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Instrumentation Engineer
July 2013
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
pmrsufESmtTef;
taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm
pma&;ol&JU oabmxm; tjrif 6
tcef; (1) PLC jzpfay:vmyHktaMumif;/ 8
tcef; (2) PLC udk jcHKiHkavYvmoHk;oyfjcif;/ 18
Size of PLC 20
PLC Architecture 22
Todays PLC applications 24
tcef; (3) PLC eJY control vkyfyHk taMumif;/ 30
PLC Hardware 32
PLC System 34
PLC wdkif;rSmyg0ifwJh tajccHtydkif; 5 ykdif; 35
Power Supply ykdif; 35
CPU ykdif; 36
Memory ykdif; 37
I/O Image Memory 39
Input Interface 43
Output Interface 46
(1) Relay Output 47
(2) Transistor Output 48
(3) TRIAC Output (SSR Output) 49
PLC Status Indicators and I/O Status Indicators 50
tcef; (4) PLC ukd wyfqiftoHk;jyKyHktaMumif;/ 52
Advised Installation Practices 55
Grounding (Earthing) 55
Personal Safety 57
PLC ukd vHkNcHKatmifxkyfykd;rI tqihfowfrSwfcsuf/ 59
IP eJY NEMA EIdif;,SOfcsuf/ 62
PLC Specification 63

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
3
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
tcef; (5) PLC Wiring jyKvkyfyHk/ 68
1/ Power Supply Wiring 68
2/ Input Wiring 70
3/ Output Wiring 87
1) Relay Output 87
2) Transistor Output 89
3) Triac Output 90
tcef; (6) Sink & Source taMumif;/ 94
tcef; (7) Fail- Safe taMumif;/ 102
tcef; (8) PLC rSm oHk;wJh Number System taMumif;/ 108
1) Decimal Number System (q,fvDpepfjzifha&wGufjcif;) 109
2) Binary Number System (ESpfvDpepfjzifha&wGufjcif;) 110
3) Octal Number System (&SpfvDpepfjzifha&wGufjcif;) 113
4) Hexadecimal Number System
(q,fhajcmufvDpepfjzifha&wGufjcif;) 114
5) BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Number System
(q,fvDyHkpHeJY a&;om;xm;wJh ESpfvD pepfjzifh a&wGufjcif;) 115
tcef; (9) Boolean logic taMumif;/ 118
tcef; (10) PLC Program Overview 124
tcef; (11) PLC Basic Programming 128
Example program: 1 130
WPLSoft_V2.20.07 Software Installation 132
LD eJY User Program a&;NyD;wkdif; 145
Example program: 2 150
Example program: 3 152
SS2 Memory Map 157
Logical AND Function Program 160
Logical OR Function Program 163
Dominant-ON, Dominant-OFF 171
OFF-dominant Program 174
ON-dominant Program 178

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
4
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
tcef; (12) Scan Cycle taMumif;/ 180
Input Scan 182
Program Scan 183
Output Scan 183
PLC tvkyfvkyfyHkudk vG,fvG,frSwfxm;csif&if 203
tcef; (13) Programming Exercises 1 to 7 210
tcef; (14) PLC xJu Counter taMumif;/ 218
Up Counter 219
Latched Counter 221
Up/Down Counter 223
tcef; (15) PLC xJu Timer taMumif;/ 226
(1) ON-delay Timer Function 232
(2) OFF-delay Timer Function 232
(3) ON/OFF-delay Timer Function 233
(4) Single Pulse Output (Single Shot Timer) Function 234
(5) Delayed Single Pulse Output Function 234
(6) Pulse Train Output Function (Flashing Output) 235
(7) Timing Extension 236
tcef; (16) Program Summary 237
WPLSoft keyboard shortcuts 252
tcef; (17) Periodic Inspection and Preventive Maintenance 253
PLC System Maintenance 254
Troubleshooting the PLC Input Interface 255
Troubleshooting the PLC Output Interface 257
Terminology 259
Reference 268
aemufqufwJG
Omron PLC Example Programs 269
Siemens PLC Example Programs 276

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
5
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
pma&;ol&JU oabmxm; tjrif
,aeYacwf pufHk? tvkyfHkawG rSm Automation System udk toHk;jyK aeMuygw,f/
Automation qkdwmu puf,E&m;awGudk rdrdtvkdqE&Sdovkd armif;ESifckdif;wJh tvdktavsmuf
aqmif&GufapwJh pepf System jzpfygw,f/ Automation System ukd oHk;NyD; ukefypnf; xkwf
vkyfwJh tcg? t&nftaoG; taumif;qHk;? xkwfukefypnf; rsm;rsm;udk jrefjref xkwfvkyfEdkifwJh
tjyif? vkyf&udkif&wmvnf; vG,fuloufom apygw,f/ Automation System ukd oHk;wJh
pufHkawGrSm Robot wkdY? C.N.C Machine wkdY? PLC wkdYukd wckr[kwfwck oHk;xm;wm awGUMu
&ygw,f/ PLC qkdwmu pufrIvufrIvkyfief;oHk; Industrial Computer wpfrsdK; jzpfygw,f/
'DaeYpufHkawGrSm PLC udk wGifwGifus,fus,f toHk;jyKaeMuNyD jzpfygw,f/ pufHk topf
wnfaqmufawmhr,fqkd&if PLC rygwJh pufHkqkdwm r&SdEkdifawmhyg/
pufHkykdif&SifawGu PLC taMumif;ukd odxm;cJh&if rdrd&JUvkyfief;rSm tusdK;aus;Zl; ykd
rsm;atmif pDrHaqmif&GufEkdifMuygr,f/ puftopfudk 0,f,lwnfaqmufwJh tcg Life Cycle
Cost oufomatmif pOf;pm;wGufcsuf&mrSm taxmuftuljzpfapygw,f/ Life Cycle Cost
qkdwm 0,f,lp&dwf? wyfqifp&dwf? Program p&dwf? xdef;odrf; p&dwf? tqifhjrifhwJh p&dwf eJY
pufoufwrf;wavQmuf vnfywfoHk;pGJwJh p&dwf pkpkaygif; jzpfygw,f/ Oyrm? pufHkwpfck
wnfaxmifawmhr,fqkd&if tJ'DpufrSm PLC ygcJh&if tpuwnf;u a&mif;oleJY 0,folMum;
oabmwlnDrI,lwJhtcg? PLC eJY ywfoufNyD; ndEdIif;&r,fY tcsufawGukd jynhfjynhfpHkpHk odxm;
zkdY vkdtyfygw,f/
PLC eJY ywfoufwJh documentation awGxJrSm Ladder Diagram (PLC Progarm) udk
azmfjyay;&r,f qdkwmavmufawmh odoifhygw,f/ aemufNyD;awmh PLC udk Password eJY
ydwfxm;vkdY &ygw,f/ Password rodcJh&if pufysufvkdYyJjzpfjzpf? pufukd wdk;csJUcsifvkdYyJjzpfjzpf
program xJ0ifNyD; jyifcsif&if jyifvkdYr&awmhygbl;/ pufa&mif;wJhol Vendor ukdomtm;ukd;&
awmhrSmjzpfygw,f/ 'DtcgrSmtcsdefvnf;ukef? aiGvnf; ykdukefwwf ygw,f/ Program udk
Hard Copy (Print) xkwfNyD; tpuwnf;u PLC documentation awGxJrSm ay;xm;cJh&ifawmh
em;vnfwwfuRrf;wJholu rl&if; PLC eJYyJ jzpfjzpf? oifhawmf&m PLC wpfrsdK;rsdK;eJYyJ jzpfjzpf
program udk ul;a&;NyD; rdrd&JUpufudk qufvuf vnfywfEkdifygw,f/
vuf&SdwnfaqmufNyD;om; bdvyfajrpufHk? tcsdK&nfpufHk? aomufa&oefYpufHk?
t&uf (bD,m) pufHk? aygifrkefY pufHk? pwJh vuf&SdpufHkwkdif; vkdvkdrSm PLC ukd toHk;jyKxm;
Muygw,f/ vuf&Sdwm0efxrf;aqmifaeMuwJhpufHk;rSL;awG?refae*smawG? tif*sifeD,mawG[m
PLC eJY qufpyfywfouf aeMu&ygw,f/
PLC taMumif; rSefrSefuefuef awG;qodjrifMuapzkYd 'DpmtkyfrSm a&;om;azmfjy xm;
ygw,f/ PLC rygbJeJY Computer rSm PLC program udk a&;NyD; Simulate vkyfMunhfEkdifwJh
WPLSoft qkdwJh Software udk tcrJh &,lEkdifwJh Website ukdvnf; azmfjyay;xm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
6
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Simulate vkyfwwfzkdY? Program a&;wwfzkdY? udkvnf; wqifhNyD;wqifh tao;pdyf
a&;om; azmfjyay;xm;ygw,f/ wu,fwrf; PLC ukd avhvmwJhtcg t"du tm;xm; &rSm
uawmh PLC udk xkwfvkyfwJh rl&if;ukrPD OEM (Original Equipment Manufacture) &JU
Specification awG? User Manual awG? Operation Manual awG? Programming Manual awG?
yJjzpfygw,f/
tck'DpmtkyfrSm a&;om;azmfjyxm;wmawGuawmh tJ'D Manual awGudkzwfI avhvm
wJhtcgrSm ydkNyD;&Sif;atmif? tvG,fwulem;vnfatmif? oabmaygufatmif taxmuftul
jzpfzkdY&nf&G,fNyD;a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ enf;ynm? twwfynm? topfawGudk wwfajrmuf
atmif? uRrf;usifydkifEkdifatmif? avhvm&mrSm taxmuftul jzpfapr,fY avhvmenf;?
oif,lenf;? awG;enf;wpfckukd ay;csifwJhqEeJY a&;om;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
'DpmtkyfrSm PLC jzpfay:vmyHk? PLC &JU tajccHwnfaqmufyHk? PLC &JU trltusifh?
PLC &JU oabmobm0? PLC Program a&;om;enf;? a&;NyD;om; Program udk t"dyg,f
azmfenf;? Program udk tjypf&SmjyKjyifenf; pwmawGudk em;vnfatmif? vG,fulatmif
yHkawG eJY yl;wGJ azmfjyay;xm;ygw,f/
'DpmtkyfrSma&;jyxm;wmawGudk zwfNyD;? rSwfom;? pOf;pm;? vufawGYvkyfMunfhzdkY?
txl; wdkufwGef;ygw,f/
wdkufwGef;wJhtwdkif; vkyfMunfhMur,f qdk&if? PLC eJY tuRrf;w0if r&Sdao;olawG?
PLC eJY rvGJraoG oufqkdif? ywfouf&awmhr,fYolawG? PLC eJY &ifqkdif awGUBuHKae&NyD; PLC
taMumif; ususee? (usMueP) **ee? (*CeP) aoaocsmcsm? odcsifaeMuolawG?
vQyfppf tif*sifeD,mawG? pdwf0ifpm;olawGtm;vHk;twGuf tusdK;&SdwJhpmtkyf jzpfvdrfhr,fvkdY
,HkMunfygw,f/
tBuHwl? OmPfwl&if? aemufvlompNrJ jzpfwmrkdY? 'DpmtkyfukdzwfNyD; PLC taMumif;
ykdaumif;atmif a&;EkdifolawG? rsm;rsm;ay:xGuf vmygapvkdU qkrGeaf umif;awmif;vsuf?
oifq&m? jrifq&m? Mum;q&m? tm;vHk;wkdU&JU *kPfaus;Zl;udk &nfrSef; *g&0jyK OD;Twf
vkdufygw,f/

U Soe Tint
Instrumentation Engineer
AGTI (EC) Mandalay 1969
soetintengineer@gmail.com

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
7
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
tcef; (1) PLC jzpfay:vmyHktaMumif;/
PLC ( Programmable Logic Controller ) qkdwm Machine Control eJY Process Control
awGrSmoHk;zkdY txl;pDrHxkwfvkyfxm;wJh pufrIvkyfief;oHk;uGefysLwm Industrial Computer
wrsdK;jzpfygw,f/ Automation vkdY ac:wJh tvkdtavsmuf xdef;ausmif; armif;ESifwJhpepf
Automatic Control System rSm PLC udk oHk;Muygw,f/ Automatic Control System rSm
pufrIvkyfief;oHk;pufkyf Industrial Robot awGudk PLC ray:aygufcifuwnf;u toHk;jyK
aeMuNyD jzpfygw,f/


Figure 1. pufrIvkyfief;oHk;pufkyf Unimate Robot
1954 ckESpf? U.S Patent No. 2988237 eJY rSwfyHkwifxm;wJh Unimate vkdY ac:wJh Robot
udk George Devol u wDxGifcJhwmjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
8
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


Figure 2. pufrIvkyfief;oHk;pufkyf Unimate Robot
General Motors Corporation &JU armfawmfum;xkwfvkyfwyfqifwJh vrf;aMumif;
assembly line ay:rSm spot welding vkyfzkdYeJY oH&nfusdK oGef;avmif;xm;wJh pufypnf;awG?
um;udk,fxnfawGudk csDro,fykd;? ykdYaqmif? ae&mcsxm; zkdYtwGuf Unimate Robot ukd 1962
ckESpfrSm pwiftoHk;jyKcJhygw,f/
1961 ckESpfuwnf;u puLpufHk eJY a&eHcsufpufHkawGrSm Computer ukd toHk;jyKNyD;
ukefypnf;awG? xkwfvkyfaeMuNyD jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
9
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Figure 3. 1961 ckESpfu IBM 1710 Computer


yHkrSmjyxm;wJh IBM1710 Computer udk oHk;NyD; xkwfukeft&nftaoG; jrifhrm;atmif
aqmif&GufcJhMuygw,f/ tJ'Dacwf? tJ'Dtcgu Computer [m yHkrSmawGU&wJhtwdkif; t&G,f
tpm; BuD;rm;ygw,f/ tyltat;ajymif;vJwJh'Pfukdvnf; rcHEdkifygbl;/ zHk0ifvkdYr&ygbl;/
'gaMumifh Computer udk yHk (Figure 4) rSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; txl;pDrHjyKvkyf xm;wJh
tcef;? Computer Room xJrSm xm;&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
10
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


Figure 4. Computer Room
'DtcuftcJawGukd ausmfvTm;EkdifzkdY? Computer awGxuf tMurf;cHNyD; pufHk? tvkyfHk
awG&JUobm0ywf0ef;usifrSm aumif;aumif;tvkyfvkyfEkdifwJh PLC udk wDxGifzkdY BudK;pm;vmMu
ygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd BudK;pm;MuolawGxJu PLC udk atmifjrifatmif taumiftxnf azmfEkdifNyD;
vufawGUtoHk;csvkdY&wJh Modicon 084 vkdY emrnfay;xm; wJh PLC udk Richard Morley u
pwifxkwfvkyfcJhygw,f/ Richard Morley udk Dick Morley vkdYvnf; ac:Mu ygw,f/ olUukd
Father of PLC vkdY todtrSwfjyKMuygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
11
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


Figure 5a. Richard Morley [ Father of PLC ]


Figure 5b. Historical photo showing from left to right:
Dick Morley, Tom Boissevain, Modicon 084 PLC, George Schwenk, and Jonas Landau.

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
12
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Figure 6. 1968 ckESpfu xkwfvkyfwJh Modicon 084 PLC


yxrqHk; xkwfvkyfwJh PLC udk Modicon 084 vkdY trnfay;&wmuawmh Bedford
Associates &JU 84 ck?ajrmuf Project jzpfvkdY jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
13
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

PLC ukdxkwfvkyfzkdY
tNydKifBudK;pm;MuwJh ukrPD av;ck &Sdygw,f/
tJ'D ukrPDawGuawmh
1/ Information Instruments, Inc. (aemuf 1ESpfMumwJhtcg Allen Bradley &JU tykdif
jzpfoGm;ygw,f)
2/ Digital Equipment Corp (DEC)
3/ Century Detroit eJY
4/ Bedford Associates wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
Bedford Associates &JU tif*sifeD,mwpfOD;jzpfwJh Richard Morley [m PLC rSm yg&
r,fh tcsuftvuf tao;pdyfudk 1968 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv? 1&ufaeY? rSm tNyD;owfa&;qGJ
owfrSwf EkdifcJhygw,f/ olU&JU U.S Patent No. u 3761893 jzpfygw,f/
Bedford Associates &JU tif*sifeD,mrsm;jzpfMuwJh
1/ Richard Morley
2/ Mike Greenberg
3/ Jonas Landau
4/ George Schwenk eJY
5/ Tom Boissevain wkdY ig;OD;[m PLC xkwfvkyfzkdYtwGuf Modicon qkdwJh ukrPD
topfudk wnfaxmifcJhygw,f/
Modicon qkdwJhemrnfuawmh Modular Digital Controller vkdY t"dyg,f&ygw,f/
Modular type PLC xkwfvkyfzkdY&nf&G,f BudK;pm;tm;xkwfcJhMuwm jzpfygw,f/ vkyfaqmifcsuf
Function wpfrsdK;udk Unit wpfck? Board wpfck? Module wpfck? tjzpf wnfaqmufxm;cJh&if
ysufvkdYjyif&wJhtcgrSm ysufwJh module ukdom topfeJY tpm;xkd;vJvS,f &wmjzpfvkdY vG,ful
ygw,f/ tcsdefukefoufomygw,f/
armfawmfum;xkwfvkyfwJh General Motors Corporation u tif*sifeD,mawG[m
ESpfpOf armfawmfum; Model ajymif;vJxkwfvkyfwJhtcgwkdif; awGUBuHKaeMu&wJh tcuftcJukd
ajyvnfzkdY enf;vrf;&SmazGaeMuygw,f/ tJ'Dtcgu Automation system udk relay logic eJY
wnfaqmufMuygw,f/ ta&twGuf&meJYcsDNyD;yg0ifwJh relay awGudk armfawmfum; armf',f
topf ajymif;wkdif; 0g,mqufoG,frItopf jyefvkyf&ygw,f/
tJ'DtwGuf vkyf&ukdif&wmcufcJNyD; tifrwef tcsdefukefygw,f/ vkyf&ukdif&wm
vG,fulNyD; 'DxufoufomwJh enf;vrf;udk &SmBuHaeMuwJh tcsdefrSm Bedford Associates u
PLC udk xkwfvkyfawmhr,fqkdwmudk Mum;awmh 0,fcsifwJhtaMumif; General Motors u p
wif urf;vSrf;vmygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
14
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yxrtokwftjzpf a':vm 1oef;zkd;0,f,lzkdY oabmwlnDrI&Muygw,f/ yxrqHk;


PLC jzpfwJh Modicon 084 udk 1969 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmvrSm General Motors u pwifvufcH&&Sd
toHk;jyKcJhygw,f/ oHk;&wmtqifajyvkdY aemufxyf a':vm 1oef;zkd;ukd General Motors u
xyfrH 0,f,ljyefygw,f/ PLC rlykdifcGifh OEM (Original Equipement Manufacturer) ukdvnf;
General Motors u &,loGm;ygw,f/
1977 ckESpfrSm Modicon ukd Gould Electronics u vTJajymif;&,lNyD; PLC ukd
qufvuf xkwfvkyfygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf *smrefukrPD wpfckjzpfwJh AEG u Modicon udk
qufvuf vTJajymif;&,lygw,f/
1997 ckESpfrSm Modicon ukd jyifopfukrPD wpfckjzpfwJh Schneider Electric u
qufvuf vTJajymif;&,ljyefygw,f/ Modicon &JU OEM u ,aeYtcsdefxd Schneider jzpfae
ygw,f/

Figure 7. 1973 ckESpfu xkwfvkyfwJh Modicon 184 PLC


1973 ckESpfrSm Michael Greenberg u yHkpHxkwfwJh Modicon 184 ukd xyfrH
xkwfvkyfcJhygw,f/
1975 ckESpfrSm Modicon 284 ukd microprocessor oHk;NyD; xkwfvkyfcJhygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
15
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Modicon 084 rSmwHk;u logic function yJ ygygw,f/ aemufykdif;xkwfwJh PLC awG


usrS ocFsmwGufcsufrIjzpfwJh taygif;? tEkwf? tajrmuf? tpm;? ukd xyfxnhfygw,f/
tJ'DaemufrSm Subroutine udkxyfxnhfygw,f/ 1970 ckESpf? ESpfv,frSmxkwfvkyfwJh PLC rSm
MIPS processor (MIPS : Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) ESpfvHk;ukd
oHk;xm;ygw,f/ Memory u 128 kilo bytes &Sdygw,f/ tJ'Dacwf tJ'Dtcg rSmawmh
xl;jcm;aumif;rGefwJh t&nftaoG;jzpfygw,f/ 1971 ckESpfrSm Allen Bradley u olU&JU
yxrOD;qHk; PLC jzpfwJh Bulletin 1774 ukd xkwfvkyf ygw,f/

Figure 8. 1971 ckESpfu xkwfvkyfwJh Allen Bradley &JU yxrqHk; PLC, Bulletin 1774

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
16
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

1977 ckESpfrSmxkwfvkyfwJh Allen Bradley PLC rSm 8080 microprocessor udk pwif
toHk;jyKcJhygw,f/ PLC udk pwifxkwfvkyfpOftcgu PC (Programmable Controller) vkdY
ac:wGif cJhMuygw,f/ 1980 ckESpf Personal Computer awG toHk; wGifus,fvmwJh tcgrSm
PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) vkdY ajymif;vJ ac:a0:vmMuygw,f/ PLC qkdwm
Allen Bradley u ay;cJhwJh emrnfjzpfygw,f/ 1985 ckESpfrSm Rockwell Automation u
Allen Bradley ukd 0,f,lvkdufwJhtwGuf tcktcgrSm PLC [m Rockwell Automation &JU
Trade Mark jzpfaeygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
17
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

tcef; (2) PLC udk NcHKiHkavYvmoHk;oyfjcif;/

PLC qkdwmudk wkdwkd&Sif;&Sif;ajym&&if pufrIvkyfief;awGrSm oHk;zkdY txl;wDxGifxm;wJh


Industrial Computer wpfrsdK; jzpfygw,f/ Relay Control System eJY aqmif&GufcJhwJh vkyfief;
awGukd Relay udk,fpm;? aqmif&GufzkdY &nf&G,fNyD; PLC ukd pwif wDxGifcJhMuwm jzpfygw,f/
Relay system rSm toHk;jyKcJhwJh sensor awG? actuator awGudk qufoG,fwwfqifzkdY t0ifikwf
Input Terminals awG? txGufikwf Output Terminals awG? PLC rSm yg&SdMuygw,f/
vQyfppform;awG tvG,fwul avhvmoif,lEdkifwJh Ladder Diagram Programming
Language (LD) eJY Program a&;NyD; ckdif;vkdY&atmif PLC udk wnfaqmuf xm;ygw,f/

Relay awG u k d t oH k ; jyKNyD ; zG J U pnf ; xm;wJ h control system eJY PLC udktoHk;jyKNyD;
zGJUpnf;xm;wJh control system wYkdudk EIdif;,SOf Munhfr,fqkd&if?
#1 Relay System rSm 0g,mqufoG,frI wiring vkyfzkdY uRrf;usifrItxl; vkdtyfygw,f/
pepfwusavhusifhxm;wJh engineer awG? technician awGu tcsdefMumjrifhpGm aqmif
&GufMu&ygw,f/ qufoG,frIwpHkw&m rSm;,Gif;cJh&ifvnf; trSm;ukd&Sm&wm Mumyg
w,f? cufygw,f? vuf0ifygw,f/
PLC System rSm wiring vkyf&wm vG,fulygw,f/ Input Terminal u oyfoyf?
Output Terminal u oyfoyf? ae&mcGJxm;ygw,f/ Input eJY Output udk PLC
program u qufoG,fay;wmjzpfygw,f/ Sensor wpfckudk Input terminal u ikwf
point wpfckeJY quf&ygw,f/ aemuf ikwf point wpfckeJY aemuf sensor wpfckudk
quf&wm jzpfygw,f/ wpfckukd wpfckcsif;pD quf&wmjzpfvkdY wiring vkyf&wm
vG,fulygw,f/ jrefqefygw,f/ rSm;qufrd&ifvnf; trSm;udk&SmNyD;jyif&wm jrefyg
w,f/
#2 Relay System udk toHk;jyKNyD; xkwfukefypnf; wyfqif xkwfvkyfwJhtcg ypnf;
trsdK;tpm; Model ajymif;vJxkwfvkyfwkdif; wiring topfvkyf&wm cufcJNyD; tcsdef
Mumygw,f/ uRrf;usifrIvnf; txl;vkdtyfygw,f/
PLC System udk oHk;vkdufwJhtcgrSmawmh xkwfvkyfrIyHkpH model ajymif; csif&if PLC
program ukd ajymif;a&;vkdufHkeJY NyD;oGm;ygw,f/ qufoG,fxm;NyD;om; 0g,mawGudk
jzKwfp&m? jyifqufp&m? rvdkygbl;/ Wire topfxyfrH qufoG,fcsif&ifvnf;
tvG,fwul xyfwkd;vkdY &ygw,f/ tcsdefukef oufomygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
18
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

#3 Relay system rSm pufwpfvHk; twGuf relay panel wpfck vdktyfygw,f/ rsdK;wlpuf
ESpfvHk; twGuf relay panel ESpfckrSm wiring ESpfcg vkyf&ygw,f/ Panel wiring
vkyfwkdif; rSm;Ekdifygw,f/ tcsdef ESpfq Mumygw,f/
PLC system rSmawmh pufwpfvHk;rSm PLC wpfck wyfqif&ygw,f/ puf ESpfvHk;
twGuf PLC ESpfck oHk;xm;&ayr,hf PLC program wpfckudk a&;xm;NyD;&if rsdK;wlpuf
tvHk;aygif;rsm;pGmtwGuf tJ'D program udkyJ PLC awGxJrSm a&;xnhfwm download
udk vkyfvkdufHkyJjzpfygw,f/ tifrwef vG,fulygw,f/ tcsdefukefrsm;pGm oufomyg
w,f/
tckacwfrSmxkwfvkyfMuwJh PLC awG&JU pGrf;aqmifEkdifrIu tifrwefjrihfrm;aeNyD
jzpfygw,f/ tjcm; control system awGeJY? PLC eJY? qufoG,fajymqkdrI communicate vkyfEkdif
MuNyD jzpfygw,f/ ukefxkwfvkyfrI tpD&ifcHpm production report awG? vkyfief;pDrH aqmif&Guf
rI scheduling production awG? rSm;wJhae&mudk xkwfazmfjywJh error report awG? apmifhMuyf
MunhfIrI self diagnosis awGudk PLC u vkyfukdifaqmif&GufEkdifMuNyDjzpfygw,f/
PLC eJY control vkyfxm;wJh ukefxkwfvkyfief;pOf&JU jzpfay:ajymif;vJrIukd aeY&uf?
tcsdef? em&D? eJYwuG aemufaMumif;jyef ajc&maumufMunhfvkdY &Ekdifygw,f/ BudKwifpDrH
umuG,fxdef;odrf;rI Preventive Maintenance twGuf ta&;ygwJh tcsuftvuf data awG
udk PLC system u &,lpkaqmif;ay;Ekdifygw,f/ PLC eJY HMI ukd qufoG,fNyD; PLC u
vwfwavmaqmif&GufaewJh tajctaeawGukd kyfyHkawG? Z,m;awG? eJY HMI ay:rSm azmfjy
Ekdifygw,f/ HMI ay:rSm zefwD;a&;qGJxm;wJh softbutton awGudk oHk;NyD; PLC &JU program
xJu setting awGudk ajymif;vJvkdY &ygw,f/ HMI (Human Machine Interface) ukd Operator
Interface vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ MMI (Man Machine Interface) vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Aquisition) eJY DCS (Distributed Control
System) awGvkd tqifhjrifhwJh control system awGtxd wufvSrf;EkdifzkdYtwGuf tajccHaumif;
awG&Sdxm;zkdY vkdtyfygw,f/ PLC ukd Computer tjzpf IjrifNyD;avhvmrSom tajccHaumif;
awG &&SdvmrSmjzpfygw,f/ PLC twGuf tajccHtkwfjrpfaumif;jzpfatmif 'DpmtkyfrSm BudK;
pm;NyD;a&;om;azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ PLC vrf;Tef A Guide to PLC vkdY 'Dpmtkyfudk emrnfay;
xm;wJhtwkdif; enf;ay;vrf;TefjyrSm jzpfygw,f/
PLC ukd tckrS pwif avhvmr,hf olawGtwGuf &nf&G,fNyD;vG,fatmif? &Sif;atmif
a&;om;xm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
19
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

