold each member in its correct side and back rails have the same dimen-
corresponding tenon joints on the front position. When the glue has set add the sions as the lower rails and are jointed
ends of the side rails. In this case these seat assembly. into the legs in the same way. This makes
joints are haunched tenons, which are cut the assembly of this chair much easier, as
in such a way that they lock into the Covering the chairs there are no complicated haunched
corresponding joints cut into the upper Both the backrest and the seat are covered mortise and tenons to cut.
front rail. with 1 Jin (38mm) thick foam rubber. Begin by cutting out all the pieces to
To cut the haunched tenons, first cut You can choose from a wide range of the sizes given in the cutting list. Make

Dining choirs

Fix 2. Details of the construction of Chair B. Figj. Chair C and its supporting /tat her strap.

Fig. 3 Chair C

leather strap

Dining choirs

the joints as detailed pre\ iously. In place ol longer and wider than the slots, and sew

the upper front rail is a |in (19mm) dia- or stud the strap around the dowel and
meter chrome tube which is glued into back on itself, as shown in Fig 1.

holes bored into the front legs, as shown The slung seat can be made Irom a
in Fig. 5. Then cut oul slots (or through- strong fabric, such as heavj cam as, or
mortises) in the back legs to take the hide from leather or some synthetic material.
strap which acts as a backrest. These Before fitting it, turn it back and sew the
slots, which are illustrated in Fig. 3, are long edges, as shown in Fig. J,
to present
located |in (19mm) below the top ends it from tearing under the weight ol .1

nt the hack lcj;s, and should be just wide person. Attach it tirst to the hide Strap,
and loiii^ enough to take the hide strap. as shown in then gauge the
Fig. 3,
When the framework oi the chair has amount ol needed before fixing the
been assembled, place the backrest in other end around the chrome tube.
position. This is done by first passing the Depending on what material you
hide strap through the slots so that an choose tor the seat, this chair can be used
equal length of strap protrudes from both tor a variet) of purposes. Fitted with a
slots. Then, take lengths of dowel just leather seat it makes an elegant and

Cutting list: Chair A

Solid wood standard metric
2 back legs l
2 X l 2 32 ' 38x38x813
2 front legs ixi|xi9| 38x38x495
2 lower side rails xixi8 13x25x470
2 upper side rails i|xi|x i8i 38 x 38 x 470
2 lower cross rails |xi x 17 13x25x432
2 upper cross rails 4x4x17 38x38x432
4 battens |x^xi5 r 3Xi3X38i

2 wood blocks i|xi|x7 38x38x178

4 wood blocks 4x4x17 38x38x432
1 back panel x7Xi7 6x 178x432
1 seat panel jxi5l> 17 6 x 394 > 43 2
1 seat panel 1 155x17 6x394x432
1 back panel iX7Xi5i 3x178x394

You will also require :

Foam rubber padding. Carpenter's glue, iin ( 1 3mm) finishing nails.

Cutting list : Chair B

Solid wood standard metric
2 back legs i.\ ij 32 38
2 front legs 1^X1^X18 38x38x458
1 upper front rail 4XI5X24I 38x38x622
2 armrests 1x4x20 25x102x508
2 armrest supports 4 XI 2 X 72 38x38x191
All other members are the same dimensions as the corresponding members of Chair A.

Cutting list: Chair C

Solid wood standard metric
2 back legs H \ 32 38 38
2 front legs I^X l\ X2I 38x38x534
4 side rails |x4xi8* 13x38x470
3 cross rails 2x4x17 13x38x432

You will also require:

1 (19mm) diameter chrome tube 17m (432mm) long. Hide strap 22iin X4in
Jin > \\r\

(572mm 102mm 6mm). Leather or fabric 30m 19m (915mm A482mm).


Dining choirs

Fig 4. Construction details of Chair I). Also unusual dining chair. If a colorful canvas
shown is the method used to curve the seat is chosen, it looks equally good in

plywoodfor the back and seat. It is always the kichen or in the garden.
a good idea to use waste blocks between the
shoes of the clamps and the work to prevent Chair D
bruising of the wood. If you want to make a matching set of
chairs easily and cheaply, this design is

ideal. The material used is jjin (16mm)

birch plywood, the sides being cut from
one sheet of ply 25m x 32m (635mm x
813mm), while the seat, backrest and
rail are cut from one sheet ij.Un x 21 in

(394mm > 533mm). (Note that an

allowance must be made for the thickness
of the saw cuts. The seat and backrest
are slightly curved to fit the contours of
the body. To curve plywood, first apply
a heavy coating of water-based wood
glue to the wood, then fix it in the
desired shape with a C clamp, as shown
in Fig. 4. Leave in a warm place for 48
hours by which time the glue will have
set and will hold the curve. Final assem-
bly is bv gluing the pieces together to the
plan shown in Fig. 4.
Finish the chair by painting it, first

with an undercoat then with two coats of

polyurethane gloss. The finished product
is both attractive and sturdy.

Fold -down toble with cabinet

The design as shown in Fig. 2. The cabinet is sunk flush with the surface and filled

The table and cabinet consist mainly of screwed firmly to panel B. over with a commercial cellulose filler,

fin (19mm) birch plywood, all cut from A small bullet catch is fitted in the top which is then sanded down to give a
one standard-sized 4ft x 8ft (1219mm x edge of panel B, and the cup for this is perfectly smooth finish. But if you want
2438mm) sheet as shown in Fig. 1. Parts at the point where panel A butts against to stain or varnish the unit, the screw
A and B are shaped to fit together and it. This holds panel A in position when it heads must be sunk deeper and the holes
joined with strap hinges, then screwed to is folded against the wall out of the way. filled with matching boat plugs of wood
the wall to form the table when A is All the cabinet joints are simply butted, of a suitable size. When these wood plugs
dropped down, as shown in Fig. 5. glued and screwed. If the unit is to be are firmly in place, they must be sanded
Panel A drops down to rest on battens painted, the screw heads are counter- flush for a smooth, finished look.

io 5
Fold -down table with cobinet

thick; two large 12in (305mm) strap

i b hinges with mounting screws; one bullet
catch no wider than fin (15mm); two
i i

\ 1

dozen lgin (38mm) Xo.8 flathead screws;
and some carpenter's glue. You will also
need paint or varnish; in the case of the
latter you will need some dowelling to

A make plugs.
For you will need a power
circular saw and a jigsaw for separating
4" panels A and B (so you might as well use
f this for cutting all the pieces); a power

drill; jack plane; screwdriver; spoke

shave; rule; try square; and an ordinary
T m

Cutting out
' '
4 2 er Mark out the large sheet of plywood using
the dimensions in Fig. 1 as a guide. To
B ensure that the table top will fit properly
over the top of the cabinetwhen dropped
down, it is essential that you begin
marking in a particular order.
3 6" - First mark out panel C. This panel has
two square corners, and two with 3in
(76mm) radiuses. The method of marking
these is shown in Fig. 3. Mark two
points 3in (76mm) along each edge, from

V*' .

S> the corner. Link these two points with

lines drawn at right angles to the edges

1 to make a 3in (76mm) square. The inner

1 corner of this square will be the center
for the curve, which should be drawn
with the compass.

I same radius method where
sing the

rounded corners are required, mark out


the rest of the ply sheet, but not the

1 r dividing line that will separate panels A
and B. Make straight cuts with a circular
V allow for saw cuts saw and straightedge.
With the jigsaw, carefully cut round
the outline of panel C and when this has

been done, finish the cut edges of the

?in 3 '
panel with the jack plane (fine set) along
1 the straight edges, and the spokeshave at

T 1
F waste
the rounded corners or use a belt sander.
panels A
out the dividing line between
and B, using panel C as a tem-
lit?" plate for the central piece. This is done
to ensure that when the table top is

dropped, exactly over the top


Fig 1
it will fit

of the cabinet, which will be panel C.

now be
ow for saw cuts
All the remaining panels can
cut out of the large sheet of ply. Finish
off all the cut edges of panels A and B,
but leave the remainder of the panels,
which will form the cabinet, until you
assemble them.
Materials and tools birch plywood (pick a piece with two
The unit will require one 4ft x 8ft (1219 good sides); one length of Uin x 3ft Making the cabinet
mm x 2438mm) sheet of Jin (19mm) (38mm x 914mm) hardwood \\n (13mm) This is constructed from panels C, D, E,

Fold -down table with cabinet

F and G, fastened togethei with glued

and screw oil butt joints.
Trial assemble the cabinet panels as
shown in Fig. 2 to check thai all the
edges butt neatly. Where the) do not,
plane the high spots down. Then finish off

all the edges that will be visible at tin-

horn of the unit. Trial assemble again to

ensure that the cabinet is square and that
all parts tit correctly.
Drill screw at 2in (51 nun)
intervals through the ends of the top and
bottom panels I' and D. Spread adhesive
along the top and bottom of the side
panels (E and F), then assemble the
cabinet in the shape shown in Fii, 2, and r

drive the screws home into the side

Before the glue has set, lightly mark a

horizontal line with a try square halfway

down the outside of each side panel and
drill screw holes along the lines at 2in
(51mm) intervals. Trim panel G to fit in
between the sidepanels, spread adhesive
along each of its edges, place it in
position and drive the screws home.
Check that the cabinet is square, then
leave it while the glue sets. Fig i . 'flu- layout of the funic/ for the
fold-down table.

Assembling the unit

This is relatively simple except that care Fig _'. The construction of the cabinet.

is required to make the table leaf drop

accurately over the cabinet top. Fig ,'. The method used to mark the corner
Lav panels A and B down on a flat radii.

surface and fit the strap hinges (Fig. 4)

to link them as shown in Fig. 5. Lay the Fig 4. The bach panel and table top are

cabinet on its back, on top of panel B, in lunged with strap hinges.

the approximate position where it will
eventually be fixed. Lift the table leaf up Fig 5. The completed back panel assembly.
to a vertical position and adjust the The table is held in the closed position by
position of the cabinet until the top fits a bullet catch at the top <d the lower
neatly into the recess at the base of the panel.
leaf. When the cabinet is in the right
position, lightly mark a line around its it underneath panel C so that
in position

top, base and sides onto the surface of one third of width protrudes beyond

panel B. the front of the panel. Mark a line along

Take the cabinet off, then drill screw the front edge of C on the leaf stop.
holes at 2in(51mm) intervals around the Remove the stop and drill holes at 2in
inside of the marked line. Each hole (51mm) intervals at a point half-way
should be drilled inside the line at a dis- between this marked line and the back of
tance equal to half the thickness of the the stop. Replace the stop and screw it in

plywood used for the cabinet body. Lay- position.

sections A and B on a table, place the
cabinet in position again, ease part of panel Finishing
B over the edge of the table to expose Fill any cracks or holes yvith filler, allow

some of the screw holes underneath, then it to dry, then rub the surface down.

drive several screws in. Repeat this until To avoid getting any paint on the walls,
the cabinet has been screwed all around it isbest to paint the unit before fixing it
and is securely fixed to panel B. to the wall. When the paint is dry, all that
Finally, fit the leaf stop. This is the remains is to fix the unit to the wall with
3ft (914mm) length of hardwood. Place screws and wall plugs.

Made-to-measure kitchen unit

1 08
Commercially available kitchen units are the proposed site. As the unit comprisi .i particular design ol jroui own sink.
expensive and may not always fit the large number of individual members, you No\s i in nut the lowei aheli and then
genera] layout of your kitchen. This made- arc advised to consult the cutting list and the two top 1 in x 3in (25mm x 76mm)
to-measure unit can be adapted to your group similar materials into the same sizes SOftWOOd rails In the sizes given in the
own particular requirements. where possible. This makes the job of cutting list. Lay the rails on top of the
The wide, corner sub-assembly, clearly ordering the materials much easier and shelf so that they are parallel to its

illustrated in Fig. 1, is ideal for a work prevents waste. long edges and are |in (19mm) from each
surface adjacent to the cooking area. The end, and mark the position of each
rest of the unit is fitted with drawers or The materials partition as given in Fig. 1.

shelving and is designed to contain a sink You can choose the materials for the unit Screw and glue lin x 1 in (25mm x
recessed into the work surface. The to match the style of your existing kitchen. 25mm) jointing members to the inside-
advantages of this system are clear. Food Those given have been chosen for their surface of the two ends. Their exact
can be prepared next to the cooking area; good looks, economy and hard-wearing location is shown in Pig. 1.
and dirty dishes can be stacked on one qualities, but you can make suitable At this stage, before beginning assem-
side of the sink and, when washed, substitutions. Thus, while fin (19mm) bly, add veneer or laminate strips to all
placed on the other side to drain. All plywood is recommended for the main the exposed front edges of the partitions
washing materials and utensils can be work surface, an alternative would be and lower shelf.
stored in the adequate drawers and hardboard. Plywood or plain hardboard With all exposed edges laminated, fix
recesses, for immediate access. In con- should be covered with a hard-wearing the intermediate partitions to the lower
junction with a wall-mounted unit for material. As well as being used for the shelf by gluing and screwing, (through
holding foodstuffs, you have a complete work top, plywood is recommended for the shelf). Then turn the unit over and
and labor-saving system for your kitchen. the partitions. All other panels, including add the top rails, referring to the previous-
Obviously, your own kitchen may the doors and drawers, are cut from fin ly marked positions of the partitions to
require a modification of this design, but (16mm) thick plywood. give their exact location.
this can be achieved relatively easily. Frame members, which include the Before fixing the ends, add the hard-
Comprising two sub-assembles linked by ground-level kickboards, are of softwood board back panel by nailing and gluing
a work surface, the kitchen unit can be dressed on four sides. The backs of both it to the rear edges of the intermediate

built to incorporate say, a dishwasher or sub-assemblies are made from hardboard, partitions and the top, rear rail. Now that
other item, and the dimensions can be as are drawer bottoms which are
the the addition of the back panel has given
altered with no modification of construction covered by a veneer. All the drawer greater stability to the unit, you can glue
techniques. Perhaps the major obstacle in battens and stops are cut from a hard- and screw the ends into position. Check
a particular kitchen would involve certain wood such as oak. at this stage that the pieces are square to

alterations in the unit design, but the unit each other.

is so and simple that the
adaptable Construction Turn the unit right side up and fix the
resourceful carpenter can overcome this When making a large unit comprising kickboard into position. This piece is
obstacle with only a little extra work. many parts, it is best to work in a strict recessed into the bases of the ends and
As no reason why
stated above, there is order of procedure. You can either build extends the whole length of the sub-
the dimensions of the unit cannot be each sub-assembly separately, or you can assembly. It is held in position by being
altered to individual requirements. The cut out and assemble similar parts of the fixed to a lin x lfin (25mm x 35mm)
length of the unit is limited only by the sub-assemblies together. Remember, batten which is glued and screwed to the
space available; depth can be adjusted
its though you are making the wide corner
if underside of the lower shelf. When
if, for example, you wish to incorporate a sub-unit, it must be constructed either assembled correctly this member is over
dishwasher into a recess. The height of on the site, or trial assembled elsewhere. lapped by the doors. As added support
the unit, as shown on the plan, is 34 in Begin by cutting out the four main par- wood reinforcement brackets (cut to the
(864mm) which is suitable for the smaller titions for the sink unit to the plans in shape shown in Fig. 4) are screwed into
person. Standard kitchen furniture is Figs. 2 and 3, using an electric circular the internal right angles made by the
generally 36in (914mm) high; but the saw with combination blade. Cut the kickboard/bottom shelf joint. There are
height of the unit can be adjusted to suit cut-outs in the partitions with a jig- four of these brackets and each is located
your own requirements. saw. The two ends have cut-outs made at a corner of the unit.
at the top corners to house the two upper

Preliminaries long rails. Another cut-out, at the front Shelving

Before embarking on the construction of a lower corner, houses the kickboard. Cut- You can choose shelving to suit your
large piece of furniture like the kitchen outs similar in size and location to those individual needs. In this unit the sink is

unit, you are advised to bear several on the top edge of the ends are made on recessed onto only one of the partitions,

factors in mind. When assembled, this the two intermediate partitions; but the and the cabinet space that it occupies, i.e.
unit will not pass through conventional lower edges of these pieces are cut to a the cabinet formed by the end and first
doorways so, unless you have the freedom different plan which is shown in Fig. 2. If partitions, is left clear so that it can
of the kitchen for a few days, you must the unit is to house a standard size kitchen store large items such as buckets and
temporarily assemble the unit in the sink,you will have to modify the cabinet washbasins. The space between the
workshop and, when all cutting is to accommodate it. The exact size and partitions is fitted with a single shelf
complete, transfer it for final assembly to shape of such a cut-out will depend on the situated about halfway up the cabinet.

Made-to-measure kitchen unit

Fig 1 . Exploded view of the fitted kitchen

unit. 130'-

Fig The end panels of the unit. These


are the only two panels which are full


Fi 3.The intermediate panels finish at

the unit base. The dotted line shotcs the
cutout which must be made to
accommodate the sink unit.

Fig 4. The brackets supporting the kick-

board are clearly illustrated, as are the

top rails and the position of the shelf.

Fig Front view of the end unit showing


position of the draicers and runners.

Fig 6. Plan view of tin end unit.

Fig 1. Side elevation of the end unit.

Made-to-measure kitchen unit

n i
Mode~to~meosure kitchen unit

The space between the second partition in Fig. 1, after cutting out the pieces for a wide enough to extend below the bottom
and the other end is used for four drawers. good fit. The two center drawers are of the drawer to cover the main unit lower
Obviously you can modify this arrange- larger than the top and bottom drawers. shelf edge. When fittedthe correctly,
ment as necessary. All the drawer bottoms are cut from other drawer fronts should just have a
The easiest method of installing the laminate-covered hardboard and fit into working clearance between each other,
shelves is to simply rest them on lin x ] in (6mm) deep grooves cut into the sides and the top drawer front must clear the
lin (25mm x 25mm) battens glued and jin (6mm) above their bottom edges. The front edge of the working top.
screwed to the partitions. This method sides are simply butt-jointed to the front
allows vou to remove shelves for cleaning. and back and secured with glue and 1 Jin Door construction
Under the weight of heavy kitchen (38mm) finishing nails. A false or The dimensions of each door will depend
utensils, even a hardboard or plywood decorative front, cut from plywood is on the arrangement of the internal shelv-
shelf will bend. To prevent this, glue and added to each drawer front panel, but ing. Door sizes given in the cutting list

screw a lin x 2in (25mm x 51mm) before fixing this piece in position, check shown. Having cut out
are ideal for the unit
batten under each shelf, flush with the that the main drawer bodies fit satis- all the door panels to size, check for fit,

front edge as shown in Fig. 4. factorily. remembering that each panel is hung on
To do this, glue and screw the lower the inside faces of the partitions on full-
Drawer construction pair of hardwood drawer runners into length, piano-type hinges. Where internal
In a unit of this size, there is a possibility position on the lower shelf, flush with the shelving is installed, (as in the center
that the finished dimensions will deviate inside surfaces of the partitions. Slide one cabinet, shown in Fig. 4), upper and
slightly from those given in the cutting drawer into position, slip a piece of lower door panels are installed separately,
list and Fig. 1. As a result, you are cardboard onto its upper edges to give where no shelf is installed, door panels
advised to use the dimensions of the the correct clearance, then mark out the should be joined by fin or Jin (19mm or
drawer members given in the cutting lists position of the next pair of drawer 13mm) battens, glued and screwed to the
as a guide, and to take the exact measure- runners and fix them into position. rear surfaces, as shown in Fig. 1.

ments for the drawers from the unit Repeat this procedure with the other Cut the piano-type hinges to length,
itself. Aim for a gin (3mm) clearance two drawers and, when you are satisfied and then screw them into position on the
between the drawer sides and the that each drawer fits well, add the false edges of the doors. Mark the correct
partitions. drawer fronts. position of the hinges on the partitions
Make up the drawers to the plan shown Xote that the lower drawer front is and screw the doors to the unit. Finally,
fit each door with a magnetic-type catch

and add the handles of your choice.

Corner sub-assembly construction

As stated previously, the dimensions and
shape of this sub-unit will depend on
individual and the existing
scheme of your kitchen. Remember, a
unit of this size is too large to fit pre-
assembled through the average kitchen
If you intend to make the sub-unit as
shown, cut the lower main shelf to the
shape and size shown in Fig. 6. All the
corner unit parts are assembled using
simple butt or lap joints, but you may
experience some difficulty in cutting out
the two panels which have angled long
edges. Having examined Fig. 1 to dis-
cover the arrangement of the
various members, use direct measure-
ment to mark up the pieces. To angle the
edges of the panels, first mark out the
correct angle on the upper and lower
edges of each. Then, using a marking
gauge and pencil, draw a line along the
inside surface of each panel between the
marked points. Cut the wood down to this
line. Do not discard the off-cut; it is

used to provide a right-angled edge on

which the door is hung, as shown in the
detail in Fig. 1. When you have cut out

I 12
Made-to-measure kitchen unit

the panels, fix them to the base.

Build up the rest of the frame from Cutting list: Corner sub-unit
lin x 2in (25mm x 51mm) softwood. The Wood standard metric
two rear vertical members simply butt on 1 veneered lower shelf 31 x 36 L6 x 787 x 914
to the underside of the top rails which are 1 angled panel I 22 x 33 19 x559 x 838
joined in a modified lap joint. 1 angled panel I x 5 x 28 1') x 127 x 711
Add the kick board and the support 2 softwood vertical frame members 25 x 51 x 670
blocks and then the two hardboard back 1 softwood horizontal frame member 36 25 x 51 x 914
panels. Cut the door to size and hang 1 softwood horizontal frame member 34 25 x 51 x 863
it between the two angled off-cuts as 2 softwood horizontal frame members 29} 25 x 51 x 743
described previously. 1 softwood horizontal frame member 21 25 x 51 x 533
1 softwood horizontal frame member 22 25 x 51 x 559
Working top construction 1 softwood jointing batten 17 25 x 25 x 431
Measure the working top against the 1 veneered kickboard 22 16 x 127 x559
assembled units. If you wish to incor- 1 veneered lower door 15 x 16* 16 x 381 x413
porate a recess between the sub-assem- 1 veneered upper door 1U x 16| 16 x292 x413
blies you must allow for this. The dimen- 4 support blocks x5 19 x 127 x 127
sions of the top given in the cutting list 2 hardwood door jointing battens x 26 13 x 19 x 660
apply only if the two sub-units are butted 1 hardwood door jointing batten x 13 13 x 19 x 330
Glue and screw the lin x l|in (25mm x
32mm) softwood, front edge thickener
under the top, so that its front edge is Cutting list: Work top
flush with the front edge of the working Wood standard metric
top. Then cover the whole surface with a 1 plywood or hardboard top | x 31 x 130 19 x 788 x 3300
plastic laminate, using a suitable ad- 1 hardboard working top block f x 12 x 22 19 x 305 x 559
hesive. Add a hardwood work block to 1 softwood edging strip 1 x ljx 114 25 x 31 x2896
the surface in a convenient position. 2 softwood edging strips 1 x 1| x 22 25 x 31 x 559
Now you must cut out a space in the 2 softwood edging strips 1 x U x 10 25 x 31 x 254
work top to receive the sink and its sur-
round. Assuming that you want to fit a You will also require:
new sink with an integral drainboard, you Plastic laminate, fin (16mm) veneer strips. Door handles. Wood-working glue.
must make sure that its dimensions will 144 l|in (38mm) finishing nails and wood screws. Laminate adhesive.
fit Most sink/draining
the top of the unit.
units come complete with fixing in-
structions and, provided you make a
watertight seal between sink and worktop, Cutting list: Main sink unit
you should experience little difficulty in Wood standard metric
fitting a sink unit. You can cut the 2 ends | x 21 x 33 19x533 x838
necessary hole using a jigsaw. The area of 2 intermediate partitions | x 21 x 28 19 x 533 x711
wall behind the sink will have to be 1 veneered lower shelf | x 20i x 92i 16 x 514 x2349
covered with a splash-proof surface of 1 veneered center shelf | x 20i x 35J 16x514 x895
some kind. One of the most attractive 4 veneered upper doors f x 11| x 17i 16 x 292 x445
materials for this purpose is ceramic 4 veneered lower doors f x 15 x 17^ 16x381 x445
8 veneered drawer sides x 5i x 20 16 x 140 x508
tiling. The only other modification to the f
8 veneered drawer ends x 4i x 191 16 x 114 x489
work top that may be required is the |
boring of holes large enough to take taps. 2 veneered drawer fronts | x 7| x 201 16 x 184 x521
x 6i x 201 16 x 156 x521
When you have checked the precise 2 veneered drawer fronts |
location of the sink in relation to the unit 1 veneered kickboard f x 5 x 95 16 x 127 x2413
and have cut away the necessary areas of 2 rear supports | x 5 x 5 19 x 127 x 127

the worktop, it can be fixed into position 4 kickboard reinforcements f x 5 x 5 19 x 127 x 127

by gluing and screwing it to the hori- 2 softwood top main battens 1 x 3 x 90 25 x 76 x 2286
zontal main battens
driving the screws 1 softwood shelf front edge 1x2x351 25 x 51 x 895
through the battens into the top. Do 10 hardwood drawer runners 1 x | x 20 13 x 19 x 508
any plumbing and sealing now. 4 hardwood door jointing battens \ x | x 26 13 x 19 x 660

Although the construction of the unit 2 hardwood door jointing battens ixfx 13 13 x 19 x 330

will have entailed a lot of work, the 4 laminated hardboard drawer bases 19| x 20 502 x 508
finished result more than justifies it. 4 hardwood jointing and shelf
The kitchen unit will greatly save time in supports 1 x 1 x 19 25 x 25 x 483
the kitchen, aid hygiene and introduce a 1 hardboard back 1 x 28 x 94 3 x 711 x .2388

contemporary touch.

Split level oven/cook top

Above: The attractive lines of the split- This kitchen unit comprises a recessed sions of the unit to suit your kitchen; the
oven and cooktop unit are shown here sink and cooktop unit which butts onto simplicity of the design allows this. One
to good advantage. Some adjustments to the an eye-level oven unit. cautionary word, however, before you
dimensions given here may he required to Here, again, as in the previous projects, start construction check the oven and
accommodate the units used and the size of the basic material to use for the bodv and cooktop manufacturer's instructions and
your particular kitchen. both sub assemblies, is flakeboard covered specifications and change the design
by plastic laminate. There are other shown where necessary.
materials to use, but whatever tvpe you
choose, ensure that the top covering is The cooktop sink unit
heat resistant. Plywood or flakeboard may Use an electric jigsaw with a fine 3in
be used for the working top again, (76mm) blade for the cutting. A straight-
when choosing a covering, check that it is edge will help you cut accurate, straight
heat resistant. pieces. Cut all the long sections with a
You mav wish to modifv the dimen- circular saw. Begin by cutting out the


two 1'iuls to tin- outline shown in Fig. 2. Hush with the Imni edge to add rigidity.
These have cut-outs .it the top corners to )nce am sink ing is in place, sou must

accommodate the two upper long mils. effectivelj fireproof the area around th(

Ajiothei cut-out, al the fronl lower corner cooktop location. Different types require
houses the kick hoard. Now cut out the differenl treatment, so before starting
tin iv intermediate partitions to the shape work consult the manufacturer's in-
represented In the dotted line in Fig. 2. structions or, if you do not possess these,
Again, these pieces have cut-outs similar the manufacturers themselves. Asbestos
to thosemade on the top edges of the end is the most effective fire-proofing material
formers but, as they rest Hush on the in common use. Cut to size with a fine-
bottom shelf, they do not
house the toothed saw and tix it to those areas where
kickboard. Having decided on and it is needed.
checked the locations of the fitted cook-
top and sink, make cut outs in the Drawer construction
intermediate formers to accommodate Drawers are used at one end of the unit
these fixtures. only. When marking out the individual
Next cut out the lower shelf and then drawer panels, use the dimensions given
the two lin x 2in(25mm x 51mm) upper in the cutting list as a guide and take the
long rails to the sizes given in the cutting exact measurements from the unit itself.
list. Lay the on top of the shelf so
rails Aim for a Jin (3mm) clearance between
that they are parallel toits long edges and the drawer sides and the partitions.
overlap both short edges by |in (16mm). When you have cut out each piece,
Mark in the position of each former on the make ]in (6mm) deep grooves in the
rails, and shelf, as shown in Fig. 1. drawer sides to accommodate the drawer
Turn the intermediate partitions up- bottoms. The bottom edges of the
side down and, referring to the previously grooves are located {in (6mm) from the
marked locations, nail the lower shelf to bottom edges of the side panels. Once the
their bottom short edges. Secure the drawer bottom has been glued into
partitions with 1 iin (38mm) No. 6 screws. position, add the front and back panels
Set the structure right-side up and add the which simply butt between the sides.
the long rails into the appropriate hous- Secure them by driving screws through
ings. At add the end partitions
this point, the bottom panel into their lower edges.
by nailing and screwing and, when you An additional false front is added to
have checked that the unit is square, fit each drawer, but before putting this piece
the hardboard back panel. in position, check that the main drawer
Now you can add the kick board. bodies fit satisfactorily. To do this, glue
First fix a full-length lin x lin (25mm x and screw a pair of hardwood drawer
25mm) softwood batten to the underside runners into position on the lower
of the lower shelf at the location shown in shelf, flush with the inside surfaces of the
Fig. 2. The kickboard butts onto this partitions. Slide one drawer into position,
member and fits between the end slip a piece of cardboard onto its upper
partitions. Screw it with Urn (38mm) edges to give the correct clearance, then
No. 6 screws. mark out the position of the next pair of
The top front panel is butt-jointed to drawer runners and fit them into position.
the front edges of the partitions and ends Repeat this procedure with the other
at the location shown in Figs. 1 and 2. two drawers and, when you are satisfied
that each drawer fits well, add the false
Shelving fronts.
You can choose shelving to suit your
individual needs, remembering that the Door construction
recessed sink and cooktop will not leave Having cut out all the door panels to size,
very much space under them. The simplest check for a good fit, remembering that
method of installing any shelves is to each panel is hung on the inside faces
rest them on lin x lin (25mm x 25mm) of the formers on full-length, piano-type
hardwood battens glued and screwed to hinges.Cut these hinges to length and
the partitions. This method allows you then screw them into position on the
to remove shelves for cleaning. Remember edges of the doors. Mark the correct
that under the weight of heavy kitchen position of the hinges on the partitions and
utensils even flakeboard can bend. To end panels and screw the doors to the
prevent this, glue and screw a lin x 2in unit. Finally, fit each door with a magnetic-
(25mm x 51mm) batten under each shelf, type catch and add handles.

I !
Split level oven/cook top

wall vent

Working top must be ai least 25m I635mmi deep

to accommodate standard U S sink sire



Split level oven/cook top

Working top construction
Fig I . Exploded view of the oven and Cut out the working top and glue and
cooktop unit. screw a lin x lin (25mm x 25mm) soft-
wood strip to the front and right hand
extractor fan and pelmet Fig 2. Center partitions of the unit, edge of this piece, as shown in Fig. 2.
showing the cut-outs which receive the sink Then cover the surface with a plastic
and cooktop units. laminate. If desired, add a hardwood
work block to the surface in a convenient
Now cut out spaces for the sink and
cooktop to the manufacturers' specifica-
tions. When you have made the cut-outs,
fix the working top in position by gluing
Cutout for sink should be 21jin (541mm) wide to

accommodate standard U S sink size with ljin I38mm| corner radii

and screwing it to the upper long rails
driving the screws through the rails into
the top. Have any plumbing or electrical
work carried out at this point and then
cover the area of wall immediately
behind the sink with a splash-proof
material, such as ceramic tiles.

Making the oven unit

Before starting to build the unit, you must
check the dimensions of your oven
against the dimensions of the unit shown
and, if necessary, modify both the design
and sizes of the various parts of the unit.
Then cut out the two side members and
the shelves. Take the two lower shelves
and make cut-outs at one corner to
accommodate the narrower side member.
These shelves also house the rear lin x
2in (25mm x 51mm) support batten and
cut-outs must be made in their rear
edges to accommodate this member.
The top shelf also fits around the narrow
side member, but butts directly onto the
support batten. Before securing this
shelf to the main structure, glue and
screw the back panel to it.

With all the pieces cut out, begin assem-

bly by gluing and screwing the side
members to the shelves. Add the recessed
kickboard and the top cross member.
Next, stand the unit on its proposed site
and mark out on the wall the locations of
the support battens. Fix these in place,
using wall plugs, and screw the unit to
them. Before fitting the oven in place on
the center shelf, add lin x lin (25mm x
25mm) reinforcing battens as shown in
Fig. 1. Then bore out ventilation holes
in both the bottom and center shelves.
Doors are fitted in the same way as
described for the sink/cooktop unit.
They should be equipped with handles
to match the sink unit. If you intend fit-
ting extractor fans above the oven and
cooktop, you can increase their efficiency
by building a simple cover that adjoins
the oven unit. The method of con-


Split level oven/cook top
struction for this cover is clearly illus- Once you have experienced the advantages
trated in Fig. 1. of this system, you may wish to make
In order to achieve a good finish, all matching units to hold foodstuffs and
exposed screw heads can be covered by kitchen equipment. By using the basic
small laminate discs cut from matching designs described in this chapter, this
iron-on edge trim. Any exposed door should present no problem, and the
edges must also be trimmed. resultingscheme in your kitchen will
The construction and fitting of this more than match expensive, manufactur-
unit will transform your kitchen and ed kitchen systems both in quality and
make it a more pleasant place to work in. appearance.

Sink Cooktop unit: Cutting list

Wood standard metric

Laminated flakeboard or plywood
2 ends | x 21 x 35 16 x533 x889
3 intermediate partitions | x 21 x 30 16 x533 x 772
1 lower shelf | x 21 x 96 16 x533 x2438
5 doors | x 15 x 25^ 16 x381 x638
1 top drawer front | x 6J x 18 16 x 159 x457
2 center drawer fronts |x7ixl8 16 x 184 x457
1 bottom drawer front | x 7| x 18 16 x 197 x457
1 top front panel | x 7 x 77i 16 x 178 x 1962
1 kickboard | x 5 x 96 16 x 127 x2438
Hardwood or flakeboard
1 working top I x 22f x 98J 19 x 575 x2496
2 top rails 1 x 2 x 97^ 25 x51 > :2470
1 front edge 1 x 1 x
98J 25 x 25 > :2496
1 front edge 1 x 1 x 21| 25 x 25 > :549
1back i
x 35 x 97 3 x 889 x 2467
4 drawer bottoms i x 17i x 19 3 x 445 x 482
6 drawer sides \ x 6| x 19 13 x 168 x482
2 top drawer sides \ x 4| x 19 13 x 121 x482
2 top drawer ends \ x 3| x 17 13 x89> :432
6 drawer ends \ x 5 x 17 13 x 127 x432
10 drawer runners x | x 20 13 x 19 x 508

You will also require:

Plastic laminate. Fireproofing material. Door handles. Woodworking glue. 1 gross
l^in (38mm) finishing nails and No. 6 screws. Edge trim.

Oven unit: Cutting list

Wood standard metric
Laminated flakeboard or plywood
1 side panel 8 x 21 x 80 16 x 533 x 2032
1 side panel
8 x6 x80 16 x 152 x 2032
2 bottom shelves 8 x21 x31 16 x 533 x 787
1 top cross member 8
x 6 x 30f 16 x 152x781
1 top shelf 8 x 17 x 31 16 x 432 x 787
1 top back panel
8 x 24x31 16 x 610 x 787
2 top doors 5
8 xl5 x 16 16 x 381 x413
2 bottom doors 8
x 15 x 18 16 x 381 x 457
1 kickboard 8 x 5 x 29| 16 x 127 x 756

1 vertical support batten 1 x2 x80 25 x51 x2032
2 center shelf battens 1 x 1 x 20 25 x 25 x 508

Kitchen wall cabinet


Although kitchens require more storage Above: The completed kitchen wall unit in

space than most other rooms, they are

position basic and adaptable, it can be
often too small to allow adequate standing adjusted to fit into almost any kitchen.
units to he installed. One satisfactory
solution is to build a spacious wall-hung
cabinet, purpose-built for your kitchen.
This kitchen wall cabinet or cupboard
has been designed to take advantage of
the durability of plastic laminate - and
the beauty. You can use this material to
cover flakeboard and come up with a

highly durable unit that cleans with the

wipe of a damp cloth. While plastic
laminate not cheap, the flakeboard is;

yet the resulting structure will be strong.

If desired, the unit can be built of
conventional solid wood, but this involves
more work in finishing and is not as easy
to clean - though you can, through a
little more time in the final stages, finish it

to be relatively easy to clean.

Kitchen wol I cobmet

piano type hinges

Fig 1
A; -;-- V -/ --.-

Fig I. Details of the construction of the methods of fixing shelves to the unit are Working laminate flakeboard
compactly designed kitchen uall-hung described. It is best to cut out all the flakeboard parts
cabinet. Both the number and the position of A feature of this cabinet is the angled needed and then cover them individually
the storage shelves are purely a matter of end, which has been designed to fit a with plastic laminate. Pieces of laminate
personal choice and necessity. corner of an existing kitchen. Obviously, should be cut slightly oversize, then have
this angled corner is unsuitable for most contact cement applied to both laminate
The design of the cabinet kitchens, but details of its construction and flakeboard. When the adhesive gets
The dimensions of the unit are suitable are included to show the techniques tacky, press the laminate in place, then
for most kitchens, but can be modified to involved in making a fitted cabinet. It is a trim excess with a router fitted with a
suit individual requirements. Details of simple job to modify the design to give a carbide bit and ball-bearing guide. This
the shelving are not included, but the conventional square-ended unit. will ensure a reallv clean cut.

Kitchen wol cabinet I

(289mm) long as shown in Fig. 1. Fig 2. The dimensions of the panels for
("in the recesses carefully and trial the kitchen unit.The ends of the panels
assemble the panels to cluck thai all the are cut away so that the top and bottom fit
rear edges of the unit are Hush. If you are Jlush with the full-depth doors.
making the unit with an angled end, cut
the rear (long edge) of one vertical panel
at the correct angle as shown in Pig. 1.

Now clean up all the internal cut edges

by lightly sanding them, and mark the
locations of the vertical panels on the top
and bottom of the unit. The easiest way
to do this is to lay the top onto the
bottom, so that all the edges are flush, and
then mark both at once.
mark out the location of the
3CT vertical end panels, then work inward.
The cabinet is fitted with two single i2in
(305mm) doors, located at each end and
two double 30m (762mm) doors located
in the center. The vertical panels are,
therefore, positioned to allow for the
width of these doors plus their ^in (3mm)
hinge or hinges, and a working clearance
of y1 in (2mm) betw een closed doors.

Assembling the unit

Before beginning assembly, lay a sheet of
hardboard on the ground to prevent
damage to the pieces. Initially, the unit is

fitted together using finishing nails and

r- glue, before final fixing with screws. In
order to make strong glued joints, first

'key' the laminate with coarse sandpaper

where the joints occur, then apply a
Cutting out laminate adhesive.
The uncomplicated design of the cabinet Use only two nails for each joint, and
means that the number of different locate these adjacent to where the screw
sections to be cut is kept to the minimum. holes are to be drilled. When the unit has
You should devote care to marking and been nailed together, drill for 1 Jin (32mm)
cutting each piece accurately. Once the No. 8 flathead screws, using a combination
cutting is complete, assembly is straight- drill 'countersink bit. It is essential, when
forward, there no complicated
being drilling laminated materials of this type,
joints or time-consuming finishing pro- that a pilot hole be drilled to take the
cesses. screw threads. Fix the screws in position
Following the general rules already laid and remove any glue left on the exposed
out, mark out and cut all the pieces to surface.
the sizes given in the cutting list. The
body of the unit is constructed from two Fitting the back
96m (2438mm) lengths of 24m (610mm) Roughen the finished surface of the hard-
wide board cut lengthwise to make two board back where the glued joints occur,
pieces nin (289mm) wide and 86|in and glue and nail it into position. If the
(2197mm) long for the top and bottom. cupboard is to incorporate an angled end,
The remaining two 12 Jin (311mm) wide the hardboard must be cut to shape and
boards are cut into five 30m (762mm) two edges mitered as shown in Fig. 1.
long panels to make the vertical partitions When the back is built, install a fin X
and ends. Unless you wish to incorporate 2in (19mm X 51mm) hanging strip above
the angled or mitered end, cut all these the top, screwing through from inside the
pieces as square-ended panels. unit at intervals of 8in (203mm).
The top and bottom of the unit fit into With a wall-hung unit of this type, the
recesses cut in the vertical panels. These hardboard edges do not normally show
recesses are |in (13mm) deep and 11 jjin once the unit is fixed. The lower edge is

Kitchen wol cobinet

hidden by a supporting batten and, (13mm) screws.

generally, the top edge is aboye eye level. Tocomplete the construction of the
However, should it be necessary to dis- doors, fix 51b (2.2kg) magnetic cabinet

guise the top edge, a length of I'm (13mm) catches to the edge of the top panel. In
quarter round molding can be fixed after order to reduce noise when closing the
the unit has been mounted. doors, a small rubber disc can be glued
Only the doors and shelving need to be adjacent to the catches.
added; but before fixing these, carefully
trim the hardboard back flush with the Shelving
laminate surfaces and coyer the screw Shehing should be fitted according to
heads. These screw covers are cut from individual requirements. The ideal width
edge trim material and are fixed by laying of shelves for this unit is ojn (225mm).
them in place and running a warm iron Each shelf should supported on
over them. adjustable shelf hardware. The shelves
can then be lifted out tor cleaning.
The cabinet doors
At one cut edge of the door panels
least Wall fixing
will expose the rlakehoard core and should Kitchen cabinets, when filled with utensils
be covered with an edge trim. Various or food, are heavy and require adequate
types of trimming are available, but support. The best way to provide this
perhaps the longest lasting is iron-on support is to fix a tull-length batten to the
edge trim. Cut this trim to size, and glue it wallon which the unit rests. First decide
to all cut edges. Or use wood strips for where the cabinet will be, then fix the
edges. batten firmly into position. Rest the
It is easier to add the door handles at cabinet on the batten, but before fixing it

this stage. These may be chosen according to the wall, check that the wall surface is

to taste but, when fixing handles which flat and true. It it is not, it will be
require a hole to be drilled through the necessary to shim between the wall and
door, remember to clamp a waste piece of the unit, to prevent distorting the
lumber to the drill exit surface in order to structure as the wall screws are driven
avoid splitting the laminate. home.
The doors are hung on full-length piano When you are satisfied that the cabinet
type hinges, which are widely available in is positioned true to the wall, secure it

plastic or metal. One advantage of this with screws along the hanging strip.

type of hinge oyer conventional door These screws are fixed at i8in (457mm)
hinges is does not need to be
that it intervals.
recessed into the edge of the door frame. The kitchen wall cabinet is now ready
To fix the hinges in position, first mark for use. As the need arises, you can build
out their location on the edge of the door other kitchen units in the same materials,
and the vertical panels. Screw the hinge using the same techniques. In this way
to the door edge after haying first pre- you can provide a complete and attractive
drilled for fin (19mm) No. 4 brass screws. storage system, tailor-made for your own
Now hang the doors to the unit using Jin kitchen.