PLC rSm ESpfrsdK; ESpfpm;&Sdygw,f/


1 / Modular PLC trsdK;tpm;eJY
2 / Compact PLC trsdK;tpm;wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/

1/ Modular PLC qkdwmu power supply module u wpfck? memory yg0ifwJh CPU
module u wpfck? Input module u wpfck? Output module u wpfck? tJ'D wpfckcsif;pDjzpfwJh
module awGudk atmufcHjym; backplane ay:rSm wwfqifvkdufawmhrS PLC wpfvHk; jzpfvm
ygw,f/
2 / Compact PLC qkdwmuawmh tJ'D module wpfckcsif;pD&JU function awGtm;vHk;
yg0ifatmif pkpnf;NyD; yHk;cGH enclosure wpfckxJrSm xnhfoGif;wnfaqmufxm;wJh PLC rsdK;jzpf
ygw,f/ Compact PLC ukd Integrated PLC, Micro PLC, Monolithic PLC, All in one PLC
vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/
PLC rSmyg&SdwJh Input eJY Output ukd aygif;NyD; I/O vkdY ac:ygw,f/ PLC &JU size tBuD;
tao;ukd I/O ta&twGufeJY owfrSwfygw,f/ PLC taMumif;a&;om;azmfjywJh catalog
pmtkyfawGrSm input (I) eJY output (O) ukd waygif;wnf;a&wGufxm;wJh I/O ta&twGufudk
azmfjyavh&Sdygw,f/ Oyrm? input 8 ckeJY? output 6 ckygwJh PLC ukd I/O 14 ckvkdY PLC &JU size
ukd a&;om;azmfjyygw,f/

Size of PLC
PLC &JU t&G,ftpm; tBuD;tao;udk Input eJY Output ESpfckaygif; ta&twGufeJY
cGJjcm; owfrSwfMuygw,f/
I/O ta&twGuf 15 ck txdukd Nano PLC
I/O ta&twGuf 32 ck txdukd Micro PLC
I/O ta&twGuf 128 ck txdudk Small PLC
I/O ta&twGuf 1024 ck txdudk Medium PLC
I/O ta&twGuf 4096 ck txdukd Large PLC
I/O ta&twGuf 8192 ck txdudk Very Large PLC vkdY ac:Muygw,f/
'DaeY acwfrSmawmh Large PLC eJY Very Large PLC awGukd toHk;rjyKMuawmhygbl;/
Medium size PLC txdukdom Process Control System awGrSm DCS pepf Distributed
Control System eJY wGJzufNyD; network csdwfquf toHk;jyKMuygw,f/ toHk;trsm;qHk; uawmh
Micro PLC jzpfygw,f/ I/O wkd;csJUvkdY&wJh Micro PLC awGukd Machine Control rSma&m?
Process Control rSmyg toHk;jyKMuwmukd awGU&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
20
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Programmable Logic Controller Architecture

External Communication PLC


Computer Module

Microprocessor Output Module Actuator Process

Input Module Sensor

yHkrSm azmfjyxm;wmu PLC ukd Process control rSm toHk;jyKxm;wJh Function Block yHk
jzpfygw,f/ wm0efcGJa0,lrIudk azmfjywmjzpfygw,f/ User Program (Application Program)
udk Personal Computer eJY a&;NyD; PLC xJ xnhfxm;&ygw,f/ PLC xJu memory rSm
a&;rSwfxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ Input eJY Output ukd tJ'D user program u qufoG,fay;NyD;?
PLC &JU Output u Actuator awGudk ckdif;apygw,f/ Process &JU vuf&Sdjzpfay:aewJh
tajctaeudk Sensor awGu apmifhMunfhNyD;? PLC ukd owif;ykdYygw,f/ &&SdvmwJh owif;
tcsuftvufawGudk toHk;jyKNyD; user program u ckdif;wJhtwkdif; Microprocessor u aqmif
&Guf ygw,f/
PLC &JU Input Field Devices awGudkNcHKiHkNyD; Sensors vkdY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
Sensor qkdwmu physical condition udk electric signal jzpfatmifajymif;ay;wJh
device wkdif;udk NcHKac:wmjzpfygw,f/
'DvkdygyJ PLC &JU Output Field Devices awGukd NcHKiHkNyD; Actuators vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Actuator qkw d mu electric signal udk physical condition jzpfatmif ajymif;ay;wJh
device wkdif;udk ac:wmjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
21
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Programmable Logic Controller Architecture

PLC

Power Supply

Microprocessor + Memory

Operator
Workstation Communication Module

Discrete Input (DI) Module Discrete Sensor

Analogue Input (AI) Module Analogue Sensor

Discrete Output (DO) Module Discrete Actuator

Analogue Output (AO) Module Analogue Actuator

PLC &JU I/O type u ESpfrsdK;ESpfpm; &Sdygw,f/ Discrete I/O eJY Analog I/O wkdY jzpfMuyg
w,f/
Electric signal rSm discrete signal eJY analog signal qkdNyD; signal trsdK;tpm;? ESpfrsdK;
&Sdygw,f/
Discrete signal udk digital signal vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/
Discrete signal qdkwmu signal &SdwJh? taetxm; ON state eJY signal r&SdwJh? tae
txm; OFF state qkdwJh tajctae ESpfrsdK;om&SdwJh signal trsdK;tpm;jzpfygw,f/ PLC rSm
discrete dc input eJY discrete ac input qkdNyD; discrete input type ESpfrsdK; &Sdygw,f/
Analog signal qkdwmuawmh tjywftawmufr&SdbJ wqufwpyfxJ ajymif;vJaewJh
signal rsdK; jzpfygw,f/ PLC rSm toHk;rsm;wJh analog signal awG uawmh 0 to 20 mA dc,
4 to 20 mA dc eJY 0 to 10 Vdc signal awG jzpfMuygw,f/ Analog signal rSm ac signal
r&Sdygbl;/ PLC rSm analog ac signal udk roHk;ygbl;/
Discrete input ukd DI vkdY a&;NyD; discrete output udk DO vkdY a&;ygw,f/
Analog input ukd AI vkdY a&;NyD; analog output udk AO vkdY a&;xm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
22
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

PLC eJY qufoG,ftoHk;jyKwJh Discrete sensor awGuawmh


Pushbuttons,
Selector switch,
Motor starter contacts,
Relay contacts,
Thumbwheel switch,
Limit switch,
Photoelectric eyes,
Proximity switches,
Liquid level switch,
Temperature switch,
Pressure switch pwmawG jzpfMuygw,f/

PLC eJY qufoG,ftoHk;jyKwJh Discrete actuator awGuawmh


Lamps,
Alarms,
Fans,
Horns, buzzers,
Control Relays,
Magnetic contactors (MC),
Solenoid valves (SV),
Motor starters, pwmawG jzpfMuygw,f/

PLC eJY qufoG,ftoHk;jyKwJh Analog sensor awGuawmh


Thermocouple (TC),
RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector),
Pressure Transducer,
Load Cell pwmawG jzpfMuygw,f/

PLC eJY qufoG,ftoHk;jyKwJh Analog actuator awGuawmh


Analog meters,
Valve Positioners,
Motor Drives (Frequency Inverter),
Servo Drives pwmawGjzpfMuygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
23
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

'DaeYacwf PLC eJYvkyfaqmifaeMuwJh vkyfief;tcsdKUukd atmufrSmazmfjyvkdufygw,f/

Todays PLC applications


Aluminum making Assembly machines
Amusement park control Building automation
Burner control Car manufacturing plant
Chemical plants Conveyor systems
Cranes Electro-plating plants
Factory automation Food-processing plants
Material handling Off-shore drilling
Plastic injection molding machines Packaging machine
Paper and pulp industries Pick and place robot control
Pump station control Pipeline pump station control
Plant power system Precast concrete industries
Semiconductor manufacturing machines Storage and retrieval systems
Steel mills Tobacco industries
Tire manufacturing TV manufacturing plant
Water treatment Warehouse automation

Modern Control Room

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
24
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
25
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
26
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
27
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
28
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
29
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

tcef; (3) PLC eJY Control vkyfyHk taMumif;/


PLC eJY control vkyfwmESpfrsdK;&Sdygw,f/ Machine control eJY process control vkdY ac:
ygw,f/
Machine control qkdwmu pufudkxdef;ausmif;ay;wm jzpfygw,f/ ykvif;xJ t&nf
jznfhwJhpuf filling machine ukd control vkyfwmrsdK;? ykvif;awGudk 6 ykvif; 1 xkyf?
xkyfwJhpuf packaging machine ukd control vkyfwmrsdK;? yvyfpwpfypnf;awG yHkoGif;?
xkwfvkyfwJhpuf plastic injection molding machine ukd control vkyfwmrsdK;awGukd machine
control vdkY ac:wm jzpfygw,f/
Process control qkdwmrSmygwJh process qdkwmu t&m0wKwpfckudk kyfqif; oPmef
tm;jzpfap? physically 'grSr[kwf? "gwkzGJUpnf;yHktm;jzpfap? chemically ajymif;vJ atmif
vkyfaqmifwmukd process vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Oyrm? *sHKrIHUukd aygifrkefYjzpfatmifvkyfwm ukdvnf; process vkdY ac:ygw,f/ BuHuae
oMum;jzpfatmifvkyfwm ukdvnf; process vkdY ac:ygw,f/ acsmif;a&? jrpfa&ukd oHk;a&?
aomufa&jzpfatmifvkyfwm udkvnf; process vkdY ac:ygw,f/ a&&,f? av&,f? obm0
"gwfaiGU&,f oHk;rsdK;udk aygif;pyfNyD; Urea "gwfajrMoZm jzpfatmifvkyfwm ukdvnf; process
vkdY ac:ygw,f/ ukefxkwfenf;pOfvkdY ajymvkdY&r,fxifygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd ukefxkwfvkyf wJh
process ukd control vkyfwmukd process control vkdY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
PLC qkdwm[m Machine control eJY Process control pepfawGrSm oHk;zkdY jyKvkyfxm;wJh
Special Computer jzpfygw,f/ TefMum;csuf Program awG a&;oGif;NyD; ckdif;apvkdY &wJh
Industrial (Computer ) Controller jzpfygw,f/
Control vkyfw,fqkdwm &nfrSef;csuf NyD;ajrmufatmif xdef;ausmif;ay;wm jzpfyg
w,f/ xdef;ausmif;wJh tvkyfukd vkyfEkdifzdkY Controller wkdif;ukd power ay;oGif;&ygw,f/ PLC
udkvnf; power ay;oGif;&ygw,f/
TefMum;xm;wJh TefMum;csufawGudk odrf;xm;zkdY PLC rSm memory yg&Sd&ygw,f/
ckdif;xm;wJh TefMum;csufawGukd ukdifwG,faqmif&GufwJh A[kduGyfuJa&;ykdif; CPU (central
processing unit) vnf; PLC rSm yg&Sd&ygw,f/ Signal t0ifykdif; (input ykdif;) eJY signal
txGufykdif; (output ykdif;) wkdYvnf; PLC rSm yg&Sd&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
30
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Block diagram of PLC

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
31
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

PLC Hardware
PLC rSm trsdK;tpm; ajrmufjrm;pGm &SdMuygw,f/ b,f PLC rSmyJjzpfjzpf wire qufvdkY
&wJh ikwf terminal awG yg&SdMuygw,f/ tJ'gawGuawmh
Power supply terminal,
Input terminal,
Output terminal eJY
Programming Port wdkY jzpfMuygw,f/
PLC qdkwmu program a&;oGif;xm;rS cdkif;apvdkY&wJh Controller jzpfygw,f/
PLC wpfvHk;udk awGUwJhtcg b,fupNyD; odatmifvkyf&rvJqdkwmudk tvG,frSwvf dkY
&atmif azmfjyygr,f/
PLC qdkwm Computer wpfrsdK;jzpfwmrdkYvdkY PLC rSm hardware a&m? software yg? yg&Sdyg
w,f/
yxrqHk; avhvm&rSmuawmh
Power Supply and I/O
Type and Size vdkY jzpfygw,f/
Power supply &JU type, Power supply &JU size;
Input &JU type, Input &JU size; eJY
Output &JU type, Output &JU size; wdkY jzpfMuygw,f/
PS & I/O; Type & Size vdkY rSwfxm;yg/
PLC &JU hardware udk avhvmwJhtcg PS & I/O wdkY&JU type eJY size udk odatmif t&if
vkyf&rSm jzpfygw,f/
PS &J U type qdkwm tJ'D PLC udk AC power ay;&rSmvm;? DC power ay;&rSmvm;?
qdkwmudk cGJjcm;odzdkY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/
PLC &JU Power supply terminal rSm AC voltage ay;&wJh PLC &Sdovdk? DC voltage
ay;&wJh PLC vnf; &Sdygw,f/
PS &J U size qdkwmuawmh AC power qdk&if 220V vm;? 100V vm;? DC power
qdk&if 24V vm;? qdkwm cGJjcm;odzdkY ajymwm jzpfygw,f/
AC power ay;&wJh PLC awGrSm 100VAC udk power supply tjzpf qufay;&wJh PLC
u wpfrsdK;? 220VAC udk power supply tjzpfqufoG,fay;&wJh PLC u wpfrsdK;? 100VAC
a&m? 220VAC yg? 2rsdK;pvHk; qufoG,fay;vdkY&wJh PLC u wpfrsdK;? qdkNyD; oHk;rsdK;oHk;pm; &Sdyg
w,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
32
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

DC power ay;&wJh PLC rSmawmh 24VDC udk power supply tjzpf qufoG,f
ay;&wJh PLC u tawGU&trsm;qHk;jzpfygw,f/
I/O qd k w m uawmh PLC &JU Input eJY Output awGudk ajymwm jzpfygw,f/ PLC &JU I/O
signal [m Discrete I/O signal eJY Analog I/O signal qdkNyD; type 2rsdK;? &Sdygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
Discrete Input vm;? Discrete Output vm;? Analog Input vm;? Analog Output vm;?
qdkwmudk cGJjcm;NyD;odatmif t&ifvkyf&ygr,f/ Discrete I/O udk Digital I/O vkdYvnf; ac:Mu
ygw,f/
Discrete Input xJay;oGif;&r,fh signal u AC signal vm;? DC signal vm;? qdkwmu
Input &JU type jzpfyg w,f/ AC220V signal vm;? AC100V signal vm;? DC24V signal vm;?
qdkwmu Input &JU size jzpfygw,f/
Discrete Output rSxGufvmr,fh signal u Relay Output vm;? TRIAC Output vm;?
Transistor Output vm;? qdkwmawGu Output &JU type awGjzpfMuNyD;? Relay &JU Output rating,
TRIAC &JU Output rating, Transistor &JU Output rating awGu Output &JU size awG
jzpfMuygw,f/ Transistor Output jzpfcJh&if PNP vm;? NPN vm;? cGJjcm;odzdkY vdktyfygw,f/
Sensor awGuay;ydkYwJh signal awGudk? PLC &JU input terminal awGu vufcH&,lygw,f/
Input terminal rSm qufoG,fvdkY&wJh devices awGudk Input Field Devices vdkY ac:ygw,f/
Output terminal rSm qufoG,fvdkY&wJh devices awGudk Output Field Devices vdkY ac:yg
w,f/ PLC &JU output terminal u xkwfay;wJh signal awGudk? Output Field Devices awGu
vufcH&,lygw,f/ Output Field Devices awGudk Actuators awGvdkYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/
Analog I/O &J U type qdw
k mu current vm;? voltage vm;? cGJjcm;odzdkY jzpfygw,f/
Analog I/O &J U size qdkwmuawmh signal &JU range udk ajymwmjzpfygw,f/
Oyrm? 0 to 20mA, 4 to 20mA, 0 to 5V, 0 to 10V pwJU dc signal awGjzpfMuygw,f/
'DpmtkyfrSm discrete I/O signal taMumif;ukdom a&;om;azmfjyrSm jzpfygw,f/
Programming Port uawmh data awG t0iftxGufvkyfwmjzpfvdkY Port vdkY ac:wJh ikwf
terminal jzpfygw,f/ PLC xJudk program a&;xnfhwJhtcg? Computer eJY qufoG,f&wJh port
jzpfvdkYrdkY Programming Port vdkY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
Programming cable udk PLC xkwfvkyfwJh OEM qDu? 0,f,ltoHk;jyKMu&ygw,f/ PLC eJY
Computer udk Programming cable eJY qufoG,fNyD; PLC xJ a&;xnfhwJh Program udk User
Program vdkY ac:ygw,f/ Application Program vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
33
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

PLC wdkif;rSmryg&dSbJ? tcsdKU PLC awGrSmom ygavh&SdwJh terminal awGuawmh I/O


expansion terminal eJY Communication port wdkY jzpfMuygw,f/ Input eJY Output udk wdk;csJU
wwfqifcsif&if I/O expansion port yg&dSrS wdk;csJUwwfqifvdkY &ygw,f/ Communication port
uawmh PLC eJY HMI qufoG,fzdkY? PLC tcsif;csif; qufoG,fzdkY? toHk;jyK&wmjzpfygw,f/
PLC awGrSm RS-232 port eJY RS-485 port wdkY ygavh&SdMuygw,f/
ckacwfrSm Ethernet port ygwJh PLC awGudk toHk;jyKaeMuNyD jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
34
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
PLC wdkif;rSmyg0ifwJh tajccHtydkif; 5 ykdif; uawmh yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwdkif;
(1) Power Supply ykdif;?
(2) CPU ykdif;?
(3) Memory ykdif;?
(4) Input ykdif;? eJY
(5) Output ykdif;?wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
'Dtydkif; 5ydkif;udk wpfpkwpfpnf;xJ wnfaqmufxm;wJh PLC rsdK;udk Integrated PLC,
'grSr[kwf Compact PLC vdkY ac:ygw,f/ Compact PLC rSm yg&SdwJh Power supply ydkif;?
CPU ydkif;? Input ydkif;? pwmawGudk wpfydkif;csif;pD jzKwfvdkY? wyfvdkY? r&ygbl;/
tpdwftydkif; wpfckcsif;pD jzKwfvdkY? wyfvdkY? &wJh PLC rsdK;udk Modular PLC vdkY ac:yg
w,f/ Modular PLC qdkwmu Power supply module u wpfck? CPU eJY Memory udk
aygif;xm;wJh CPU module u wpfck? Input module u wpfck? Output module u wpfck? 'D
4ck udk atmufcHjym; backplane (baseplate) ay:rSm wyfqifvdkufawmhrS PLC wpfvHk; jzpfvm
ygw,f/
Power Supply ykdif;
Power Supply ykdif; qkdwmu PLC xJudk tjyifuaeay;oGif;wJh 220VAC 'grSr[kwf
24VDC udk ajymwmr[kwfygbl;/ PLC xJrSm xnfhoGif;wnfaqmufxm;wJh power ykdif;ukd
ajymwm jzpfygw,f/ PLC wkdif;ukd vQyfppf"gwftm;ay;oGif;&ygw,f/
AC power ay;oGif;&wJh PLC u wpfrsdK;? DC power ay;oGif;&wJh PLC u wpfrsdK;?
qkdNyD; ESpfrsdK;ESpfpm; &Sdygw,f/
AC power ay;&wJh PLC rSmvnf; 100VAC eJY 220VAC qkdNyD; ESpfrsdK; uGJjym;ygao;
w,f/
DC power ay;&wJh PLC rSmawmh 24 VDC ay;&wJh PLC u tawGU&rsm;ygw,f/
jyifyuae AC ay;oGif;onfjzpfap? DC ay;oGif;onfjzpfap? ay;oGif;vkdufwJh vQyfppf
power ukd PLC xJrSm&SdwJh CPU wkdY? Memory wdkY?twGuf oifhawmfwJh DC Voltage jzpfatmif
PLC xJu Power Supply ykdif;u aqmif&Gufay;ygw,f/
PLC xJudk Power supply terminal uae? pD;0ifwJYvQyfppf current eJY CPU xJ, I/O
interface xJ? pD;wJYvQyfppf current wkdYudk woD;wjcm;pDjzpfatmif vkyfay;wJYtvkyf? galvanic
isolation udkvnf; Power Supply ykdif;u vkyfay;ygw,f/ 'g[m PLC xJrSmygwJY Power
Supply ydkif;&JUtvkyf function 2ck? jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
35
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

wu,fvkdY? 100VAC om ay;&r,fh PLC udk rSm;NyD; 220VAC ay;cJhrd&if? 'grSr[kwf


24VDC om ay;&r,fh PLC udk 220VAC rSm;ay;cJhrd&if? PLC xJu Power Supply ykdif;yJ
ysufpD;oGm;ygw,f/ CPU wkdY? Memory wkdYukd rxdcdkufrysufpD; ap&atmif Power Supply
ykdif;u taocHumuG,fay;xm;ygw,f/
'DvkdumuG,fay;wmudk isolation vkdY ac:wm jzpfygw,f/
CPU yk d i f ;
CPU (Central Processing Unit) udk microprocessor eJY zGJUpnf; wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
CPU eJY Memory uawmh tNrJyJ wGJNyD;? tvkyfvkyfygw,f/ User program udk Memory xJrSm
odrf;xm;ygw,f/ PLC udk RUN vdkufawmhrS memory xJrSma&;xm;wJh User program
rSmygwJhtwdkif; CPU u aqmif&Gufygw,f/ Input terminal rSm&SdwJh signal udk CPU u
MunfhNyD;? User program u cdkif;xm;wJhtwdkif; Output terminal udk signal xkwfay;ygw,f/
PLC awGrSm CPU ysufpD;rI[m 5% yJ jzpfwwfygw,f/ PLC tvHk; 100 ysuf&if CPU
ysufwm 5 vHk;yJ &Sdygw,f/ CPU [m PLC rSm A[kduGyfuJa&;tydkif; jzpfygw,f/ PLC xJu
CPU udk MPU (Main Processing Unit) vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ PLC aumif;aumif; tvkyf
vkyfaeovm;? rvkyfbl;vm;vdkY ppfaq;&wJh self-diagnosis wm0efukdvnf; CPU u xrf;
aqmifygw,f/
CPU &JU vkyfief;aqmifwmudk twdkcsKyfajym&&if PLC &JU input terminal awGrSm csdwf
qufxm;wJY sensor awGuay;ydkYwJY signal awGudk vufcH&,lw,f/ NyD;awmh PLC &JU
rSwfOmPf memory rSm a&;rSwfxm;wJY nTefBum;csufawG user program twdkif; aqmif&Guf
w,f/ NyD;&if tJ'Daqmif&Gufcsufu&wJY program result awGudk PLC &JU output terminal
awGqDudk ydkYvTwfay;ygw,f/
Modular PLC awG&JU CPU module xJrSm memory eJY microprocessor udk wGJNyD; xnfhoGif;
wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/ PLC &JUvkyfief;aqmifwmawGukd b,fvdkaqmif&Gufyg vdkY owfrSwf
ay;xm;wJY control program (operating system) [mvnf; tJ'D memory xJrSm yg&Sdygw,f/
'gaMumifh CPU module ysufpD;cJhvkdY&Sd&if CPU module ukd topfvJvS,f wyfqifHkeJYawmh
PLC [m e*dktwkdif; tvkyfrvkyf Ekdifao;ygbl;/ jyefvnfae&mcsxm; ay;&ygao;w,f/
tJ'gukd configure vkyfw,fvkdY ac:ygw,f/ Program jyefa&;xnfh ay;&ygao;w,f/
Compact PLC awGrSmawmh CPU ykdif;[m PLC &JUtpdwftykdif; wpfckrQom jzpfvkdY CPU
ysuf pD;cJh&if PLC topf wpfvHk;eJY vJvS,fwyfqif&ygw,f/ Program ukdvnf; jyefa&;xnfh
ay;&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
36
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Memory yk d i f ;
Memory is the area that holds the operating system and user program.
PLC xJrSm TefMum;csuf instruction code awG? owif;tcsuftvuf data awG?
qHk;jzwfcsuf logic result awG? pwmawGudk rSwo f m;odrf;qnf;xm;wJh ae&mukd Memory vkdY
ac:ygw,f/
Memory rSm ESpfrsdK;?ESpfpm; &Sdygw,f/ Volatile memory eJY non-volatile memory wkdY
jzpfMuygw,f/
Volatile memory vQyfppfyg0gtNrJ&&SdaerS a&;rSwfxm;wmawGudk raysmufrysuf
atmif odrf;qnf;xm;EkdifwJh memory trsdK;tpm; udk Volatile memory vkdY ac:ygw,f/
RAM (Random Access Memory) [m tJ'DtrsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/ vQyfppf"gwftm;r&Sd&if
RAM xJrSm a&;rSwfxm;wmawG tm;vHk; taiGUysHvGifhys,foGm;ovkd aysmufysufukefygw,f/
RAM twGuf power supply tNrJwrf;&aeapzkdY PLC xJrSm "gwfcJ battery xnfhay;xm;
&ygw,f/ tJ'D"gwfcJ&JU oufwrf;[m 25C rSmyJtNrJoHk;cJh&if 5ESpf MumatmifcHygw,f/
ylvGef;&ifyJjzpfjzpf? at;vGef;&ifyJjzpfjzpf? "gwfcJoufwrf;wkdygw,f/
Non-volatile memory Non-volatile memory uawmh a&;rSwfxm;wmawGukd
raysmufrysuf&atmif vQyfppf"gwftm;r&SdyJeJY Mum&Snfodrf;xm;Ekdifygw,f/ EEPROM
(Electrically Erasible Programmable ROM) [m tJ'Dvkd trsdK;tpm;jzpfygw,f/ tck
vloHk;rsm;aeNyDjzpfwJh memory stick vkdrsdK;? Flash Memory trsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/ EEPROM
ukd toHk;jyKxm;wJh PLC awGrSm "gwfcJxnfhzkdY rvkdtyfygbl;/
'gaMumifh "gwfcJygwJh PLC u wpfrsdK;? "gwfcJ rygwJh PLC u wpfrsdK; qkdNyD;
PLC ESpfrsdK;? ESpfpm;? &Sdygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
37
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

tJ'D"gwfcJ&JU oufwrf;[m 25C rSmyJtNrJoHk;cJh&if 5ESpf MumatmifcHygw,f/


ylvGef;&ifyJjzpfjzpf? at;vGef;&ifyJjzpfjzpf? "gwfcJoufwrf;wkdygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
38
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