Cutting list
Laminated flake board standard metric
1 top panel ixn3 X 86i 13 X289 X2197
1 bottom panel |x nf x86 13 X289 x 2197
5 vertical panels IX12JX30 3 3" 762
4 door panels ix 15x30 13x381 X762
2 door panels |XI2 30 i3 x 35 x 762
1 back panel 1 3 < 86 5 6x762 -2197

You will also require :

6 3oin (762mm) plastic/metal piano type hinges. 6 door handles. Shelving and shelving
battens to individual requirements. Edge trim for door edges. 4 51b (2.2kg) magnetic
catches. 2 full-length supporting battens. Waste hardboard. Laminate for trimming.
30 iiin (38mm) finishing nails. 50 i^in (38mm) X0.8 Twinfast screws. 30 fin (19mm)
X0.6 screws. Laminate adhesive.

Bunk beds


Bunk beds

These bunk beds can be varied in length to order each piece about lin (25mm) Dovetail
by replacing the side rails and inserting longer than the final length intended. A single dovetail is cut out of both ends of
an additional strip to the plywood base. each skid, which is fitted to the foot of

This means that if the bunks are wide Cutting and marking each leg.

enough at least 2ft 6in (762mm) they With a pencil, lightly mark each piece of Mark out the dovetails on the skids as
can be made, initially, for children, and lumber so that you know where it fits in shown in Fig. 8. The shoulder is |in
'grow' with them. You will end up with the unit there is nothing more annoying (13mm) wide and the slope is 1 in 7
adult bunk beds that are useful space- than making a perfect joint, only to but this is not critical. Cut the dovetails
saving units for guests. discover that it has been cut on the wrong and use them as templates for transferring
piece of wood. the outline to the legs. In this way each
Construction details Carefully mark the length of each piece joint will be fitted invididually, ensuring
The beds illustrated are made in teak, of lumber. When marking pieces of a better fit. Clearly mark each pair of
although any hardwood will do. Since identical lumber, such as the four up- joints so that the correct match can be
teak is a very expensive wood you may rights, clamp or wedge the pieces to- made easily, when assembling the unit
want your option. If you are
to exercise gether and mark them together so that later.

going to paint the wood, pick the most each length will be consistent. Measure
inexpensive hardwood you can find. carefully several times before you mark Stub mortise-and-tenon
The unit basically consists of two rec- and cut. Time spent on accurate marking The stub mortise-and-tenon joins the
tangular frames, with plywood bases, is never wasted. corners of the head box. The headboard is
mounted between four upright members As most of the unit is held together by added when the bunks are finished. The
as shown in Fig. 1. Both pairs of upright slot-type joints, it is advisable to cut these stubs, as shown in Fig. 7, are Jin x fin
members or legs the front and rear first. This will enable you to check your (13mm x 19mm) tenons. They are not
pairs are joined across the bottoms by a progress as you go along by fitting the cut away lumber and
at the sides of the
'skid' runner as shown in Fig. 2.
or various parts together in jig-saw fashion are only Jin (13mm) deep. The top and
This not only makes the frame more to make sure the dimensions are correct. bottom tenons are set Jin (13mm) inside
rigid, but also enables the unit to be the edges of the boards and the mortises
moved easily. Mortise-and-tenon are fin (19mm) from the ends of the
Various joints are used in the con- Two types of mortise-and-tenon are used boards. Once again, temporarily fit the
struction : a halving for the inside of the here. The cross bearers and ladder use joints together to check the fit.

box frames; mortise-and-tenon for the the basic type as shown in Fig. 5 ; but
top and bottom rails and the ladder; a the joints between the boxes and legs are Mitered blind dovetail
single dovetail for the leg/skid joint; mortise-and-tenons which have been This joint fits the corners of the foot box
stub mortise-and-tenon for the head box haunched in the middle, as in Fig. 6. and the dimensions for making it are
joint; a mitered blind dovetail for the box Mark out all the tenons on the bearers shown in Fig. 10.
corners at the bottom of the bunks; and a first. Set the marking gauge to ^in First mark each board to what will be
housing for the side tails. (5mm) order to mark out a fin [10mm]
(in its finished length. Next, butt the box
The mitered blind dovetail (Fig. 10) is tenon), and run this along the ends of together and check with the try square
widely held to be one of the most difficult the pieces as in Fig. 5. Run it along all that it is square. The small dovetails on
joints in woodwork, but this is not quite four edges and you will have marked out one side (Fig. 10D) are called pins, and
true. While it certainly takes a little an area ^in (5mm) deep (inward) all the opposite dovetails are tails. The pins
patience and care to make, as long as the around. The tenon will stand fin are cut and this section is used as a

fit is reasonably snug, any imperfections (19mm) proud, so measure this distance template for marking the tails.
will be covered by glue and hidden under down from the end of the lumber and Using the diagram in Fig. 10A, mark
the surface of the wood, unlike the open mark a line right around. Now mark out out a rabbet Ain (14mm) wide and
dovetail where any inaccuracies are in- the mortise outlines on the legs by laying ^in (5mm) deep on the lumber. Cut the
stantly visible. the tenon over the leg at the correct place rabbet and you will have a section as
Upholstery details have been omitted and direct marking. Tenon joints can be shown in Fig. 10B. Now mark out the
here, because of the vast numbers of made with an electric drill and power pins; these are at approximate 1 Jin
permutations possible. The mattresses circular saw or radial arm saw. See the (38mm) intervals and Jin (13mm) from
can be purchased ready-made, or you Techniques section.
can make them yourself from foam rubber Next, mark out and cut the haunched Fig 1 . Side elevation of the bunk beds.
or plastic with or without a fiber filling mortise-and-tenon for the boxes and legs.
such as Dacron or another synthetic, and Here again the tenon is fin (10mm) wide, Fig 2. End elevation of the beds.
cover them in a suitable fabric. but the shoulder is not the same width
all around. It is cut |in (13mm) inward at Fig 3. Construction details of the ends
The materials the edges and ^in (5mm) along the sides. of the units. It is the rails zvhich screw

A complete list of materials is given in the The haunched portion is a lin X lfin to the end boxes of the beds that give the
cutting list. Buy your lumber planed to (25mm x 48mm) rectangle cut from the units their ability to 'grow'.
size,but slightly overlength as there will center of the leading edge as in Fig. 6.
be a certain amount of waste in finishing. When you have finished these joints, put Fig 4. Exploded view of the bunk bed unit.
Do not overdo this as it is only necessary them together to check that they fit. Only one end is shown.


Bunk beds

-i #

T \
k i
^ H ; n



1 H

r i

_J L


Fig 2 Fig 1

Fig 3

3unk beds

saw off at each end

waste removed

par at 45

Fig 10

Bunk beds

each edge. With a crosscut saw and The guard rails for the top bunk can /'/;'
s. Tin basu flopped mortise and tenon
chisel cut the sloping recesses for the be fitted m the same w.n as the rails. This used in tin construction oj the bunk beds
tails, leaving the pins as in Fig. IOC. is recommended tor children because
Finish ofl bj sloping the remaining lip of thej remove the
cannot guard rails. Fig 6 Tfu end boxes joint to /In- uprights
the rabbet with a paring chisel as in Fig. However, there are main fittings which using a moiiiu ami tenon haunched in tin
10E. provide for easj removal of the guard middle.
Now cut an identical rabbet in the i. uls and this might be an advantage for

opposite hoard and, using the pins as a adults. One such method consists of Fig The head boxes are jointed using
y. *iul>

template, transfer the markings for the brass rods sunk and glued into the bottom mortise and tenons.
tails as in Fig. 101). The tails can now be edge of the guard rail and fitted into holes
formed h\ cutting out the pin recesses. drilled in the top edge of the side rails. Fig V The stopped dovetail which /"/;;> tin

When the joint is complete, mark each The headboards are simply cut away at skids to tin- uprights.
piece so that you can match it later. the lower outside edges to provide re-
.Make the joint for the opposite corner cesses for the protruding corners of the Fig <). 'I'Ik liul\ hip used to join tin inside
of the foot box. sides of the head boxes, and then screwed corners of the box frame.
The joints for the corners of the inside to the top of the head box.
box frames are of the simple halving Figs in A E. The method of cutting the
variety shown in Fit;. 9. Cross-lap joints The ladder mitered blind dovetails
(see Fig. 3) are used to join the legs to the This consists of five rungs fitted into the
side rails. sides by means of mortise-and-tenon
joints, and is simple to construct. Round
Assembling the units off the tops of the rungs slightlv so that
The unit, from the assembly aspect, con- they are easier on bare feet.
sists of two frames, each consisting of The ladder hooks can be made from
two legs, two struts or bearers, one skid, mild steel strip, but there are many types
and two foot or head boxes an example available on the market that you might
of the head frame is shown in Fig. 3. The prefer.
two frames are stood upright, and
joined by the side rails, which are Finishing
screwed to the inside of the boxes and Sand down all surfaces using an orbital
legs as shown in Fig. 4. An internal box finishing sander with a 100 grit sandpaper,
framing, which is virtually battening wipe with a cloth dampened with turpen-
around the inside, is then screwed tine toremove the wood dust, and varnish
around to support the edges of the ply- with a clear polyurethane diluted 50 50
wood panel which is the base for the with turpentine. When dry, rub down
mattress. with a grade '0' steel wool, wipe it down
First, glue, fitand clamp the head frame and finish with polyurethane.
as shown in Fig. 4. Lay the assembly
down on a flat surface for this, and Cutting list

constantlv check all angles for squareness. Solid wood standard metric
It is all the head frame
best to complete Teak
at the same time
you make the boxes
if 4 legs 1 x \l x 50.i 25 x 47 x 1283
separatelv, the tenons might not fit into 2 skids 1 x 1| x32~ 25 x47 x813
the mortise slots when the glue is dry. 4 cross bearers | x 3 x 32 19x76x813
Repeat this for the foot frame. 4 foot boxes | x 7f x 12 19 x 187 x 305
When the adhesive has thoroughly set 2 foot boxes | x 7| x 31 J 19 x 187 x 806
on both frames, place them on their 4 head boxes f x7|x 12 19 x 187 x 305
sides so that the open ends of the boxes are 2 head boxes | x 7| x 31 J 19 x 187 x 806
facing the middle, lay the rails along the 4 side rails J X Jo X jlj 19 x 89 x 806
inside and mark out the joints to fit over 2 safety rails | x If x 31f 19 x 45 x 806
the inside of the legs as in Fig. 3. Cut the 2 ladder sides |xl|x \9\ 19 x 38 x 1257
joints and screw the side rails in position 5 ladder rungs Ixiix m 19 x38 x318
to the legs and boxes which are on the
floor. Carefully lift the frame over so that Hardwood
the opposite side is on the floor, and mark, 4 internal battening I x U x 44 19 x 38 x 1118

cut and screw the remaining side rails in 8 internal battening | x H x 10 19 x 38 x 254
position. 8 internal battening | x U x32 19 x38 x813
Fit and screw the box frame battening Firwood
around the inside of the bunks as in Fig. 2 mattress bases | x 29f x 64 13 x 756 x 1626

3. Then, fit and screw the plywood 2 headboards teak or flakeboard | x 151 *^ 2 2 19 x 391 x 826
mattress bases to the top of the battening.

Loft bed


Below : Installing a loft bed is an ingenious A proportion of today's houses consist of Fig. 2 which is a 'top floor' plan.
way of making extra space to expand a buildings 40 years or more old. By modern The floor of the platform consists of
small living area. standards the ceilings in such homes are lin (25mm) tongue-and-groove
high, and the top part of each room is boarding laid over an inside rim of lin x
just wasted space. A loft bed enables you lin (25mm x 25mm) battening screwed
to use some of this otherwise wasted area around the planking as shown in Fig. 6.
and add interest as well as your
utility to Tongue-and-groove boarding, when
sleeping space. used for flooring, is secured across the
This particular structure has been
width that is, the narrowest length of
designed to provide a platform, some each frame. If laid across the length it
7ft (2.1m) high, covering a sufficient would give too much in the middle. For
area for sleeping space for three adults. this reason, where a frame is wider than
A large room is required for this, but 3ft (914mm), the underside of the floor-
you can alter the dimensions to suit ing should be reinforced every 3ft (914
your room. For example, in a smaller mm) of the frame,with lin x 2in (25mm x
room you could build the storage/desk 50mm) battening. Once again the platform
unit with single bed above, as shown in may be planked or filled in with plywood.
Fig. 1. In a small apartment this could A major safety point to note is that the
be the sleeping accommodation for the combined unit, as shown in Fig. 2 is a
occupant, while in a larger home, it might self-supporting structure. But if you wish
be used for the occasional visitor. to build only the main unit as shown in
The boarded-in area at the base could Fig. 1, should be built against a
then it

provide even more sleeping space in solid wall the main supports on one side
which case this particular section would bolted or otherwise secured to the wall.
be nothing more than a large pair of This is necessary because the weight of

bunks beds but here it is used as a table an adult positioned at one top edge as
of sorts, with storage space underneath happens when climbing on and off
that is reached by doors at one side. could cause the structure to sway and
Alternatively, you could use this as a desk possibly topple over if it were not firmly
in which case one of the doors should be fixed to the wall.
left out to provide a recess for your

knees. The main frame

This is the section with a boarded-in
Construction base shown in Fig. 1.
The main supports consist of lin x 3in First mark out the floor area.
(28mm x 89mm) members. The two rec- Stand two of the uprights against a wall,
tangular frames shown in Fig. 4 are of measure a line 5in (127mm) downward
l|in x 2in (28mm x 64mm) lumber. The from the top of each, then drill holes and
sides of this unit may be boarded in with secure the platform side across the
the material of your choice. Tongue-and- uprights with one top bolt at each end.
groove boarding may be used if it is The top of the platform side should be
available commercially. Otherwise, for level with the marked line.
those with access to a router, it may be Now fit the platform end, with one top
made from 4|in (108mm) wide planking. bolt, to one of the uprights as shown. The
The plank must be rabbeted on both platform end will be 'hanging' from this
sides of one edge, to one-third of the one bolt. Stand another support in
thickness of the wood. The other edge position so that you can swing the plat-
having a groove cut to a depth of Jin form end up and butt snugly against it
(6mm) and a width of one-third of its pulling the other two supports upright.
thickness to accept the tongue. Finally, it Drill and bolt the end in position.
is good practice to round the edges You now have a 'dog-leg' consisting of
of the tongue to make fitting easier. Two three supportsheld upright by two
simpler alternatives would be to use 4in horizontal cross-members. Because
(102mm) wide planking of |in (13mm) the cross-members are only held by a
thick plywood in which case the dimen- single bolt at each end, it is possible to
sions must be taken from the completed hold a plumb line by the side of each
frame. support and adjust the base until each
The framing of
top, or platform, has a member is absolutely vertical. When you
lin x 3in (28mm x 89mm) planking are sure that every support is vertical,

bolted to the vertical supports. The meth- use the same procedure you used for the
od of doing this is shown quite clearly in platform end to complete the remaining


Loft bed

guard rail

frame side


uprights - uprights-

Fig I

T&G planking or plywood


i_j u ipr

fig 7





Loft bed
side, end, and support. When this has Fig i . The basil unit. If this is to be used on
been done, check the whole assembly for its own, the uprights must be tet uriil to a
edge banens
squareness and drill and fit the remaining Wall, otherwise the weight of a person
frame side eight bolts. climbing into it may cause it to topple over.
Next make the framing for the base
with ljin x 2 Jin (28mm x 63mm) Fig J. Plan view of the unit Tilth extension.

lumber. The ends of each member are In this form the loft bed is free standing.
first nailed to a support with finishing
nails toed through the framing into the Fig j. Method offitting the platform rails
support, then screw holes are toe to the uprights.

drilled through each end on the top,

bottom and rear faces, into the support Fig 4. The cabinet construction with plan
member. This applies to members A and view of the same. Note the way in which the
B as shown in Fig. 4, but not to member C front horizontal fits inside the uprights.
which is screwed directly to the inside of
an upright as shown in Fig. 4. Member Fig 5. The top of the cabinet unit must be
Fiq 6 upnghis- A must also be shortened to 6ft 5in notched around the uprights as illustrated
(1955mm) see Fig. 4. here. Note the method of screwing the
Fix members A and B at thebottom of horizontals to the uprights.
the unit first. Then fix the upper mem-
bers A and B at a height of 2ft 3 in (885 Fig 6. Method of constructing the side unit.
mm). Figs 1, 4 and 5 show how members
A, B, and C butt or join to the uprights. Fig 7. The base of the side unit requires
side Irames supports
When the frame is complete, fit the support whichever method of construction is

ends in place. These will have to be used.

notched around pieces A and C. Glue and
screw the plywood top and bottom with Figs 8 A-B. The tzvo alternative methods of
l^in (38mm) No. 8 flathead steel screws constructing the ladder.
spaced about 6in (152mm) apart.
Next, fit and secure one side panel.
The other side panel must be cut to

TAG planking or plywood create two sliding doors to ride in

aluminum door hardware. If
tongue-and-groove boarding has been
used, this must be braced with solid
lumber. Another option is to leave all or
part of this side open so that it can be used
as a desk.
The base is finished by installing the
top. This piece must be fitted around the
four uprights. The edges of the top will
be visible so cut and sand them carefully.
Of course, there are a variety of methods
you can use to hide them.
To complete the platform, screw a
frame of lin x lin (25mm x 25mm)
battening around the bottom of the
inside faces of the planking you fixed
first of all. The battening should be

secured with flathead No. 8 wood screws

at 3in (76mm) intervals.
When the frame is finished, lay the
panels.Glue and screw them in place
with lin (25mm) No. 8 flathead wood
screws about 6in (152mm) apart.
It only remains to fit the side and end

guardrails around the top. This is l^in

x 2Jin (28mm x 63mm) lumber and is
bolted to the supports in the same way
as the side and the end immediately


Loft bed
The side unit
This is really only an extension of the
main frame. Here it has been made wide
enough to accommodate two sleeping
adults, but the dimensions can easily be
The method of construction is identical
to that of the main unit. As shown in Fig.