I/O Image Memory


PLC wkdif;rSm wire qufoG,fvkdY&wJh Input terminal eJY Output terminal awG yg0ifMuyg
w,f/ tJ'gukd External input eJY External output vkdY ac:Muygw,f/ Physical input eJY
Physical output vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/
Input terminal awGrSm&SdaewJh signal awG&JUtajctaeukd t&dyfyrm xif[yf azmfjywJh
memory xJu ae&mawGukd Input image memory vdkY ac:ygw,f/ Input memory, Input
relay vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/ Input image table vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
Input terminal eJY wkdufkdufqufoG,rf I&SdwJh memory area jzpfvkdY input image memory vkdY
ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
Output terminal awGeYJ wkdufkdufqufoG,frI&SdwJh memory xJu ae&mukd output image
memory vdkY ac:ygw,f/ Output image table vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
Output terminal eJY wdkufdkufqufoG,frI r&SdwJh internal memory udk Auxiliary Relay vkYd
ac:ygw,f/ Internal Relay vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/ Internal Output vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
Internal Bit vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Work Bit vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ a&;vdkY? zwfvdkY? &wJh
Memory xJu Bit ae&m jzpfygw,f/
Delta PLC awGxJu DVP-14SS2-11R2 rSm yg&SdwJh Physical I/O (X/Y) eJY internal
output (M) udk atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
39
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Omron PLC awGxJu CPM1A-20CDR rSm yg&SdwJh input image memory ukdusawmh
Input Bit vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Output image memory ukdawmh Output Bit vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Output terminal eJY wdkufdkufqufoG,frI r&SdwJh internal memory udk Work Bit vkdY ac:yg
w,f/
Omron PLC awGxJu CPM1A-20CDR rSm yg&SdwJh Physical I/O (IR 000/ IR 010) eJY
internal output (IR 200) wdkYudk atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

Simens PLC awGxJuS7-200 CPU224 rSmyg&SdwJh internal output ukd Bit Memory (M)
vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Input image memory ukdusawmh Process-Image Input Register (I) vkYd
ac:ygw,f/ Output image memory ukdusawmh Process-Image Output Register (Q) vkdY
ac:ygw,f/
Simens PLC awGxJu S7-200 CPU224 rSm yg&SdwJh Physical I/O (I/Q) eJY internal output (M)
udk atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
Siemens PLC S7-200 CPU 224
Process-image input register I0.0 to I15.7
Process-image output register Q0.0 to Q15.7
Bit memory (M) M0.0 to M31.7

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
40
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Input Image Memory

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
41
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Output Image Memory

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
42
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Input Interface
When two different objects are linked together the boundary is known as the Interface.
PLC rSm signal 0ifwJh tykdif;ukd input ykdif;vkdY ac:ygw,f/ PLC &JU input rSm qufoG,f
&wJh Device awGukd input field devices vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Input Device awG jzpfMuwJh sensor
awGeJY PLC ukd qufpyfay;wmjzpfvkdY Input Interface vkdY ac:wm jzpfygw,f/ Modular PLC
rSm Input Interface [m oD;jcm; module wpfck jzpfNyD; input module vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Compact PLC rSmawmh Input Interface [m PLC &JU ukd,fwGif;t*Fg tpdwftykdif; wpfckom
jzpfygw,f/
Input ydkif;&JU tvkyfuawmh Input Field Devices awGu ay;ydkYwJh signal udk CPU u
em;vnf vufcHEdkifwJh signal jzpfatmif ajymif;ay;wJhtvkyfu wpfck? input terminal rSm
vSnfhywfpD;qif;wJhvQyfppf eJY PLC xJ vSnfhywfpD;qif;wJhvQyfppfwdkYudk wpfoD;wpfjcm;pD
jzpfatmif vkyfay;wJh isolation tvkyfu wpfck? pkpkaygif; tvkyf 2ckudk vkyfygw,f/
PLC wkdif;&JU input interface tykdif;u 'Dtvkyf ESpfrsdK;udk vkyfaqmifMuygw,f/
Input terminal ukd signal strength rwefwq rSm;ay;rdcJh&if input interface tykdif;om
ysufpD; oGm;NyD; CPU ukd xdcdkufrI vHk;0r&Sdygbl;/ 'gaMumifh 24VDC signal ay;&r,fh Input
point rSm 220VAC ukd rSm;NyD;awmh qufoG,frdcJh&if CPU rysufygbl;/ Memory rysufygbl;/
Input interface yJ ysufoGm;ygr,f/ Modular PLC rSmqkd&ifawmh Input module topf wpfck
vJvS,fwyfqifvkdufHkeJY PLC [m e*kdtwkdif; tvkyfjyefvkyfEkdifygw,f/
Input interface rSm tajctaeajymif;vJrI ESpfrsdK;om &SdwJY Discrete Input eJY tajctae
ajymif;vJrI wqufxJ &SdwJY Analog Input qdkNyD; input ESpfrsdK; &Sdygw,f/ Discrete input udk
digital input vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ PLC [m Computer jzpfwJY twGuf binary udkom
vufcHaqmif&Guf Edkifygw,f/ 'gaBumifh analog input interface rSm analog uae digital
signal (binary signal) udk ajymif;ay;wJY A/D Converter yg&Sdygw,f/
PLC &JU input signal ESpfrsdK;? ESpfpm; &SdwJYtxJu discrete input signal
taMumif;ukd 'DpmtkyfrSm tao;pdyf azmfjyoGm;rSm jzpfygw,f/
Discrete signal rSm signal &Sdaewmukd ON vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Signal r&Sdwmukd OFF vkdY
ac:ygw,f/ Signal &Sdjcif;eJY? Signal r&Sdjcif;? 'DESpfrsdK; om&Sdygw,f/ Discrete input interface
rSm signal type ESpfrsdK; &Sdygw,f/ AC signal eJY DC signal jzpfygw,f/
Modular PLC rSm AC input module eJY DC input module qkdNyD; oD;jcm;pDxkwfvkyf
ygw,f/ Compact PLC rSmvnf; AC input signal om ay;vkdY&wJh PLC eJY DC input signal
om ay;vkdY&wJh PLC &,fvkdY ESpfrsdK; cGJjcm;xkwfvkyfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
43
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

'DpmtkyfrSm Delta PLC udk ajccHNyD; a&;om;azmfjyoGm;rSmjzpfygw,f/ taMumif; wkdufqkdif


wJh tcgwkdif; tjcm; PLC awGeJY EIdif;,SOfazmfjyay;oGm;ygr,f/
Discrete input interface
24 VDC Input

Figure 9a
yHk(Figure 9a) rSm DC24V signal ukd vufcHaqmif&GufwJh discrete input interface &JU
functional circuit diagram ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

Discrete input interface


110 VAC Input

Figure 9b
yHk(Figure 9b) rSm AC110V signal ukd vufcHaqmif&GufwJh discrete input interface &JU
functional circuit diagram ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; AC input rSma&m? DC input rSmyg optocoupler ukd oHk;NyD;
isolation vkyfxm;ygw,f/ tajccHtusqHk;vnf;jzpf? tawGU&trsm;qHk;vnf;jzpfwJh 24VDC
input signal ay;&wJh Compact PLC ukd rlwnfNyD; input interface taMumif;udk a&;om;
azmfjy oGm;ygr,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
44
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Figure 9c
yHk (Figure 9c) rSm oHk;xm;wJh Opto-coupler (Photo-coupler) xJrSm tvif;a&mif xkwf
vTwfay;wJh LED diode ESpfckudk tNrD;jyef? acgif;jyef? tNydKifquf antiparallel qufxm;yg
w,f/ Current direction b,fvkdyJpD;pD;? LED wpfvHk;vHk; uawmh rD;vif;rSm aocsmyg
w,f/ tJ'D LED ESpfvHk;uxGufwJh tvif;a&mifukd photo-transistor &JU base ay: wkdufkduf
usa&mufatmif csdefxm;ygw,f/ LED eJY photo-transistor twGJukd opto-coupler vkdY
ac:ygw,f/ olUukd jyifyutvif;a&mif r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif tvHkydwf? tvif;ydwf?
wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh optocoupler xJu LED rD;vif;wmudk jyifyu rjrif
rawGUEkdifygbl;/
PLC &JU input point udk jzwfpD;vmwJhvQyfppf currrent [m opto-coupler xJu LED xJ
ukdvnf; jzwfoef;pD;qif;wmjzpfvkdY? tJ'D LED rD;vif;NyD; photo-transistor ay:udk tvif;
a&mif usa&mufygw,f/ tJY'DtcgrSm photo-transistor ukd ON jzpfapygw,f/ Photo-
transistor = ON jzpfoGm;wJhtcg internal circuit u PLC &JU input status indicator LED ukd
rD;vif;apygw,f/
Input point ukd signal a&mufvkdY ON jzpfwJhtcg tJ'D input eJY oufqkdifwJh input LED
rD;vif;wmjzpfvkdY? b,f point rSm signal &Sdw,fqkdwmukd tvG,fwul odEkdifygw,f/ Meter
eJY wkdif;MunhfzkdY rvkdygbl;/ Input point udk jzwfpD;wJh current eJY internal circuit xJ (photo-
transistor xJ) pD;wJh current wkdY[m woD;wjcm;pD jzpfMuygw,f/ tJ'gukd galvanically
isolated vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Input point u 0ifvmwJh signal ukd internal circuit xJ
a&mufatmif ydkYaqmifay;wmu tvif;a&mifeJY ykdYay;wm jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh photo-
coupling (opto-coupling) vkdY ac:ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
45
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Output Interface
Output ydkif;uawmh CPU u xkwfay;wJh signal udk Output terminal twGuf oifhawmfwJh
signal trsdK;tpm;jzpfatmif ajymif;ay;wJhtvkyfu wpfck? PLC xJvSnfhywf pD;qif;wJh
vQyfppfeJY Output terminal rSm vSnfhywfpD;qif;wJhvQyfppf wdkUudk wpfoD;wpfjcm;pD jzpfatmif
isolation vkyfay;&wJh tvkyfuwpfck? pkpkaygif; tvkyf 2ck udk vkyfygw,f/
PLC &JU output rS m vnf ; signal type ESpfrsdK; &Sdygw,f/
Discrete output signal eJY Analog output signal wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/ CPU u xGufvmwJY
signal u binary signal (digital signal) jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D digital signal udk D/A Converter eJY
analog tjzpf ajymif;ay;jyD;rS output terminal u analog signal ukd xkwfay;wm jzpfygw,f/
'DpmtkyfrSm discrete output signal taMumif;ukdom a&;om;azmfjyrSm jzpfyg
w,f/
PLC rSm discrete output type oHk;rsdK;&Sdygw,f/
(1) Relay Output
(2) Transistor Output
(3) TRIAC Output (SSR Output) wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
tJ'DoHk;rsdK;pvHk;udk galvanic isolation &atmif wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
46
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Relay Output
Relay contact

Relay coil

Max. Switching Capacity : 2A, 250VAC (cos = 1) ; 2A, 24VDC


Figure 10. yHkrSm Relay contact eJY output point wdkY qufoG,fxm;yHkudk
azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

CPU &JU qHk;jzwfcsufeJYtnD internal circuit u output signal xkwfay;vkdufwJhtcg


(1) Output status indicator LED rD;vif;ygw,f/
(2) Relay coil energize jzpfygw,f/
(3) Relay &JU N.O contact [m close jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
Output wpfckpD rSm internal circuit wpfck? status LED wpfck? relay wpfck?wkdY yg&Sdygw,f/
Relay coil eJY tJ'D relay &JU contact wkdY[m galvanically isolated jzpfNyD; magnetically
coupled vkyfxm;ygw,f/
Relay coil xJpD;qif;wJh current eJY contact xJpD;qif;wJh current wkdY[m woD;wjcm;pD
jzpfygw,f/
PLC Output Relay [m N.O contact wpfckomygwJh Miniature Relay jzpfygw,f/
Voltage free contact jzpfvkdY AC a&m? DC yg jzwfoef;pD;qif;Ekdifygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
47
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Transistor Output
Transistor Output rSm PNP eJY NPN qkdNyD; ESpfrsdK; &Sdygw,f/ CPU u ckdif;vkdY internal
circuit u output signal xkwfay;vkdufwJhtcg?
(1) Output status indicator LED rD;vif;ygw,f/
(2) Optocoupler xJu LED rD;vif;vkdY phototransistor [m ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
(3) Output transistor vnf; ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/

Output
Transistor

Photo-transistor

Max. Switching Capacity: 50 mA at 4.5 VDC to 300 mA at 26.4 V


Figure 11. yHkrSm Transistor Output (NPN) eJY output point wdkY qufoG,fxm;yHkudk
azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

Output
Opto-coupler Transistor

Photo-transistor
Max. Switching Capacity: 50 mA at 4.5 VDC to 300 mA at 26.4 V
Figure 12. yHkrSm Transistor Output (PNP) eJY output point wdkY qufoG,fxm;yHkudk
azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
PNP yJjzpfjzpf? NPN yJjzpfjzpf? transistor &JU collector ukd output point eJY qufoG,f
xm;ygw,f/ PLC &JU Output Transistor [m open collector output type jzpfNyD;? DC vQyfppf
om jzwfoef;pD;qif;Ekdifygw,f/ PLC &JU output [m transistor output jzpfcJY&if PNP
'grSr[kwf NPN wpfrsdK;om ygavh&Sdygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
TRIAC Output
TRIAC Output ukd SSR (Solid State Relay) output vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Triac
output rSm oHk;xm;wJh opto-coupler xJrSm LED eJY photo-diac wkdY yg0ifygw,f/
CPU u apckdif;wJhtwkdif; internal circuit u output signal xkwfay;vkdufwJhtcg
(1) Output status indicator LED rD;vif; ygw,f/
(2) Photodiac ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
(3) Output Triac ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
Output Triac
Photo-diac

Opto-coupler


Max. Switching Capacity: 0.4 A at 100 to 240 VAC (50/60 Hz)
Figure 14. yHkrSm Triac Output eJY output point
wdkY qufoG,fxm;yHkudk azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
Triac Output ukd AC vQyfppfeJYom toHk;jyK&ygw,f/ tu,f DC vQyfppfeJY
qufoG,f toHk;jyKcJhr,fqkd&if ON jzpfNyD;wJh output point [m Triac &JU obm0t& OFF
jyefrjzpfawmhygbl;/
PLC &JU output type oHk;rsdK;udk atmufrSm,SOfwGJazmfjyxm;ygw,f/

Rated Valtage and Current


Output Type Switching Time
(Typical Value)
Relay 250VAC(2A) / 30VDC(2A) OFF to ON: 10 ms, ON to OFF: 10 ms

Transistor 30VDC, 300 mA OFF to ON: 0.2 ms, ON to OFF: 0.2 ms

TRIAC (SSR) 85V to 240VAC, 400 mA OFF to ON: 1ms, ON to OFF: 10 ms

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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Typical value qkdwm tawGU&rsm;wJh wefbkd;ukd ajymwmjzpfygw,f/ PLC &JU output


awG[m isolated output awGjzpfMuwJhtwGuf output terminal rSmqufoG,frIrSm;,Gif;vkdY PLC
ysufoGm;cJh&if output interface ykdif;yJ ysufpD;wmjzpfygw,f/ CPU wkdY Memory wkdYukd rxdcdkuf
rysufpD;apygbl;/ Compact PLC rSmawmh output interface ysufoGm;cJh&if PLC topf
wpfvHk;eJY vJvS,fwyfqif&rSm jzpfNyD; program udkvnf; jyefa&;xnfh&ygw,f/ Modular PLC
rSmqkd&ifawmh Output module topf wpfck vJvS,fwyfqifvkdufHkeJY PLC [m e*kdtwkdif;
tvkyfjyefvkyfEkdifygw,f/

PLC Status Indicators and I/O Status Indicators


PLC wdkif;&JU rsufESmpmay:rSm PLC &JU tajctaeawGudk azmfjywJh Status Indicator
awG yg&SdMuygw,f/ LED indicator lamp awGeJY azmfjyavh&Sdygw,f/ Status Indicator 3rsdK;&Sdyg
w,f/
Input signal awG&JU tajctaeawGudk azmfjywJh LEDs awGudk Input Status LED vdkY
ac:ygw,f/ Input terminal ta&twGuf&Sdoavmuf Input Status LED ta&twGuf yg&Sd
ygw,f/ PLC &JU input terminal rSm signal &Sd&if Input LED rD;vif;ygw,f/
Output signal &JUtajctaeudk azmfjywJ LEDs awGudk Output Status LED vdkY ac:yg
w,f/ Output terminal ta&twGuf&Sdoavmuf Output Status LED ta&twGuf yg&Sd
ygw,f/ CPU u signal xkwfay;vdkuf&if output LED rD;vif;ygw,f/
NyD;awmh PLC Status LED vdkY ac:wJh power &&Sd&ifvif;wJh Power LED &,f? PLC udk
RUN vdkufrS vif;wJh RUN LED &,f? rSm;aeNyD Error vdkY azmfjywJh ERR LED &,f?
'DoHk;rsdK;?oHk;pm;?uawmh PLC wdkif;rSmyg&SdMuygw,f/
tcsdKU PLC awGrSm PLC xJudk program a&;xnfhwJhtcg rD;vif;wJh Communication
LED ygwwfygw,f/
tcsdKU PLC awGrSm PLC xJu battery &JU tajctaeudk azmfjywJh Battery LED vnf;
yg&SdwwfMuygw,f/
User program u ckdif;xm;wJhtwdkif; PLC [m vkyfaqmifaeNyDqdk&if RUN LED
rD;vif;aeygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Octal number
Octal number
eJYa&wGufvdkY eJYa&wGufvdkY
Output u
Input u 24ck
16ck jzpfyg
jzpfygw,f/
w,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

tcef; (4) PLC ukd wyfqiftoHk;jyKyHktaMumif;/


PLC ukd wyfqiftoHk;jyKr,fqkd&if PLC ukd b,fvkd xkyfykd;xm;ovJ qkdwmudk azmfjy
wJh IP code number taMumif;ukd odzkdYvkdtyfygw,f/ IP udk Ingress Protection vkdYvnf; ac:
ygw,f/ International Protection vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ vHkNcHKatmifxkyfykd;rItqifhowfrSwf
csuf jzpfygw,f/ PLC awG[m vHkNcHKatmifxkyfykd;rItqifhowfrSwfcsuf IP 20 yJ &Sdygw,f/
'gaMumifh
(1) aea&mifjcnfeJY wkdufkdufxdawGU EkdifwJhae&mrSm PLC udk rwyfqif&ygbl;/
(2) tylcsdef 0C xufavsmheJwJh ae&meJY 55C xufykdrsm;wJh ae&mawGrSm PLC ukd
rwyfqif&ygbl;/
(3) a&aiGUpkdxkdif;q 10%RH xufavsmheJwJh ae&meJY 90%RH xufydkrsm;wJh ae&m
awGrSmvnf; PLC ukd rwyfqif&ygbl;/
(4) tylcsdef kwfw&uf ajymif;vJrIaMumifh aiGU&nfzGJUwwfwJh ae&mawGrSmvnf; PLC
udk rwyfqif&ygbl;/
(5) avmifpm;wwfwJh "gwfaiGU corrosive gas awG? qm;aiGUawG? rD;avmifvG,fwJh
"gwfaiGUawG? &SdwJhae&mrSmvnf; PLC udk rwyfqif&ygbl;/
(6) qDwkdY? a&wkdY? "gwkaq;&nfwkdY? eJY jzef;yufcH&EdkifwJh ae&mrSmvnf; PLC ukd rwyf
qif&ygbl;/
(7) wkefcgrI? cg&rf;rI? jzpfay:EkdifwJh ae&mrSmvnf; PLC udk rwyfqif&ygbl;/
'gawGuawmU PLC ukd wyfqifzkdYtwGuf OEM &JU Manual awGxJu xkwfEIwfazmfjy
xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ tck azmfjycJhwJh ae&mrsdK;rSm PLC ukd rwyfqifbJ? vGwfuif;wJh ae&m
rSm wyffqiftoHk;jyKr,f qkd&if PLC &JUoufwrf;&SnfMumpGm toHk;jyKEkdifrSm jzpfygw,f/
PLC &JU vHkNcHKatmif xkyfykd;rItqifh[m IP20 om &SdwJhtwGuf Panel 'grSr[kwf
Cabinet xJrSmom wyfqiftoHk;jyK&rSm jzpfygw,f/
tJ'Dvdk wyfqiftoHk;jyKwJh tcgrSm tylcsdefvGefuJrI'Pfudk rcH&atmif? av0if
avxGuf rQwrI &Sd&ygr,f/ 'DtwGuf tjcm;ypnf; awGeJY PLC &JUtMum;rSm&SdwJh tuGmta0;
udk 50mm (2 vufrcefY) cGmNyD; wyfqif&ygw,f/ 'Dae&mrSm OEM u owfrSwfwJh Mum;
tuGmta0;xuf ydkreD;ap&ygbl;/
tyl[m atmufbufuae tay:bufukd vGifhysHwufavh&SdvkdY tylxkwfvTwfwJh
ypnf;awG&JU tay:bufrSm PLC udk wyfqifjcif; rjyK&ygbl;/ rvTJom? ra&SmifomwJh
tajctaeaMumifh 55C xufausmfvGefwJh ae&mrSm PLC udk wyfqif&r,fqkd&if tat;ay;
ud&d,mukdoHk;NyD;? PLC ukd 55C txd ra&mufatmif pDrHxm;&ygr,f/ 'Dae&mrSmvnf;
OEM u owfrSwfwJh tjrifhqHk;tyl'D*&D Temperature xuf rausmfvGefap&ygbl;/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Panel xJrSm PLC udk wyfqifwJhtcg High Voltage Equipment awGeJY twlwla&mNyD;
Panel 1 ckxJrSm rwyfqif&ygbl;/
AkdYtm;jrifh0g,m Power cable awGeJY teJqHk; &SpfvufrcefY 200mm uGmjcm;atmif
PLC udk xm;&ygr,f/

Control panel xJrSm PLC udk


wwfqif&r,fhyHk jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
53
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

PLC eJYeH&HMum;
teJqHk;&dS&r,fh
tuGmta0;
jzpfygw,f/

Installation in Control Panel


When wiring input and output lines in ducts, keep a minimum space of 20 mm above
and below the PLC base unit for maintenance. To prevent excessive heat built-up, keep a
minimum space of 20 mm around the PLC unit for ventilation.

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Advised Installation Practices
Shield the PLC
The most common method of shielding, is to install the PLC inside a grounded steel
enclosure.
Proper Cable Selection
Use twisted, shielded-pair cable for the power cable and field wiring. Properly terminate
the shields of all cables to a single-point high-quality ground.
Ground the PLC
The purpose of grounding the PLC is to protect the electronic equipment from electric
shock and harmful noise. To ground the PLC, connect a 12 to 16 gauge wire from the frame
ground terminal strip screw of the controller to a high quality earth ground (less then 2 ).
Since electrical currents always take the path of least resistance, the noise currents induced
by a magnetic field will flow through the PLC frame ground terminal screw to earth ground.
This essentially draws the noise away from the PLC modules.
The most effective method of grounding the PLC frame is to ground the PLC
independent of other equipment. Avoid grounding the PLC through a daisy chain of wire
connections with other equipment.
See figures below for good and bad examples:

'Dvdkqufyg 'DvdkrqufeJY
The length of the ground cable should not exceed 65 feet (20 m). For best results, the
resistance of the ground cable should be less than 2 .
Grounding (Earthing)
vQyfppfoHvkdufvdIif;rsm;aMumifh PLC udk taESmifht,Suf rjzpfapzkdYeJY ukdifwG,f toHk;
jyKwJhvludk vQyfppftE&m,frusa&mufatmif umuG,fzkdY twGuf Ground (Earth) aumif;
aumif; csxm;ay;&ygr,f/ Earth Resistance [m 100 (100 tkrf;) xuf rykdap&ygbl;/
Earth BudK;uvnf; 2mm (2 pwk&ef; rDvDrDwm) xufrao;i,fap&ygbl;/ Wire qufoG,f
wJhtcg wire lug (crimp connector) ukd toHk;jyK&ygr,f/ Terminal screw ukd wif;MuyfrI tight
vkyfwJhtcg wif;tm;u 0.5Nm to 0.6Nm twGif; &Sd&ygr,f/ Earth cswm&JU &nf&G,fcsufu
rawmfwq vQyfppf,kdpdrfhrI leakage jzpfcJh&if vludk tE&m,fuif;apzkdY jzpfygw,f/ Earth
terminal rSm PE (Protective Earth) vkdY a&;xm;avh &Sdygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

PLC &JU Input eJY Output awGrSm yg&SdwJh COM (common) terminal udk b,fawmhrS
earth rcs&ygbl;/ Shielded cable &JUtpGef; 2zufpvHk;udk ground cscJY&if yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwdkif;
ground loop jzpfay:vmygw,f/

Ground loop jzpfaeovm;qdkwmudk odcsif&if

'D

udk

'Dvdk jzKwfNyD;

eJY

'Dvdk wdkif;MunfhvdkY tkrf; ohm jycJh&if wdkif;yg


ground loop &dSaeygw,f/

Procedure for identifying ground loops

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

In normal low-noise environments such as closed-room control cabinets, it is possible to


operate the PLC without frame grounding. However, it is necessary to ground the PLC for
noisy environments, and is recommended for all installations regardless of electronic noise
levels.
For the frame ground, use a cable of at least 14 AWG (2 mm) in size. The ground should
be exclusive to the PLC. Sharing the ground connection with other devices can cause
problems due to ground loops and current feedback.

Safety
In any industrial design, safety must be a first priority in that the designer(s) must take
all reasonable steps to ensure a person or persons cannot be harmed in any way whilst the
system is being operated.
There are now European Machinery Safety Standards, which also include the control
systems of the machinery. These can be summarised as follows:
1. All emergency circuits such as emergency stop buttons and safety guard switches
must be hardwired and not depend on software, i.e. PLCs or electronic logic gates.
2. A designer(s) must carry out a risk assessment procedure. In addition the procedure
must be documented for possible inspection at any time.
3. Implement any changes to the design to limit any risk, as far as possible.
4. Ensure that where there are remaining risks, the use of safeguards must be
implemented into the design.

Personal Safety
Personal Safety twGuf odxm;oifhwJh vQyfppf"gwfvkdufwJhtcg jzpfay:vmwJh
cHpm;& rI eJY tE&m,fawGukd atmufrSmazmfjyxm;ygw,f/
vlUcEmukd,fxJ vQyfppfjzwfoef; pD;qif;oGm;wJhtcg cHpm;&wJhcHpm;rIudk tqifh (7)
qifh cGJjcm;jyxm;ygw,f/
(1) 0 to 1 mA cHpm;od&SdrI? r&Sdyg/ Oyrm 5VDC
(2) 1 to 5 mA "gwfvkdufaMumif;? od&SdcHpm;&ygw,f/ Oyrm? 24VDC
(3) 10 to 20 mA tE&m,f&SdwJh "gwfvkdufrIvkdY owfrSwfygw,f/ Oyrm? 120VAC
(4) 20 to 50 mA taMumqGJNyD; tE&m,fBuD;ygw,f/ Oyrm? 220VAC
(5) 50 to 100 mA tjyif;txef emusifNyD; arharsmoGm;Ekdifygw,f/
(6) 100 to 300 mA ESvHk;ckef &yfoGm;Ekdifygw,f/
(7) 300 mA xuf ykdrsm;&if? toufI&yfoGm;wm? rD;avmifuRrf;wm? jzpfEkdifygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
58
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
PLC uk d vH k N cH K atmif xk y f y k d ; rI t qih f owf r S w f c suf /
vHkNcHKatmif xkyfykd;rI tqifhtwef;udk IP eJYvnf; owfrSwfygw,f/ NEMA eJYvnf;
owfrSwfygw,f/
IP qkdwmu IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) u owfrSwfwJh
standard jzpfygw,f/ IP udk Ingress Protection vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ International
Protection vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
IP 00 to IP 68 txd&Sdygw,f/
IP65 vkdY a&;om;xm;cJh&if a&SU*Pef;jzpfwJh 6 udk 1st characteristic vkdY ac:ygw,f/
aemuf*Pef;jzpfwJh 5 udk 2nd characteristic vkdY ac:ygw,f/
1st characteristic u xkyfykd;xm;wJh yHk;cGH? tdrfcGH? enclosure xJukd t&m0wKypnf;awG
r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif umuG,fwJh tqihftwef;ukd cGJjcm;owfrSwfazmfjyygw,f/
2nd characteristic u xkyfykd;xm;wJh enclosure xJukd a&awG? t&nfawG? r0ifa&muf
Ekdifatmif umuG,fwJh tqifhtwef;ukd cGJjcm;owfrSwfazmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
1st characteristic ud k 0 to 6 txd tqihftwef; (7) rsdK; cGJjcm;xm;ygw,f/
IP0_ rSm ygwJh 0 &JUt"dyg,fu? umuG,frI vHk;0rjyKbl; vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP1_ rSm ygwJh 1 &JUt"dyg,fu? t&G,ftpm; 50mm xufykdBuD;wJh t&m0wKypnf;awG
r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif umuG,fxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP2_ rSm ygwJh 2 &JUt"dyg,fu? t&G,ftpm; 12mm xufykdBuD;wJh t&m0wKypnf;awG
r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif umuG,fxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP3_ rSm ygwJh 3 &JUt"dyg,fu? t&G,ftpm; 2.5mm xufykdBuD;wJh t&m0wKypnf;awG
r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif umuG,fxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP4_ rSm ygwJh 4 &JUt"dyg,fu? t&G,ftpm; 1.0mm xufykdBuD;wJh t&m0wKypnf;awG
r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif umuG,fxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP5_ rSm ygwJh 5 &JUt"dyg,fu? trIHY powder awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif umuG,f xm;
w,fvkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP6_ rSm ygwJh 6 &JUt"dyg,fu? trIeftrTm; dust awG vHk;0 r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif
umuG,fxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
59
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
2nd characteristic ukd 0 to 8 txd tqifhtwef; ukd;rsdK;cGJjcm;xm;ygw,f/
IP_0 rSm ygwJh 0 &JUt"dyg,fu? a&r0ifEkdifatmifumuG,frI? vHk;0rjyKbl; vkdY jzpfyg
w,f/
IP_1 rSm ygwJh 1 &JUt"dyg,fu? tay:uusqif;wJh a&pufa&aygufawG r0ifa&muf
Ekdifatmif? umuG,fwnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_2 rSm ygwJh 2 &JUt"dyg,fu? 15 apmif;wJhae&mu pifusvmwJh a&puf a&ayguf
awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif? umuG,w f nfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_3 rSm ygwJh 3 &JUt"dyg,fu? tay:ujzef;wJha&awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif?
umuG,f wnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_4 rSm ygwJh 4 &JUt"dyg,fu tzufzufu jzef;yufwJha&awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif
umuG,f wnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_5 rSm ygwJh 5 &JUt"dyg,fu? ykdufeJYxdk;yufwJha&awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif
umuG,f wnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_6 rSm ygwJh 6 &JUt"dyg,fu? tiftm;oHk;NyD;xkd;oGif;wJha&awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif
umuG,f wnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_7 rSm ygwJh 7 &JUt"dyg,fu? a&xJjyKwfusoGm;&ifvnf; a&awG r0ifa&muf
Ekdifatmif umuG,f wnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_8 rSm ygwJh 8 &JUt"dyg,fu a&xJepfjrKyfae&ifvnf; a&awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif
umuG,f wnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
Oyrm? IP00 vkdY a&;xm;&if? t&m0wKawG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmifvnf; umuG,f
rxm;bl;? a&r0ifEkdifatmifvnf; umuG,frxm;bl;? bmtumtuG,frS vkyfrxm;bl;? vkdY
qkdvkdygw,f/
Oyrm? IP20 vkdY a&;xm;&ift&G,ftpm; 12mm xufykdBuD;wJh t&m0wKypnf;awG r0if
a&mufEkdifatmifom umuG,fxm;NyD;? a&r0ifEkdifatmif umuG,frI vkyfrxm;bl;? vkdY
qkdvdkygw,f/
Oyrm? IP65 vkdY a&;xm;&if trIHtrTm;awGudk vHk;0r0ifEkdifatmif umuG,fxm;NyD;? ykdufeJY
xkd;yufwJha&udkvnf; r0ifEkdifatmif umuG,fxm;w,f? vkdY qkdvkdygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
60
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
NEMA 1 to NEMA 13 txd&Sdygw,f/
NEMA (National Electrical Manufactures Association) u owfrSwfxm;wJh vHkNcHK
atmifxkyfykd;rI tqihftwef; owfrSwfcsufukd atmufrSmazmfjyxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 1 qkdwmu trkd;tumatmuf Indoor rSmom wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD;?
tay:u usvmwhJ trIHIUawG r0ifEkdifatmif? rawmfwqvufeJY xdrd? udkifrdvkdY r&atmif?
wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f vkdY t"dyg,f&ygw,f/
NEMA 2 qkdwmu Indoor rSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD; tay:uusvmwJh trIHYawG?
tay:u usqif;vmwJh a&awGr0ifEkdifatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 3 qkdwmu trkd;tumrygbJ Outdoor rSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD; rkd;a& r0if
Ekdifatmif? ESif;uswJh'Pfukd cHEkdifatmif? trIHU powder eJY trIeftrTm; dust awG r0if
Ekdifatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 3S qkdwmu NEMA 3 twkdif; umuG,fay;wJhtjyif a&cJwJh 'Pfudkyg cHEkdif
atmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 4 qkdwmu Indoor a&m? Outdoor rSmyg wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD;? ykdufeJY yufwJh
a&udk cHEkdifatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 4X qkdwmu NEMA 4 twkdif; umuG,fay;wJhtjyif "gwkavmifpm;rI
corrosion 'Pfukd cHEkdifatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 6 qkdwmu Indoor a&m? Outdoor rSmyg wyfqiftoHk;jyKEdkifNyD;? trIHIUawGeJY
trIeftrTm;awG r0ifEkdifatmif? ykdufeJY a&xkd;yufwmudk cHEkdifatmif? a&xJjyKwfuswmudk
cHEkdifatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 6P qkdwmu NEMA 6 twkdif; umuG,frIay;wJhtjyif a&xJrSm MumMum
epfaeNyD;rS jyefvnfq,f,l toHk;jyKwJhtcg ysufpD;rIr&Sdatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 7 qkdwmu Indoor rSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD;? aygufuGJapwwfwJh "gwfaiGU
awG? trIHU powder awG &SdwJhae&mrSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKEdkifygw,f/
NEMA 9 qkdwmu Indoor rSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD; rD;avmifvG,fwJh trIeftrTm;
dust awG&SdwJh ae&mrSm wyfqifEkdifygw,f/
NEMA 12 qkdwmu Indoor rSm wyfqiftoHk;NyKEkdifNyD;? powder awG? dust awG?
yufjzef;wJh a&awG? pD;qif;vmwJh qDawG? r0ifEkdifatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 13 qkdwmu Indoor rSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD;? yufjzef;wJh qDawG r0ifEkdif
atmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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IP eJ Y NEMA EIdif;,SOfcsuf/
IP eJY azmfjyxm;wJh enclosure &JU ae&mrSm NEMA standard eJY owfrSwfazmfjyxm;wJh
enclosue udk tpm;xkd;oHk;pGJr,fqkd&if?
IP 20 &JUae&mrSm NEMA 1 udk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/
IP 22 &JUae&mrSm NEMA 2 udk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/
IP 55 &JUae&mrSm NEMA 3, 3X, 3S, 3SX wdkYudk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/
IP 24 &JUae&mrSm NEMA 3R, 3RX wkdYudk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/
IP 66 &JUae&mrSm NEMA 4, 4X wdkYudk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/
IP 53 &JUae&mrSm NEMA 5 udk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/
IP 67 &JUae&mrSm NEMA 6 eJYtpm;xdk;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/

NEMA Class No. eJY azmfjyxm;wJh enclosure &JU ae&mrSm IP Class No. eJY azmfjyxm;
wJh enclosure ukd tpm;xkd; oHk;pGJr,fqkd&if?
NEMA 1 &JUae&mrSm IP 10 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 2 &JUae&mrSm IP 11 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 3 eJY 3S wkdY&JUae&mrSm IP54 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 3R &JUae&mrSm IP14 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 4 eJY 4X &JUae&mrSm IP56 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 5 &JUae&mrSm IP52 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 6 eJY 6P wkdY&JUae&mrSm IP67 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 13 &JUae&mrSm IP54 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 12 eJU 12K &JUae&mrSm IP52 wkdYudk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/
IP Class No.eJY tpm;xkd;oHk;pGJvkdY r&wJh NEMA Class awGuawmh NEMA 7, 8, 9, 10,
eJY 11 wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
IP class No. rSm "gwkavmifpm;rI corrosion 'Pfudk cHEkdifaMumif; azmfjyxm;wm
r&Sdygbl;/
NEMA 4 eJY 4P u corrosion 'Pfukd cHEkdifygw,f/
NEMA 6 eJY 6P u a&xJjyKwfuswJh 'Pfukd cHEkdifygw,f/
NEMA 6P u a&xJ tMumBuD; epfjrKyfwJh 'Pfukd cHEkdif&nf &Sdygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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PLC Specification

Specification qdkwm tJ'D PLC eJUomoufqdkifwJh tcsuftvufawG? pkdufvuPm


awGukd azmfjyxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ PLC &JUudk,fa&;rSwfwrf; jzpfygw,f/ ukd,fodcsifwJh PLC
&JU specification ukd Internet website rSm&SmazG&,lEkdifygw,f/ Google Search Engine rSm PLC
&JJU model number eJY specification qdkwJhpmvHk;ukd space jcm;NyD;? kdufxnfhNyD; &SmvkdY&ygw,f/
PLC ukd 0,f,lvkduf&if PLC eJY wygwnf; Specifications a&m User Manual ukdyg vufcH
&&SdrSm jzpfygw,f/ PLC wpfvHk;csif;pD&JUtaMumif;udk tao;pdyfodzdkYtwGuf OEM &JU Manual
xJrSm Specification udk &SmMunfh&rSmjzpfygw,f/
PLC &JU udk,fxnfay:rSm twdkcsKyfazmfjyxm;wmudk Name Plate vdkY ac:ygw,f/
tao;pdyfodzdkYtwGuf OEM &JU Manual awGjzpfMuwJh Hardware Manual, Operation Manual,
User Manual awGrSm &SmMunfh&rSmjzpfygw,f/
erlemtjzpf Delta Automation u xkwfvkyfwJh PLC awGxJu DVP-14SS-11R2 &JU
Name Plate udk yHkrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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'D PLC [m DVP series jzpfNyD; I/O 14 ck yg&SdaMumif;udk DVP14 eJY azmfjyxm;wm
jzpfygw,f/ DVP-14SS rSmygwJha&ShpmvHk; S uawmh PLC udk,fxnf[m yg;vswJhudk,fxnf
Slim type jzpfNyD; Standard Function MPU (Compact PLC) jzpfwmudk azmfjyygw,f/ SS udk
PLC &JU type tjzpf rSwf,l&ygr,f/
DVP-14SS rSmygwJh aemufpmvHk; S u MPU (Main Processing Unit) jzpfaMumif;udk
az:jyNyD;? DVP-14SM vdkY a&;xm;&if Input Point Expansion Unit jzpfygw,f/
11R qdkwmuawmh 24VDC udk power supply tjzpfay;&NyD; Relay output ygwJh PLC
jzpfaMumif; azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
11T vdkY a&;xm;&if 24VDC udk power supply tjzpfay;&NyD; Transistor output ygwJh
PLC jzpfygw,f/

DVP14SS11R2T225020 vdkY a&;xm;wmu Serial eHygwfjzpfygw,f/ 14SS11R u


PLC &JU Model No. jzpfNyD;? R &JU aemufrSm&dSwJh 2 u Version No. jzpfygw,f/ T u
xkwfvkyfwJhae&m (Taoyuan) udk azmfjywmjzpfygw,f/ T &JU aemufrSm&dSwJh 2 u xkwfvkyfwJh
ckESpf 2002 jzpfNyD; 25 u xkwfvkyfwJh week udk azmfjyxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ (1 ESpfrSm 52 weeks
&Sdygw,f) / 020 u Batch No. jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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DVP-14SS-11R2 &JU Specification udk atmufrSmazmfjyxm;ygw,f/


DVP-14SS-11R2 ukd 24VDC power supply ay;&ygw,f/ Clean and Regulated
24VDC ukd DVP-PS02 power supply unit u xkwfay; ygw,f/
Power supply &JU t&G,ftpm; capacity ukd a&G;cs,fwJh tcgrSm vuf&SdtoHk;jyKaewJh
power (watt) xuf tenf;qHk; 15% ykdNyD;wGuf&ygw,f/ aemifwkd;csJU wyfqifr,fh I/O Device
awGtwGufjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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tJ'DrSmygwJh Program Capacity: 3792 Steps; Built-in EEPROM udk MunfhNyD;
"mwfcJxnfhp&m rvdkwJh PLC trsdK;tpm; jzpfaMumif; odEdkifygw,f/ 1 Step [m 1 Word (16
bits) eJY wlnDygw,f/

Input Point Electric Specifications qdkwmu tJ'D PLC &JU Input ydkif; taMumif;udk
azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
Input Type qdkwmu signal [m DC24V jzpfNyD; S/S terminal udk positive (+ ) jzpfjzpf?
negative () jzpfjzpf Sink or Source qufoG,fvdkY&wJh taMumif;udk azmfjyxm;wmjzpfygw,f/
Motion Level qdkwmu switching voltage udk ajymwmjzpfygw,f/ ON signal jzpfzdkY
twGuf 16V xuf rsm;&rSm jzpfNyD; OFF signal jzpfzdkYtwGuf 14.4V xuf enf;&rSm jzpfyg
w,f/
Responding Time About 10ms qdkwmu Input terminal rSm ON signal a&mufNyD;
10ms MumrS PLC u signal udk &&dSwm? todtrSwfjyKwm? jzpfygw,f/ Input interface &JU
signal transfer delay udk 10ms rSm xm;&dSw,fvdkY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/ 10ms xuf
wdkawmif;wJh (jrefqefwJh) electrical noise voltage awGudk signal tjzpf todtrSwf rjyKcsifvdkY
aESmifhaES;atmif delay vkyfxm;ay;&wmjzpfygw,f/ tJ'D delay time udk Data Register
D1020 eJY D1021 xJrSm0ifNyD; jyifa&;vdkY &ygw,f/
Input Interface taMumif;udk 'Dpmtkyf&JU pmrsufESm (43) rSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

Output Point Specifications qdkwmu output interface taMumif;udk azmfjyxm;wm


jzpfygw,f/ PLC &JU type [m DVP-14SS-11R jzpfcJh&if Relay output jzpfNyD; output terminal
1ck [m 1.5A (AC or DC Load) 0efudk xrf;aqmifEdkifygw,f/ tJ'gudk Load current vdkY
ac:ygw,f/ COM (common) terminal uawmh 5A Load udk xrf;aqmifEdkifygw,f/ AC
Load udk oHk;&if 250VAC xuf rausmfzdkYeJY DC Load udkoHk;&if 30VDC xuf rausmfvGefzdkY
owfrSwfazmfjyxm;ygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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PLC xJrSm xnfhoGif;wnfaqmufxm;wJh Output Relay &JU contact [m OFF (open)


uae ON (close) jzpfzdkY MumwJhtcsdefu 10ms jzpfaMumif;udk Responding Time About 10ms
vkdY azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ Contact travelling time = 10ms jzpfygw,f/
PLC &JU type [m DVP-14SS-11T jzpfcJh&if tJ'D PLC [m Transistor Output jzpfNyD;
output terminal 1ck [m 0.1A (100mA) DC Load udkom 0efxrf;Edkifygw,f/
30VDC xuf rydkwJh Load udkom toHk;jyKEdkifygw,f/ Output delay uawmh OFF to
ON = 15s eJY ON to OFF = 25s wdkY jzpfygw,f/

The PLC I/O Response Time:


The total response time of the PLC from the input signal to the output signal is
calculated as follows:
Response Time = input interface delay time + program scan time + output interface delay time

Input delay time &,f?Program Scan time &,f? Output delay time &,f oHk;ck aygif;
MumwJh pkpkaygif;tcsdefudk PLC &JU Total response time vdkY ac:ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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tcef; (5) PLC Wiring jyKvkyfyHk/

PLCukd wyfqif toHk;jyKawmhr,f qkd&if Panel xJrSm Mount vkyf wyfqif&yg


w,f/ wyfqifNyD;&if wiring jyKvkyf&ygw,f/
PLC Wiring udk
1/ Power Supply Wiring
2/ Input Wiring
3/ Output Wiring qkdNyD; 3 rsdK;cJGJjcm;a&;om;azmfjyygr,f/

Power supply Wiring


AC power supply ay;&wJh PLC trsdK;tpm; eJY DC power supply ay;&wJh PLC
trsdK;tpm; qkdNyD; PLC 2rsdK; 2pm; &Sdygw,f/
AC power supply ay;&wJh PLC rSmvnf; voltage range 2rsdK; &Sdygw,f/ AC100V eJY
AC220V wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/ tJ'D 2rsdK; xJu 1rsdK; ukd a&G;cs,fwJh cvkwf selector switch
wyfqifNyD; xkwfvkyfwJh PLC vnf; &Sdygw,f/ Autovoltage tjzpf 100VAC eJY 240VAC Mum;
BudKufwJh voltage ay;vkdY&wJh PLC rsdK;ukdvnf; xkwfvkyfygw,f/
trSm;t,Gif; rjzpfay:atmifvkdY PLC ay:rSma&;xm;wmukda&m? Manual xJrSm
a&;om;azmfjyxm;wmukdyg aoaocsmcsmzwfMunhfNyD;rS Power supply connection ukd quf
oG,foifhygw,f/
AC power supply ukd qufoG,fwJh tcgrSm isolation transformer udk oHk;NyD;? qufwm
taumif;qHk; jzpfygw,f/ Primary winding u oyfoyf? Secondary winding u oyfoyf?
separate winding yg&SdNyD; Faradays Shield ygwJh transformer rsdK;udk isolation transformer vkdY
ac:ygw,f/
Power Supply wiring vkyfwJhtcg two pole switch eJY fuse udk xnfhoGif;wyfqif
oifhygw,f/ Servicing jyKvkyfwJhtcgrSm personal safety &&SdzkdYjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

DC power supply ay;&wJh PLC trsm;pk[m 24VDC ukd power supply tjzpf
toHk;jyKMuygw,f/ Clean and Regulated 24VDC ukd oHk;wm taumif;qHk; jzpfygw,f/
Power supply &JU t&G,ftpm; capacity ukd a&G;cs,fwJh tcgrSm vuf&SdtoHk;jyKaewJh
power (watt) xuftenf;qHk; 15% ykdNyD;wGuf&ygw,f/ aemifwkd;csJU wyfqifr,fh I/O Device
awGtwGufjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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Input Wiring
Warning
Emergency and interlocking circuits must be configured outside the PLC. If such a circuit
is configured inside the PLC, failure of the PLC may cause disorder of the control system,
damage, or accidents.
Caution
Use a power supply of the rated value. Use of a wrong power supply may cause fire
hazard.
Use an IEC127-approved fuse on the power line outside the PLC. This is required when
exporting equipment containing PLC to Europe.
Use an EU-approved circuit breaker. This is required when exporting equipment
containing PLC to Europe.
Do not connect to the ground directly from the PLC. Connect a protective ground to the
equipment containing PLC using an M4 or larger screw. This is required when exporting
equipment containing PLC to Europe.
If relays or transistors in the PLC output circuit fail, outputs may remain on or off. For
output signals which may cause heavy accidents, provide a monitor circuit outside of the
PLC.

PLC rSm Analog Input (AI) eJY Discrete Input (DI) vkdY 2rsdK; &SdwJhtxJu discrete input
wiring taMumif;ukd qufvufazmfjyygr,f/
Discrete input trsdK;tpm;rSmvnf; signal 2rsdK; uGJjym;ygao;w,f/ tJ'guawmh AC
input signal eJY DC input signal wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/ AC input signal ay;vkdY&wJh PLC &JU
signal range uvnf; 2rsdK; &Sdygw,f/ wpfrsdK;u AC100V signal jzpfNyD; aemufwpfrsdK;u
AC200V signal jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

AC signal a&m? DC signal yg? BudKufwm ay;vkdY&wJh Omron PLC C200H-IM211 ukd
atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

12 to 24VAC/DC Input Terminal { Omron PLC C200H-IM211 }


C200H-IM211 rSm 12~24VAC/DC ukd Input signal tjzpf owfrSwf xm;ygw,f/
qkdvkdwmu C200H-IM211 [m Input Terminal ukd 12 to 24VDC signal jzpfjzpf? 'grSr[kwf
12 to 24VAC signal jzpfjzpf? input signal ay;vkdY&wJh PLC jzpfygw,f/
AC220V ukd power supply tjzpf ay;oGif;&wJh PLC awGrSm input signal u AC type
jzpfcJh&if 220VAC ukd signal voltage tjzpf ay;oGif;&ygw,f/ AC100V ukd power supply
tjzpf ay;oGif;&wJh PLC awGrSm input signal [m AC type jzpfcJh&if 100VAC ukd signal
voltage tjzpf toHk;jyKMuygw,f/
atmufrSm erlemtjzpf Omron PLC CQM1 ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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Omron PLC CQM1-IA121 Omron PLC CQM1-IA221

Power Supply ukd AC voltage ay;oGif;&NyD; input signal u DC type jzpfcJh&if tJ'D
DC voltage udk PLC xJuae xkwfay;avh&Sdygw,f/ tay:yHkrSmaz:jyxm;ygw,f/ tJ'D DC
voltage source udk sensor power output vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

erlemtjzpf Allen-Bradley MicroLogix 1000 ukd atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

DC24V udk PLC &JU Power supply tjzpfay;oGif;&wJh PLC trsdK;tpm; jzpfcJh&if
olU&JU input signal uvnf; DC24V yJ jzpfavh&Sdygw,f/

erlemtjzpf Mitsubishi PLC FX1N-24MR-DS ukd atmufrSmazmfjyxm;ygw,f/

DC24V
Power Input
Supply

DC24V
Output
for Output
sensors

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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ay;oGif;&wJh PLC trsdK;tpm;awGrSm ay;oGif;&wJh input signal
DC input signal
range twkdif;twm[m trsdK;rsdK;&Sdygw,f/ OyrmtaeeJY azmfjy&&if Omron PLC jzpfwJh
CQM1-ID111 eJY ID112 wdkYrSm 12VDC ukd input signal tjzpf owfrSwfxm;ygw,f/

CQM1-ID211 rSm 12 to 24VDC ukd Input signal tjzpf owfrSwfxm;NyD;?


CQM1-ID212 rSm 24VDC ukd Input signal tjzpf owfrSwfxm;ygw,f/ atmufu ykHukd
Munfhyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Omron PLC CQM1-ID112 Omron PLC CQM1-ID111


Input common ikwfukd S/S vdkYra&;yJ COM vkdY a&;xm;NyD; sink eJY source ajymif;quf
vkdY&wJh PLC awGvnf; &SdMuygw,f/ tay:ykHukdMunfhyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Omron PLC CQM1-ID211 Omron PLC CQM1-ID212


Omron PLC CQM1-ID211 eJY CQM1-ID212 wkdYuawmh sink or source qufvkdY&wJh
COM vkdY a&;xm;wJh PLC trsdK;tpm;jzpfygw,f/ tay:ykHukdMunfhyg/
t0ifikwf Input terminal eJY bHkoufqkdifwJhikwf COM Mum;rSm 24 VDC udk sensor eJY
series cHNyD; qufay;&wJh PLC u wpfrsdK;? Input terminal eJY COM terminal Mum;rSm Sensor
ukdom wkdufkdufqufay;&wJh PLC u wpfrsdK;? qkdNyD;awmh 2rsdK; &Sdygw,f/
PLC &JU jyifyuae 24VDC ay;p&mrvkdyJ input device udk t0ifikwf eJY COM ikwfMum;
wkdufkdufquf&wJh trsdK;tpm;ukd No-voltage contact input vkdY ac:ygw,f/
24VDC signal input type PLC awGrSm 'Dvkd 2rsdK; uGJjym;ao;w,fqkdwmukd rSwfom;
xm;&ygr,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

No-Voltage Contact Input trsdK;tpm;ukd yHk(A) eJY yHk(B) rSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

yHk(A) C200H-ID001 Source Input PLC yHk(B) C200H-ID002 Sink Input PLC
No-Voltage Contact Input Terminals of Omron PLC
atmufyHkrSm Internal 24VDC sensor supply ygwJh COM vdkY a&;xm;wJh source input
type PLC ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

yHk(A) C200H-ID001 Omron PLC


The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

atmufyHkrSm Internal 24VDC sensor supply ygwJh COM vdkY a&;xm;wJh sink input
type PLC ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

yHk(B) C200H-ID002 Omron PLC


yHk(A) C200H-ID001 eJY yHk(B) C200H-ID002 rSm azmfjyxm;wmukd aoaocsmcsm
Munhfvkduf&if PLC xJrSm 24VDC udk series jzpfatmifqufxm;wmukd awGU&ygr,f/
COM vkdY a&;xm;NyD; sink input vm;? source input vm;?qkdwm od&zkdY vufawGU
wkdif;wm cGJjcm;EkdifwJh enf;vrf;udk atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
1/ udk,fhvufxJrSm&SdaewJh PLC &JU t0ifikwfawGrSm bm0g,mrQ qufoG,f rxm;
bJeJY PLC ukd owfrSwfxm;wJh power supply ukd ay;oGif;vkdufyg/
2/ PLC ukd power supply ay;oGif;vkduf&if PLC ay:rSm&SdwJh power rD; vif;vm
&ygr,f/ PLC u power vufcH&&Sdwmukd azmfjywJh LED rD;vHk; ukd Power,
PWR, Pow, pojzifh a&;xm;wwfygw,f/
3/ PLC &JU t0ifikwfeJY bHkikwf COM Mum;rSm voltmeter ukd qufoG,fNyD; 24VDC
&Sdaeovm;? r&Sdbl;vm;? qkdwmukd wkdif;Munhfyg/ DC voltmeter rSm 24V jycJh&if
yHk(A) eJY yHk(B) rSm azmfjyxm;ovkdrsdK; t0ifikwfeJY COM ikwfMum;rSm 24VDC ukd