2, two supports are bolted to one side of

the main unit, and these provide fixing
points at one end for the side ef the unit,
with the two remaining supports placed
at the far end as shown in Fig. 6. These
supports should be braced to the floor
at their lower end.
When a side unit is added to a main
unit, as shown here, the guardrail sep- Cutting list
arating the two is omitted or removed to Solid wood standard metric
allow easier access to both sides. Main unit
If vou make a side unit as large as the 4 uprights l|x3|x 8ft 28 x 89 x 2.4m
one shown here, then you will have 4 lower frame sides \\ x 2\ x 6ft 9|in 28 x 64 x 2.1m
to fit underfloor supports underneath, 4 lower frame ends 1| x 2\ x 3ft 28x64 x 914
so that it will not sag in the middle, and
to be a butt block between the two pieces. Lower frame boarding
Use two pieces of lin x 2in (25mm x 21 tops (T&G) \ x 4 x 3ft 13 x 102 x914
51mm) lumber fixed diagonally (Fig. 7). 42 sides (T&G) \ x 4 x 2ft 13 x 102 x 610
The butt joints with the frame must be 18 ends (T&G) \ x 4 x 2ft 13 x 102 x610

cut and fixed accurately to provide the

required support and should be glued Platform materials
and screwed from outside the frame. 2 sides \\ x l\ x 7ft 28 x 89 x 2.1m
2 sides \\ x 2\ x 7ft 28 x 64 x 2.1m
The ladder 2 ends l|x3|x 3ft 2in 28 x 89 x 972
This ladder has rungs that are housed into 2 ends \\ x 2\ x 3ft \\x\ 28 x 64 x 921
the side supports as shown in Fig. 8A. 2 edge support battens 1 x 1 x 7ft 25 x 25 x 2.1m
To do this, cut all rungs to an exact 2 edge supports 1 x 1 x 3ft 25 x 25 x 914
length and directly mark, cut and fit 21 flooring (T&G) 1 x 4 x 3ft 25 x 102 x 914
so that each rung houses perfectly.
The joints are secured with glue and Side unit
screws skewed through the rungs into the 4 uprights \\ x 3^ x 8ft 28 x 89 x 2.4m
main side supports. Alternatively, the
screws can be simply inserted through the Platform materials
main supports into the end grain of the 2 sides \\ x Z\ x 6ft 28 x 89 x 1.8m
rungs. 2 sides \\ x 2\ x 6ft 28 x 64 x 1.8m
A simpler version is shown in Fig. 8B. 1 end \\ x Z\ x 6ft 3in 28 x 89 x 1.9m
Here the rungs are laid directly over the 1 end \\ x 2\ x 6ft 3in 28 x 64 x 1.9m
side-railsand secured at each joint with 2 edge support battens 1 x 1 x 6ft 3in 25 x 25 x 1.9m
glue and two screws. 19 flooring (T&G) 1 x 4 x 6ft 25 x 102 x 1.8m
Whichever method you use, when you 2 underfloor supports 1 x 2 x 7ft 25 x 50 x 2.1m
are finished round off the tops of the
rungs with a spokeshave in order to make The ladder
climbing up and down the ladder easier - 2 sides \\ x 2\ x 7ft 28 x 64 x 2.1m
and more comfortable on your feet. 10 rungs 1| x 2\ x 12 28 x 64 x 306mm
With a loft bed you have more living
space and the concept of a home-in-a- You will also require:
room can become a reality. And even if 2 brass 3in (76mm) angle brackets. At least twenty-foui 3in (89mm) long in
you are already reasonably well-off for (6mm) bolts with nuts.Wood screws, No. 8 l^in (38mm) and 3in (76mm). Finishing
space, a loft bed could release a bedroom nails l|in (38mm). Wood adhesive.
for other purposes. But a word of Note: If T&G boarding is being made, in (6mm) must be added to the width
warning. If you make this loft bed for dimension to allow for the tongues. Dimensions for ordinary planking will remain the
children, they'll like it so much you will same while the dimensions for a ply version may be taken from the finished frame.
have a job getting them off it


This closet is both simple to construct and a have to design according to the room you support for the lower sliding doors set
great space-saver. are fitting. For instance, this particular between two runners. A section view of
unit is 7ft 5in (2.3m) at the back, because the runners for both sets of doors is
This closet has been built into a corner, of the slope of the ceiling. shown in Fig. 2. Runners and fittings for
but it could equally well be built against a Main supports x
consist of three 2in both upper and lower doors are commer-
wall or into an alcove. 2in (51mm X 51mm) vertical members, cially available. There are many different
but a closet built against a wall would types on the market and the ones shown
General construction details require four supports, or only the two here are just two examples. Your local
The construction outline, with exploded front ones if built into an alcove. Lumber retailer will show you what is available.
views of the joints used, is shown in Fig. of the same dimensions is used for the The fittings of the lower runners are
1. A detailed parts list is not given here front bottom and top cross-members, hidden from view by ^in x 4in (13mm x
because it is certain that the dimensions and for one cross-member in between 102mm) wood valance as shown in Fig. 2.
of your house are not identical. When these. The middle rail, 1 Jin x 2in This valance is mortised into the vertical
making built-in units such as this you (39mm x 51mm), acts as the main supports at each end and also acts as a



Fig I. Construction details for a closet

built into the corner of a room. The third
upright is unnecessary in this case. The
unit is simply built all joints being of the
ordinary housing type.

strengthening support for the middle rail.

The frames for the three shelves con-

sist of 1 Jin x 2in (31mm x 51mm) pine.
The closet is a floor-to-ceiling structure
and is secured to the walls at two points
as shown in Fig. 1. If you are building in a
corner or alcove, it is not necessary to
screw the top and bottom members to the
floor and ceiling, but this will have to be
done in the case of a unit with two free-
standing sides as in Fig. 4.

The receiving wall

It is essential for the supports on each side
of the doors to be absolutely vertical. The
rear supports, if any, can be screwed to a
wall that is out of true, and the joints
adjusted to But if the front supports

are not in plumb, the doors will not close

flush with the sides of the closet.
The easiest way of fixing a lumber
support vertically to a 'leaning' wall is to
stand the support so that it is touching the
wall at one end.
Use a plumb line or level to ensure
that thelumber is vertical. Then measure
the space between the lumber and wall
at the 'open' end. Put the lumber aside
and screw a block of wood, the same
thickness as the space and as wide as the
lumber, to the wall. The lumber can then
be screwed to the block at one end and to
the wall at the opposite end, and the
wedge-shaped space between it and the
wall filled with plaster. When the plaster
has set, drill holes through the support
firmly in place. If required, use toggle
bolts. This method is the one to use if the
wall is an inch, or less, out of true.
If your wall is more than an inch out
over the length of the wood support, it

would be better to cut a wedge-shaped

fillet to shape as shown in Fig. 5. A piece
of lumber, as wide as the support but
thicker is placed vertically against the
wall, with a lin (25mm) piece of batten
at the 'narrow' end (the batten can be
dispensed with if a baseboard is there).

Ensure that the support is vertical and

place a block into the wide end as shown
in Fig. 5. Now measure the gap between
the edge of the lumber nearest the wall
and the wall itself at regular intervals and
lightly mark the lumber at these points.
Fig 1

Lay the lumber on the ground and mark



Fig 2. The type of

door runners used
isa matter of
personal choice.

Fig 3. If the closet

is to be built into
an alcove, the rear
uprights may be
dispensed uith
altogether. The
basic construction
remains the same
in all cases.

Fig. 3

off each measurement along the length. ensure that the uprights will be parallel. Use a little packing if necessary. If the
Draw a line along the ends of these as Cut the joints and fit the frame together upright does not fit the wallcan either

shown by and
the dotted line in Fig. 5, dry, to check that all the dimensions are be cut into the plaster or trimmed with a
cut the lumber along the line. This is correct. Then, glue the joints, fit them plane to fit. If the gap is too large to
easily done with a table saw. See the together and nail them to hold them while plane the side to fit, you will have to pack
chapter on power sawing in the Tech- the glue sets. the upright off the wall when you drive
niques section. Before the glue sets, measure the the screws home and cover the resulting
When the cut-out portion that has the diagonals to ensure that they are the space with a small quadrant moulding.
markings is turned around, it should fit same length and that the frame is square. Measure the end frame and the distance
the incline of the wall perfectly. If there Then tack a temporary batten from the from the back wall to the front frame at
is a baseboard at floor level, the bottom of middle of the top rail across the middle the other end to ensure that the front
the fillet will have to be sawn off level with rail and to about the middle of the up- frame is parallel to the back wall.
this so that the fillet can be screwed di- right. This will hold the frame square Measure and cut the shelf supporting
rectly to the wall. until it is fixed in place. battens and plug and screw them to the
Mark the end joints, putting the third wall finding their position by leveling
Building the main frame upright against the frame flush at the top from the the top of the end rails.
With chalk, mark out the outline of the and bottom, and squaring the lines across
closet base on the floor. This closet will the two timbers. Then cut out these Shelves and side

only require two lines side and front. housings. Cut the end rails and glue and Each shelf top is marked out and cut
Make sure that the area is in square by pin them into the housing of the third individually. You can do this by taking
measuring the diagonals and checking or back upright. The front frame can several length and width measurements
that both measurements are identical. then be lifted up and the end section for each shelf space and transferring them
Using a plumb line, transfer the marks to glued and nailed to The wood valance
it. to the panel of hardboard or plywood from
the ceiling. can be either fixed now or later when the which they will be cut. However, it is
Measure the height of the uprights doors and tracks have been fitted. The much better to make paper templates for
they should all be about the same length, latter may be the best as it will give more each shelf and use these for marking out.
so cut them to the shortest measurement. freedom to fit the door. A large template can be made of lengths of
Put the two front uprights together and Now you can put the whole framework newspaper or wallpaper joined with
mark the positions of the rails. Cut the into position and mark the walls so that cellulose tape.
housings and then cut the rails to length. they can be drilled and plugged. Three If you are using hardboard for the
Mark the shoulders of the joints by screws to each upright should be sufficient. shelving, then this must be nailed all
placing the rails together and squaring the The front frame is square, so if you level around the shelf supports with brads. If
lines across all three rails. This will the bottom rail, the sides will be plumb. you are using plywood, it is a good idea


Fig 4- A free-
standing unit
requires a different
approach. Four
uprights are
necessary to
7 c
provide adequate
support for the
structure. -1 i

Fig 5- Walls are -1

rarely absolutely
true and vertical. -1
The uprights need
to be trimmed j 1
accordingly, using
a level to make
sure that the
lumber is plumb.


Fig 5

just to rest the shelf panels on the shelf the joint at the bottom of the end panel oversize at and then cut accurately

supports. This way you can remove them and this board can be continued around using direct marking. The doors must be
easily for cleaning, or if you want to alter the front of the frame to meet the skirting fractionally higher than the distance
the internal layout, or perhaps to repair on the other wall giving a more pro- between the runners, so that each door
the sliding door runners should it hecome fessional finished look. can be eased into the top recess, straight-
necessary. ened, then dropped into the bottom
Fitting the hardboard or plywood end The doors recess. The priming, undercoat and top-
will need a paper template; but if you Sliding doors of the type used for the coats of paint should be applied to these
cannot make one, cut the plywood to the lower part of this closet are, in fact, much doors before they are finally fitted.
height of the framework and a little easier to fit than conventional hinged For both sets of doors, ordinary door
wider than the end framework. Put it in doors. They are merely hung on the top handles would, of course, be impossible to
position with one side against the wall runners and dropped into a slotted plate use because they protrude and would
and the other parallel with the face of the below. The runners shown in Fig. 2, stop the doors sliding. But there are many
front frame. If when the front edges are are fairly typical, but they do vary in recessed pulls for sliding doors on the
parallel the plywood does not fit the wall fitting. Pay particular attention to the market that your local retailer will show
you can scribe it by taking a small piece instructions that come with your runners. you.
of wood or ply about |in (6mm) wider It is in this area of construction that most
than the widest part of the gap to make a handymen make a mistake. The key is to Finishing
guide. Slide this piece of wood down take your time and to do the job care- Smooth down any bumps or rough
the wall making a mark on the plywood fully.Should you have any questions you patches in the woodwork with a plane.
side with a pencil held against the can usually get any information you Using a spatula and a cellulose filler, fill

outer edge of the wooden guide. The require simply by consulting either the in anv visible holes or cracks. Apply the
result should be a line that is parallel sales-person or the manufacturer. filler generously, so that it dries higher
with, and as uneven as, the wall. Cut The top sliding doors are more simple than the surface of the hole or crack.
the ply along this line and prop it in and consist of two lengths of grooved Then smooth the filler down level with the
place again; this time measure how much wood into which sheets of hardboard are surface with fine sandpaper. Rub the
waste should be taken off so that the fitted as shown in Fig. 2. The strips or entire surface of the closet down to a
panel fits flush with the front frame. runners are nailed in position at the top smooth finish and apply a layer of
Nail the panel to the framework with and bottom of the upper compartment, undercoat. If necessary, rub down again,
finishing nails with their heads punched and flush with the front of the closet. The then finish with a coat of undercoat,
below the surface and the holes stopped top grooves must be twice the depth of followed by two coats of paint, allowing
with suitable filler. the bottom grooves. The two doors are plenty of drying time between applica-
A length of skirting board wil cover cut from a sheet of hardboard, slightly tions.

Built-in dressing table


The simple design of this dressing table is table with mirrors. These are fixed with Above: The completed dressing table in
adaptable to any size room. The unit is screws positioned so that they are not position. It is both functional and
functional, allowing ample shelf and conspicuous when the unit is installed. attractive ; and the dimensions can be varied
storage space. In this way, you can save the trouble of to suit individual requirements.

making a back for the unit itself.

The dressing table is made mostly from The sides of the unit
fin (19mm) thick plywood, but any The dimensions of the unit's sides are
softwood that can be sanded to a smooth shown in Fig. 2. These pieces are fixed
finish is suitable. The dressing table top, to the wall first, and the horizontal
the shelf panel and the bottom and top pieces of the unit fitted between them.
panels of the upper component are made ends and vertical dividers
First, cut the
from plywood so are the bottoms of the
; to the length and width required and
drawers. The drawers run on strips of square their ends. Lay them on a level
hardwood fixed under their outside surface and mark the position of the top
bottom edges. piece, the facing strip of the middle shelf
The only joints used in the construction and the dressing-table top. The facing
are simple butt joints, which are held strip of the shelf is let into the front edge
together with glue and finishing nails. of the side for a neat appearance.
The central shelf is held up by standard From the top of the ends and dividers
plastic shelf supports fixed to the vertical measure downward a distance of lOin
dividing pieces. The wall at the back of (254mm). This indicates the top of the
the shelf area is covered with plastic housing. The housing is fin (19mm) deep
laminate, and the area above the dressing and 2f in (70mm) long. Mark the depth of

Built-in dressing table

Opposite page: This dressing table has been the housing with a marking gauge and need be screwed on through the back
made mainly from plywood, but any use a try-square to mark the ends of the edge. They were just screwed in place
softuood that can be sanded down to a housing. Cut the ends with a tenon through their flat surfaces, with the
smooth finish is suitable. saw and chisel the housings out to the screws arranged to fall behind the hori-
correct depth. zontal pieces so as not to show. If vour
Fig i. Construction details of the dressing The next step is to fix the ends and unit is to be free-standing, you should
table. The supports for the table top a/so dividers to the walls. On the walls, mark mount the sides on pieces of aluminum
provide a guide for the draicers. where the bottom ends of the sides will angle strip.
come. These points are 23in (584mm)
from the floor on each wall. This will The top of the unit
make the dressing table top 27; in (708 A top for the unit is made out of fin
mm) high about right for a person of (16mm) plvwood fixed to a wood frame-
average height. Raise or lower it if you work. Cut two lengths lin x 2f in (25mm x
like. Draw a string from mark to mark 70mm) to the full length of the unit. Cut
and check it for level. four pieces of fin x l^in (19mm x 38mm)
Now fasten the side pieces to the wall. 6 Jin (171mm) long and two the same
The original of this unit was fixed be- length out of lin x 2fin (25mm x 70mm).
tween two end walls, so the sides did not Mark the positions of the dividers onto

Built-in dressing table

the plywood top piece, II the plywood top The table top
has to be made of more than one piece of The table top is made from jin (19mm)
wood, try to make the joint over the top plywood. At the front, a strip of ,'in x
of one of the dividers. The plywood top 1|in (19mm 44mm) lumber is glued and
willbe 6fin (171inm) wide, and is set out nailed to it. The back of the table top,
to take the four intermediate pieces of which butts against tin- wall, is support-
lumber and the two ends. ed by, and fitted to, a strip of |in / 2in
Glue and nail the intermediate mem- (19mm x 51mm) soft wood plugged and
bers into place flush with either side of screwed to the wall. The plywood top of
the plywood panels. Then fix the ends and the table is supported at the dividers by
the front and back members by gluing 1 in x lin (25mm x 25mm) softwood bat-
and nailing them to the ends of the inter- tens.
mediate pieces and the edge of the ply. The plywood top has deep slots cut in-
The top section can then be lifted up and to it to enable the vertical dividing pieces
fixed firmly by first screwing it to the tops to fit into it. You will not be able to get a
of the dividers and next by plugging and single board of the length required for the
screwing this section to the wall, making top, so use two or more boards. Make sure
sure it is firmly joined. that the ends of the board that are to
butt are perfectly square. The joints will
be less conspicuous if they occur parallel
to, and in line with, the slots.
The table top an now be fitted to the

The shelf
The is made up from fin
central shelf
(16mm) plywood panels which extend
between pairs of vertical dividing pieces.
They are supported where they meet these
pieces by small commercial nylon shelf
supports screwed in place. The front
facing strip, which is housed into the
dividing pieces, should be fitted with
these nylon supports too so that it
supports the front edge of the shelf. The
supports should go fin (16mm) below
the upper edge of the facing.
Cut the facing strip to length and glue
and nail it in place. Cut the plywood shelf
panels to size. When they are fixed, their
front edge should be flush with the rear
surface of the facing strip. Fix the nylon
shelf supports and put the shelves in
place on them.

The drawers
The unit has four drawers made from
fin (19mm) lumber with fin (16mm)
battens. The four sides of the drawer are
butted, glued and screwed together. A
front panel is glued to the front side of

each drawer and screwed on from the

inside. These panels protrude below the
bottom edge of the front side and beyond
the end of the front side.
The dimension of the drawer compon-
ents are shown in Fig. 1. Cut the four
sides to length and square their ends.
Drill screw holes in the pieces, lay them
on a level surface and apply adhesive to
jdm the ends of the two short sides. Screw


Built-in dressing table

the pieces together. Check that the con- the drawer. Finally screw the pieces holes with wood filler. Apply several
struction is square and lightly bar-clamp together from the inside and clamp them coats of polyurethane varnish to the unit,
it (or use string twisted tight with pegs if firmly together. sanding down carefully between indivi-
you don't have any bar-clamps). dual coats.
The drawer facing protrudes below the The drawer runners
bottom edge of the front side of the drawer The drawer runners are glued and The mirror
by lin (25mm). The front pieces are 31 fin screwed to the underside of the dividers. The mirror is fixed in place with mirror
(706mm) long, so that in the finished unit Cut hardwood strips Jin x 2|in (19mm x screws positioned lin (25mm) from the
the ends of one drawer unit almost butt 63mm) as long as the L-shaped projec- corners of the mirrors. Your glass dealer
against that of the adjacent drawer unit. tion of the table top supports. Then glue should supply mirrors cut to size and
Lay each front piece on a flat surface and screw them into place, positioning ready-drilled. The plastic laminate that
with its inner face uppermost. Mark from the strips centrally so that they will carry backs the shelf can simplv be glued to the
each end the distance it protrudes beyond a drawer on each side of the divider. wall.
the front side of the drawer. Lay the
partially finished drawer between these Finishing the unit Fig 2. The correct method of taxing out the
two points and draw around this outline. Sand all the surfaces smooth. Knock any lumber panel from which the vertical
Apply adhesive to the front piece between finishing nail heads that are conspicuous partitions of the dressing table unit are
the pencil lines and on the front side of below the surface of the wood. Fill the going to he cut.

Fig 2


i, n r-


44' [ 9

7 r



Four-poster bed

i 4i


Four-poster bed
Fig The panels for the four-poster bed
I. The four-poster bed is the aristocrat of case the lumber for the uprights should
are all cut from three sheets o/ plywood. bedroom furniture. It has the flavor of be ordered as perfect as possible because
The lavout for the first of these is shown history and an element of prestige. in this design, the uprights are the only
here. Unfortunately, four-poster beds are not part of the woodwork that is visible. The
sold by most furniture shops. Where they lumber can be of a com-
rest of the solid
Figs 2-3. The layout for the other two are, only traditional designs are available mon pine. This consists of the slat
sheets. An allowance must be made for and these are expensive. Instructions are supports and edge battens, which are
the saivcuts and great care must be taken given tor making a four-poster of modern of 2in x 2in (51mm x 51mm) members
zchen cutting these to ensure that they design that does not cost the moon. If you and the slats, which are 1 in x 6in
are straight and true. prefer, you could provide a traditional (25mm x 152mm).
touch by adding curtains. All the panels are cut from |in (13mm)
Fig Detail of the ends of the panels
4. firwood, but if you want to replace these
where they meet tin uprights at the foot Construction with solid wood planking, then this
of the bed. This bed consists of four upright 3in X should be of fin (19mm) lumber, be-
3in (76mm x 76mm) deal posts you cause solid wood is more likely to warp
Fig .). The dimensions for the headboard. could use another wood if you wish than firwood. All the firwood panels can
supported and kept vertical by eight be cut from three large sheets as shown
Fig h. I 'iew of t/ie rear of the headboard panels, four at the base and four at the in Figs. 1 to 3.
showing the position of the batten. top. Where screw heads are visible, then
The panels are of firwood, and at the brass screws with countersunk washers
Fig 7. I 'iew of the front of the headboard base butting to the floor, there are two are used ; but where they are not, ordinary
showing the position of the lower batten. side and one footboard.
panels The flathead steel screws are just as good.
panel at the head end is raised to provide
Fig 8. Lower side panel of the bed and support and to act as a head board. Cutting the panels
position of the support batten. The four panels or fascia running All the \
in (13mm) thick firwood panels
around the tops of the uprights provide can be cut from three large sheets of
Fig 9. Lower end panel of the bed showing rigidity for this part of the structure, but firwood, and the cutting plan for this is as
position of the support batten. are also used for decoration. They can described. This will avoid the cost of the
be painted, covered with fabric, or panels being cut to specific sizes. But this
Fig 10. The top panels of the bed fitted with a curtain rod. only applies if you have done some car-
shozving positions of t/ie battens. Firwood rarelv has an attractive sur- pentry and have access to a bench power

face, and the end-grain or cut edges look saw. Cutting long straight lines in wood is

unsightly. For this bed, therefore, the no job for the inexperienced carpenter. So
firwood panels have been covered with if you have never done this sort of work,

felt, but you could use some other order the firwood already cut into eight
material, or paint. If you prefer a natural individual panels according to the di-
wood finish, then the firwood would have mensions shown in Figs. 1 to 3.
to be replaced by hardwood, veneered two base side panels.
First prepare the
firwood or with |in (19mm) wood
solid Each panel has two recesses cut in one
planking, but this would be much more end as shown in Fig. 4. The recesses are
expensive. If you do decide to do the 5|in (133mm) wide and 3iin (89mm)
latter, then each base panel will be deep. Mark out the outlines of the
replaced with four solid planks as wide as recesses, using a try square to ensure that
the panels they replace. The solid all lines are straight, then cut out the
planks can be glued and clamped together recesses with a fine-toothed saw. When
to form solid panels, or left as individual vou have finished, you will have two iden-
planks. The main advantage of the tical panels like the one shown in Fig. 8.
former method is that it prevents the Next cut the recesses in the foot board.
planks from buckling out of line. These recesses are identical to those cut
Support battens are fixed all around in the side panels, but in this case they
the upper inside edges of the side panels. are cut in each end of the foot board.
This provides support for the slats, which Stand one of the side panels on edge, in
in turn makes the frame more rigid and the position shown in Fig. 8. Do the same
provides the support area for the mattress. and then
with the foot board, as in Fig. 9,
These slats are part of the structural mark the positions of the 'tenons' on the
design,and should not be replaced with footboard and jig-saw the two together so
something less rigid. that the protruding parts of one panel
slide into the recesses in the opposite
Materials panel. Now add the remaining side
The uprights are of deal. Any other panel to the opposite end of the foot
suitable wood can be used, but in any board in the same way.

Four-poster bed

Four-poster bed
Fix the two 73in (1853mm) battens to will protrude, forming a V at each corner.
the side frames, 2|in (64mm) down from Stand an upright in one of these, so that
the edge of each inside face, and the the panel ends overlap two sides of the
54in (1371mm) batten samein the upright, then screw them together
position on the foot board. Figs. 8 and 9 through the panelling into the upright.
show the battens in position. Repeat this at the other end. The up-
Mark and cut the two recesses in each rights for the foot end of the four-poster
bottom corner of the headboard. Each are now in position.

recess is 3|in(89mm) wide and 4Jin (1 14 Now fit the uprights at the head end.
mm) deep, as shown in Fig. 5. Glue and Stand an upright at the outside end of a
screw a 54in (1371mm) batten along the side panel, in exactly the same position as
top of one side of the headboard, and a the upright at the opposite end. Screw this
50in (1270mm) length along the oppo- in positionthrough the inside of the
site side, at the bottom. Fig. 6 and 7 show panel. Repeat this procedure with the
these in place. remaining upright on the opposite panel.
Fix one length of 76in (1930mm) Stand the headboard in position on the
battening along one side of each of the edges of the side panels, backing onto the
top side panels. The batten should be uprights, and screw it to the uprights
flush with one edge, and centrally placed through the front of the headboard.
so that there is a space of 3in (76mm) The base frame is now assembled, and
between each end of the batten and the you can check the various panels for fit.
ends of the panel the same as with the You can also check the top frame. It is
back of the headrest. Repeat this with not necessary to assemble this; it should
the top end panels and the 56in (1422mm) be sufficient to hold each panel up (you
battens. will need someone to help you) to check
that it fits.

Assembling the main frame Mark, cut and fit the slats. Do this
You are now ready for a dry run, to by direct marking, and as you cut and
check that everything fits, and to mark fit each one, number it on the slat and
and fit the slats. Do not apply glue to the butting batten, so that each slat will
any of the joints at this stage and do not be fixed in the right place when you
drive the screws in too tightly. This is assemble permanently. Do not screw the
because each panel will have to be slats in place
it is only necessary to drop

removed, covered with felt, and replaced each one into postion to see that it fits.
before the slats are finally screwed in Carefully dismantle the unit. The panels
place and the bed is ready. can now becovered with felt and the bed ;

Assemble the two base side panels and can be assembled permanently and, if
footboard so that the three panels are required, rods can now be fixed around
free-standing. the inside of the top frame to hold curtains
Where the panels interlock, the ends to enclose the bed.

Cutting list
Solid wood standard metric
4 uprights 3x3x84 76x76x2134
11 slats 1 X6X54 25x152x1371
2 slat supports 2x2x73 51x51x1853
2 edge battens 2x2x54 51x51x1371
1 edge batten 2x2x50 51 X51 X1270
2 edge battens 2 x 2 x 76 51x51x1930
2 edge battens 2x2x56 51 X51 X1422
2 basic side panels 1 x 21 x 82 13 x 533 x 2083
1 foot panel x21 x61 13 x 533 x 1549
1 headboard panel x 27 x 61 13 x 686 x 1549
2 top side panels | x 12 x 82 13 x 305 x 2083
2 top end panels \ x 12 x 62 13 x 305 x 1575
You will also require :

Brass screws, with cups for the visible screw heads, Ordinarv countersunk head steel
screws can be used for screws that are not visible, such as the securing screws for
the slats. A good woodworking adhesive will ensure fi rmer joints and a better finish.

Linen chest

Linen chest

The linen chest is made from high Gluing the planks

quality polished pine with the exception To form the components of the chest
of the base, which is made from plywood. glue the planks together along the planed
The and back are dovetailed
sides, front edges. You need a number of bar
together at the corners. The lid rests on clamps one for every 18in (457
at least
two pieces of pine between the sides. The mm) of the length of the planks and a
base rests on similar pieces glued to the PVA adhesive. If you do not have enough
insides of the front and back at the bottom bar clamps or room to work with two
of the chest. planks as long as this, cut them across
theirwidth down the line that marks off
Preparation of the wood one set of side and end panels from the
The sides of the chest are 18in x 18in other.
(457mm x 457mm) and the front and To enable you to join the planks
back are 14^in x 38in (368mm x 965mm). quickly once the adhesive has been
The four panels of the chest are made applied, pre-set the clamps to the correct
from the same plank because it is almost length by clamping the boards together
impossible to achieve a precise color dry with blocks of waste wood between
match if different planks are used, even if the jaws of the clamps and the edges of
they are from the same tree. Using wood the planks. This will protect the edges of
from the same plank will also enable you the planks from damage and will spread
to achieve the decorative effects. the clamping pressure more evenly. If
First, cut the 9ft 4in (2.8m) length of you have cut the boards across their
lumber down its thickness. Use a circular width, three clamps is the minimum
saw, allowing the rip fence to guide the number to use, although four clamps
accuracy of the cut. It is best to use a would be ideal.
combination blade but since the lumber is Release the clamps and spread adhesive
to be planed afterward, a rip blade can be evenly on the edges of the planks that are
substituted. You will have to turn the to butt. Clamp them together again with
lumber over after the first cut, and cut it the bars of the clamps alternatively on the
again from the other edge. Alternatively, top surface of the panels and on the
ask your lumber dealer to saw the planks. underface of the panels.
By cutting the lumber in this way you It is essential that the planks fit to-

get two matching planks. When the cut gether perfectly and the surface is com-
is completed, 'open' the two pieces as you pletely level. If one plank is slightly
would open a book (Fig. 2). The grain in higher than the other slacken the clamps a
one plank will be perfectly matched, or little. Place a piece of scrap wood on the

mirrored, with that in the other plank. raised plank and bang it with a hammer.
Plane the planks to the required thick- This will force the raised plank down-
ness of | in (19mm) and the bottom edges, ward, until its surface is flush with the
with the matching grain, exactly square. other plank.
Use a jack plane or router todothis.Check Tighten the clamps and wipe every
that the faces and edges are level with a trace of excess adhesive off the face of the
straightedge, using a try square to check planks with a soft damp cloth. Run your
that they are exactly at right angles to each finger along the joint to check that there
other. are no Allow adequate
irregularities in it.

Next, butt the planed edges with the time for the adhesive to set 12 hours is
matching grain together. Mark them as usually sufficient, but follow the manu-
shown in Fig. 3. This will enable you facturer's recommended times. It is

to match the grain easily later on. better to be overcautious at this stage than
With boards still together square a to spoil the joint and have to go back to
line down the face close to one end. From begin to do the work all over again once
this line measure the length of the it's been ruined.
components in the following sequence: When the adhesive has set, cut the
front 38in (965mm), side 18in (457mm), joined planks along the marked lines.
back 38in (965mm), side 18in (457mm). Plane the two shorter lengths (the sides)
Add I'm (6mm) to each of these measure- to a width of 18in (457mm). Then take
ments to allow for waste. Marking the the two longest pieces (the front and
panels in this way will enable you to back) and mark off their width of final

achieve another decorative effect, as the 14|in (368mm). To do this, measure half
grain on the finished piece will appear to this distance from the joint and on both
flow around the sides of the chest. sides of it. (This will keep the joint, and

Linen chest

grain, running continuously, around the Making the dovetails

finished box.) Draw lines through these The side panels are joined to the front and
points parallel with the join. Then cut hack panels with dovetailed joints. But
the wood to the waste side of these first, you must cut and plane the boards to Fig 1 Construction details of the linen

lines and plane the planks square and to their final length. From one end of each chest. Note the position of the battens
width. board mark off approximately Jin (3mm) which prevent the lid from warping.

Linen chest

A large plane is used to smooth the planks.

""" r

Method when planing end grain.

Bar clamping the planks together.

Make sure that the planks fit together

perfectly and the surface is level.


Linen chest

mark a depth of the

line to indicate the thread 111 the lid with Steel BCreWS. I ln> /'/ 2. If you have the facilities /'

dovetails. marking gauge to the

Set a ensures that when you screw 111 the brass cutting a 9in [229mm) f>lanl< through
width of the wood. Score the line in- screws they will not snap in the hole and //v thickness or can get the job done
wards from both cuds of all lour hoards. the head will not be damaged. commercially\ the components for the
Mark this line very lightly, as it will have chest may be made from a plank l\in
to be planed out later. Finger hold and scuff board (44mm) thick.
Then measure and mark a point 1 4 i 1 To make the finger hold and the scull
(45mm) down trom the top ot both side board and their balancing pieces at the Fig 3. The ttOO resulting planks should
pieces. Do this at each end. This will back you will need four pieces ot 2.JinX he opened like a hook and the grain
indicate the point at which the top ot the |in (64111111x19111111) softwood or struts. aligned for glueing as shown. The effect
front and back pieces join the sides. Cut and square these to a length of 36^11 created nil/ he of a mirroi image which
Mark out the dovetail between this point (927111m).Glue the two struts at the top continues round the chest.
and the width of the front and back to the insides of the front and back panels
panels. Cut the tail (wider pieces) of the so thatin (25mm) of their width is
1 Fig 4. The under lid battens require slots

dovetails first. Then direct mark and cut visible from the exterior of the chest. to allow for expansion of the wood. These
the pins. Ensure that the tops of the front Position the bottom struts so that 2in are cut as shown, using a drill and
and back pieces are level with the point (51mm) is visible. The base of the chest subsequently a chisel to remove the waste.
marked on the sides. Trial assemble and can now be cut to rest on the bottom
then glue the sides together. struts and is glued into place. Fig 5. Brass round head screws are
Refer to the Techniques section for the The lid of the chest rests on the top used to fix the battens to the lid allowing
two methods of cutting the dovetail. By struts and between the side panels, flush the icood to slide if there is any
using a dovetail attachment and your to their tops. Plane the lid to the required expansion.
electric drill you will achieve much size, but ensure that the tit is not too
greater accuracy, although you may feel tight. If you can slide a thin coin between Fig 6. The method of hinging the lid so

that this is not worth the expense just for the end of the lid and the sides the fit is that the back provides its own support.
one project. In which case, try the jig ideal.
saw method, practising on a scrap piece of Fix the lid to the back strut with three
timber first. 2in (51mm) brass butt hinges and some
in (13mm) brass screws. The plates of
Making the lid the hinges when fixed are at right angles
The lid for the chest is 36in (927mm) to each other (see Fig. 6). The exact
long and i8in (457mm) wide. Two planks position of the hinges is not really

have to be butted together to form a important provided oneis in the middle

surface this wide. Cut the timber for the and the other two are placed near the
lid so that it splits down the middle. ends.
Plane the edges and butt and glue them
to form a plank in the same way as for the Finishing the chest
sidecomponents. Clean up the surfaces with a sharp
A board of this size which is fixed along smoothing plane and sand them perfectly
one edge is unlikely to stay perfectly flat smooth with your orbital sander, or by
and level. The underside is, therefore, hand, using tine paper. Use a clear poly-
strengthened with battens. Cut two 2in X urethane or cellulose varnish so as not to
iin (51mm X 25mm) battens to a length obscure the grain. Rub down the finish
of I2in (305mm). The battens are not after each coat with steel wool until you
screwed in the normal way. Instead, the have achieved a completely smooth
holes through the battens which accom- finish.
modate the shanks of the screws must be
elongated to allow for any movement in Cutting list
the timber caused by variations in tem-
Solid wood standard metric
perature and humidity.
2 planks for sides, front and back 112X9X! 2845 x 229 x 19
Mark the positions on the battens 927 x 229 x 19
2 lids 3ix9x|
through which the screws will pass, four 305x51x25
2 battens I2X2X I
pairs of screws for each batten is sufficient.
4 scuff board, finger holds 36ix2|x| 927 x 64x19
Drill holes at these points. Drill another
hole of the same size on either side of
every original hole (Figs. 4 and 5). Chisel 927x457x10
1 base 36ixi8xf
out the timber around each pair of holes
to form a rectangular opening. You will also require :

Use round head i|in (38mm) X0.8 3 2tn(51mm) solid brass butt hinges, iiin (38mm) roundhead brass screws.
brass screws to fix the battens to the lid. |in (13mm) No. 8 countersunk brass screws. PVA adhesive.
Before using these screws pre-cut the

Garden bench

A garden bench can be one of the most redwood may be hit alone and will mark in the angled ends. Cut these ends
attractive features of an) garden. Unlike Stand up to the weather quite nicely. If out with a crOSSCUl s.iw. At the opposite
a lot of garden furniture, this design is you wish, you can use pressure-treated ends mark out and cut the bevels shoun
not only attractive and comfortable, it is lumber, which is pre-treated with pre- in Fig. 3. The upper long edges oi tin end
also sturdy enough to be used as a servative rails are hollowed out with a coping saw
permanent feature all year round and to or jigsaw to the shape shown in Fig. 3.
give a lifetime's use. The end sections The last parts of the end sections to he
The garden bench has been designed Each end section comprises an armrest cut out are the arm rests. Round off the
specifically for do-it-yourself construc- a front and back leg and a rear, vertical last 2in (51mm) ends of
of the front
tion. No special tools other than a support These members are assembled these pieces and, with a spokeshave,
protractor, are required and all the by gluing and jointing; final securing make 'nosings' on these ends. At the
joints are simple. At the same time the being by galvanized lag screws counter- other ends, cut the lapped joints which
bench is very sturdy and, provided the sunk below the surface When finished, house the vertical supports.
lumber has been properly treated with these two sections should match exactly,
preservative, is suitable for outdoor use so great care must be taken in marking Cutting the end section joints
throughout the year. and cutting out The rear support and the end rail are
One major attraction of the design is Begin by marking and cutting out the joined together by means of a halving
that can easily be modified to make a
it pieces for the two end sections to the joint. Although this is an easy joint to
bench of a different size, or even an dimensions given in the cutting list. All make, in this case the process is complica-
individual garden chair. The construc- these pieces with the exception of the ted by the fact that the two members are
tion steps would remain exactly the same, armrests, are |in (13mm) overlong at this set at an obtuse angle to each other. Refer
the only difference being that the main stage, to enable the angled ends (shown to Figs. 3 and 4 for the exact measure-
members for a chair should be reduced in in Figs. 3 and 4) to be cut out accurately. ments and when you are satisfied that you
section from 2in x 4in (51mm x 102mm) Now take one of the front legs and have marked out correctly, cut out the
to l|in x 3in (38mm x 76mm). By mark a point 22in (559mm) along one joint.
adapting the design you can build a long edge. With the aid of a protractor, Both the front and top horizontal rails
complete set of matching garden furni- set a sliding bevel gauge at an angle of are let into the end rail and rear support
ture. 83, lay marked
the gauge against the respectively. These dadoes are fin (19mm)
side and draw from the measured
in a line deep and the width of the 2in x 4in
Choosing a suitable wood mark to the opposite edge. Cut along (51mm x 102mm) lumber. Their exact
There is a wide range of woods suitable this line with a crosscut saw to give the locations are given in Figs 1 and 4.
for use. Among the softwoods, pine is the completed leg. Repeat this procedure on When all the joints have been cut, trial
most readily available and is easy to work. the other front leg member and, when it assemble all the pieces and, if necessary
It requires treatment with an exterior has been cut out, match the 'paired' legs trim for a good fit.

wood preservative, even if you intend to and, if necessary, trim them so that they
paint the finished structure. Of the are of an identical size. Assembling the end sections
hardwoods, elm, oak, teak and makore The rear legs are angled at both ends. Initially these pieces are joined by
are the most suitable, but they all have To cut them accurately, first mark off the gluing and nailing, final fixing being by
different properties and the home car- overall length plus a little extra with a lag screws. Begin by gluing the front
penter should make his choice after a try square. Lay the sliding bevel, pre-set and rear legs to the armrests according
consideration of their individual charac- to 70, to coincide with one of the marks to the plan shown in Fig. 4. Then glue
teristics. Oak is strong and highly weather and draw in the angled line. Reset the the end rails inside the legs so that their
resistant, extreme hardness makes
but its sliding bevel to 75, and mark in this angled ends lie flush with the long outside
it difficult to work. Elm is suitable for angle from the diagonally opposite edges of the rear legs, and their lower
most outdoor uses its only drawback is marked point. Now cut along the angled long edges meet the outer edges of the
that it tends to split more easily than the lines to give thetwo rear legs. front legs at a point lOfin (273mm) from
other woods listed. Perhaps teak com- Next, take the two rear, vertical support their bases. To
complete the assembly,
bines all the most desirable properties. members, and mark a line |in (13mm) glue the rear supports into the recesses
It is a very attractive wood, which is from one end of each. With the sliding on the armrests and end rails so that their
relatively easy to work and, unlike the bevel set at 102, draw in the angled lower ends are flush with the bottom
other woods, is so oily that it does not ends as detailed previously and cut the edges of the end rails. When the glue has
need any special treatment with a members to shape. Cut out the top face dried, use lOd galvanized nails, driven
preservative. Unfortunately it is extreme- with a jigsaw or band saw, according to in from the inside faces, to secure the

ly costly, although this high initial cost the pattern shown in Fig. 4. Do not cut structure. Do not fix with screws just
is offset by its long life. out the halved joints at the bases of these yet.
members yet, instead, cut out the other
Treating the lumber component pieces of the end sections. The seat and back
Since the wood will be used outdoors, it is Take the end rails and, using a try Three rails connect the end sections.
a good idea to treat it with a preservative, square, mark a line ^in (13mm) from one One of these is glued and screwed into
at least those portions in direct contact end of each. Set your sliding bevel to the housings on the front of the end
with the ground. Some woods, such as 70 and, referring to Fig. 4 as a guide, rails, another is butted to the rear of the

l !
Gorden bench
Fig 1. Exploded view of the garden

Fig 2. Front elevation of the bench

showing positions of the slats.