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
78
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
PLC xJu qufxm;NyD;om; jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D PLC ukd tjyifuae aemufxyf
24VDC ay;p&m rvkdawmhaMumif; xif&Sm;ygw,f/
4/ tJ'D PLC &JU &Sd&SdorQ? t0ifikwfawGukd 24VDC &Sdr&Sd? wkdif;Munhfyg/ wdkif;Munhf
wkdif;vnf; DC voltmeter u 24V jyaeygvdrfhr,f/ 'gqkd&if 'D PLC [mtjyif
u 24VDC qufoG,fay;p&m rvkdwJh PLC trsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/ COM
ikwfu tzkd (+) positive vm;? tr (-) negative vm;? qkdwmukdyg DC
voltmeter u jyygvdrfhr,f/
5/ txufygenf;twkdif; DC voltmeter eJY wkdif;MunhfwJhtcgrSm b,ft0ifikwf
rSmrS? bm voltage rS? r&Sdbl;qkd&if (voltage rjybl;qkd&if) 'D PLC [m jyify
uae 24VDC ukd qufoG,fay;&r,fh PLC trsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/
6/ PLC 1vHk;udk power supply ay;NyD; input terminal awGukd DC voltmeter eJY
wkdif;MunhfvkdY voltage awGU&SdcJh&if jyifyuae 24VDC ukd xyfrHqufoG,f
ay;p&mrvdkwJh PLC trsdK;tpm;jzpfNyD;? wkdif;MunhfvkdY voltage rawGUcJh&if
jyifyuae 24VDC ukd xyfrHqufoG,f ay;&r,fh trsdK;tpm; jzpfw,f
qkdwmukd tvG,fwul cGJjcm;odEdkifygw,f/
eJY tvkyfvkyfwJh PLC u tawGU&rsm;wJhtwGuf 'DtrsdK;tpm;eJY
24VDC signal
qufpyfNyD; qufvufa&;om; azmfjyoGm;ygr,f/
24VDC ukd input signal tjzpfqufoG,fwJh ae&mrSm PLC type tay:rlwnfNyD;
uGJjym;jcm;em;rI&Sdygw,f/
PLC twGuf input signal awG &,lay;wJhypnf;awGukd input devices vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Input devices tcsdKUukd azmfjy&&if? Push Button awG? Toggle switch awG? Limit switch awG?
Porximitty switch (sensor) awG? Motor overload relay contact awG? Photo sensor awG?
Liquid level switch, Pressure switch, Temperature switch, Flow switch, pwhJ ON/OFF
vkyfay;wJh device awG jzpfMuygw,f/
Input device awGeJY PLC udk qufoG,fzkdY t0ifikwf input terminal awG PLC ay:rSm
yg&SdMuygw,f/ tJ'D t0ifikwfawGukd input point vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Input channel
vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ IN0 (input zero), IN1 (input one) pojzifh 0 (zero) u pNyD;eHygwf
a&;xdk; wwfMuygw,f/ CH0 (channel zero), CH1 (channel one) pojzifhvnf; a&;avh
&Sdygw,f/ Input point awGeJY bHkoufqkdifwJh signal t0ifikwfukd COM0, COM1 pojzifh
a&;avh &Sdygw,f/
Input device awGeJY PLC ukd qufoG,fwJhtcg PLC &JU type ukd vkdufNyD; sink input
a&m? source input ukdyg? BudKufwm 1rsdK; a&G;qufvkdY&wJh PLC &Sdovkd? sink input om
qufvkdY&wJh PLC eJY source input om qufvkdY&wJh PLC qkdNyD; oHk;rsdK;oHk;pm; &SdMuygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

eJY Source input 2rsdK; xJu BudKufovkdajymif;vJ qufoG,fEdkifwJh PLC


Sink input
trsdK;tpm;u toHk;jyKol User awGtwGuf tqifajyvkdY toHk;rsm;ygw,f/
PLC &JU Input terminal rSm S/S vkdY a&;xm;wJh t0ifikwf[m sink input 'grSr[kwf
source input tjzpf ajymif;vJqufoG,fvkdY&wJh PLC &JU input common ikwf jzpfygw,f/ Input
common ikwfukd S/S vdkYra&;yJ COM vkdY a&;xm;NyD; sink eJY source ajymif;qufvkdY&wJh PLC
awGvnf; &SdMuygw,f/

yHkrSm
C1, C2, C3, C4 vkdY a&;xm;wmu COM1, COM2, COM3, COM4 wdkYjzpfNyD;
sink eJY source ajymif;qufvkdY&wJh COM awGjzpfMuygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

DC Source Input (AC Power Type)


When using the sensor power supply from the DC OUT terminals atmufrSmjyxm;ovdk
built-in 24VDC eJYvnf; sensor udk supply ay;vdkY&ygw,f/

DC Source Input (AC Power Type)


When using an external power supply atmufrSmjyxm;ovdk tjyifu 24VDC eJYvnf;
sensor udk supply ay;vdkY&ygw,f/

DC Source Input (DC Power Type)

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
81
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

DC Sink Input (AC Power Type)


When using the sensor power supply from the DC OUT terminals

DC Sink Input (AC Power Type)


When using an external power supply

DC Sink Input (DC Power Type)

AC Input

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

OyrmtaeeJY azmfjy&&if Omron PLC jzpfwJh CPM1A-30CDR rSm input signal common
ikwfukd COM vkdY a&;xm;ygw,f/ Sink input tjzpf qufcsif&ifvnf; qufvkdY&ovkd source
input tjzpf qufcsif&ifvnf; qufvkdY&ygw,f/

Power supply
Input

Battery Output

yHkrSm azmfjyxm;wJUtwkdif;
sink input tjzpf qufoG,f
csif&if COM qkdwJh t0ifikwfukd
24VDC &JUtrikwf(-) Negative
eJY quf&ygw,f/
Source input tjzpf
qufoG,f csif&if COM ukd
24VDC &JUtzkdikwf (+) Positive
eJY quf&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
83
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Sink input omqufvkdY&wJh Siemens PLC S7-200 CPU224 ukd atmufrSm azmfjy
xm;ygw,f/

Output

Input

Siemens u xkwfvkyfwJh Micro PLC trsdK;tpm;xJu S7-200 CPU224 qkdwJh PLC


rSm bHkoufqkdifwJh t0ifikwf (common terminal) ukd 1M, 2M vkdY M eJY a&;om;azmfjy xm;yg
w,f/ *smrefvkd (Masse = reference potential) bHkoufqkdifaomqkdwJh t"dyg,feJY M vYkd a&;
xm;wm jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
84
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Source input omqufvkdY&wJh COM trsdK;tpm; GE Fanuc PLC ukd atmufrSm


azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

t0ifikwfrSm S/S vkdYa&;xm;wmawGU&if Sink/Source qkdwJh t"dyg,fjzpfygw,f/ S/S


[m input signal common ikwfjzpfygw,f/ COM vkdY t0ifikwfrSma&;xm;&if sink input
tjzpfom qufvkdY&wJh COM vm;? source input tjzpfom qufvkdY&wJh COM vm;? sink
input eJY source input BudKufovkdqufvkdY&wJh COM vm;qkdwm aocsmodatmif avhvm
MunfhI &ygr,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
85
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

OyrmtaeeJY azmfjy&&if Delta PLC jzpfwJh DVP-32EH rSm input common ikwfukd S/S
vkdY a&;xm;wJhtwGuf sink input tjzpf qufcsif&ifvnf; qufvkdY&ovkd source input
tjzpf qufcsif&ifvnf; qufvkdY&ygw,f/

DVP-32EH [PLC]

atmufyHkrSm COM vdkYa&;xm;NyD; sink input tjzpfqufjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
86
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Output Wiring
PLC wkdif;rSm t0ifikwfeJY txGufikwfawGukd ae&mcGJjcm;NyD; wyfqifxkwfvkyfavh &Sdyg
w,f/ txGufikwfawGrSm 0g,mqufoG,fr,fqkd&if PLC &JU txGuftrsdK;tpm; Output
type ukd odatmift&if Munhf&ygr,f/
Discrete Output type PLC rSm Output trsdK;tpm; 3 rsdK;&Sdygw,f/ PLC 1vHk;rSm Output
type 1rsdK;om yg0ifavh &Sdygw,f/ PLC &JU Output type oHk;rsdK; uawmh (1) Relay output
(2) Transistor output eJY (3) TRIAC Output wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
(1) Relay Output trsdK;tpm;
Relay output PLC &JU txGufykdif;rSm Miniature Electromechanical Relay awG yg&Sd
ygw,f/ Relay &JU coil ukd 5V ay;&NyD; N.O contact 1ckomygwJh relay awGukd oHk;pGJavh
&Sdygw,f/ Relay coil udk PLC &JU internal circuit uae energize jzpfapygw,f/ Energize
jzpfzkdY? rjzpfzkdYukd CPU u qHk;jzwfcsufay;ygw,f/ Output contact eJY output terminal ukd
pmrsufESm 47 rSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; qufoG,fay;xm;ygw,f/ Output point 1cktwGuf Relay
1vHk; oHk;xm;ygw,f/ Output point 8ck &Sd&if tJ'D PLC xJrSm Relay 8vHk; yg&Sd ygw,f/ N.O
contact rSm 0g,mqufp&m tp 2p &Sdygw,f/ 1p udk Output terminal eJY qufxm;NyD;? usef
1p ukd COM (common) terminal eJY qufxm;ygw,f/ tJ'D 2p pvHk; PLC xJrSm qufxm;
wmjzpfygw,f/
COM terminal 2ck? 3ck? yg&SdcJh&if COM0, COM1, COM2, ..... pojzifh a&;rSwfxm;
ygw,f/ COM0 u b,ftxGufikwfeJY oufqkdifw,f? COM1 u b,ftxGufikwfeJY
oufqkdifw,f? qkdwm wdwdusus od&zdkYtwGuf PLC &JU specifications okdYr[kwf Hardware
Manual odkYr[kwf User Manual awGrSm &SmazGMunfhI&ygw,f/

yHkrSm FX1N-24MR udk erlemtjzpfazmfjyxm;ygw,f/


yHkrSm COM0 u Y0 eJY? COM1 u Y1 eJY? COM2 u Y2 eJY? om oufqkdifygw,f/
COM3 u Y3, Y4, Y5 eJYom oufqkdifygw,f/ COM4 u Y6, Y7, Y10, Y11 eJYom
oufqkdifygw,f/ Octal number udk toHk;jyKxm;vkdY Y8 eJY Y9 ryg&Sdwm jzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
87
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

&JU coil eJY contact Mum;rSm vQyfppfqufoG,frI vHk;0r&Sdygbl;/ oHvkduf


Output relay
tm;vrf;aMumif;eJYom qufoG,frI &Sdygw,f/ tJ'gudk electrically isolated, magnetically
coupled vkdY ac:ygw,f/

Relay&JUyHkukd erlemtjzpf azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ Relay tvkyfvkyfyHk oabmw&m; ukd


odoGm;apcsifvkdY jzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
88
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Output relay &JU coil xJpD;wJh current eJY contact xJpD;wJh current wkdY[m woD;
wjcm;pD jzpfMuygw,f/ Relay output &JU capacity ukd contact rating eJY azmfjyMuygw,f/
awGU&avh&SdwJh wefzkd; typical value u 250VAC, 2A okYdr[kwf 30VDC, 2A jzpfygw,f/
Contact open uae close jzpfzkdY MumwJhtcsdefumvukd OFF to ON transition delay
vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Switching delay vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
Relay output PLC rSm OFF to ON = 10 ms MumjrifhNyD;? ON to OFF = 10 ms Mumyg
w,f/ ON jzpfvkduf OFF jzpfvkduf tBudrfaygif; 300000 txd rysufrpD; toHk;jyK
Ekdifw,fvkdY specifications rSm a&;xm;ygw,f/ Relay Output [m voltage free contact
output jzpfvkdY output terminal udk AC eYJqufoG,f toHk;jyKvkdY&ovkd? DC eJYvnf;
qufoG,ftoHk;jyKvkdY &ygw,f/
(2) Transistor Output trsd K ;tpm;
Transistor output PLC &JU txGufykdif;rSm Transistor udk output device tjzpf
xnhfoGif; wnfaqmuf xm;ygw,f/ Output transistor 2rsdK; 2pm; &Sdygw,f/ wpfrsdK;u PNP
transistor jzpfNyD; usefwpfrsdK;u NPN transistor jzpfygw,f/ Transistor output type PLC &JU
txGufikwfawGudk qufoG,ftoHk;jyKwJh tcg DC wpfrsdK;wnf;udkom qufoG,fvkdY&ygw,f/


Internal circuit eJY output transistor Mum;rSm optocoupler ukd Mum;cH xnhfoGif;
wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/ tJ'gudk electrically isolated, optically coupled vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Internal circuit xJrSm pD;wJh current eJY Output transistor xJrSm pD;wJh current wkdY[m woD;
wjcm;pD jzpfMuygw,f/ Typical output capacity uawmh 30VDC, 200mA jzpfygw,f/
Switching delay uawmh OFF to ON = 20s jzpfNyD; ON to OFF = 50s jzpfMuygw,f/
Output ikwfuae current pD;xGuf&if source output vkYd ac:NyD; Output ikwfxJukd current
pD;0if&if sink output vdkY ac:ygw,f/ yHkrSm jyxm;ovkd NPN output jzpfcJh&if sink output vdkY
ac:ygw,f/ COM terminal uae current pD;xGufNyD; Output terminal xJukd pD;0ifygw,f/

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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yHkrSm jyxm;ovkd PNP Output jzpfcJh&if source output trsdK;tpm;vdkY ac:ygw,f/


Output terminal uae current pD;xGufNyD; COM xJukd pD;0ifygw,f/
PNP output qkd&if source output tjzpf COM ikwfukd tzkd (+) positive voltage eJY
qufay;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ NPN output qkd&if sink output tjzpf COM ukd tr () negative
voltage eJY qufay;&rSm jzpfygw,f/
(3) TRIAC Output trsd K ;tpm;
Triac output PLC &JU txGufykdif;rSm TRIAC ukd output device tjzpf xnfhoGif;
wnfaqmufxm; ygw,f/ Triac output udk SSR (Solid State Relay) output vkdYvnf;
ac:ygw,f/ yHkrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

eJY Output Triac Mum;rSm optocoupler ukd Mum;cHtjzpf xnfhoGif;


Internal circuit
wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/ 'Dae&mrSmoHk;wJh optocoupler u LED eJY photodiac twGJ
jzpfygw,f/ DIAC ukd diode AC vkdY vnf;ac:ygw,f/ Optocoupler xJrSmyg&SdwJh LED
uxGufwJh tvif;a&mif[m photodiac ay:usa&mufNyD; photodiac udk ON jzpfapygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
90
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Photodiac ON jzpfwJhtcg olYxJukd AC jzwfpD;EkdifNyD; Output Triac &JU Gate current


pD;oGm;vdkY Output Triac [m ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
Triac Output PLC &JU typical output capacity u 250VAC, 400mA jzpfygw,f/
Switching delay u OFF to ON = 1ms eJY ON to OFF = 10ms jzpfygw,f/ txGufikwfukd
qufoG,ftoHk;jyKwJhtcg AC eJYom qufoG,ftoHk;jyKEkdifygw,f/ DC eJYqufoG,ftoHk;jyK
cJh&if Output ON jzpfNyD;&if b,fawmhrS OFF jyefrjzpfawmhygbl;/ bmaMumifhvJqkdwmukd
Triac taMumif; em;vnfod&SdNyD;olwkdif; rSwfrdMuvdrfhr,fxifygw,f/
tckxd &Sif;vif;azmfjyay;cJhwmawG[m Compact PLC (Integrated PLC) ukd tajccH
NyD; a&;om;cJhwmjzpfygw,f/ Modular PLC rSmvnf; 'Dvkyfaqmifcsuf function awGtwkdif;yJ
aqmif&Gufygw,f/ Power supply module u oD;jcm;oyfoyf? Input module u oyfoyf?
Output module u oyfoyf? cGJjcm;wnfaqmufxm;wmyJ uGmjcm;ygw,f/

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91
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Compact PLC rSm yJjzpfjzpf? Modular PLC rSmyJjzpfjzpf PLC wiring eJY ywfoufNyD; jyefvnf
pkpnf; azmfjy&&if
(1) Power supply ay;wJhtcg AC eJY DC qkdNyD; 2rsdK; 2pm; uGJjym;ygw,f/ AC qkd&if
isolation transformer ukd oHk;oifhygw,f/
(2) Input signal ay;wJhtcg Analog eJY Discrete qkdNyD; signal type 2rsdK;uGJjym;
ygw,f/
(3) Discrete siganl ay;oGif;wJh ae&mrSmvnf; AC eJY DC qkdNyD; signal 2rsdK;2pm;
&Sdygw,f/
(4) DC signal ay;oGif;wJh tcgrSmvnf; Sink eJY Source qkdNyD; uGJjym;ygw,f/
(5) PLC &JU output rSmvnf; Analog eJY Discrete qkdNyD; output 2rsdK; &Sdygw,f/
(6) Discrete output rSm (1) Relay Output (2) Transistor Output PNP or NPN eJY
(3) TRIAC output qkNd yD; Output type 3rsdK; uGJjym;ygw,f/
(7) Relay Output udk AC okdYr[kwf DC eJY qufoG,ftoHk;jyK Ekdifygw,f/
(8) Transistor Output rSm PNP Output u source output jzpfNyD; NPN Output u
sink output jzpfygw,f/
(9) Transistor Output ukd DC eJYom qufoG,ftoHk;jyKEkdifygw,f/
(10) Triac Output ukd AC eJYom qufoG,ftoHk;jyKEkdifygw,f/
(11) Discrete Input rSma&m? Discrete Output rSmyg isolation yg&Sdygw,f/
(12) Isolation &JU obm0owdaMumifh Power supply ukd rSm;qufrdvkdYyJjzpfjzpf? I/O
wiring ukd rSm;qufrdwmyJjzpfjzpf? PLC ysufpD;oGm;cJh&if CPU eJY Memory wkdYukd
vHk;0rxdckduf rysufpD;apEkdifygbl;/
(13) Compact PLC rSm txufyg (12) rSmvkd rSm;vkdY PLC ysufcJh&if? PLC topf
1vHk; vJvS,fwyfqifNyD;? Configuration vnf; jyefvkyf&ygw,f/ Program
vnf; jyefa&;xnfh&ygw,f/
(14) Modular PLC rSm txufyg (12) rSmvkd rSm;vkdY PLC ysufcJh&if Power Supply
Module aMumifhqkd&if? Power Supply Module topf 1ck vJvS,f wyfqifHkeJY
PLC ukd jyefoHk;vkdY &Ekdifygw,f/ Output wiring aMumifh PLC ysufwmjzpfcJh&if?
tJ'D Output module udk topf vJvS,fwyfqifHkeJY PLC ukd jyefoHk;vkdY
&ygw,f/ Configuration jyefvkyfzkdYrvkdygbl;/ Program jyefa&;zkdY rvdkygbl;/
Modular System u Module wpfckcsif;pDom ysufpD;avh &SdwJh twGuf
troubleshoot vkyf&wmvnf; vG,fulygw,f/ jyKjyif&wmvnf; jrefqefygw,f/
'gaMumifh Process Control awGrSm Modular PLC ukdom toHk;jyKMuygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Control panel xJ r S m PLC ud k wwfqifxm;yHk

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
93
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

tcef; (6) Sink & Source taMumif;/


'Dtcef;ukd zwf&IavhvmNyD;oGm;wJhtcgrSm?
1/ Sink/Source &JUt"dyg,f?
2/ Sink output sensor ukd Source input PLC eJY qufoG,f&r,f?
3/ Source output sensor ukd Sink input PLC eJY qufoG,f&r,f?
4/ b,f PLC udk? b,fvdk sensor rsdK;eJY? qufoG,f&r,f? qdkwmawGukd aumif;pGm
em;vnf oabmayguf oGm;ygvdrfhr,f/
Sink/Source qdkwm dc current direction udk ajymwmjzpfygw,f/ PLC eJY wGJzuftoHk;
jyK&wJh discrete sensor awGrSm contact output sensor eJY transistor output sensor qkdNyD; 2rsdK;
2pm; &Sdygw,f/ Transistor output sensor qkd&if dc current om jzwfoef;pD;qif;vkdY &ygw,f/
+24V
yHkrSm 3-wire type sensor 1ckeJY Lamp ukd qufoG,f
xm;ygw,f/ DC power supply ukd yHkxJrSmazmfjy xm;wJh
+ twkdif; +24V eJY 0V vkdY a&;xm;&if Battery &JU (+) terminal
Sensor OUT
u +24V line eJY qufxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ Battery &JU ()
terminal u 0V line eJY qufxm;ygw,f/

'DyHkrSmvkd qufoG,fxm;wJY sensor ukd positive
Lamp
switching sensor vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Sensor activate jzpfwJhtcg
+24V line eJY OUT ukd qufoG,fay;vkdufvkdY positive
switching vkdY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/ Sensor activate jzpfwJhtcg
0V Sensor &JU OUT terminal uae vQyfppf? pD;xGufvmNyD; Lamp
xJukd pD;0ifoGm;ygw,f/ Lamp uvnf; ON jzpfygw,f/
+24V Sensor [m transistor output jzpfcJY&if PNP type transistor udk
toHk;jyKxm;ygw,f/
'DyHkrSmu negative switching yHkpH jzpfygw,f/
Lamp Sensor activate jzpf&if negative line 0V eJY OUT ukd

+
qufoG,f ay;vkdufvkdY negative switching vkdY ac:wm
jzpfygw,f/ Sensor = ON jzpf&if Lamp = ON jzpfygw,f/
Sensor
OUT Lamp = ON jzpfwJhtcg Lamp xJu current pD;xGuf vmNyD;
sensor &JU OUT terminal xJukd pD;0ifoGm;ygw,f/ Sensor [m
transistor output jzpfcJY&if NPN type transistor udk toHk;jyK
0V
xm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OUT terminal uae vQyfppf current pD;xGufvmwJh sensor rsdK;ukd source output sensor
vkdY ac:ygw,f/
OUT terminal xJ u k d current pD ; 0if o G m ;wJ h sensor rsd K ;uk d sink output sensor vk d Y
ac:ygw,f/
Sensor activate jzpf w J Y tcsd e f r S m output transistor u ON jzpf c J Y & if ol Y u d k N.O vd k Y
ac:ygw,f/
Sensor activate jzpf w J Y tcsd e f r S m output transistor u OFF jzpf c J Y & if ol Y u d k N.C vd k Y
owfrSwfygw,f/
PLC eJY wGJzuftoHk;jyK&wJh discrete sensor awG[m transistor output trsdK;tpm;
jzpfcJh&if open collector output trsdK;tpm; jzpfMuygw,f/ PNP transistor ukd output
transistor tjzpfoHk;cJh&ifvnf; tJ'D transistor &JU collector ukd output terminal eJY qufoG,f
xm;ygw,f/

tay:yHkrSm PNP transistor ukd output transistor tjzpf toHk;jyKxm;wJh source output
sensor ukd azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ PNP transistor xJ pD;qif;wJh dc current direction [m
emitter to collector jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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NPN transistor ukd output transistor tjzpf toHk;jyKxm;&ifvnf; tJ'D transistor &JU
collector ukd output terminal eJY qufoG,fxm;ygw,f/

tay:yHkrSm NPN transistor ukd output transistor tjzpf toHk;jyKxm;wJh sink output
sensor ukd azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ NPN transistor xJ pD;qif;wJh dc current direction [m
collector to emitter jzpfygw,f/
PLC eJY qufoG,fwJh Sensor wpfck[m PNP vm;? NPN vm;? qdkwmudk cGJjcm;odzdkY
vdktyfygw,f/ 'grSom b,f PLC udk? b,fvdk sensor rsdK;eJY? qufoG,f&r,f qdkwmudk
odEdkifygw,f/
Contact output sensor qkd&if dc current a&m ac current yg jzwfoef;pD;qif;vkdY
&ygw,f/ Contact output ukd voltage free contact (potential free contact) vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Oyrmjy&&if Electromagnetic Relay &JU output contact jzpfygw,f/
Contact qkd&if current direction 2rsdK;pvHk; jzwfoef;pD;qif;vkdY &ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
contact output trsdK;tpm;ukd sink jzpfap? source jzpfap? BudKufovkd qufoG,fvkdY &ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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Oyrm? Limit switch [m contact output trsdK;tpm; sensor wpfckjzpfygw,f/


Momentary contact awGrSm contact form oHk;rsdK;&Sdygw,f/
Form A, Form B eJY Form C wdkY jzpfMuygw,f/
N.O udk Form A vdkY ac:ygw,f/
N.C udk Form B vdkY ac:ygw,f/
N.O a&m? N.C yg? ESpfrsdK;pvHk;ygwmukd Form C vdkY ac:ygw,f/


yHkrSm
limit switch ukd sink output tjzpf qufoG,fxm;ygw,f/ Sink output sensor ukd
source input PLC eJY qufoG,f&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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yHkrSm limit switch ukd source output tjzpfqufoG,fxm;ygw,f/ Source output
sensor udk sink input PLC eJY qufoG,f&ygw,f/
Sink / Source eJY N.O / N.C udk qufpyfNyD;? aumif;aumif; em;vnfoabmaygufzdkY
vdktyfygw,f/ 'grSom PLC program udk zwfwJYtcg rSefrSefuefuef bmomjyefEdkifrSm jzpfyg
w,f/
Sensor &JU specification rSm wcgw&H sink / source eJY azmfjyNyD;? rsm;aomtm;jzifh
PNP/NPN tjzpfeJYom azmfjyavh&Sdygw,f/
PLC eJY qufoG,fzkdY sensor ukd a&G;cs,fwJhtcgrSmyJjzpfjzpf? vuf&Sd sensor eJY PLC ukd
qufoG,fwJhtcgrSmyJjzpfjzpf? sensor &JU output type ukd odatmif t&ifvkyf&rSm jzpfygw,f/
Sensor type ukd odNyD;awmhrS sink yHkpHeJY qufoG,f&rSmvm;? source yHkpHeJY qufoG,f&rSmvm;
qkdwmukd a&G;cs,f pDpOfEkdifrSmjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


yHkrSm azmfjyxm;wJh proximity sensor [m source output type jzpfwJhtwGuf PNP
transistor ukd output tjzpfoHk;xm; ygw,f/


yHkrSm azmfjyxm;wJh proximity sensor [m sink output type jzpfwJhtwGuf NPN
transistor ukd output tjzpfoHk;xm;wJh trsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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PLC &JU input rSmyg&SdwJh COM (common) terminal ukd sensor power supply &JU
negative (-ve) eJY wkdufkdufqufoG,fxm;&if sink input PLC jzpfNyD; COM terminal ukd sensor
twGufay;wJh power supply &JU positive (+ve) eJY wkdufkduf qufoG,fxm;&if source input
PLC jzpfw,fvkdY rSwfom;xm;Ekdifygw,f/
Sink input qkdwm input terminal xJukd DC current pD;0ifwmukd ac:wmjzpfNyD;? source
input qkdwm input terminal xJu DC current pD;xGufwmukd ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
Sink output qkdwm output terminal xJukd DC current pD;0ifwmukd ac:wmjzpfNyD;?
source output qkdwm output terminal xJu DC current pD;xGufwmukd ac:wm jzpfygw,f/

yHkrSm Flame sensor A, B, C 3ck pvHk;ukd PLC eJY qufoG,fxm;wJY yHkpH[m sink input
PLC yHkpH jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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Inductive Proximity Sensors