Fig 2

Fig 3. The ends of the seat are shaped

as shown. The inside curve at the top
of the component may be cut zcith either
a spokeshave or a rasp.

Gorden bench
Cutting list Now nail t lit- horizontal scat slats in

Solid wood standard metric position, allowing about Jin (13mm)

Mam frame lumber 2 x 4 x 408 51 x 102 x 10,363
between them. With a spokeshave,
Back slat lumber | x4x312 19 x 102 x 7.924
round off the edges of the seat slats and
Seat slat lumber 1 x 1| x420 25 x45 x 10,668
make a 'nosing' on the leading edge of
the front seat slat. Finally, smooth the
Cut to give :
whole structure with sandpaper and
2 front legs 2 x 4 x 22 51 x 102 x 565 apply a final dressing of preservative
2 rear legs 2 x 4 x 22 51 x 102 x 559 against weather conditions.
2 arm rests 2 x 4 x 23 51 x 102 x 584 Your garden bench is now complete:
2 end rails 2 x 4 x 26 51 x 102 x 660 the work involved will be amply rewarded
2 vertical supports 2x4x31^ 51 x 102 x 800 by the pleasure the bench will give
1 front rail 2 x 4 x 57 51 x 102 x 1,460 throughout the year, both as an object
1 top rail 2 x 4 x 57 51 x 102 x 1,460 of beauty and a practical addition to your
1 back rail 2 x 4 x 56 51 x 102 x 1,422 garden.
I center rail 2x4x16 51 x 102 x 406
I I back slats | x 4 x 28 19 x 102x711
7 seat slats 1 x If x 60 25 x 45 x 1,524

You will also require:

18 6in (152mm) galvanized lag screws. 6 3in (76mm) lag screws. 2 1 Jin (38mm)
galvanized lag screws. 1 lb (0.45kg) 2in (51mm) galvanized nails. |lb (0.2kg.) 3in
(76mm) galvanized nails. W aterproof woodworking glue. Waterproof stopper. Wood
preservative. Sandpaper.

end rails in line with the front of the back Adding the slats
supports and the third slots into the This is the easiest part of the con-
dadoes cut in the top of the vertical struction. Begin by nailing the vertical
supports. Before fixing them in postion, rear slats to the rear and top rails, after
cut the dadoes for the center rail at the marking the center location of each. To
midpoints of the two seat rails. These help you space the slats evenly, allow
slots are lin (25mm) deep and the width about j^in. (18mm) between each one.
of the center rail.

At this stage, cut the center rail to

shape using Fig. 1 as a guide. Use a
coping saw or jigsaw to hollow out the
upper edge of the center rail and check
that this hollow corresponds exactly to
those cut on the end rails. Now glue and
nail the front rail into position.
When the glue has set, fit the back

rail. This piece is fixed between the end

rails at the same angle as the vertical
supports; the center rail follows. The
exact location of the back rail is shown in
Fig. 4. Finally, glue the top rail into the
housings on the vertical supports.

Fixing with lag screws

Figs. 1 and 4, show the location of the lag
screws. Use 6in (152mm) screws to
secure the end section members to the
main rails, and 3in (76mm) screws at all
the other joints. Pre-drill for the screw
threads, taking care to avoid nails, and
allowing an extra |in (6mm) for
countersinking the screw heads. Insert
the screws and fill the exposed cavities
with wood plugs which can be cut either
from waste wood with a plug cutter, or,
from dowel of the correct diameter.

Garden seat/planter

This wood seat planter makes an attractive General constructions details cedar wood tongue-and-grooved (T&G)
addition to any garden, either as a major The unit is a hexagonal or six-sided treated boarding; you will require sixty
feature in a small area, or as part of a garden seat, the center of which has a well lengths of 1ft 8in (508mm) boarding for
large landscaped garden. The center of the that is filled with soil and planted out the base, and eighty lengths of 9in
unit can be used to display flowers or with a display of your choice. (229mm) for the top. All other wood
shrubs, or you can build the seat around The main framework consists of lin x members, such as the seat boards, soil
a tree trunk so that the branches will 2in (25mm x 51mm) softwood members, support and base corner plates, are of
provide shade. clad with fin x 4in (19mm x 102mm) either lin or ^in (25mm or 13mm)

marine (this is most important) plywood. radiate from the middle and are joined to
All these pans must be treated with a the outer frames as shown in Fig. 14.
horticultural grade of wood preservatives The inner frames are constructed with
such as Cuprinol. In addition the internal bridle joints to provide greater strength
top lining of the T&G boarding, and vertically.
parts (), II and J must be coated with a The inner hexagon, which houses the
bitumen-based preservative such as Creo- soil, isformed by six rectangular frames,
sote to prevent damp soil from rotting clad both sides, and with an internal base
the wood. H of Jin (13mm) marine plywood (Figs.
The outside supports consist of six 1 and <>).

outer base frames D joined with halving If you prefer to build the seat around a
joints (Fig. 3). These form the outer tree, then you will have to omit the
hexagon. Six inner base frames E pro- center base plate, and replace it with six
vide the internal support, and these blocks of Jin (13mm) thick marine ply,

/. Side elevation of the garden scat and

Fig Plan view of the seat. If the unit

2. is to
be constructed around a tree the center
section will require a certain amount of


Gorden seot/plonter

ik " Fig 6

1 8J*




iL-L. Fig 7

-?si- 3i

e: Tgy Fig 3


-2- 105--

bridle joints


9^H- r6 J' * -W-

Li Fig 4

| *- -1-83-
Fig 10
. . . -

tt 1

Fig 5
^33 21'-


Fig n
y^WT r wy



Garden seat/plantei
one under each inner base frame, to keep bei in tin- vise and continuing from the Fig .>. Tin outer frames a/ the garden
the structure off the ground and to keep it opposite end. If you do not have a power uiii mi limit in ////* pattern. I total "/

level with the base corner plates. The saw or a rip saw, you could plane the six is required. WoU the angle at tin
soil container will obviously have to be left wooil awaj but your arms will ache top edge nl tin units.
left out of the design. These alterations when you have finished.
will not weaken the because the
unit, Assemble the frame and cheek that the Fig I. Six frames to put inn E are
missing pieces are needed only as a angles are correct. To do this, measure required. \ ote the shape <>\ the ends of
support for the soil. the side members and see that they are the frames. These butt in the ends of
All joints must he screwed use brass identical in length, then measure the frames I).

or galvanized screws to prevent unsightly diagonals. Hach measurement must be

rust stains
and glued with a waterproof identical. Glue and screw the joints and Fig .5. The inner frames of the planter
woodworking adhesive such as Resorcin- leave for the adhesive to set. itself. . \gain, six are required to pattern F.

ol. Remember, though, that not all When the glue has
set, cut the notches

combinations of wood preservative wood to accept ends of the inner base

the Fig 6. Pieces J form the braces anil seat

adhesive will allow a secure join. Some frames. (The recess on the top that will supports ami are cut to pattern J.
adhesives, for instance, will adhere well take the outside ends of the seat support
to wood that has been treated with members J [Fig. 2] can be cut later after Fig 7. Triangles A and B are the corner
Cuprinol clear, or light oak, but not to marking out by direct marking.) Make up braces. These are cut to the pattern

wood that has been treated with Cuprinol the other five frames in the same way. shown. Piece D fits at the angle which

red cedar. Your local supplier will joins pieces F. Piece A fits at the joint
provide you with details from the data Inner base frames bet Keen pieces F and F underneath in the
sheets that the manufacturers send out. The construction outline of these is cut-out provided in piece E. Note the

The ground underneath the unit must shown in Each frame consists
Fig. 4E. angles cut to accept the uprights of D.
be level. Otherwise it will be set as an of a top and bottom member, and two
unsightly angle and you will be sitting on vertical members, one centrally placed Fig 8. Piece C is the center base plate. It is
a sloping seat. You will usually be able to and one at the side, creating, in effect, not absolutely necessary that this piece be
level the area with a shovel. However, if one open and one closed side. The open circular.
the ground slopes too much you might have end of the frame is housed into notches
to raise the structure on a concrete cut into the corners of the outer base Fig (). The base of the planter. It is this
foundation. frames. component which carries the soil and
The frame is secured with bridle drainage holes must be drilled so that excess
Outer base frames joints. These are the best joints to use icater can drain away.
First make up the six outer base frames when vertical members are under com-
as shown in Fig. 3D. Each frame con- pression as these will be when support- Fig to. The pattern for the seat panels.
sists of four members, with half-lap ing the amount of soil required.
joints at each corner. The edges of the The bridle joints, which are like an Fig ii. Pieces G are the top combing of the
two sides or vertical members are open mortise-and-tenon joint, should be planter.
beveled or mitered so that the frames will marked with a mortise gauge, which is
butt together and form the hexagonal similar to an ordinary marking gauge
shape shown in Fig. 2. except that it has two scribing points or
The joint has to be angled, because the spurs, one of which is adjustable to give
corners not square. This is done
are varying widths of mortise or tenon. To
using the same technique, except that set the gauge, first loosen the stock
the angles are marked out using a bevel setting screw (Fig. 3) and slide the stock
gauge. back. Next adjust the width in this case
The next step is to miter or bevel the -k (8mm) and set the gauge so that the
edges. With the bevel gauge, mark out distance between the points locates in the
the angle on the end-grain of each end, center of the member. Check that it
then draw with a marking gauge and does, by measuring the distance from
pencil a line along the inside of the each scribed line to the edge of the mem-
lumber between each marked point. Cut ber. Each of these measurements must be
the wood down to this line, prefer- identical for accuracy.
ably using a table saw. one is not If After marking out, cut the joints.
available, the angle can be cut with a rip Cutting techniques are similar to those
saw. Place the lumber vertically in a used for a mortise-and-tenon joint.
wood vise. To prevent the wood from Trial assemble the frame and check the
vibrating while sawing, start with only diagonals for squareness, then glue and
about a lOin (254mm) length of wood screw. Do not worry too much about the
above the vise and gradually raise the lengths of the top and bottom members at
member as the cut is made. The last few' the open end. They can be finished off
inches can be cut by reversing the mem- by direct marking at a later stage.


Garden seat/planter
Opposite page left to right. Top frames front edge rounded slightly with a plane
These are simple rectangular frames with to provide comfortable seating.
Top row: The method of using the a halving joint at each corner. Full
marking gauge for marking the bridle construction details are shown in Fig. Assembly
joints. 5F. These frames form the walls of the There are several ways in which the unit
soil container and are boarded over on can be constructed, but the following
The joint is cut with a tenon saw and the outside to provide the seat back. They method is one of the easiest. You begin
the 7vaste chopped out with a chisel. can be built at a much later stage. by building part of the unit upside down.
Place the soil support on level ground.
The other component of the bridle joint. Other components Mark the frame positions on
out it,

Again the first cuts are made zvith a The center base plate is just a disc of place two adjacent inner frames in
tenon saw and the waste is removed with | in (13mm) marine plywood as shown in position and skew-nail or toenail them in
a chisel. Fig. 8C It is not essential for this
. position (leave the heads protruding
piece to be circular, and if you want to slightly in case the positions need
Middle row: Completed frame E. The save time you can just as effectively use a adjusting). This will allow one of the
bridle joint is used to retain the strength 12in (305mm) square of plywood. outer frames to be fitted in position.
of the vertical members. You may, however, prefer the neatness Repeat this procedure until the hexagon
of the circle. In this case lay a piece of is complete, gluing and screwing each

The method of marking the bevels at the 12in x 12in (305mm x 305mm) ply on piece into place when you are sure of the
ends of pieces D. a table. Lightly tap a nail about one third fit. Each outer frame is joined to its
of the way into the center of the board, adjacent outer frame by screws through
Once the angle has been marked on the and tie a 6in (152mm) long piece of the inside of the side members. While the
end grain, the gauge is set to the string to the nail. Tie the other end to a unit is still upside down, screw the
measurement and a line is scribed down pencil, stretch the string out and draw a center base plate and all the base corner
the length of the upright. circle on the board. Then cut out the plates in position.
circle with a coping or jigsaw. Carefully turn the structure right way
Bottom row: The waste is removed, either The soil support is the hexagonal base up and, using direct marking, mark out,
with a bench power saw or zvith a jack for the soil and is shown in Fig. 9H. cut and fit the seat support members.
plane. It is cut from a 2ft 8|in x 3ft lin (816mm Trial assemble the top frames around the
x 940mm) sheet of |in (13mm) plywood. soil support and when you are sure that
Close-up of the finished basic frame Lay the ply on a level surface and mark a the fit is correct, screw the top frames to
before the corner braces are fitted. line lengthwise down the middle. Along the tops of the inner frames, and to one
each long side only, mark off a point another as for the outer frames.
Plan view of the completed frame. 3
9j 6 in (233mm) away from each corner. Trial assemble the seats. When you
This you two marks along each
will give have made sure they fit (by planing a
long edge. Mark a line from each of few edges, if necessary), secure them by
these marks to the nearest end of the screwing from underneath through the
the middle line, and you have your inner base frames or seat supports.
hexagon ready for cutting out, in four Mark out, cut and fit the boarding for
cuts. the bottom section. Toenail each T&G
Corner plates are triangles of wood that board through the tongue at each end
provide bracing for the outer frames. so that the nail heads do not show.
They are easily cut from sheets of in Repeat this for the top section.
(13mm) plywood by following the dia- Trial assemble the coping pieces around
grams in Figs. 7Al and B. the top lip of the well and, when the fit
Coping pieces are run around the rim is accurate, toenail them in position using

of the top frame to protect the end-grain finishing nails, punching the heads down.
of the boarding and conceal the boarding/
framework joint. Each one is cut from Filling the planter
(552mm) length of I'm x 3in
a 1ft 9|in The well of the seat planter can now be
(13mm x 76mm) ply as shown in Fig. filled with soil. If you can afford to do so,

11G. Seat supports the cutting details use one of the peat-based potting soils.
for these pieces are shown in Fig. 6J These are only a fraction of the weight of
are housed at one end into the top of the soil and, apart from easing physical
outer frames, and butted at the opposite strain, will lessen watering problems as
end, at an angle, to one side of the top peat retains more water than soil.

member of an inner frame and screwed If you intend growing shrubs in the
in place. well, make sure that you do not plant ones
The from lin (25mm) ply
seats are cut that tend to deep-root. The depth of the
as in Fig. 10K. The top surface
shown growing medium is only about 9in
should be lightly sanded down, and the (229mm) unsuitable for some shrubs.

Garden seat/planter

Garden gates

Wooden garden however well made

gates, to have one built, which can be ex- and so will almost any version that you
and painted, inevitably decay and need pensive
or make one yourself. design yourself.
replacing after some years. Lumber you choose to make your own gate,
If A garden gate has to stand up to con-
dealers generally stock replacements in a you will have complete control over the siderable wear and tear, including child-
range of sizes. Unfortunately, gate posts, design instead of having to make do with ren swinging on So it must be sturdily

particularly those of old houses, do not what you can buy. A few variations on a made, using the same standards in terms
always conform to the standard sizes. If simple, basic design are given here, but all of material and careful workmanship as
you want a new gate, you will either have use the same woodworking techniques, you would use for indoor furniture.

1 60
Materials the fact that at a slight angle (say, as you
The cheapest way of making a gate is to begin to open it) the gate needs extra
'J: .Si
use ordinary Provided it is
softwood. room if it is not to jam, as well as allowing
properly primed and painted, it should for the inevitable winter swelling. (Doors,
last for years.But the more you are pre- but not gates, are bevelled to allow for
pared to spend on lumber, the longer- this.) If you are using Parliament hinges,
lasting the job will be. Oak, at three or the gap should be proportionately larger.
four times the price of softwood, and Once you know the height and width of
teak, which is even more expensive, are the gate, draw up a plan of the design you
particularly durable. want. This need not be full-size, but it

The gate design given here uses must be to scale to enable you to work out
tongue-and-groove boarding, which is the dimensions of everything.
often not obtainable in hardwood. Fortu- Note that planed 2in x 4in (51mm x
nately, its use is not essential. You can use 102mm) lumber is actually about 1-ftin x
plain boards, or build a gate of a design 3Jin (40mm x 89mm), and that other
not using boarding at all. Refer to the sizes are proportionately smaller.
cutting list for a list of all the materials Whether you are adapting the gate
used for the gate. shown in Fig. 1 or designing one of your
The quantities given in the cutting list own, some dimensions will be the same in
are for a gate 4ft (1219mm) wide and 3ft all cases. These include the sizes of the

(914mm) high, and suitable for an mortise-and-tenon joints and of the

opening 4ft lin (1225mm) between the rabbets into which the tongue-and-
gateposts. Use planed lumber which will groove boards are set.
be slightly narrower than the dimensions Once you have everything planned to
stated. your satisfaction, cut the lumber to length
important to choose the right
It is also and also cut twelve small wooden wedges
nails and hinges. Nails used for outdoor from scrap lumber to fit into the mortise-
work should be galvanized to resist rust, and-tenon joints.
and screws should be of the black
japanned type. This is particularly The mortise-and-tenon joint
important if you are making a hardwood This joint is very strong and reasonably
gate, because the natural acids in the simple to make. But it must be made

wood attack bare steel. Use oval head accurately, for worse than useless if
it is

screws 1 Jin (38mm) long. it is a loose fit. Most mortise-and-tenon

The hinges for the gate can be of joints, including the ones here, are held
several types (Fig. 3). Ordinary tee tight with small wooden wedges.
hinges up to 18in (457mm) are quite Start making the gate by cutting the
strong enough for a medium-sized gate. lumber to length for the various pieces
A larger gate more than about 5ft allowing Jin (13mm) extra for waste.
(1.5m) wide will need the stronger cast- Lay the two stiles, (the vertical outside
iron hinges. These are available pieces) face to face and mark off |in
with normal fittings for wooden posts or (6mm) at one end and then from that
special flat plates for bedding in the mark set out the positions of the mortises.
mortar joints of brick pillars. This gate Square these lines around the lumber then
would need 2ft (610mm) bands and hooks add an extra ^in (3mm) to the top and
or 2ft 6in (762mm) if it is made in heavy bottom of the mortise hole on the outer
hardwood such as oak. edge of the stile. This is to widen the
If you want your gate to fold back mortise to make room for the wedges.
flat against

Measurement and planning

The first step
hinges which have offset pivots.

is to

measure the
use Parliament

site and
The mortises should be one-third the
thickness of the lumber and you can mark
them by setting a gauge to that measure-
ment and scribing a line from each side of
the lumber.
note the condition of the existing gate- Cut the mortise by first drilling it out
posts. They will probably need re-
placing at the same time
an old gate. If as Right, top to bottom: Scrap zvood is used
you are installing gate between
a new to raise the gate to the correct height.
existing posts, the total width of the gate The gate post is then drilled using the
must be about Jin (13mm) narrower than hinge as a template. The outer gatepost
the space between the posts, and perhaps is set upright using a level and the
more for a large gate. This gap allows for gate is then ready for use.

Garden gotes

Gorden gotes
making as man) holes as close together as the rails can tit into them neatly. Mark out Then carefully measure the (tiftanw
you can, using a bit the same size as the full extent of the rabbets accurately, between tin- rabbeted front edges of
the mortise hole. The mortise is then using a bevel for the miter, andmake a the two lower rails. Cut \our tonguc-and-
squared up with a chisel. Turn the short tenon saw cut up each end along the groove boards slightlv Over this measure-
lumber over to square up the mortise line of the miter (see Fig. 5). This cut will ment, and plane them to the exact length.
from the other side and chisel the extra not go to the full depth of the rabbet This should ensure that the) fit math
i in (3mm) marked on the outer edge of because it only cuts across the corner of into their rabbets without a gap.
the stile. Taper this off to nothing just the wood, but it gives you a starting The boarded area on the front of the
inside the inner edge. point for chiseling out the rabbet end. gate is unlikel) to be made up of an exact
Now take the rails and place them to- Make a similar cut 4in (102mm) further number of board widths. To give the gate
gether flush at each end, hold them with a along the rabbet, at both ends or however a symmetrical appearance,
edges the
small clamp if necessary. Mark jin far you need to go to clear a space for the should be planed off both outside boards
((mini) for waste at one end and then from body of the plane. Then chisel out the to bring the boarding down to width.
thatmark measure the width of the stiles wood between each pair of cuts, working This process removes the tongues
through which the tenons have to pass. slowly and accurately to keep the rabbet and grooves, which are not needed
This second line will be the shoulder line straightand level. As wood comes away because the outside edges of the boarding
of the tenon. To mark the shoulder line from the ends of the rabbet, chop down fit into the plain rabbets on the stiles. The

at the other end of the rails, take the width deeper past the saw cuts, with a chisel boards must not be too tight a fit; you
of the gate less the width of both the rails held vertically to expose more end need to allow for expansion in wet
and measure this from the shoulder mark surface. When all the wood is chiseled out, weather.
you have just made and square a line finish the rabbets with the plough plane. The only job that remains in the con-
across the lumber at the other end. You struction of the gate is to make the
will then be left with the width of the stile Finishing the parts diagonal brace. This has to be made after
plus about ]in (6mm) waste. When the rabbet is finished in all the the rest of the gate has been completed,
Separate the members and square the members you should check its depth as because its exact length controls the
shoulder lines around each piece. Take the tenon shoulder will have to be squareness of the frame. Saw and plane
the gauge that you used for the mortises adjusted to fit into it. On the side of the itsends to the right length and angle by
and scribe a line along the edge of the middle rail and bottom rail on which you measuring them against the frame itself.
rails from the shoulder line right over the have made the rabbets measure Jin The brace does not need a mortise-and-
end-grain and back to the shoulder line (13mm) (the depth of the rabbet) from tenon joint to hold its place, because it is
on the other side of the lumber. Do this the existing shoulder line towards the end compressed when the gate is hung. But
from both faces of the rail and at both of the tenon, thus shortening the tenon by you must put it in the right way around,
ends. Take the top trail and place it up- Jin (13mm). Xow put the rails in a vise with lower end next to the 'hanging'

right in a vise so that you can saw down one at a time and saw down the waste side stile towhich the hinges are attached.
the waste side of the tenon using a tenon of the tenon lines. Take care when Form a slightly domed top on the two
saw. Then cut the waste off by sawing cutting the shoulders that vou onlv cut as stiles (and the gateposts, if you are
across the shoulder line. Do not cut the far as the new line on the rabbet side. It replacing them) to stop rainwater from
middle or bottom rail tenons vet as they is a good idea to shade the waste on that collecting on them and rotting the wood.
have to be adjusted to fit into the rabbet side of the tenon so that it will remind This is best done with asurform, spoke-
which will be cut in the stiles for the close you. shave or similar tool, working from the
boarding at the bottom of the gate. Having cut the tenons you will have to edge of the post to the center to avoid
make a small miter cut on the long snagging the tool on the grain. Also, saw-
Stopped rabbets shoulder to match the miter on the end of off the ends of the tenons which pro-
The front inside corners of the stiles the stile rabbet. Chisel these miters care- trude trough the mortises.
between middle and the bottom
the fully taking off a little at a time until the Install the tongue-and-grooved board-
mortise holes are rabbeted to take the miters fit neatly. Make a trial fitting of all ing in the rabbets. To avoid splitting the
tongue-and-grooved boarding. The bot- the joints and make the gate up drv. When ends of the boards, use oval nails set end-
tom front corner of the middle rail and you are satisfied with the fit of all the on with the grain of the wood, and drive
the top front corner of the bottom rail are joints, paint all the parts after first giving the nails into the rabbets in the rails at an
also rabbeted. These rabbets are Jin x the knots a coating of shellac or commer- angle, asshown in Fig. 6. Use two nails
Jin (13mm x 13mm). cial knotting. for eachend of each board if the gate is to
The ends of the rabbets on the stiles are You can then glue the joints and clamp be painted, but only one for an un-

mitered cut at an angle of 45 so that the gate up driving the wedges home in painted hardwood gate, to allow the
the mortises. If you have no bar clamps boards to widen in wet weather.
Figs i-S. The basic construction details and cannot hire any, you can make a When the glue is dry, take the gate out
and designs of garden gates. The mortise clamp by fixing two battens to the ends of of the clamps and turn it over. Put the
and tenons are unusual because thev have a length of lumber so that they will span diagonal brace in from the back, making
to be modified to accommodate the rabbets, the gate but leaving enough space to sure that it is the right way around. Glue
required in the stile, to accept the tongue and insert pairs of wedges (Fig. 7). When you it frame at each end, hold it in place
to the
groove boarding. This should, hozvever, clamp up the gate measure the diagonals with two temporary nails, and then turn
present no problem. to ensure that the frame is square. the gate front upward again and nail all

Garden gates
the boards to the brace. This keeps both done are to install a latch on the gate and firmly anchored with mortise-and-tenon
the brace and the boards from warping. give it its final coats of paint. After that, by screws.
joints at each end, strengthened
No other form of fixing is necessary. the gate is complete. This type of gate looks best without
When you have completed the prime boarding, so the brace should be as thick
coat of paint, screw the hinges to the gate Other gates as the rails and stiles. Angled halving
and place between the gateposts.
it If you find the design of the gate given joints should be made where the brace
Raise the gate on blocks or bricks to the here too plain, there are many variation on crosses the rails it is best to make these
height required, then get a helper to hold the basic gate that do not add too much to while you are actually assembling the
it steady while you screw the other part the difficulty of building it. For example, frame, to ensure that the angle is correct.
of each hinge to the gatepost. for the top rail, you can substitute a The curved stile to which the brace is

you are installing new gateposts, they

If piece of 2in x 6in (51mm x 152mm) attached is cut out of piece of 2in x 8in
should preferably be set 2ft (610mm) lumber cut to any shape with a jigsaw (51mm x 203mm) lumber, using a jigsaw.
deep in concrete, and at least a week (Fig. 8). The boarding can also be cut If you can find a board with a grain that
should be allowed (more in cold weather) into decorative shapes. naturally follows the curve you are going
before putting any weight on them. The farm-type gate also shown is to cut, the stile will be much stronger.
Posts set in hardcore alone tend to sag made in the same way as the basic gate, If you are prepared to be more ad-
unless the hardcore is rammed down with but the diagonal brace runs the other venturous with techniques, the only
considerable force. way, so that the weight of the gate limit on the designs you can build will be
The only two ,things that remain to be stretches it. As a result, the brace must be set by your imagination.

Cutting list
Solid wood standard metric
Frame 2 x 4 x 240 51 x 102x6096
Diagonal brace
4 x4 x48 38 x 102 x 1219
T&G boarding i
x 6 x 132 13 x 152x3352
Gateposts 3 x 3 x 120 76 x 76 x 3048
Above: A farm gate with diagonal bracing. Gateposts (alternative) 4 x 4 x 120 102 x 102 x 3048

Top and right A pair of simple wicket

You will also require:
gatesand a creosoted farm-type Knotting. Primer. Undercoat. Paint. Galvanized oval head screws l^in (38mm). Black
gate suitable for a wide drive. japanned screws. Hinges.

i6 5

Left : Details of the playhouse supports.

These are the most important parts to

consider in the construction as the stability
of the frame structure depends
upon them.

Fig I. The frames for the playhouse are

built to this pattern.

Fig 2. View of the front and side elevation

of the playhouse showing the guys
and rails.

The basic construction of the playhouse
is quite simple. It consists of two lumber
triangles, stood on their apex and bolted
together through the short side of the
triangles the top member in the finished
construction. The apex of each triangle
is fixed to a concrete footing, set into
the ground. The structure is braced by
rnetal cables, fixed to the top member of
the triangles and running to the ground,
where they ar attached to hooks set in
concrete footings.
A look-out platform is placed between
the wood members and the metal guy
ropes, about halfway up the height of the
playhouse. One end of the platform has a
rectangular opening this acts as a kind
of trap door to the platform. At the
opposite end there is a triangular wall,
with an opening in the base of it which
acts as another door. Nylon ropes are
strung around the playhouse members
and the metal guys. These act as safety
rails around the platform.

The platform is reached by means of

'rope ladders' in this case made from
nylon rope with wooden rungs. These are
securely fixed at the top and bottom.

Planning considerations
The playhouse occupy an area in your
garden measuring 9ft x 9ft 8in (2.7m x
2.9m). It is worth drawing a scaled plan
of your garden to help you position the
playhouse correctly it can be moved
after it has been erected, but planning
will save you the trouble.
The best position for the construction is

near to the house where you can keep an

eye on the children.Do not build the
playhouse near an out building or tall
children are likely to use the
playhouse to climb into higher, and more
dangerous, places. Build the playhouse
on a lawn so that if your children do fall

out of it they will land on a fairly soft


1 66



F.g 2

The 'A' frames tions. Cut the short sides of the triangles ground almost underneath the ends of
The frames are made from lengths of
'A' oversize and lay them between the arms the short sides of the triangles, see Fig. 2.

2in x 4in (51mm x 102mm) lumber to the of the Y, set into the housing. Mark the You can estimate the position of the
shape shown in Fig. 1. The lumber that length of this side of the 'A'. Cut it to blocks here or mark out the ground plan
forms the long sides of the triangle is length and nail it two arms of the
to the with wooden pegs.
joined to that which forms the short side Y-shaped constructions. This gives you Once you have determined the position
with housing joints. At the apex of the the two triangular frames. of the bases you can dig the holes for the
triangle the two long sides are butted. The next step is to cut housings in the concrete footings. These should be
These joints are strengthened by plywood frame members for the two members thai about 24in (610mm) deep. The holes for
gussets bolted in place over the apex of form the side struts of the look-out the guy rope blocks should be wider at
the triangle on both sides of the lumber. platform. The position and all the the bottom than at the top the strain
Cut the long sides of the 'A' a little necessary dimensions of these are shown exerted here is an upward pull, whereas
overlong using a circular saw and com- in Fig. 1. Xail these side struts in place in the pressure exerted by the legs is down-
bination blade. On the ends of these mem- the housings. ward the blocks for these can, therefore
bers, mark an angle of 156 on their Xow bolt the two triangles together be straightsided. All four blocks stand
narrow edge. You can mark this with a through the short sides. Use Tin (178mm) proud of the ground by 4in (102mm) so
bevel gauge, setting the angle with a carriage bolts for spaced about
this, you will need a simple former. One
protractor. Cut through the lumber, down 12in (305mm) apart along the lumber. At of the concrete footings is shown in Fig. 2

the marked lines. the end use two carriage bolts, one under- As a fixing for the guy ropes, a fin x
Now mark the finished length of the neath the other. The top one should be 6in (19mm x 152mm) eye bolt with a 1 in
members, referring to Fig. 1 for dimen- 7in(178mm) long, the bottom one lOin (25mm) diameter eye on the top is set
sions. From the point marking the (254mm) long. into the block. Or you can make these
finished length, mark an angle of 156 on yourself from lengths of fin x lOin
the wide edge of the members. Cut The concrete bases (10mm x 254mm) mild steel rod. They
through the lumber, down the marked With the two triangles bolted together, are bedded in the concrete so that just the
lines. Next, cut, in the newly cut slanted you can now determine the exact position eye stands proud. The fixing for the
ends, a lin (25mm) housing to take the for the concrete bases for the legs and guy wood legs of the playhouse is a l|in x
ends of the short sides of the 'A'. ropes. To do this you will have to hold the 12in (38mm x 305mm) diameter pipe,
Cut the |in (13mm) plywood gussets construction up in its finished position bedded in concrete to a depth of 6in
that cover the apex of the 'A' or triangle. you will need at least two helpers for this. (152mm). A flange joint is slipped over
These gussets are shown in Fig. 1 . Bolt With the helpers holding the triangles the pipe so that it sits on top of the block.
these in place over the apex of the upright, mark around the point on the Pour the concrete for the blocks and
(127mm) carriage bolts.
triangle with 5in ground where the legs of the playhouse push the fixings into it. Leave the con-
You now have two Y-shaped construc- rest. The guy ropes run to points on the crete to set.




The look-out platform water to drain out of the base of the legs. a length of nylon rope. Tie a knot in it. Do
This consists of a framework of 2in x 3 in the same with another length of rope.
(51mm x 76mm) dressed 4 sides lumber The safety rail Repeat this process, spacing the rungs
boarded over with fin (iomm) exterior fir This consists of nylon rope, strung from every 9in (229mm) apart until the ladders
AC plywood. The platform is bolted to the ends of the top member of the are complete.
the inside edge of the long sides of the triangles and fanning out to plastic Both ladders are fixed at the bottom to
triangles, at the points where the side fittings on the guy ropes. The arrange- the guy ropes, 9in (229mm) from the
struts of the platform wall are housed into ment of the nylon rope is shown in Fig. 2. ground. Fix them to the guys with the
the triangular frame members. The plastic eye clips used to fix nylon safety-
platform has a rectangular opening at one Erecting the playhouse railto the guys above the platform, or
end to act as a door to the platform. Again you will need two helpers for use rope thimbles and splice the rope
Construct the platform to the shape and this. First, fix the guy ropes to the fixing around them.
dimensions shown in Fig. 3. in the top triangle member and thread One ladder is vertical and runs through
To bolt the square-sided platform to them through the eyes of the fence the opening in the platform floor. At the
the sloping sides of the triangles, you stretchers in the platform sides. Get your top, about 12in (305mm) from the top
will first have to cut four wedges. Lightly helpers to lift the playhouse in place, triangle member, the two lengths of
nail these in place on the triangle mem- with the wood legs over the metal pipe rope are tied to size 14 screw eyes. The
bers. The platform is bolted in place with fittings. Attach the twinbuckle on the other ladder runs up to the opening in the
fin x 8in (10mm x 203mm) eye bolts. end of the guy ropes to the eye fittings platform wall. It is tied to the side of the
These also give a fixing for the guy ropes in the concrete footings. Tighten the platform, through size 14 screw eyes.
that are positioned later. Bolt the platform guy ropes.
in place. Finishing
Usefin(iomm) exterior fir AC ply- The rope ladders You can coat all the members with a wood
wood for the side wall of the look-out The rope ladders are made from 12in preservative, or paint them in the color
platform. This is nailed to the platform (305mm) lengths of If in (41mm) closet of your choice. This will weatherproof the
and to the side struts fixed earlier. Before pole strung onto nylon ropes. Drill lumber. Decoration of the playhouse
you do this though, cut an opening at the \\n (13mm) holes through the members, decking the guy ropes with colored
base of the panel to be used for the side about lin (25mm) from their ends. Take
pennants, for example is up to you.
wall this acts as another door. The
shape of the opening and the position
of the extra lumber that frame it are shown
in Fig. 2.

The rigging
The rigging that runs to the two concrete
blocks set in the ground is ^-in (5mm)
nylon tiller This has a 1001b
(450kg) breaking point and would be very
difficult to cut through.
You need four lengths of cable,
each about lift (3.3m) long. These run
from an eye bolt and ring fixed through
the top member of the two triangles, in
the center of their length.
They then pass through the eye bolts on
the sides of the look-out platform and
around the triangle member to the
concrete blocks. At the top the cable itself
is attached to ring bolts with shackles, and
at the bottom to twin buckles with cable
Drill a lin (38mm) hole up through
the bottom of the wood legs. Do this with
a brace and expansive bit. These holes
allow the legs to be fitted over the metal
pipes set in the concrete. Drill a in
(13mm) hole in the bottom of the ply-
wood gussets also this will allow rain-

Fig j. The completed playhouse as it is

viewed from below.

Jungle gym

The jungle gym shown here consists of an The main feature is the climbing frame, The frame consists of towers made up
easily-constructed climbing frameand slide. and as this will be used by children of from 2in (64mm) (have cut to order)
differing ages, platforms of varying square uprights in modules of 2ft 4in
This play area has been designed to that heights have been incorporated. A slide (711mm), the highest towers being
it can be altered to suit the dimensions of has been included because one of the
it is 6ft (1.8m), and the lowest platform
any particular garden. It consists of a most popular playground items. And any 2ft (610mm). The towers are joined by
climbing frame, slide and sand pit, any of timid types who do not wish to climb the 1 in x 2^in (25mm x 64mm) cross members

which could be scaled down in size or rungs can make use of the stepped ladder and dowel rods l|in (29mm) in diameter.
omitted if you do not have enough room. which hooks on to one of the platforms. These also provide the climbing rungs.

Jungle gym


Fig 1

Planning the project Hardwood is an expensive item and Materials

It is not essential to follow the exact may
this, too, limit the final size. Materials for the climbing frame are in the
layout of the frame described here, as long At the planning stage you should cutting list. The eight 6ft (1.8m) lengths
as the structure is and strong. But
stable consider the placing of the feet of the are for towers A and C, and the two 5ft
various factors should be taken into frame By placing them on concrete (1.5m) lengths are for tower B, which is a
account when planning the unit. slabsyou will be able to keep the grass stabilizing structure. This is joined to
Safety is the main consideration. As from growing untidily against the up- tower A
by bearers. The two 4ft (1.2m)
the frame is likely to be used by several rights. lengths are for the two legs at the right
children together, a tower must be placed Ifyou are altering the design of the
at the rear, and another at the front of the structure, do not try to eliminate the Fig I. An illustration of the completed
frame. These act as stabilizers, prevent- doweling that spans two modules. Dowel- climbing frame and slide that make up the
ing the frame from toppling over if all ing that is inserted through three up- jungle gym. As you can see, the construction

the children happen to be playing on one rights makes for a stronger structure than of this unit is extremely simple and should
section of it. doweling through two uprights. Also, present no problems.
Your garden may not have enough level make sure the bottom rung is high enough
space for the design shown here. In this to provide clearance for a lawn mower, Fig 2. Uprights and joints for the
case you will have to limit your frame, or as in the original frame described here. cross-rails are cut to the dimensions shotcn.
vary the tower legs to allow for irregu- Otherwise you will have an untidv patch It is important to make sure the joints are
larities or sloping ground inside. cut on the correct side of the lumber.