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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tcef; (7) Fail-Safe taMumif;/
'Dtcef;ukd zwf&IavhvmNyD;oGm;wJhtcgrSm?
1/ Fail-safe &JU t"dyg,fu b,fvkd&Sdw,f?
2/ Alarm system udk fail-safe jzpfatmif b,fvkd design jyKvkyf&r,f?
3/ Control system udk fail-safe condition &&Sdatmif b,fvkd pOf;pm;aqmif&Guf&r,f?
4/ N.O/N.C udk Fail-safe jzpfatmif b,fvkd pOf;pm;a&G;cs,f&r,f? qdkwmawGukd
aumif;pGm em;vnf oabmayguf oGm;ygvdrfhr,f/
Machine control rSma&m? process control rSmyg? control system csdKU,Gif;rIqdkwm
jzpfwwfygw,f/ tJ'DvkdcsKdU,Gif;wmukd system fail jzpfw,fvkdY ac:ygw,f/
Fail-safe qkdwmu csdKU,Gif;rIwpHkw&mjzpfay:cJh&if vla&m? pufyg xdckdufepfemqHk;HI;rI
tenf;qHk;jzpfatmif vkyfaqmifay;wmukd ac:ygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd fail-safe jzpfatmif tum
tuG,fay;wJh tpDtrHukd fail-safe design vkdY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
csdKU,Gif;rI failure jzpfEkdifwJh tajctaeoHk;rsdK; &Sdygw,f/
yxrwpfrsdK;u power supply failure jzpfygw,f/ Power fail vkdY ac:ygw,f/ 'kwd,
wpfrsdK;u signal failure jzpfygw,f/ Signal fail vkdY ac:ygw,f/ wwd, wpfrsdK;u
xdef;ausmif;wJhpepfcsdKU,Gif;rI control system failure jzpfygw,f/ System fail vkdY ac:ygw,f/
pufHk? tvkyfHkawGrSm 'Dvdk csdKU,Gif;rI failure awG jzpfay:vmcJh&if vla&m? pufyg?
rxdckdufrysufpD;ap&atmif pDrHaqmif&GufrIawGukd BudKwifpOf;pm;? pDpOfvkyfaqmif xm;Mu&
ygw,f/ vHk;0 rxdckdufatmif? rysufpD;atmif? rvkyfEkdifcJh&ifawmifrS? xdckdufepfemqHk;IH;rI?
tenf;qHk;jzpfatmif pDrHxm;Mu&ygw,f/
Fail safe design taMumif ; uk d process control Oyrmwpf c k e J Y &Sif;vif;azmfjyay;ygr,f/
a&uae a&aEG;aiGUjzpfatmif jyKvkyfay;wJh steam generating plant (boiler) wpfckrSm
boiler tkd; steam drum xJukd a&jznfhoGif;wJh ykdufvkdif;rSm a&oGif;Am; control valve wyfqif
xm;ygw,f/ tJ'D valve udk boiler feed water control valve vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Boiler water
level udk automatic level controller eJY control vkyfxm;ygw,f/
owfrSwfxm;wJh water level rSm a&tNrJ&Sdaeatmif? vkdtyfwJh setpoint xuf avsmhenf;
oGm;&if? a&ukdykdjznfhay;NyD;? vkdtyfwJh setpoint xufykdrsm;vm&if a&jznfhoGif;wmukd avQmhay;
&ygw,f/ Control valve ukd enf;enf;zGifh? rsm;rsm;zGifhvkdY? ckdif;wJh signal ukd controller u
xkwfvTwf ay;ygw,f/ Control valve wkdif;rSm signal r&&if (signal fail jzpfcJh&if) open jzpf
oGm;wJh valve trsdK;tpm; eJY? signal r&&if close jzpfoGm;wJh valve trsdK;tpm;? qkdNyD; ESpfrsdK;
ESpfpm; &Sdygw,f/
Signal r&&if yGifhaewJh valve trsdK;tpm;ukd F.O (Failure Open) trsdK;tpm;vkdY ac:yg
w,f/ Signal r&Sd&if valve [myGifhaeNyD;? signal ay;rS valve ydwfoGm;ygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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Signal r&&if ydwfaewJh valve trsdK;tpm;ukd F.C (Failure Closed) vkdY ac:NyD;? signal
r&Sd&if valve [m ydwfaeygw,f/ Signal ay;rS valve yGifhoGm;ygw,f/
Fail-safe jzpfatmifvkdY boiler feed water control valve ukd F.O (Failure Open) trsdK;
tpm; valve ukdyJ oHk;Mu&ygw,f/ 'grSom control signal jywfawmufoGm;cJh&if (control valve
qDukd signal ay;ykdYwJh line csdKU,Gif;oGm;cJh&if) valve [m fully open jzpfoGm;rSmjzpfygw,f/
Boiler rSm a&awGjynhfNyD; vQHusoGm;&ifvnf; steam qufrxkwfEkdifawmhwJhtwGuf
xdckdufepfemrI jzpfrSmygyJ/ 'gayr,fh boiler rSm a&vHk;0cef;ajcmufoGm;vkdY jzpfay:vmr,fh
xdckdufepfem qHk;IH;rIu ykdNyD;awmh BuD;rm;ygw,f/ Boiler a&cef;vkdY boiler tube awG
uGJcJhMu&ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh fail-safe jzpfzkdY boiler feed water control valve ukd signal-to-close
(Failure Open) F.O trsdK;tpm;ukd a&G;cs,fwyfqif toHk;jyKMu&ygw,f/
Industrial alarm system awGtm;vHk;ukd fail-safe jzpfatmif pDrHxm;Muygw,f/ Power
supply rjywfawmuf&atmifvkdY UPS (Un-interruptable Power Supply) ukd toHk;jyKMu&yg
w,f/ tE&m,fBuD;rm;wJh pufHkawGrSmqkd&if UPS ESpfvHk;ukd hot stand-by pepfeJY wyfqif
xm;Muygw,f/ tJ'gukd redundancy vkdY ac:ygw,f/ UPS ESpfxyfuGrf; wyfqif xm;wm
jzpfygw,f/ Hk;oHk; computer eJY tdrfoHk; computer awGrSm wyfqif toHk;jyKavh&SdwJh UPS
pepfu Off-line UPS pepfjzpfygw,f/ Computer ukd ay;ykdYxm;wJh vQyfppf"gwftm; jywf
awmuf oGm;rS UPS u tpm;0ifa&mufNyD; power ay;wJh tvkyfukd vkyfwm jzpfygw,f/
pufHkawGrSm oHk;wJh UPS u Online UPS pepfjzpfygw,f/ UPS uae xkwfay;wJh power
supply udk control system rSm tNrJwrf;oHk;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ vQyfppf"gwftm; jywfawmuf
oGm;rS UPS u power ukd ,loHk;wmr[kwfygbl;/ UPS rSmyg&SdwJh battery uae xkwfvkyfwJh
AC power udk tNrJoHk;aewm jzpfygw,f/ vQyfppf"gwftm;&&SdaewJhtcgrSm UPS &JU battery
ukd charge tNrJvkyfaeygw,f/ tJ'D battery u xkwfvkyfay;wJh AC power supply ukd control
system, eJY alarm system awGu tNrJ&,loHk;pGJaeMuwm jzpfygw,f/
Fail-safe alarm system wckukd Oyrmtjzpfjy&&if?
tylcsdefvGefuJvm&if toHjrnfNyD;? tcsufjyrD; vif;wJh Temperature High Alarm wckukd
pOf;pm;MunhfMu&atmif/
owfrSwfay;xm;wJhtylcsdefxuf ausmfvGefNyDjzpfaMumif;ukd temperature sensor for high
(TSH) u apmifhMunhfNyD; alarm system udk owif;ykdY&rSm jzpfygw,f/
Sensor uae alarm system ukd vQyfppftcsufjy signal eJY owif;ykdYwJhtcgrSm
enf;ESpfenf; eJY owif;ykdYvkdY&ygw,f/ wpfenf;u vQyfppfpD;aMumif;jzpfay:apwJh closed
contact (ON signal) eJY owif;ykdYwmjzpfygw,f/ aemufwpfenf;uawmh vQyfppfpD;aMumif;
jywfawmufapwJh open contact (OFF signal) eJY owif;ydkYwmjzpfygw,f/
Temperature Switch for High (TSH) u xkwfvTwfay;wJh alarm signal ukd &&SdwJh tcgrSm
alarm system u toHjrnfNyD; oufqkdif&m tcsufjyrD;jzpfwJh TSH qkdwJh annunciator lamp
rD;vif;&rSm jzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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Industrial alarm system awGukd fail-safe jzpfatmif design vkyfxm;MuwmjzpfvkdY OFF


signal (open contact) &rSom alarm jrnfygw,f/ Alarm sensor eJY alarm system udk quf
oG,fxm;wJh 0g,m signal line jywfawmuf oGm;cJh&ifvnf; oufqkdif&m alarm jrnfygw,f/
'DtcgrSm jrnf&r,fhtaMumif; r&SdygbJeJY alarm jrnfwmukd operator u odwJhtcg ppfaq;
MunfhI vkdufawmh 0g,mjywfwmudk csufcsif; odEkdifygw,f/
tu,fom industrial alarm system ukd ON signal &rS alarm jrnfatmif design
vkyfxm;r,fqkd&if alarm sensor uae ON signal (closed contact) ay;rS oufqkdif&m alarm
jrnfNyD; rD;vif;rSm jzpfygw,f/ wu,fvkdY alarm sensor eJY alarm system ukd qufoG,f
xm;wJh 0g,m signal line jywfawmufoGm;cJh&if alarm jrnfrSm r[kwfygbl;/ Alarm system u
ON signal &rS alarm jrnfatmif wnfaqmufxm;wmaMumifh jzpfygw,f/
'Dvkd 0g,mjywfvkdY jywfrSef;rod&bJ &SdaewJhtcsdeftcgrSm alarm sensor u ON signal
(closed contact) eJY alarm jrnfzdkYtwGuf signal ykdYvTwfcJh&if 0g,mjywfaeNyD; jzpfwmaMumifh
alarm system qDukd tJ'D signal a&muf&SdvmrSm r[kwfygbl;/ oufqkdif&m alarm vnf;
jrnfrSm r[kwfygbl;/ Alarm jrnf&r,fh xl;jcm;wJhtajctaerSm alarm rjrnfwm[m
tE&m,f BuD;ygw,f/ oifhawmfwJhta&;,laqmif&GufrIukd tcsdefrD rjyKvkyfEdkifMuvkdY jzpfyg
w,f/
'gaMumifhrkdY industrial alarm system awGudk wnfaqmuf toHk;jyKMuwJhtcgrSm fail-safe
jzpfatmifvkdY open-to-alarm jzpfatmif design vkyfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ tJ'Dvdk aqmif&Guf
wmukd open disturbance vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
Alarm rjrnf&r,fh omreftajctae normal condition rSm sensor eJY alarm system ukd
qufoG,fwJh signal line tm;vHk;[m closed circuit jzpfae&ygr,f/ vQyfppfpD;ae&ygr,f/
'grSom signal line open jzpfoGm;&ifvnf; alarm jrnfr,f/ xl;jcm;wJhtajctaerSm alarm
signal &cJh&ifvnf; alarm jrnfrSm jzpfygw,f/
Control system okdYr[kwf alarm system wpfckudk fail-safe jzpfatmif pDrHaqmif&Gufr,f
qkd&if system engineer wkdY? process engineer wkdYeJY yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ygw,f/ Fail jzpf&if
ab;uif;wJhtajctae fail-safe condition eJY control device awGukd ab;uif;atmif xm;&Sd
&r,fh taetxm; fail-safe position ukd olwkdYxHu twnfjyKcsuf &,l&ygw,f/
Fail-safe jzpf w J h condition eJ Y position uk d OD ; pG m twnf j yKNyD ; rS o m control system
okdYr[kwf alarm system ukd design vkyf wnfaqmuf&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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PLC program a&;wJh tcgrSmvnf; PLC &JU input device awGjzpfwJh sensor awGrSm N.O
output xkwfay;wJh sensor &,f? N.C output xkwfay;wJh sensor &,f? qkdNyD; ESpfrsdK;ESpfpm;? &Sdyg
w,f/ tJ'D sensor &JU N.O/N.C udk fail-safe jzpfatmifpOf;pm;NyD;? a&G;cs,f toHk;jyK&ygw,f/
N.O ukdoHk;rvm;? N.C ukdoHk;rvm;qkdwmukd t&ifOD;qHk;? pOf;pm;a&G;cs,fNyD;rS PLC program
ukd a&;&ygw,f/ N.O udk Form A contact, N.C udk Form B contact vdkYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/
OyrmtaeeJY ajym&&if? three phase motor control ukd PLC eJY aqmif&Gufapr,f qkd&if?
Start P.B ukd (N.O) oHk;NyD;? Stop P.B ukd (N.C) oHk;&ygw,f/ Motor ukd &yfcsifwJh tcgrSm
&yfvdkYr&wmu ab;tE&m,fykdBuD;w,fvkdY owfrSwfMuygw,f/ Motor ukd vnfcsifwJh tcg
rSm vnfvkdYr&wmeJY EIdif;pm&if motor ukd &yfcsifwJhtcgrSm &yfvdkYr&wmu ykdNyD;xdckduf epfem
qHk;IH;rIBuD;rm;w,fvkdY owfrSwfygw,f/
PLC &JU input point wpfck ukd Start P.B (N.O) eJY qufoG,fNyD;? Input point aemuf wck
rSm Stop P.B (N.C) ukd qufoG,f&ygw,f/ Motor vnfywfaewJh tcsdefrSm taMumif;
wpHkw&m aMumifh Stop P.B uvmwJh wire jywfawmufoGm;cJh&if Motor &yfoGm;ygvdrhfr,f/
tJ'Dvdk jzpfrS fail-safe jzpfygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd fail-safe jzpfatmif Stop P.B ukd N.C tjzpf
a&G;cs,f toHk;jyKcJhwm jzpfygw,f/
Fail-safe start/stop PLC program ukd 'Dpmtkyf&JU pmrsufESm (175) rSm Munhfyg/
N.O eJY N.C ukd Normally Open eJY Normally Closed vkdY ac:Muygw,f/ Oyrm?
electromagnetic relay wpfvHk;rSm N.O contact eJY N.C contact awG yg&SdMuygw,f/
Relay &JU N.O contact u relay ukd power ray;xm;&if open jzpfaewJh contact jzpfyg
w,f/
Relay &JU N.C contact uvnf; Relay ukd power ay;rxm;&if closed jzpfaewJh contact
jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh t"dyg,fay:vGifatmif 'DvkdrSwfom;oifhygw,f/
N.O ukd No-energy Open, N.C ukd No-energy Closed vdkY rSwf&if ydkaumif;ygw,f/
N.O ukd Non-activate Open, N.C ukd Non-activate Closed vkdY rSwfxm;&ifvnf;
t"dyg,fay:vGifygw,f/
Normal qkdwJhpum;vHk;u t"dyg,f a&maxG;apEkdifygw,f/ ac:aeusjzpfvkdY N.O ukd
Normally Open, N.C udk Normally Closed vkdY ac:wmuawmh ac:&ajym&rSmjzpfayr,fh
b,fvkdtcgrSm Open jzpfwmvJ? b,fvkdtcgrSm Close jzpfwmvJ? qkdwmukd tvG,fwul
od&Sd rSwfrdzkdYtwGuf N.O ukd r&Sd&if Open, N.C ukd r&Sd&if Closed vkdY em;vnf&rSm jzpfyg
w,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
105
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Oyrm? level alarm system wpfck rSm normal level qkdwmu yHkrSef&Sdae&r,fY level
jzpfygw,f/ High level qkdwmu tJ'D level ukd a&mufvm&if High Alarm jrnf&rSm jzpfyg
w,f/ Low level qkdwmu tJ'D level txd usqif;oGm;&if Low Alarm jrnf&rSm jzpfyg
w,f/ 'D level alarm system ukd design vkyfwJhtcg fail-safe jzpfatmif yxrpOf;pm;NyD;
level sensor awGukd N.O oHk;&rSmvm;? N.C oHk;&rSmvm;? qkdwmukd OD;pGm qHk;jzwf&ygw,f/
Fail-safe jzpfatmif tck pOf;pm;Munhf&atmif/ Low level sensor udk N.O oHk;&rvm;?
N.C oHk;&rvm;? b,fvkdqHk;jzwfrvJ/
Fail-safe jzpfatmif wnfaqmufr,fqkd&if alarm system [m open-to-alarm type
jzpf&ygr,f/ 'Dawmh level low jzpfcJh&if level sensor u OFF signal (open contact)
xkwfay;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ Level low qkdwmu avsmhenf;wm? &Sdoifhoavmufr&Sdwm ukd
ajymwm jzpfvkdYrkdY? r&Sd&if open jzpfwJh N.O ukd a&G;cs,f&rSmjzpfygw,f/
Normal level qkdwmu low level xufrsm;ygw,f? high level xufeJygw,f/
High level sensor ukd N.O oHk;&rvm;? N.C oHk;&rvm;qkdwm tck pOf;pm;Munhf&atmif/
Level high jzpf&if high alarm jrnfcsifwm jzpfygw,f/ Fail-safe jzpfatmifvdkY tckoHk;aewJh
alarm system u open-to-alarm jzpf&ygr,f/ 'gaMumifh level high jzpf&if high level sensor u
OFF signal (open contact) xkwfay;&rSmjzpfygw,f/
High level qkdwm normal level xuf rsm;wm jzpfNyD;? high level sensor txd level u
a&muf&Sdvmwm jzpfwJhtwGuf level &SdwmjzpfvkdY level high jzpf&if open jzpf&ygr,f/ Level
&Sd&if open qkdawmh? Level r&Sd&if close jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh high level sensor twGuf
N.C ukd a&G;cs,f&rSm jzpfygw,f/
Normal level condition rSm level [m low vnf;rjzpf? high vnf;rjzpfwJhtwGuf low
level sensor u ON signal (closed contact) xkwfay;aeygw,f/ High level sensor uvnf;
ON signal (closed contact) xkwfay;aeygw,f/ Alarm system uvnf; OFF signal &rS
jrnf&wJh trsdK;tpm;jzpfaevkdY normal level rSm bm alarm rS rjrnfygbl;/
PLC &J U input
rSm qufoG,f&wJh discrete sensor awGukd a&G;cs,fwyfqifwJhtcg
N.O/N.C ud k Fail-safe eJ Y pOf ; pm;&ygw,f /
PNP/NPN uk d a wmh PLC &J U input [m sink vm;? source vm;? qk d w meJ Y pOf ; pm; a&G ; cs,f
&ygw,f/
Sink/Source taMumif;ukd pmrsufESm (94) rSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
106
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Sensing Distance of Inductive Proximity Sensor


awG&JU odEdkifpGrf; sensitivity [m target material udkvdkufNyD; tuGmta0; jcm;em;
Sensor
ygw,f/ txufrSm erlemtjzpf Inductive Proximity Sensor &JU odEdkifpGrf;jcm;em;rIudk az:jy
xm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
107
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

tcef; (8) PLC rSm oHk;wJh Number System taMumif;/

Memory xJu a&;rSwfp&mae&m tao;qHk;ae&m 1ckukd cell vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Bit


(Binary digit) vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ tJ'D rSwfp&m ae&m 1ae&m rSm a&;rSwfxm;wm &Sd&if?
1 (one) vkdY ac:NyD;? tJ'Dae&mrSm bmrQa&;rSwfrxm;&if 0 (zero) vkdY ac:ygw,f/
1 [m a&;rSwfxm;wJh data &Sdw,f? vkdY qkdvkdwm jzpfygw,f/
0 [m a&;rSwfxm;wmr&SdvkdY Avmjzpfaew,f? vkdY qkdvkdwm jzpfygw,f/
Bit 4ck pkpnf;xm;wmudk Nibble vkdY ac:ygw,f/ a&;rSwfp&mae&m 4ae&mudk
pepfwus pkzGJUxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ 4 Bits = 1 nibble jzpfygw,f/
Bit 8ck ukd pepfwus pkzGJUxm;&if Byte vkdY ac:ygw,f/ 8 Bits = 1 byte jzpfygw,f/
aemufwpfenf; ajym&&if 2 Nibbles = 1 byte jzpfygw,f/
Bit 16ck udk pepfwus pkzGJUxm;&if Word vkdY ac:ygw,f/
16 bits = 1 word, 2 bytes = 1 word, 4 nibbles = 1 word jzpfygw,f/
Bit 32ck ukd wpfpkxJjzpfatmif pkzGJUxm;wmukd Double Word vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Word
2ck ygwJh tpktzGJUjzpfygw,f/
PLC xJrSm Counter udk 16-bit Counter eJY 32-bit Counter qkdNyD; owfrSwf ac:a0:Mu
ygw,f/
Memory xJu a&;rSwfp&mae&m jzpfwJh bit &JU ae&mudk &nfTef;ajymqkdwJhtcg?
ae&mukd Tef;wJh vdyfpm ukd Address vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Memory xJ a&;rSwfwJhtcg bit ae&m 1ck rSm a&;rS w f x m;wJ h t ajctae 1 (one) eJY
a&;rSwfrxm;wJhtajctae 0 (zero) qkdNyD;awmh tajctae 2rsdK;om&Sdygw,f/ 'D 2rsdK;
wnf;aom tajctaeukd binary vkdY ac:ygw,f/ *Pef; 2vHk; 0 eJY 1 om ygvkdY 2 digits vkdY
vnf; ac:ygw,f/ 2 digits eJY a&wGufwJh ocsFmpepfukd binary number system vkdY ac:yg
w,f/
Computer wkdif;[m binary eJYyJ tvkyfvkyfygw,f/ PLC uvnf; Industrial Computer
jzpfvkdY binary eJYyJ tvkyfvkyfygw,f/
vQyfppftcsufjy electric signal &Sd&if? 1 (one) vkdY ac:NyD; vQyfppftcsufjy r&Sd&if 0
(zero) vkdY ac:ygw,f/
ocsFm a&wGufenf;pepf numbering system ig;rsdK; &Sdygw,f/ PLC rSmtoHk;jyKwJh
number system jzpfygw,f/ PLC udk avhvmwJhtcg 'D number system awGudk odxm;zkdY
vkdtyfygw,f/ rodrjzpfodrSwfxm;zkdY vkdtyfoavmufudkom 'DpmtkyfrSm azmfjyay;xm;wm
jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

PLC eJY ywfoufwJh number system 5 rsdK; uawmh atmufygtwkdif;jzpfygw,f/


1/ Decimal Number System (q,fvD pepf)
2/ Binary Number System (ESpfvD pepf)
3/ Octal Number System (&SpfvD pepf)
4/ Hexadecimal Number System (q,fhajcmufvD pepf)
5/ BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Number System (0 eJY 1 udkom toHk;jyKNyD;a&
wGufwJh q,fvD pepf) wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
vlawGoHk;aewJh a&wGufenf;pepfukd q,fvDpepf decimal number system vkdY ac:yg
w,f/ 0 uae 9 txd *Pef; 10 vHk; udkom toHk;jyKa&wGufygw,f/ *Pef; 10 vHk;udk
tajcjyKNyD; a&wGufvkdY base 10 vkdY ac:ygw,f/ q,fvDpepfrSm ta&twGuftm;jzifh bmrS
r&Sdwmudk 0 (zero) vkdY a&;rSwfNyD;? wpfck&Sd&if 1, ESpfck&Sd&if 2, ukd;ck&Sd&if 9, q,fck&Sd&if 10,
vkdY a&;rSwfavh&Sdygw,f/
Industrial Computer jzpfwJh PLC rSm oHk;wJh number uawmh 0 (zero) eJY? 1 (one) uko d m
toHk;jyKNyD;? a&wGufygw,f/ 2 digits yJ&SdwJhtwGuf binary ESpfvDpepfvdkY ac:ygw,f/ Binary
pepfrSm ta&twGuf tm;jzifh bmrSr&Sdwmukd 0 (zero) eJY wpfck&Sdwmudk 1 (one) vkdY a&;rSwf
NyD;? wpfck&Sd&if 1, ESpfck&Sd&if 10, oHk;ck&Sd&if 11, av;ck&Sd&if 100, pojzifh a&;rSwf&wJh
ocsFmpepf? jzpfygw,f/
(1) Decimal Number System (q,f v D pepf jzifha&wGufjcif;)
Number System udk avhvmwJhtcg udef;*Pef;awGukd ae&mcsxm;yHkrwl&if *Pef;
csif;? wlayr,fh wefzdk;csif;? rwlwmudk *kjyKavhvm&ygr,f/
Oyrm decimal number system rSm 23 eJY 32 vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if 23 rSm ygwJh 2, eJY 32
rSmygwJh 2, wkdY[m 2 qkdwJh *Pef;csif; wlaomfvnf; ae&m,lwmrwlMuwJhtwGuf wefzkd;
csif; rwlnDwmudk *kjyK rSwfom; &ygr,f/
23 rSmygwJh 2 &JU wefzkd;u (10 x 2) jzpfygw,f/ 32 rSmygwJh 2 &JU wefzkd;u (1 x 2) jzpf
ygw,f/ i,fpOf ocsFmoif,lcJhwkef;u ck? q,f? &m qkdwmudk rSwfrdaeMur,f xifygw,f/
tJ'gukd ae&mtvkdufwefzkd; placement value vdkY ac:ygw,f/ Weighted value vkdYvnf;
ac:ygw,f/
ta&twGufudk udef;*Pef;eJY csa&;wJhtcg nmtpGef;qHk;? udef;*Pef;u wefzkd;
ti,fqHk;jzpfNyD; b,ftpGefqHk;? udef;*Pef;u wefzkd;tBuD;qHk; jzpfygw,f/ Decimal number
rSma&m? Binary number rSmyg? 'Dtwkdif; twlwlyJ jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Decimal number rSm nmtpGefqHk;upNyD; b,fbufukd 10 qpD wkd;oGm;ygw,f/


Binary number rSm nmtpGefqHk;upNyD; b,fbufukd 2 qpD wkd;oGm;ygw,f/
Octal number rSm b,fbufukd 8 qpD wkd;oGm;ygw,f/
Hexadecimal number rSm b,fbufukd 16 qpD wkd;oGm;ygw,f/
Oyrm/ Decimal number 4629 ukd yHkpHcsjy&if 'DvdkjrifawGU&ygw,f/
power
103 102 101 100

base
1000 100 10 1 weighted values of the position
4 6 2 9

= (1000 4) + (100 6) + (10 2) + ( 1 9)


= 4000 + 600 + 20 + 9 = 4629 10
(2) Binary Number System (ES pf v D pepf jzifha&wGufjcif;)
Binary numbering system eJY a&;wJhtcgrSmawmh olUrSmu 0 eJY 1 qkdwJh *Pef; 2 rsdK;yJ
&Sdwm rkdYvkdY base 2 vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Oyrm? binary eJY a&;xm;wJh 1011 2 udk yHkpHcsMunfh&if 'Dvkd
jrifawGU&ygr,f/
power
23 22 21 20

base
8 4 2 1 weighted values of the position
1 0 1 1
= (8 1) + (4 0) + (2 1) + ( 1 1)
= 8 + 0 + 2 + 1 = 11 10
jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh 1011 2 [m 11 10 eJY wefzkd;csif;wlnDygw,f/
1011 2 vkdY a&;xm;&if 1011 udk binary number eJY a&;xm;wmjzpfwJh taMumif;ukd
azmfjywJhtaeeJY nmtpGefrSm&SdwJh 1 &JU atmufrSm 2 ukd qGJxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ 11 10 vkYd
a&;xm;wmu 11 ukd decimal number eJY a&;xm;wmjzpfw,fvkdY ajymcsifvkdY nmtpGef rSm
&SdwJh 1 &JU atmufrSm 10 ukd qGJxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ 'D OyrmrSm ygwJh 1011 2 ukd Munhfr,f
qkd&if *Pef;av;vHk; 4 digits ukd toHk;jyKNyD; a&;om;xm;wmukd awGU&ygw,f/
1011 2 udk memory rSm a&;rSwfxm;csif&if 4 bits ukd toHk;jyK&rSm jzpfygw,f/ Bit
ae&m 4 ck udk ,loHk;&rSmjzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
110
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