Jungle gym

Jungle gym
end (D) of the frame, and the shortest manner. This allows the top bearers to be
lengths are for the lowest jumping screwed and glue into place, and the
platform, E, which acts as a front battens to be screwed in place between
stabilizer. towers A and C to form the platform
Tower B is a stabilizing structure at the access between ladder and slide. Allow a
rear of the frame. The two 5ft (1.5m) gap of lin (25mm) between the battens.
uprights have joints cut at the top of each Then screw the battens for towers D and
to take the bearerswhich connect it to E in place, and fix the top of tower C with
tower A. Additional joints 9in (229mm) the four bearers two of 2ft 4in (71 1mm),
down are cut to take a cross member. two of 2ft 2in (660mm).
Tower C is a hollow climbing frame
(it has no platform on the top). It Fitting the rungs
consists of four uprights, 6ft (1.8m) in Once the main frame is screwed together,
length, held together at the top by the next step is to mark out the centers
bearers. for boring the holes for the dowelling.
The addition of tower D is made by two It is essential to work out with care the
4ft (1.2m) uprights, which join to the main spacing of the dowelling. The rungs
cross members linking towers A and C. should not be too close to one another, as
These members also act as bearers this takes the fun out of climbing. Also,
for the platform battening on the top of where two dowels are to be inserted
tower D. through an upright in different directions
The front of the structure is stabilized (at right angles) the holes should not be
by tower E, the low level jumping plat- bored too close to each other as the
form. This consists of two 2ft (610mm) upright will be weakened and might
lengths which act as uprights, joined by a split.

bearer on the front, and at the back to First, mark out the center line on the
the bearer on the front of tower I). uprights with a try square. Then mark a
line halfway at right angles to produce a
Cross members and bearers cross, the middle of which will be drilled
These are used to connect the three main for the dowel.
towers as well as to strengthen the tower Secure the dowelling jig so that the
tops. (Cross members are horizontal and guide hole is right over the mark, then
used to strenghen a structure: bearers drill the holes with a No. 8 bit on the

both strengthen and support a load in power drill.

this case, the platform battens.) When you have drilled all the small
For safety alone it is important that all No. 8 holes, thread a string line through
cross members fit at the joints and
snugly them. This will indicate whether the
are securely screwed and glued. Several line is running correctly, at right angles to
children weigh a considerable amount. the uprights.
Now insert in the brace a bit the same
Constructing the frame size as the dowelling, and bore out the
Plane all lumber to a smooth finish to holes. Do this fairly slowly. As soon as
prevent splinters from forming. Sand, the point of the bit shows through the
then mark out the joints as indicated in pilot hole, stop and drill from the
the diagrams. Each upright is described opposite direction, using the pilot hole
as though looking at the front of the for This will prevent the
front of the frame
that is, the face to edges of the hole from splintering.
which the slide is attached. Now clean up around the inside of each
The joints are all of the simple halving hole with a Surform or curved wood rasp.
type, which makes the unit particularly You are now ready to tap the dowels
easy to assemble. But take care to mark through with the mallet. It helps to have
the joints on the correct faces. It will be a someone to give some support to the
great help if you pencil an identification uprights when knocking in the first few
on each upright. Countersink all screws, dowels. Any spare dowelling which sticks
using a countersinking bore in your drill. out should be left until the frame is well

The two main bearers are the 6ft 3in and truly squared up. Then the spare bits
(1.9m) lengths at the front and rear. can be cut away.
Tap these into the joints of the uprights,
drill holes for screws, then screw and Making the slide
glue to the front uprights. Assemble the Place the two 7in (179mm) planks side
rear uprights and tower B in the same by side and secure them with the eight

Jungle gym
battens. Allow the battens to overlap the Poly u ret banc varnish should now In-

edges of the planks In lin (25mm) on applied to all woodwork. In view of tin-

both sides. fact that this unit will spend its life

To form the suits of the slide, place the outdoors, two coats are recommended.
4m (102mm) planks on the overlapping
battens so that they are at right angles with The sandpit
the slide planks. First screw the sides The area of this sandpit is approximately
onto the edges of the slide, then screw the 4ft x 6ft (1.2m x 1.8m).
battens to the bottom of the side planks. Dig the pit to a depth of 2ft6in(762mm)
Secure the three steel L-brakets down and line it with any old planking that you
each side for additional support. can get. Creosote the planking well.
Plane any corner, on the top of the Secure the planks at the corners by
sides and the top and bottom of the simple square stakes driven into the
side itself
to half round, so that no ground, and then back-fill them. When the
nasty angles protrude. top edge of the planking is level a visual
The method of attaching the slide to sighting is sufficient for this nail through
the fame depends on whether you want it the stakes into the planks.
to be screwed in a semi-permanent For ornamental square con-
this pit
manner or hooked on so that it can be crete laid around the edge,
slabs are
detached quickly. An L-bracket could giving a slight overhang which provides
easily be bent to fit, and screwed to the an on-site seating arrangement, and a
underside of the slide, while a simple firm base for building sand castles. The
hook-and-eve provides an easy slip-on slabs also make it easier to sweep the
fitting. surround free of excavated sand. If
possible, obtain slabs with rounded
Cutting the ladder steps edges these are kinder to children's legs.
The ladder is secured to the side of the To assist drainage, line bottom
tower opposite the slide. It is made out of 6in (152mm) of the pit with gravel and
two 4ft 6in (1.3m) lengths of lumber with ram it down well. Finally, fill the pit with
shorter planks providing the steps. sand (of the non-staining variety, if

Recesses for the steps are cut out by possible).

sawing uniform V sections along one side
of each plank. This operation requires Cutting list
nothing more than a measuring rule, a Solid wood standard metric
pencil and saw. Lumber for uprights
To mark out the step positions, begin 8 lengths _ ..
. A . :. J\ 1 64 x 64 x 1829
by fixing one side of the ladder tempor- 2 lengths 2\ x 2\ x 60 64 x 64 x 1524
arily in place to establish the correct 2 lengths 2\ x 2\ x 48 64 x 64 x 1250
slope. Next, use a builder's level and pencil 2 lengths w~p ^ "^} " i 64 x 64 x 600
to mark one horizontal guide line across Lumber for cross members and bearers
the board. (This is to ensure that the 2 lengths 1 x 2\ x 75 25 x 64 x 1905
steps are level.) Remove the ladder side 9 lengths 1 x 2\ x 28 25 x 64 x 711
and lay it flat while you do the rest of the 2 lengths 1 x 1\ x 26 25 x 64 x 660
marking out. For this, you will need a Lumber for platform battens
cardboard or hardboard triangle, whose 37 lengths 1 x 2 x 28 25 x 51 x 711
shortest side is 3in (76mm) and whose Hardwood dowelling for rungs
longest side matches the slope of the 1 1 lengths 1-| dia. x 28 28 dia. x 724
steps. Simply by sliding the triangle along 23 lengths \\ dia. x 54 28 dia. x 1372
the board you can mark each successive Lumber for slide (pine planks)
step on the face side. Use the try square 2 lengths 1 x 7 x 96 25 x 178 x 2438
to carry the marks across the edge of the 2 lengths 1 x 48 x 48 25 x 1219 x 1219
board, and the cardboard triangle to Battening for underside of slide
mark the other side. Finally, mark out the 8 lengths 1x2x16 25 x 51 x 406
second board so that it matches the Lumber for ladder
first. 2 lengths 1 x 4| x 54 25 x 112 x 1372
Saw along the zig-zag lines to cut out 8 lengths f x3 x 12 19 x 76 x 305
the outlines as in Fig. F.
Screw the steps in position and round You will also require:
the edges with the plane. A quantity of No. 8 screws 2in (51mm) long; some of Uin (38mm); some fin (19mm).
The ladder may be attached to the Xails. 6 steel L brackets 3in (76mm) max. Steel strips or hooks. Wood adhesive.
frame in the same way as the slide.



The 'gazebo', 01 octagonal greenhouse, set. Forms are then removed, leaving the on the damp-prool fell 1 and
can be built largel) of softwood or en- footings with an upstand. joiiud together bj nailing through the
tirely of hardwood. The lower 'cheeks' of Finally, laj 4in (114mm) 151b (6.75 triangle \ sections into adjacent up-
the greenhouse sides are lumber clad; kg) on top of the footings, to prevent
felt rights of frames A and li. Additional
but plastic could be used here as well. damp rising into the wood framework. support can be given bj fixing angle
The greenhouse is largely prefabri- As an alternative to concrete footings, brackets to the internal cdui s ot door
cated, then assembled on its foundations. the greenhouse can stand on raised rails B and (' and doorstop A.

The main structure consists of eight paving or brick. The mam requirements The top rails CI (Fig. 'h are angli cut
equal forming
panels, the octagonal are that these footings are both firm and to 45 and lapped. These an- slotted into
shape when assembled. level, otherwise, it will not be possible to the lapped sections of frames A and B and
assemble the greenhouse accurately on nailed downward into the side rails.
Site preparation site. Angle brackets can be screwed to the
Select a position for the greenhouse internal side of the top rails to provide
which makes the best use of sunlight, yet Lumber preparation added strength.
gives reach access. Next, level the overall Depending on the type of lumber you
site area, using pegs, a straightedge and a use, and the climate in which you are Cladding and windowsills
level. It is a good idea to provide a slight building, some pre-treatment of the Horizontal siding (Fig. 1<M. Unless you
incline in the level of the ground so that lumber may be necessary to prevent its have a fair amount of experience with
water does not collect around the base of rotting quickly. In some circumstances, this material, it is tricky to work with.
the greenhouse. every joint in the lumber particularly The boards must be mitered at 221
The footings are then marked out. Find
end-grain must be given a thick coat of at both ends, because cutting one board
the overall depth of the structure, from prime paint as the joints are assembled. to 90 and the adjoining one to 45
front to back (in the case of the greenhouse When you buy your lumber ask your would throw the vertical joints off the
illustrated it is 5ft [1.5m]), and mark this, lumber dealer for advice on this point. true line of the corner. Two things will
using a measured string line. Place a help you get a snug fit: (1) cut the miters
marked peg at each end of the line. Find Building the wall frames just a fraction too 'sharp', so that no gaps
the center position and then take the The first stage is to make up the four show at the outside edges when they are
string across to form a cross; place pegs opposed square frames (Fig. 2). Frames joined and (2) as you fix each row of
at each end. Measure between the four A and B are made in the same way up, boards, butt them against a temporary
pegs to find the halfway points and put in except that the former uses a doorstep vertical stop (mitered lengthwise at an
four more pegs, the same distance as section in place of the bottom rail (Fig. angle of 22J) so that the ends of all the
before from the center position, but this 3). Frames are made from 2in x 4in boards align accurately with one another.
time in the form of a letter X. This gives (51mm x 102mm) dressed lumber, Vertical boarding is much simpler,
a roughly octagonal shape (Fig. 1). Now jointed together by 3in (76mm) lOd since only the boards at each end of any
mark at right angles with a spade, at the nails inside the uprights of each frame. particular wall need to be mitered that
top and bottom and the side pegs of the For all construction use non-rusting is, you make two miter cuts per wall,
cross, the width of the frames which form galvanized or aluminum nails. instead of a dozen or more. You will need
the greenhouse sides. Join up these marks Half-lap joints are cut with a circular a sub-sill to which to fasten the top
diagonally. This gives an accurate oct- saw at an angle of 45 in the top rail ends of the boards. For C sections cut
agonal profile. sections before assembly. Xails are then these from 2in x 4in (51mm x 102mm)
Mark out with the spade the line of the driven through these joints into the top lumber the same shape as the base rails.
footings. Do this by marking slightly in ends of the side stiles (Fig. 4). Details of For B sections, cut them square on both
front of the octagonal outline, and also shown in Fig. 5.
the joints are ends the length of side TScG on two 2in
slightly deeper than the greenhouse side Sections marked 'triangle X' on Fig. 4 x 4in (51mm x 102mm) lumbers. Start
frames, giving a total width of about 6in are sawn from 4in x 4in (102mm x by vertically mitering a pair of boards a
(152mm). The foundations need to be 102mm) softwood to the desired height of 'hair' sharper than 22|, and fix them
slightlywider overall than the structure the windowsills. This is simply a matter around the angle farthest from the door.
to provide a firm bearing. of deciding how much each window area Then work progressively back toward the
Excavate a hole to a depth that goes above these you want. door. Whichever tvpe of board you use,
below the frost line and place lumber Xext cut the base C and rails (shoes) fix it with non-rusting rails.

forms in this, above the ground bv about place a piece of section end and X at the Once all the siding is in place, the
3in (76mm). imporant to raise the
It is draw the angle. The V section is formed sills can be fixed. Try to buy the type
foundations slightly above the surround- bv returning the angle at 45. (A piece of which has a flat base.
ing earth, since this could rot the green- section X can be used to help scribe this.) Each length of sill must be notched at
house wood. The wedge is then cut out as shown in the back (Fig. 11) to accept the vertical
The form should be level, since the Fig. 7. This procedure is followed at members of the greenhouse frame. At its

top of this is the top of the concrete. Use both ends of rail C. outside edge, it must be cut accurately
a staightedge and level to check the form The X and C sections are nailed to 22| to meet the adjoining length of
levels. together as shown in Fig. 6. In Fig. 8, sill. If, when fitting the sills, two adjoining

Once the holes are filled with concrete, B, C and X are seen butted together. pieces are found to be slightly overlong,
this is well tamped down and allowed to The completed framework is assembled this can be adjusted by running a saw

.i , H
width of base Irame


\ / 4' nails

z\-. y.
/ \ l

/ i \
/ i \
/ I


Fig. 4

panels A & B

softwood upright

triangle sections X cut

to length to support sills

Irame A carries
doorstep section

Fig 8

h'i triangle X cut

from 3' x 3' softwood

> 45 c

Fig. 7

Fig Ground plan of the gazebo. Pegs are
i. cut through the joint but be careful not glued to the rool Btruts \\ and screwed
used to mark out the site before cutting the to score the paneling beneath. through the centei of l< to top rails B and
trench for the foundations. The roof rafters W are cut from eight CI. Bed putt] between tin glass and
pieces of 2in x 4in (51mm x 102mm) rabbet after fixing.
Fig Plan view of the gazebo. Note the
2. softwood and pitched at an angle of 10 c ut sixteen hardwood fixing Patterns T
doorstep section which replaces the bottom to converge at a center point (Fig. 17). (Figs. 16 and 17) to the length of rafters

of one of the frames A. The convergent top ends are mitered to W and fix them together to form a
12|, and trimmed back to make a flat flush top surface (Fig. 17).Putt) Bhould
Fig J. Section through the frame A showing platform of about 5in (139mm). At the be bedded between the glass and under
the doorstep. lower end they are cut to a 'birdsmouth' the edge of section T.
to fit over the top rails A, B and CI Outward-opening pivot widows can be
Fig 4. Construction of the frames A. The a cardboard template will help get the fitted, if desired. It is a sensible provision
pieces X are sawn from 4m v 4m (l02mm \ angles right and slightlv over hang the to provide greenhouse ventilation; two or
1 02mm) softwood. sides to take rainwater clear. Detail of the three windows would do.
roof structure is shown in Fig. 12. The windows are made up to size using
Fig 5. Details of the top corners of frames A Next, cut eight sections of triangular rabbeted lumber. The choice of joint to
showing the angle iron used to strengthen lumber, Z, diagonally from lin x 4in make the frames is a matter of personal
the joint. (25mm x 102mm) softwood (Fig. 16). preference. The frames
are hinged to
These are cut to between rafters and
fit swing open from the top and can be
Fig 6. The lower edge of the frames showing are nailed to the top rails of frames A, B kept open bv fitting conventional window
the joint betzceen pieces C and X. and CI, and W. The ends of the sections stays at the bottom.
are mitered to an angle of 22|, the angle Figs 18 and 19 show glazing details.
Fig 7. Detail of the corner joint between at which the roof struts converge. The glass is fixed in position by nailing in
pieces C and X. A piece of triangular An octagonal capping piece is fixed to place window glass-fixing beads H at the
section lumber is used to scribe the cutting the roof struts at the point of convergence, rear. The glass is lightly bedded in putty
line on piece C. with a similar octagonal piece beneath or mastic.
them (Figs. 12 and 13). These are cut The fixed lights are similarly bedded
Fig 8. The completed joint. Xote the angle from hardwood and screwed into the and fixed in position by four fixing beads.
iron. struts with brass screws to form a water The lower front one K is angled forward
cover to carry away water from the open slightly to allow water torun down.
Fig 9. Detail of the top end of the joint beneath the capping. They also add The fixing beads angled windows
in the

construction showing piece Ci and the extra strength to the structure. The between the main frames are chamfered
method used to join it to the frames A. pieces are made from lin x 6in (25mm x at an angle of 45 (Fig. 20).
152mm) blocks of hardwood beech, It is possible to make the door, but a
oak or mahogany. A block plane is used suitable white wood one may be picked
to shape the sections to produce the up 'off the shelf at a lumberyard. The
eight upper faces; the corners are cut door should be suitable for full or
away to form an octagon (Fig. 14). The partial glazing again, a matter of per-
capping piece is bedded on mastic; this sonal choice.
is not necessary for the piece on the
underside (Fig. 15). Fixing the door
Cut glazing strips fin x lin (19mm x The door should be fixed to open out-
25mm) softwood and nail these to each ward, to give the maximum space in the
side of the roof rafter between the W greenhouse and permit benches to be
triangular sections Z and the center fitted inside.

point of the roof. The top surface edge of The long rails, or stiles, have pro-
S should form a continuous line with the truding ends, known as horns, which you
top surface of Z, to provide support for have to saw off. These are to protect the
the glass roof. door in transit and storage. The door
Eight pieces of glass, cut to the tri- mav have to be planed to fit well, but
angular shape of the roof, are required, first it should be tried against the
each to overhang the outer edges of Z by opening.
about (25mm). The panels are
lin Planing should start from the edge on
bedded down on to putty spread over the which the hinges are to be fitted, known
top edges of S and Z. as the hanging stile. You should aim to
Eight sections of hardwood R, are cut make this stile as good a fit as possible
to fit to the exact lengths between roof to anv curves or variations in the frame.
rafters W. Hardwood angle section sould A jack plane is best here, since this will
be used here. The top edges should be give a truer edge. If the edge is planed to
rabbeted to receive, later, the ends of the a slight bevel, this will give slight clear-

glass panels Y. Sections R are nailed and ance without increase of the visible gap.


Fig TO. The method offixing the cladding
Fig 10
and windowsills. The ends of the cladding
need to be mitered at 22\ Accuracy is .

necessary in order to make a good job of this 5S2e

f>art of the construction.

Fig ii. Thi windowsills require careful

fitting in order to product a professional
appearance. 14

Fig 12. Details of the roof construction .

Fig The center of the roof of the gazebo

I ;.

showing the patrice and the method of

fixing it to tin rafters.

Fig 14. The capping piece is marked out as

shown and cut to shape usin<j a block plane.

Fig l$. Detail of the center of the roof

showing the capping piece, which is bedded
in mastic to make the joint watertight.

Fig 16. Detail of the roofing at the lowt r

remove corners from octagon
end of thi raftet f.

Fig .11
uprights to panel frame B
Fig 1 j. Plan view of the roof of the gazebo
intermediate sill
showing the method oj joining the rafters an
pieces T.

Fig 18. Section through a window showing

tin method of hinging and tin position oj tin


Fig it/. Section through the fixed lights

showing tin beading which holds the glass.

Fig 20. Section through the vertical frames.

Xote the shape of the bi ading above the Fig 16
pieces ' betwet n the frami s A.

inner brace octagonal shaped

screwed through the underside of struts
top rails AB & CI

'octagonal outer capping screwed

through the underside of struts


Once the hanging --t i
U- is fitted accural height ol tin .ills.

Fig 18 el) to the jamb, plane the opposite stile. The lat< h is fitted bj quai ing a line
This must have a slujit bevel, of about around the quin d hi
stile at thi r<

,',. in (2mm) for a satisfactory fit. A top with ti\ square and marking knife, and
and edge clearance of about ftin (2.3mm) measuring the distance from the stih
is necessary to allow for painting. edge im the latch spindle. Hon a Jin
When trj ing the head of the door, allow (13mm) hole for tins. Now make a

clearance above the lock similar hole in the edge of the door, the
window stop l" lj'
a little less stile,

since doors tend to drop slightly as size of which will depend on the size and
hinges wear. The bottom rail should shape ol the latch barrel. Gauge the face
pin window glass
have a clearance of about in (5mm). ,

of the barrel on to the face of the stile
402 glass Allowance must be made for an alumin- and drill a hole for a series ol holes in line
um saddle fixed across the bottom of the (Fig. 22); chop these out to accommodate
door. the barrel. Fit this to the depth of the
front plate and mark this on the stile.
luing bead \' x
Hinges and latches The depth of the plate can then be
Cast-iron hinges or butts can be used to chiselled out. The latch spindle and
hang the door, though brass or plastic are plate and handles can then be fitted.
suitable. Pressed-steel butts are not as To find the position of the striking plate-
strong as cast ones and may rust, unless close the door and mark on the side the
you can buy galvanized. The door may be position of the latch tongue. Next put
hung on two hinges, though three would the plate in position on the door edge and
spread the work load and prevent close the door and mark on the side-
possible middle distortion. Use three 3in around this. Chop a small mortise
(76mm) pessed-steel hinges or two in the centre toaccommodate the tongue.
3iin (89mm) or 4in (102mm) cast butts. Bend the lead-in part of the plate back-
Fig 19
The depth
of each leaf is marked on ward slightly and recess it as this will
both the door and the door frame. Each make the action smoother.
leaf is recessed to this depth Using a
chisel, make a series of cuts across the Glazing
grain as deep as the gauge line, then pare You mav wish to cut your own glass, but
with the grain to remove the waste usually a glass supplier or handyman's
(Fig 21). The hinges can now be screwed
shop can do this for you, |in (6mm) glass
to the door which is then fitted into the should be used.
frame opening. Slide a wedge underneath There is a special variety of glass
2402 glass and a piece of ^in (2.3mm) packing at suitable greenhouses which admits
the top to line up the door in position. plenty of light yet keeps down the
The edge positions of the hinges can then temperature, but this you may have to
be penciled onto the frame, squared into order in advance.
this using a try square and marking To cut glass, a steel glass wheel is

gauged to leaf depth. The recesses are satisfactory for most work and works out
chopped out in the same way as those of cheaper than the traditional glass cutter's
the door. diamond. You need a large, flat surface to
Try the door by
inserting one screw in cut glass. A felt-tipped pen can be used
each hinge. Provided no adjustments are to mark guidelines on the glass. A long
needed, a second screw can be inserted straightedge, a yardstick or a homemade
and a further check made. Should anv tee square is needed to guide your
Fig 20 recess be too deep, use a piece of card- cutter accurately along the lines.
board to pack and adjust this. Before First, clean the glass. To cut, use a
final hanging, it is advisable to remove firm stroke, holding the cutter verticallv.
the door and give the bottom edge one or Never backtrack, since the glass is