1011 2 &JU nmtpGefqHk;rSm &SdwJh 1 &JUae&mukd bit0 (b0), olU&JUb,fbufu 1 &JUae&mukd


bit1 (b1), oleJYuyfvsuf bufbufu 0 &JU ae&mukd bit2 (b2), vkdY ac:NyD; b,ftpGefqHk;u 1
&JU ae&mukd bit3 (b3) vkdY ac:ygw,f/
b0 &JU ae&mtvkduf wefzkd;u (20 = 1) jzpfygw,f/
b1 &JU ae&mtvkduf wefzkd;u (21 = 2) jzpfygw,f/
b2 &JU ae&mtvdkuf wefzkd;u (22 = 4) jzpfygw,f/
b3 &JU ae&mtvkduf wefzkd;u (23 = 8) jzpfygw,f/
b3, b2, b1, b0 vkdY tpOfvkdufa&;xm;wmjzpfvkdYrkdY ae&mtvkduf wefzkd;awGudk 8, 4, 2, 1
vkdY rSwfxm;Ekdifygw,f/
'gaMumifh 1011 2 &JU wefzkd;nD decimal number u 11 10 jzpfygw,f/ 4 bits ukd oHk;NyD;
trsm;qHk; a&;rSwfEkdifwmuawmh 1111 2 yJjzpfygw,f/ ae&mtvkdufwefzkd;u 8, 4, 2, 1 jzpfwJh
twGuf (8 1 ) 2 + (4 1) + (2 1) + (1 1) = 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 15 10 jzpfygw,f/
Memory rSm 4 bits ukdom toHk;jyKNyD;a&;rSwfr,fqkd&if 0 10 (decimal number zero)
uae 15 10 (decimal number fifteen) txdom a&;vkdY&ygw,f/ q,fhig;xufrsm;wJh ta&
twGufukd binary eJY a&;csif&ifawmh memory rSm 4 bits xufykdNyD;oHk;rS a&;rSwfvkdY &EkdifrSm
jzpfygw,f/
PLC &JU memory rSm 4 bits xufrsm;wJhtpku 8 bits &SdwJh byte jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
4 bits eJY a&;vkdYrqHh&if 8 bits oHk;NyD; a&;rSwf&ygw,f/ 8 bits eJY a&;vkdY rqHhwJh data ukd
a&;rSwfcsif&if 16 bits &SdwJh word ukd oHk;NyD;a&;rSwf&ygw,f/
8 bits oHk;NyD; trsm;qHk;a&;vkdY&wJh binary number u 1111 1111 2 jzpfygw,f/ olU&JU
ae&mtvkdufwefzkd;ukd atmufrSm yHkpHcsNyD;a&;jyxm;ygw,f/
27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 placement values


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1 = 255 10
txufrSm az:jyxm;wJh binary number xJu nmtpGefqHk;u bit ae&m (b0) udk LSB
vkdY ac:ygw,f/ LSB qkdwm Least Significant Bit ti,fqHk;udef;vkdY t"dyg,f&ygw,f/
b,ftpGefqHk;u bit ae&m (b7) udk MSB tBuD;qHk;udef; Most Significant Bit vkdY ac:yg
w,f/ Memory &JU wnfae&mukd azmfjywm jzpfwJhtwGuf 0 (zero) ukdvnf; ae&mwpfck&JU
trSwftom; tjzpf (b0) vkdY oHk;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh word ukd oHk;NyD; a&;rSwf xm;&if LSB u b0 jzpfNyD; MSB u b15 jzpfyg
w,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
111
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Double word ukdoHk;NyD; a&;rSwfr,f qkd&if LSB u b0 jzpfNyD; MSB u b31 jzpfyg
w,f/
Byte eJY a&;rSwf&if 8 bits ukd 4 bits pD tkyfpk 2 pk cGJNyD; nmbufu 4 bits tkyfpk ukd
Lower Nibble vkdY ac:ygw,f/ b,fbufu 4 bits &SdwJhtkyfpkukd Upper Nibble vkdY ac:yg
w,f/ Word eJY a&;rSwfcJh&if 16 bits ukd 8 bits pD tkyfpk 2 pk cGJNyD; nmbufu 8 bits
&SdwJhtkyfpkukd lower byte, b,fbufu 8 bits &SdwJhtkyfpkukd upper byte vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Double word ukd Dword vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Dword eJY a&;cJh&if b,fbufu 16 bits ukd
upper word, nmbufu 16 bits ukd lower word vkdY ac:ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
112
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
(3) Octal Number System (&S p f v D pepf jzifha&wGufjcif;)
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 *Pef; &SpfvHk;udkom toHk;jyKvkdY Octal vkdYac:wmjzpfygw,f/
8 digits om&SdwJhtwGuf base 8 jzpfygw,f/
Octal pepfrSm 8 *Pef; eJY 9 *Pef; ukd vHk;0 roHk;ygbl;/
Oyrm? octal number eJY a&;xm;wJh 137 8 udk decimal number eJY a&;xm;wJh 137 10 eJY
EdIif;,SOf jyygr,f/ a&wGufyHka&wGufenf; rwlwJhtwGuf 1378 ukd wefbkd;nD decimal number
ajymif;&ygw,f/ vlu decimal udk uRrf;usifNyD;om;jzpfvkdY decimal ukd ajymif;NyD; a&;Munfh
wm jzpfygw,f/
137 8 ukd yHkpHcsNyD;a&;Munhf&if atmufygtwkdif;awGU&ygr,f/

power
2 1 0
8 8 8

base
64 8 1
1 3 7 = (64 1) + (8 3) + (1 7) = 64 + 24 + 7 = 95 10
&JU wefbkd;nD decimal number [m 95 10 jzpfygw,f/ 137 10 eJY wefbkd;csif;
137 8
rwlnDwmukd awGU&ygw,f/
137 8 ukd wefbkd;wl binary number &csif&if atmufygtwkdif; a&;&ygw,f/
1 3 78
421 421 421
001 0 1 1 1 1 1 = Binary Number 1011111 2
Octal number system rSm tBuD;qHk;*Pef;u 7 jzpfygw,f/ 7 ukd binary eJY a&;r,f
qkd&if 3 digits &Sd&if a&;vkdY&ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh octal rSmyg&SdwJh *Pef;wpfvHk;pDukd 3 digits
binary eJYajymif;a&;&wmjzpfygw,f/
tJ'D 1011111 2 udk decimal number ajymif;vkduf&if
26 25 24 23 22 21 20
64 32 16 8 4 2 1 placement values
1 0 1 1 1 1 1 = 64 + 0 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 95 10
95 10&ygw,f/
137 8 &JU decimal number uvnf; 95 10 yJjzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh 137 8 eJY 1011111 2
wkdY[m wefbkd;csif; wlnDMuygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
113
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Memory rSm 1011111 2 ukd a&;rSwfr,fqkd&if Byte Format eJYvnf; a&;vkdY&ygw,f/
Word Format eJYvnf; a&;vkdY&ygw,f/ Byte Format eJY a&;r,fqkd&if 0101 1111 2 jzpfyg
w,ff/ Word Format eJY a&;r,fqkd&if 0000 0000 0101 1111 2 jzpfygw,ff/
'gayr,fh? Octal number udk 3 digits eJY a&;r,fqdk&if? a&;vkdY&wJh tBuD;qHk;udef;u
777 8 jzpfygw,f/ 777 8 ukd binary ajymif;vkduf&if 111 111 111 2 &ygw,f/ tJ'gukdawmh
Byte Format eJY a&;vkdY rqHYawmhygbl;/ 9 digits jzpfaevkdY jzpfygw,f/ Word Format eJY
a&;rSom a&;vkdY&yg w,f/ 777 8 (111111111 2 ) ukd Word Format eJY a&;&if 0000 0001 1111
1111 2 jzpfygw,f/ 777 8 ukd memory xJrSmodrf;csif&if word eJY odrf;&ygw,f/
tckqkd&if numbering system xJu oHk;rsdK;udk tquftpyfeJYwuG ykdif;jcm;NyD; &Sif;jy
vkdY NyD;ygNyD/
'Dtxdudk em;vnfoabmaygufrS a&SUqufzwfoifh ygw,f/ pdwfxJrSmr&Sif;wm &Sdaeao;
&if decimal number system u pNyD; jyefzwfzkdY wkdufwGef;ygw,f/ tckqufvuf &Sif;jyr,fh
yHkpHu 'DtxdzwfINyD;vkdY aumif;aumif;em;vnf oabmaygufxm;NyD; jzpfwJholawG twGuf
&nf&G,f ygw,f/
(4) Hexadecimal Number System (q,f h a jcmuf v D p epf jzifha&wGufjcif;)
qkdwJh *Pef; 16 vHk;ukd toHk;jyKNyD;
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F
a&wGufwJhocsFmpepf jzpfygw,f/ vlawGowfrSwfNyD; oHk;pGJaewJh*Pef;u 0 to 9 txd
q,fvHk;yJ &Sdygw,f/ usef*Pef; ajcmufvHk;twGuf A to F t*Fvdyftu&majcmufvHk;udk
*Pef;tjzpf owfrSwfoHk;pGJxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
Hexadecimal system rSm A ukd awGU&if 10 wpfq,f vkdY odrSwf&rSm jzpfygw,f/ B
ukd awGU&if 11 wpfq,hfwpf? C ukd awGU&if 12 wpfq,fhESpf? D ukd jrif&if 13 wpfq,fhoHk;
pojzifh odae&rSmjzpfygw,f/ *Pef; q,hfajcmufvHk;ukd toHk;jyKNyD; a&wGufwmjzpfvkdY
hexadecimal vkdY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/ Base 16 jzpfygw,f/ ae&mtvdkufwefbkd;u 16 q
pDuGmjcm;ygw,f/
Oyrm? 2AF 16 vkdY Hexadecimal eJY a&;xm;cJh&if olU&JUwefbkd;nD decimal number u
atmufrSm azmfjyxm;wJYtwkdif; 687 10 jzpfygw,f/
power
16 161 160

base
256 16 1 placement values
2 A F

= (256 2) + (16 A) + (1 F)
= (256 2) + (16 10) + (115)
= 512 + 160 + 15 = 687 10 jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
114
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

2AF 16 ukd binary number ajymif;csif&if atmufygtwkdif; a&;&ygw,f/


2 A F

8421 8421 8421


0010 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 = Binary Equivalent 1010101111 2
2AF 16 ukd binary eJY a&;vkdufawmh 1010101111 2 jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ 10 digits &Sdygw,f/
PLC &JU memory rSm a&;rSwfcsif&if word (16 bits) ukd oHk;NyD; a&;rSwf&ygw,f/
1010101111 2 ukd word yHkpHeJY a&;r,fqkd&if 0000 0010 1010 1111 2 vkdY a&;&ygw,f/
For Example, the 16-bit binary number 1001 0011 1101 1110 is equivalent to the
four-digit hexadecimal number 93DE:
Binary Number Hex Number
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 2 = 9 3 D E 16

(5) BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Number System


(q,fvDyHkpHeJY a&;om;xm;wJh ESpfvDpepfjzifh a&wGufjcif;)
BCD qkdwmuawmh binary eJY code vkyfxm;wJh decimal system jzpfygw,f/ ae&m
tvkdufwefzkd;u decimal rSmvkdyJ 10 qpDuGmjcm;ygw,f/ Number ukd a&;wJhtcgrSmawmh
binary rSmvkdyJ 0 eJY 1 ukdom toHk;jyKNyD; a&;ygw,f/
Oyrm 326 10 qkdwJh decimal number udk BCD tjzpfajymif;a&;vdkuf&if atmufyg
twkdif; awGU&ygw,f/
3 2 6 Decimal Number

8421 8421 8421


0011 0010 0110 BCD Number

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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tJ'D decimal number 326 10 ukdyJ binary number tjzpfajymif;a&;vkduf&if atmufyg


twkdif; awGU&ygw,f/
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1


0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 Binary Number

= 0 + 256 + 0 + 64 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0 = 326 10
326 10 ukd BCD ajymif;a&;&if 1100100110 BCD &ygw,f/
326 10 udk Binary ajymif;a&;&if 101000110 2 &ygw,f/
BCD eJY Binary rwlwmukd odapcsifvkdY a&;jywm jzpfygw,f/ 0 eJY 1 (2 digits) ukdom
toHk;jyKNyD; a&;om;Muwm jzpfayr,hf ae&mtvkduf wefzkd;owfrSwfyHkcsif; rwlnDMuwmukd
*kjyKrdapcsifygw,f/
BCD eJY a&;rSwf xm;wJh 0011 0010 0110 [m decimal number 326 10 ukd ukd,fpm;jyK
ygw,f/
Binary eJY a&; xm;wJh 0011 0010 0110 [m decimal number 806 10 ukd ukd,fpm;jyK
wm jzpfygw,f/
BCD eJY a&;wJh 0011 0010 0110 &JU ae&mtvdkufwefzkd;u
8421 8421 8421
0011 0010 0110 = 326 10 jzpfygw,f/

Binary eJY a&;xm;wJh 0011 0010 0110 &JU ae&mtvkdufwefzkd;u


2048 1024 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 = 806 10 jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Number System 5 rsdK;ukd atmufrSm ,SOfwGJazmfjyxm;ygw,f/

BCD
Decimal Octal Hexadecimal Binary
Binary Coded Hexadecimal
0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 10 10
3 3 3 11 11
4 4 4 100 100
5 5 5 101 101
6 6 6 110 110
7 7 7 111 111
8 10 8 1000 1000
9 11 9 1001 1001
10 12 A 1 0000 1010
11 13 B 1 0001 1011
12 14 C 1 0010 1100
13 15 D 1 0011 1101
14 16 E 1 0100 1110
15 17 F 1 0101 1111
16 20 10 1 0110 1 0000
17 21 11 1 0111 1 0001
18 22 12 1 1000 1 0010
19 23 13 1 1001 1 0011
20 24 14 10 0000 1 0100
21 25 15 10 0001 1 0101
22 26 16 10 0110 1 0111
- - - -
- - - &m? q,f? ck? -
100 0001 0000 0000

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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tcef; (9) Boolean logic taMumif;/


'Dtcef;ukd zwf&IavhvmNyD;oGm;wJhtcgrSm?
1/ Logic AND, Logic OR, Logic NOT wkdY&JUt"dyg,f?
2/ Truth Table eJY Boolean Logic b,fvdk qufpyfw,fqdkwm? awGukd aumif;pGm
em;vnf oabmayguf oGm;ygvdrfhr,f/
PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) rSmoHk;xm;wJh logic qkdwmu Boolean Logic ukd
ajymwm jzpfygw,f/
PLC eJYywfoufwJh Boolean logic function awGuawmh
(1) Logic AND,
(2) Logic OR, Logic XOR eJY
(3) Logic NOT wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
Boolean Logic rSm Logical AND, Logical OR eJU Logical NOT wdkU yg&Sdygw,f/ 'D
oHk;rsdK;udk wGJzuf aygif;pyfNyD; NAND eJY NOR wdkY jzpfay:vmygw,f/

Logic AND
'D electrical circuit rSm Lamp = ON jzpfzdkY
+24V 0V
Sw 1 Sw 2 Lamp twGuf Sw 1 a&m Sw 2 yg ON jzpf&ygr,f/
tJ'D oabmt"dyg,fudk Boolean equation eJU
a&;r,f qdk&if Lamp = (Sw 1) AND (Sw 2)
vdkY a&;&ygw,f/
'Doabm t"dyg,fudkyJ Graphical symbol eJU azmfjyr,fqdk&if atmufygtwdkif;
azmfjyavh &Sdygw,f/
Sw 1 Sw 1
Lamp AND Lamp
Sw 2 Sw 2

'DyHkudk 2-input AND vdkU ac:ygw,f/


Logic AND qkdwmuawmh AND vkyfxm;wJh input tm;vHk; ON jzpfrS output u ON
jzpf&wJh oabmobm0 &Sdygw,f/
Logic AND qkdwmudk tm;vHk; ( All ) vkdY rSwfom; xm;yg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

'D oabm t"dyg,f udkyJ Truth Table eJU azmfjyr,f qdk&if

AND Truth Table AND Truth Table


Inputs Output Inputs Output
Sw 1 Sw 2 Lamp Sw 1 Sw 2 Lamp
OFF OFF OFF 0 0 0
OFF ON OFF 0 1 0
ON OFF OFF 1 0 0
ON ON ON 1 1 1

'gudk ON/OFF tpm; 0/1 eJU azmfjyr,f qdk&if 0 [m OFF jzpfaew,fqdkwmudk azmfjyyg
w,f/ 1 [m ON jzpfaew,fqdkwmudk azmfTef; ygw,f/
Electric circuit diagram eJY Truth Table awGudk txuffrSmazmfjyxm;ygw,f/ tJ'gu
awmh Logic AND &JU example jzpfygw,f/
txuffyHkrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; input 2ck udk AND vkyfxm;&if tJ'D input 2ck pvHk; ON
jzpfrS output (logic AND &JU result) u ON jzpfygw,f/ 2-input AND udk Logic Gate Symbol,
Truth Table awGeJY AND function &JU vkyfaqmifcsuf obm0ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

Logic OR
'D electrical circuit rSm Sw 1 odkYr[kwf Sw 2
+24V 0V wpfck ON jzpfHk eJU Lamp = ON jzpfygw,f/
Sw 1 Lamp
'D oabmt"dyg,f udk Boolean equation
Sw 2 eJU a&;r,fqdk&if Lamp = (Sw 1) OR (Sw 2)
vdkY a&;&ygw,f/
Graphical symbol eJU azmfjyr,f qdk&if atmufygyHktwdkif; jzpfygw,f/

Sw 1 Sw 1
Lamp OR Lamp
Sw 1 Sw 2

'DyHkudk 2-input OR vkdU ac:ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Truth Table eJU azmfjyr,f qdk&if atmufygyHktwdkif; jzpfygw,f/


OR Truth Table OR Truth Table
Inputs Output Inputs Output
Sw 1 Sw 2 Lamp Sw 1 Sw 2 Lamp
OFF OFF OFF 0 0 0
OFF ON ON 0 1 1
ON OFF ON 1 0 1
ON ON ON 1 1 1

txuffyHkrSm jyxm;wmuawmh Logic OR &JU Example jzpfygw,f/


yHkrSm Logic OR function ukd electric circuit diagram eJY a&m? 2-input OR &JU Logic Gate
Symbol, Truth Table awGeJYyg OR &JU obm0udk &Sif;vif;azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
Logic OR qkdwmuawmh OR vkyfxm;wJh input awGtm;vHk;xJu 1ck ON jzpfvkdufwmeJY
OR &JU logic result (Output) u ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ Logic OR &JU input awGtm;vHk; ON
jzpf&ifvnf; OR vkyfvkdY &vmwJh result (Output) u ON jzpfygw,f/
Logic OR qkdwmudk 1ck ( One ) vkdY rSwfom; xm;yg/

Logic XOR
XOR qdkwm Exclusive OR (oD;oefY OR ) jzpfygw,f/
Boolean equation: Lamp = (Sw 1) XOR (Sw 2)

XOR Truth Table XOR Truth Table


Inputs Output Inputs Output
Sw 1 Sw 2 Lamp Sw 1 Sw 2 Lamp
OFF OFF OFF 0 0 0
OFF ON ON 0 1 1
ON OFF ON
ON ON
1 0 1
OFF
1 1 0

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
+24V 0V yHkrSm XOR function &atmif qufoG,f
Sw 1 Relay R1 xm;wJh Relay Circuit &,f? 2-input XOR &JU
R Logic Gate symbol eJY Truth table awGukd
MunhfI avhvmNyD;? XOR &JU function ukd
Sw 2 Relay R2 em;vnf Muygvdrfhr,f/
R
Graphical symbol u
R1 R2 Lamp

Sw 1
Lamp
Sw 2
R1 R2

yHkrSm azmfjyxm;wmu Logic XOR


&JU oabmobm0 jzpfygw,f/ XOR qkd wm Exclusive OR &JU twkdaumufpmvHk; jzpfyg
w,f/ XOR &JU vkyfaqmifyHk function u XOR vkyfxm;wJh input awG tm;vHk;xJu 1ckwnf;
om ON jzpfrS XOR &JU logic result u ON jzpf&ygw,f/ XOR &JU input tm;vHk; ON jzpfwJh
tcg output u OFF yJ jzpfygw,f/
Logic XOR qkdwmudk 1ck wnf;om ( Only one ) vkdY rSwfom; xm;yg/

Logic NOT
'D electrical circuit rSm Sw1 OFF
+24V 0V
jzpf&if Relay R u de-energize jzpfaeNyD;
Sw 1 Relay
relay &JU N.C contact u close jzpf aevdkU
R
Lamp = ON jzpfaeygw,f/ Sw 1 ON

R Lamp jzpf&if Relay R u energize jzpfoGm;NyD;


relay &JU N.C contact u open jzpfoGm;vdkU
Lamp = OFF jzpfygw,f/

Logic NOT function &atmif Relay eJY zGJUpnf;wnfaqmufxm;wmukd electric circuit


diagram eJY azmfjyxm;wmjzpfygw,f/
'D oabm t"dyg,f udk Boolean equation eJU a&;r,f qdk&if Lamp = NOT (Sw 1) vdkY
a&;&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Truth Table eJU azmfjyr,f qdk&ifawmh atmufygtwdkif; jzpfygw,f/

NOT Truth Table NOT Truth Table


Input Output Input Output
Sw 1 Lamp Sw 1 Lamp
OFF ON
ON OFF
0 1
1 0

Graphical symbol eJU qdk&if

Sw 1 Lamp Sw 1 NOT Lamp

Bubble
Bubble u NOT qdkwJht"dyg,f jzpfygw,f/
ykHrSm azmfjyxm;wmu NOT &JU function jzpfygw,f/ Input u ON jzpf&if output u
OFF jzpfoGm;NyD;? input u OFF jzpfrS output u ON jzpfoGm;wJh oabmobm0ukd NOT vkdY
ac:wmjzpfygw,f/ Logic NOT &JU gate symbol eJY truth table ukdyg azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
Logic NOT ukd ajymif;jyef ( Invert ) vkdY rSwfxm;yg/

tckazmfjycJhwJh Logic function av;rsd K ;uk d twkdcsKyfrSwfom;csif&if


AND udk ALL (tm;vHk;) vkdY rSwfom; xm;yg/ Input tm;vHk; ON jzpfrS Output u
ON jzpf&vkdY jzpfygw,f/
OR ukd ONE (1ck) vkdY rSwfxm;yg/ Input xJu 1ck ON jzpf&if Output u ON jzpf&vkdY
jzpfygw,f/
XOR ukd Only One (1ck wnf;om) vkdY rSwfxm;yg/ Input awGxJu 1ck wnf; ON
jzpfrSom Output u ON jzpf&vkdY jzpfygw,f/
NOT ukdawmh Invert (ajymif;jyef) vkdY rSwfxm;yg/ Input &JU ajymif;jyef[m Output
jzpfaevkdY jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yHkrSm Logic Gate awG&JU symbol awGukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
tcef; (10) PLC Program Overview

'Dtcef;rSm Programming Language, Programming Software, Machine Control,


Process Control, PLC Program pwmawGeJU rdwfqufay;xm;ygw,f/
Program qkdwm instruction code awGukd pepfwuspkzGJUNyD; PLC em;vnfatmif
TefMum;ckdif;apwJh TefMum;csuftpkta0;yJjzpfygw,f/ PLC udk ckdif;csif&if PLC em;vnfwJh
pum; code eJY ajymNyD;ckdif;&ygw,f/ PLC [m computer jzpfwJhtwGuf binary code eJY ajymrS
em;vnfygw,f/ Binary code ukd machine code (machine language) vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Machine language eJY PLC program a&;zkdYqkdwmuawmh computer ynm&Sifrsm;om
wwfEkdifwJh udpjzpfygw,f/
omrefvQyfppftif*sifeD,mrsm;twGuf machine language eJY PLC program a&;wwf
zkdY oif,l&wm tifrwefcufcJygw,f/ 'gaMumihfrkdYvkdY PLC ukd xkwfvkyfolawGu vG,fulpGm
oif,l wwfajrmufEkdifwJh Ladder Diagram Programming Language (LD) ukd wDxGifay;xm;
ygw,f/ 'DaeYacwftxd LD ukd toHk;jyKNyD; PLC program a&;om;Muwm[m 92% &Sdw,fvkdY
2004 ckESpfu aumuf,lxm;wJh ppfwrf;wpfckrSmawGU&ygw,f/
'DpmtkyfrSm LD eJY PLC program a&;om;enf;ukd vG,f&mrSonf cuf&mqDokdY wqifh
NyD;wqifh &Sif;vif;azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ PLC taMumif; vHk;0rodao;olawGudk OD;wnf &nf
&G,fNyD; a&;om;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/
Program qkdwm TefMum;csufawGukd ac:wmjzpfygw,f/ TefMum;csufukd instruction
vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Command vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ ckdif;apcsufjzpfygw,f/ PLC ukd
ckdif;apr,fqkd&if PLC ukd xkwfvkyfwJh OEM u owfrSwfay;xm;wJh instruction code
awGukdom toHk;jyK&ygw,f/ PLC ukd xkwfvkyfol OEM u b,fvdkowfrSwf ay;xm;ovJ
qkdwmukd od&zkdY PLC programming manual ukd zwfIavhvm&ygw,f/
Ladder Diagram (LD) eJY PLC program (user program) a&;r,fqkd&if odxm;&r,fh
tajccHowfrSwfcsuf basic instruction code awGuawmh PLC wkdif;twGuf twlwlyJ
jzpfygw,f/ yg0ifwJh instruction code trsdK;tpm;? eJY ta&twGufteJtrsm; rSmom PLC
wpfrsdK;eJYwpfrsdK; uGmjcm;Muwm jzpfygw,f/
PLC trsdK;tpm;wpfckudk LD eJY program a&;wwf? zwfwwfoGm;NyDqkd&if wjcm; PLC
awGtwGuf LD eJY a&;xm;wJh program ukd zwfIem;vnfEkdifzkdY taxmuftul BuD;BuD;rm;rm;
jzpfapygw,f/ Oyrm? Mitsubishi PLC eJY LD program a&;enf;ukd oif,lwwf ajrmufxm;ol
wpfa,muftzkdY Omron PLC twGuf a&;xm;wJh LD program udk interpret vkyfEkdifzkdY
taxmuftul BuD;BuD;rm;rm; jzpfapygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
PLC program a&;enf;ukd pmtkyfzwfHkeJY rwwfygbl;/ Programming Software eJY
program a&;MunfhzkdY vkdtyfygw,f/ a&;NyD;wJh program ukd PLC xJ ajymif;a&;xnhfNyD; PLC
ukd RUN &ygw,f/ Program rSmygwJh oufqkdif&m input awGukd ON/OFF vkyfNyD; program
a&;pOfu rdrd&nf&G,fckdif;apxm;wJhtwkdif; PLC u vkdufemaqmif&Gufjcif; &Sd^r&Sd qkdwmukd
prf;oyfMunhfI&ygw,f/ vkdtyfaeao;wmukd jznhfpGuf? rSm;aewmukd jyifqifNyD; a&;&yg
w,f/ 'Dvkdvkyfwmukd debugging vkyfw,fvkdY ac:ygw,f/ a&;vkduf? prf;vkduf? jyifvkdufeJY
toHk;uswJh? toHk;0ifwJh? program 1ck &&Sdvm&if save vkyf? odrf;qnf;xm;&ygw,f/
Program eJYtwl rSwfcsuf comment awGa&;NyD; save vkyfxm;&if aemif tcsdefMumrS jyefzGifh
MunhfwJh tcgrSm tvG,fwul rSwfrdapygw,f/
tJ'Dvkd vkyfwwfatmif 'DpmtkyfxJrSm wpfqihfcsif;pD? tao;pdyfa&;xm;ay;ygw,f/
Programming software ukd w&m;0if tcrJh &&SdEkdifwJh web address udkvnf; azmfjyay;xm;
ygw,f/ tJ'D software &JUtrnfu WPLSoft jzpfygw,f/ PLC rygbJeJY? PLC r&SdbJeJY? LD
program a&;NyD; PLC &SdbdouJhokdY RUN MunhfvkdY&ygw,f/
WPLSoft [m Delta Automation u xkwfvkyfwJh Delta PLC awGtwGuf program
a&;om;EkdifwJh programming software jzpfygw,f/
Mitsubishi u xkwfvkyfwJh PLC awGtwGuf program a&;r,fqkd&if GX Developer
qkdwJh programming software ukd oHk;NyD;a&;&ygw,f/
Omron u xkwfvkyfwJh PLC awGtwGuf program a&;r,fqkd&if CX Programmer
qdkwJh programming software ukd oHk;NyD;a&;vkdY&ygw,f/
Siemens u xkwfvkyfwJh S7-200 PLC twGuf program a&;r,fqkd&if STEP 7
MicroWIN qdkwJh programming software ukd oHk;NyD;a&;&ygw,f/
PLC twGuf program a&;awmhr,fqkd&if rdrd&JU computer xJrSm programming
software ukd t&ifOD;qHk; install vkyf&ygw,f/ Computer xJrSm a&;xm;wJh program udk PLC
xJ a&;oGif;wJhtvkyf download ukd vkyfzkdY programming cable vkdtyfygw,f/ PLC eJY
computer ukd tJ'D cable eJY qufoG,fNyD; computer xJu a&;NyD;om; program ukd PLC xJ
ajymif;xnhf ay;&ygw,f/ Debugging vkyfzkdYtwGufvnf; programming cable &SdrS vkyfvkdY
&ygw,f/
toHk;0ifwJh program wpfcka&;NyD;vkdY? jyifNyD;vkdY? prf;NyD;vkdY? a&;NyD;om; program ukd
PLC xJ ajymif;xnhf NyD;oGm;NyDqkd&ifawmh programming cable [m rvkdtyfawmhygbl;/ PLC
rSm Input Device awG? Output Device awG? qufoG,f wwfqifNyD; PLC ukd RUN vkdufHkom
jzpfygw,f/ PLC ukd RUN w,fqkdwm PLC xJrSm a&;xnhfxm;wJh TefMum;csuf User
Program xJutwkdif; PLC ukd vkyfaqmifawmhvkdY PLC ukd apckdif;vkdufwmyJjzpfygw,f/
vufawGUvkyfief;cGifrSm PLC xJu aqmif&GufcsufawGukd MunhfvkdY? jrifvkdY? r&ygbl;/
PLC xJrSm a&;xm;wJh program ukd print out xkwfxm;wm &SdrSom tJ'D program ukd zwfINyD;
em;vnf Ekdifygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
125
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

ukd od&Sdem;vnfatmifoif,lwJhtcgrSm wu,fh


PLC PLC eJY vufawGU oif,l
wm[m taumif;qHk; jzpfygw,f/
PLC rsKd;uGJaygif; ajrmufjrm;pGm&Sdygw,f/ PLC wpfrsdK;ukd pepfwus oif,l
wwfajrmuf NyD;&if usef PLC awGukd wcPeJY oif,lwwfajrmuf em;vnfoGm;Ekdifygw,f/
OEM &JU Manual awGukdawmh b,fawmhrS vufvTwfvkdY r&ygbl;/ 'gaMumifh PLC
wpfrsdK;eJY oif,lavhusihfaewJhtcsdefrSm tJ'D PLC &JU Manual awGukd zwfwwfatmif wyg
wnf; oif,l&ygr,f/ PLC Manual awGudk t*FvdyfpmeJY a&;xm;ygw,f/ t*Fvdyfvkd oHk;EIef;
xm;wmawGukd 'DpmtkyfrSm wwfpGrf;orQ &Sif;vif;azmfjyay;xm;ygw,f/ t*Fvdyfpm ukd
jrefrmbmom jyefqkda&;om;wm rsdK;r[kwfbJ oabmt"dyg,fukd &Sif;vif;azmfjyay;xm;wm
om jzpfygw,f/
(rdrda&;wwfovkd?rdrdoabmaygufodjrifovkd?a&;xm;wmjzpfvkdY ynm&Sifrsm;u
jyKjyifp&mawG awGU&SdcJh&if axmufjy? jyKjyifay;yg&ef yefMum;tyfygw,f/)
'Dpmtkyfukd a&;om;&mrSm &nf&G,fcsuf 2ck &Sdygw,f/
wpfckuawmh PLC udk oifwef; wufNyD; vufawGUoif,laeMuolawG rSefrSefuefuef
awG;q odjrifwwfapzkdY jzpfygw,f/
aemufwpfckuawmh PLC taMumif;udk odcsifNyD; oifwef;wufzdkY tqifrajyao;ol
awG? twGuf PLC rygbJeJY LD program ukd a&;wwfapzkdY? rdrda&;xm;wJh Program ukd
Simulator Software eJY prf;oyfppfaq; wwfapzkdY jzpfygw,f/
LD eJY PLC program a&;r,fqkd&if Logic taMumif; t&ifodxm;zkdY vkdtyfygw,f/
Control taMumif;ukdvnf; odxm;oifhygw,f/
tck Control taMumif;ukd tenf;i,f &Sif;vif;azmfjyygr,f/ Control qkdwm xdef;
ausmif;ay;wmukd ac:wm jzpfygw,f/
xdef;ausmif;yHk? xdef;ausmif;enf;pepfukd Control System vkdY ac:ygw,f/ pufukd
xdef;ausmif;armif;ESif&if Machine Control vkdY ac:ygw,f/ ukefxkwfvkyfrI vkyfief;pOfukd
xdef;ausmif;armif;ESif&if Process Control vkdY ac:ygw,f/
'Dae&mrSmoHk;pGJwJh process &JU t"dyg,fu t&m0wKypnf;wpfckukd oGifjyifyHkoPmef
tm;jzifh physically jzpfap? "mwkzGJUpnf;rItm;jzifh chemically jzpfap? ajymif;vJ oGm;atmif
vkyfaqmifwmukd process vdkY ac:ygw,f/
Oyrmjy&&if jrpfa&? acsmif;a&ukd aomufa&? oHk;a&jzpfatmif ajymif;vkdufwm
Water Treatment vkyfwm ukdvnf; process vkdY ac:ygw,f/
BuHukd oMum;jzpfatmif vkyfwm? *sHKukd aygifrkefYjzpfatmif vkyfwmawGudkvnf;
process vkdY ac:ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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PLC ukd Machine Control rSma&m? Process Control rSmyg toHk;jyKMuygw,f/


Machine Control rSm oHk;wJh trsdK;tpm;u Compact PLC trsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/ Process
Control rSmoHk;wJh PLC trsdK;tpm;u Modular PLC trsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/
Control system wpfckrSm Controller &JU t0if Input Device awGudk Sensor awGvkdY
ac:ygw,f/ Controller &JU txGuf Output Device awGukd Actuator awGvdkY ac:Muygw,f/
Field Input Device eJY Field Output Device vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/
PLC &JU Input Device awGrSm Analog Input Device eJY Discrete Input Device (Digital
Input Device) vkdY 2rsdK; &Sdygw,f/

'DpmtkyfrSm discrete input om vufcHaqmif&GufwJh PLC taMumif;ukd


tao;pdyf &Sif;jyxm;ygw,f/
PLC &JU Output rSmvnf; Analog Actuator eJY Discrete Actuator qkdNyD; Device 2rsdK;
&Sdygw,f/
ON/OFF signal input ukd PLC u vufcHNyD; ON/OFF signal output ukdom PLC u
xkwfay;wJh Discrete I/O omyg&SdwJh PLC taMumif;udk tao;pdyf avhvmzkdYqkd&if logic
taMumif;ukd &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; odxm;zkdYvkdtyfygw,f/ 'g[m PLC rSm tajccH tusqHk; jzpf
ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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tcef; (11) PLC Basic Programming


IEC u owfrSwfxm;wJh PLC programming Language 5rsdK;xJu LD Language ukd
Graphical Language vkdY ac:ygw,f/ kyfyHkawGeJY code vkyfxm;vdkYjzpfygw,f/ LD eJY program
a&;wwfzkdY basic instruction code oHk;rsdK;ukd OD;pGmyxr &Sif;vif;azmfjyygr,f/
LD Language rSm TefMum;csuf instruction code awGukd relay coil &JU oauFw
symbol jzpfwJh ( ) &,f? relay contact &JU symbol jzpfwJh | | eJY | / | &,f? wkdYukd
toHk;jyKNyD; program a&;&wmjzpfygw,f/
Open contact &JU symbol jzpfwJh 'DvkdyHkukd ON jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;
Munhfyg vkdY ckdif;wJh (TefMum;wJh) instruction code tjzpf toHk;jyKygw,f/ Examine ON vkdY
ac:ygw,f/
Closed contact &JU symbol jzpfwJh 'DvkdyHkukd OFF jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;
Munhfyg vkdY ckdif;wJh instruction code tjzpf toHk;jyKygw,f/ Examine OFF vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Coil &JU symbol jzpfwJh okdYr[kwf ( ) 'DvkdyHkudkawmh Output ukd ON vkd ufyg
vkdY ckdif;wJh instruction code tjzpftoHk;jyKygw,f/ Output ON vkdY ac:ygw,f/
'Dpmtkyfukd ,aeYacwfvli,fawGtwGuf &nf&G,fNyD; a&;om;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/
acwfvli,fawG[m computer eJY &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifNyD;om; jzpfygw,f/ PLC [m industrial
computer wrsdK;jzpfwJhtwGuf PLC ukd computer vkdY jrifatmif? Munhfwwfatmif? avhvm
wwfatmif? BudK;pm;yHkazmfxm;ygw,f/
Software jzpfwJh PLC program (User Program) ukd a&;wJhtcg software udk software
tjzpfjrifatmif Munhfwwf&ygr,f/
Software qkdwmu rsufpdeJYvnf; rjrif&wJh? xdvkdY? ukdifvkdYvnf; r&wJh? OmPfeJYom
awG;MunhfNyD; odEkdifwJht&m jzpfygw,f/
Relay &JU coil qkdwmu rsufpdeJYvnf; jrifatmifMunhfvkdY &ygw,f/ vufeJYvnf; xd
MunhfvkdY &wJh hardware jzpfygw,f/ Open contact eJY closed contact awGuvnf; hardware
awGyJ jzpfMuygw,f/
Electrical circuit diagram awG r S m a&;om;azmf j ywJ h relay &J U contact symbol eJ Y
coil symbol awG u k d LD program rS m instruction code &J U symbol tjzpf e J Y toH k ; jyKxm;wm
jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh LD program rSmazmfjyxm;wJh contact eJY coil oauFwawG[m hardware ukd
ukd,fpm;rjyKygbl;/ Software jzpfwJh TefMum;csufawGukdom ukd,fpm;jyK azmfjyxm;wm jzpfyg
w,f/ Instruction code &JU oauFwawGom jzpfMuygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Code qkdwm t"dyg,fowfrSwfcsuf jzpfygw,f/ kyfyHkawG? tu&mpmvHk;awGeJY
t"dyg,f owfrSwfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh Examine ON vkdY ajymcsif? a&;csif&if 'Dvdka&;&ygw,f/ Examine
OFF vkdY ckdif;csif&if 'Dvkda&;&ygw,f/ Output ukd ON apcsif&if ( ) 'Dvkda&;&ygw,f/
, eJY ( ) awG[m instruction code awG jzpfMuygw,f/
PLC ukd pwiftoHk;jyKcJhwm 1968 November v? u jzpfygw,f/ tJ'Dacwfumv u
vQyfppftif*sifeD,mawG[m computer eJY xdawGUrI r&Sdoavmuf jzpfygw,f/ Relay control
circuit awGeJY uawmh &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifNyD;om; jzpfMuygw,f/ 'gaMumifh olwkdYeJY &if;ESD;NyD;om;
jzpfwJh relay symbol awGudk toHk;jyKNyD; PLC program ukd tvG,fwul a&;wwfatmifvkdY LD
Language ukd pwifwDxGifcJhwm jzpfygw,f/
ckacwfrSmawmh IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) u owfrSwf
jy|mef; xm;wJh PLC Programming Language 5rsdK; &Sdygw,f/
IEC 61131-3 Format Programming Software Languages awGuawmh?
1 Ladder Diagram (LD) Graphical Language
2 Function Block Diagram (FBD) Graphical Language
3 Instruction List (IL) Text-based Language
4 Structured Text (ST) Text-based Language
5 Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Object-oriented programming framework wkdY
jzpfMuygw,f/
Not all PLCs support all five Language types, but nearly all of them support Ladder
Diagram (LD), which will be the primary focus of this book.

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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LD eJY a&;&wJh instruction code awG&JU oabmt"dyg,feJY toHk;jyKyHkawGukd erlem


program awGeJY &Sif;vif;azmfjyygr,f/
Example program: 1

X0
vkdY a&;xm;&if b,ftpGefrSm&SdwJh axmifvkdufrsOf; vertical line
( Y0 )
u instruction pwifa&;&r,fh ae&mvkdY rSwfxm;yg/
X0
qkdwmuawmh Examine ON X0 vkdY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ X0 [m ON
jzpfaeovm;vdkY ppfaq;MunfhygvkdY PLC ukd ckdif;wJh instruction &JU code jzpfygw,f/
( Y0 ) qkdwm uawmh output Y0 ukd ON vkdufygvkdY ckdif;wJh instruction &JU code
jzpfygw,f/
pm&Gufay:rSm tckjrifae? awGUae&wJhyHkpHrsdK;? a&;xm;wmukd computer ay:rSm LD
program tjzpf?

tckvkd jrifcsif&if programming software jzpfwJh WPLSoft ukd computer xJrSm install
t&ifvkyf&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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WPLSoft_V2.20.07 Software Installation


WPLSoft ukd computer xJrSm install vkyfawmhr,fqkd&if?
1/ (www.delta.com.tw/product/em/download) uae WPLSoft ukd download &,lyg/
Zip file jzpfygw,f/
1. Download the WPLSoft_V2.20.07.Zip from
http://www.delta.com.tw/product/em/download/download_main.asp?act=3&pid=3&cid=
1&tpid=3
2/ WPLSoft V2.20.07 Zip udk rdrd&JU computer u drive C: xJ ul;a&;xm;yg/
3/ WPLSoft V2.20.07 Zip udk double click vkyfyg/

2. Double click on icon [PLSoft_V20.20.07.Zip]


4/ Setup.exe udk double click vkyfyg/ (Fig. 2a)


Figure 2a
3. Double click on setup.exe

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


Figure 3a
5/ ay:vmwJh WinZip Caution ay:u Yes ukd click vkyfyg/ (Fig. 4a)
4. Click on [Yes]


Figure 4a
6/ ay:vmwJh Install ay:u OK ukd click vkyfyg/
5. Click on [OK]


Figure 5a

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


Figure 6a Figure 7a

7/ ay:vmwJh WPLSoft 2.20.07 Install Shield Wizard ay:u Next ukd click vkyfyg/


Figure 8a Click on [Next]

8/ ay:vmwJh box awG udk Next (Fig. 9a) Next (Fig. 10a) Install (Fig. 11a)
Finish (Fig. 12a) awGukd click vkyfoGm;&if&ygNyD/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


Figure 9a Click on [Next]


Figure 10a Click on [Next]

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


Figure 11a Click on [Install]


Figure 12a

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


Figure 13a Click on [Finish]
'gqkd&if
Programming Software udk computer xJrSm install vkyfwm NyD;oGm;NyD jzpfyg
w,f/ Desktop udk jyefoGm;Munhf&if Screen ay:rSm WPLSoft 2.20 qkdwJh shortcut icon
ay:aewmukd awGU&ygvdrhfr,f/
txufrSm azmfjycJhwJh Example program: 1 ukd Computer ay:rSma&;enf;ukd tck
qufvuf a&;om; azmfjyoGm;ygr,f/
On the Desktop


Figure 14a Double click on [WPLSoft 2. 20]

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

oifwef;rSm vufawGU vkyfwJh PLC trsdK;tpm;u Delta Electronic Ltd. u xkwfwJh


DVP-14SS2 trsdK;tpm; PLC jzpfygw,f/
Programming Software u WPLSoft jzpfygw,f/
1. Desktop ay:u WPLSoft 2. 20 qkdwJh icon ukd double click vkyfyg/ See Fig. 14a


Figure 15a

2. Delta WPLSoft vkdY a&;xm;wJh Software ay:vmwJhtcg File ukd click vkyfyg/

Figure 16a

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


Figure 17a Click on [File] [New] on Menu Bar

3. Menu Bar ay:u New ukd click vkyfyg/ Figure 17a udkMunfhyg/


Figure 18a Click on down button

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


Figure 19a Click on [SS2]

4. ay:vmwJh Pop-up Menu (Figure 19a) xJu PLC Model udk SS2 vkdY a&G;NyD; OK udk
click vkyfyg/


Figure 20a Click on [OK]

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
5. Ladder Diagram Mode Screen tao;ukd tBuD;csJUzkdY Maximize udk click vkyfyg/


Figure 22a Click on [Maximize]


Figure 23a

6. Task bar rSm&SdwJh ukd ESdyfyg/ tJ'DtcsdefrSm av;axmifhuGuf Cursor [m


b,fbufu axmifvkdufrsOf;eJY xduyfae&rSm jzpfygw,f/ Fig. 23a ukd Munhfyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Figure 24a Click on button on the Tool Bar


Figure 25a Click on [OK]

7. Input Device Instruction qkdwJh dialog box ay:vmwJhtcg X0 (Device Name rSm
X, Device Number rSm 0) vkdY a&G;cs,f select vkyfNyD; OK ukd ESdyfyg/ 'DtcgrSm yHk
Fig. 26a rSmjyxm;wJh twkdif;ay:aeygvdrhfr,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


Figure 26a

8. <F7> ukdESdyfyg/

Figure 27a Click on button on the Tool Bar

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
9. Output coil ukd Y0 (Device Name rSm Y, Device Number rSm 0) vkdY a&G;cs,fNyD; OK
ukdESdyfyg/


Figure 28a Click on [OK]
'DtcgrSm Examine ON X0, Output ON Y0 qkdwJh instruction ygwJh program 1ck
ukd a&;NyD;oGm;NyDjzpfygw,f/ User ua&;wJh program jzpfwmrkdYvdkY User Program vkdY ac:yg
w,f/
Example program: 1


Figure 20a
tcka&;xm;wJh program ukd simulator eJY RUN MunhfyHkMunhfenf;ukd qufvuf
azmfjyygr,f/
WPLSoft software rS m built-in simulator yg&S d y gw,f /
wpfck a&;NyD;NyDqkd&if compile ukd t&ifvkyf&ygw,f/ vkyf&wJh taMumif;
Program
&if;u rdrda&;xm;wJh LD program [m PLC u em;vnfvufcHEkdifwJh code awGeJY rSefrSef
uefuefa&;xm;wm [kwfyg&Jhvm;qkdwmukd programming software ukd ppfaq;ckdif;wm jzpfyg
w,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

LD eJ Y User Program a&;NyD ; wk d i f ;

1. Compiler ukd ESdyfyg/


Figure 30a Click on [Compiler] [Ladder => Instruction] on the Menu Bar

2. ay:vmwJh Ladder => Instruction ukd ESdyfyg/


Figure 31a Click on [OK]

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
3. Simulator ukd ESdyfyg/ 'DtcgrSm yHk Fig. 33a rSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; ay:vm&if Unblock
(Allow) ukd ESdyfyg/

Figure 32a Click on [Simulator] button on the Tool Bar

Figure 33a Click on [Unblock]


4. Online Mode ukd ESdyfyg/

Figure 34a Click on [Online Mode] button on the Tool Bar


5. Yes ukd ESdyfyg/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


Figure 35a Click on [Yes] button


Figure 36a
Virtual PLC udk RUN zkdYtwGuf Tool Bar ay:u Run ukdESdyfyg/

Figure 38a Click on [Run] button


Figure 39a Click on [Yes] button

tckvkyfcJhwJh tvkyfawGukd atmufrSm twkdcsKyf a&;jyxm;ygw,f/


User Program a&;NyD;&if Compiler Ladder => Instruction Simulator
Unblock Online Mode Yes Run Yes

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
X0 ukd ON MunhfzdkYtwGuf X0 ay:rSm Cursor csyg/ Right click ESdyfNyD; Set On vkyfyg/

Figure 41a Click on [Set On ]


'DtcgrSm X0 a&m Y0 yg tpdrf;a&mif Highlighted jzpfoGm;ygw,f/

Figure 42a

X0 = ON, jzpfwmeJU Y0 = ON, jzpfwmukd tpdrf;a&mif Highlight eJY azmfjywm jzpfygw,f/


tpdrf;a&mif Highlight &JU t"dyg,fu True vkdY jzpfygw,f/
NyD;&if X0 ay: Cursor csNyD; right click ESdyf? Set Off vkyfygr,f/

Figure 43a Click on [ Set Off ]


'DtcgrSm X0 a&m? Y0 ygtpdrf;a&mif Highlight aysmufuG,foGm;ygw,f/ t"dyg,fu X0
[m ON r[kwfbl; (False), Y0 uvnf; ON r[kwfbl; (False) vkdY azmfjywm jzpfygw,f/
Examine ON [m ON jzpf&if True jzpfygw,f/ (ON jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;wm ON
awGUvkdY rSefw,f qkdwJUt"dyg,f jzpfygw,f/)

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Examine OFF [m OFF jzpf&if True jzpfygw,f/ (OFF jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;wm


OFF awGUvkdY rSefw,f qkdwJUt"dyg,f jzpfygw,f/)
Logical True jzpfvkdY instruction code symbol ukd Highlight tpdrf;a&mifeJUazmfjywm jzpfyg
w,f/

Figure 44a Scan time shown on Status Bar


X0
( Y0 ) vkdY a&;xm;wmukd MunhfNyD; t"dyg,fazmfMunhf&rSmu
{X0 [m ON jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;Munhfyg/ [kwfrSefcJh&if Y0 ukd ON vkdufyg} vkdY
t"dyg,fukd odjrif&rSm jzpfygw,f/
'D instruction pmaMumif;&JU aemufuG,frSm&SdaewJh t"dyg,fwpfcku
{X0 [m ON jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;Munhfyg/ r[kwfcJh?rrSefcJh&if Y0 ukd r ON ygeJY}
qkdwJh t"dyg,f jzpfygw,f/
[kwfw,f? rSefw,fqdkwmukd True vkdY ac:ygw,f/ r[kwfbl;? rrSefbl;qkdwmukd Flase
vkdY ac:ygw,f/
[kwfrS vkyf? r[kwf&if rvkyfeJY qkdwJh oabmt"dyg,fjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
149
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

aemufxyf Example program 1ck xyfa&;Munhf&atmif/


Example program: 2
File New SS2

X0
( Y10 ) vkdY a&;NyD;&if Compiler Ladder => Instruction

Simulator Online Mode Yes vkyfyg/

(Simulator ukd ON xm;NyD;om;jzpfae&if Screen &JU atmufajcrSm&SdwJh Task Bar rSm


Simulator qkdwJh pm ay:aeygvdrhfr,f/)
'DtcgrSm jrifawGU&wmukd aoaocsmcsm Munhfyg/
X0
qkdwJh instruction code [m pdrf;aeygw,f/ True jzpfaMumif; azmfjywm
jzpfygw,f/

tcka&;xm;wJh program &JU t"dyg,fu X0 = OFF jzpf&if Y10 ukd ON vkdufygvkdY


ckdif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
X0 [m OFF jzpfaevkdY Highlight jzpfaeayr,fh Y10 uawmh Highlight jzpfraeygbl;/
Highlight rjzpfwm[m False jzpfaew,fvkdY azmfjywm jzpfygw,f/ Y10 = OFF jzpfaew,f
vkdY azmfjyaewm jzpfygw,f/
bmaMumifhvJqdkawmh PLC u Stop jzpfaevkdY jzpfygw,f/ Status Bar rSm STOP qkdwJh
pmvHk;udk teDa&mifeJY ay:aewmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ WPLSoft udk Computer ay:rSm Run
xm;NyD;rS tcka&;jycJhwmawGudk zwfvdkuf? a&;vdkuf? Munfhvdkuf? vkyf&if ydkNyD;oabmayguf
ygvdrfhr,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

PLC ukd RUN vkdufyg/ 'DawmhrS X0 a&m Y10 yg pdrf;oGm;wmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/

tcka&;xm;wJh program &JU t"dyg,fu X0 = OFF jzpfcJh&if Y10 ukd ON vkdufygvkdY


a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/

Time Chart
tckjyxm;wJh Time Chart &JUt"dyg,fu
X0 = OFF jzpfcJh&if Y10 [m ON jzpfaeNyD;?
X0 = ON jzpfcJh&if Y10 [m OFF jzpfaewmukd azmfjywm jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

aemufxyf program wpfckxyfa&;ygr,f/


Example program: 3
Program topfa&;zkdY File New vkyfr,f qkd&if Online Mode ukd t&ifjyefjzKwfNyD;rS
File New SS2 ukd a&G;vkdY&ygw,f/
tcka&;r,fh program u instruction pmaMumif; 2 aMumif;ygwJh program jzpfygw,f/
yxr instruction code pmaMumif;u X0 [m ON jzpf&if Y1 udk ON vkdufyg? vkdY jzpfNyD;
'kwd, instruction code pmaMumif;u X0 = OFF jzpf&if Y2 ukd ON vkdufyg? vkdY jzpfygw,f/

txufyHkrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; a&;NyD; Compile vkyfvkduf&if atmufqHk;pmaMumif;rSm


END qkdwJh Instruction code ay:vmwmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ atmufyHkudk Munhfyg/

Online Mode icon ukd ESdyfvkdufwJhtcg Warning Box ay:vmygvdrfhr,f/


tck a&;xm;wJh program ukd PLC xJa&;xnfhwm download vkyfrvm;vkdY ar;wm jzpfyg
w,f/ Simulator ukd ON xm;NyD;rS Online Mode ukd ESdyf&rSm jzpfygw,f/
'DtcsdefrSm computer eJY bm PLC eJYrS wu,fqufoG,frxm;ygbl;/ Simulator software
xJrSm&SdwJh PLC vkdvkyfaqmifwJh Virtual PLC xJukd download vkyfrvm;vkdY ar;wm jzpfyg
w,f/
PLC ukd t&if RUN xm;NyD;rS Online Mode udk ESdyfyg/ Download vkyfrSmvm;vkdY ar;wJh
tcg YES ukd ESdyfvkduf&if aemufxyf Warning box 1ck xyfay:vmygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
152
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

PLC ukd RUN aewHk; download vkyfcGifhr&Sdbl;vkdY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/ PLC xJukd program
a&;xnhfwJhtcg PLC xJrSm&SdNyD;om; program ukd tukefzsufNyD;rS program topfudk a&;wm
jzpfvkdY qufvkyfrSmvm;vkdY ar;wmjzpfygw,f/
qufvkyfr,fqkdNyD; Yes ukd ESdyfvkdufwJhtcg PLC udk t&if STOP vkyfygw,f/ NyD;rS
zsufwm delete udk vkyfygw,f/ NyD;rS program topfa&;ygw,f/
Yes ukd xyfESdyfvkduf&if atmufyHkrSm jyxm;wJh Write to PLC qkdwJh tjyma&mif wHk;
uav;awG zsyfceJay:vmNyD; virtual PLC xJrSma&;NyD;om; jzpfoGm;ygw,f/

Write to PLC qdkwJh tjyma&mifwHk;av;awG zsyfceJay:vmNyD;&if Confirm box xyf


ay:vmygw,f/

PLC ukd jyef RUN rSmvm;vkdY ar;wmjzpfygw,f/ 'DtcgrSm Yes ukd ESdyfvkduf&if
Monitor Screen &JU atmufajctv,favmufrSm RUN qkdwJhpmukd tpdrf;a&mifeJYawGU&rSm
jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
153
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yHkrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; PLC ukd Stop vkyfvkduf&if tJ'Dae&mrSm STOP qkdwJhpmudk


teDa&mifeJY azmfjyaeygw,f/ oleJYuyfvsufnmzufrSm Simulator qkdwJh pmay:aeygvdrfhr,f/

Simulator udk ON xm;w,fvkdY azmfjywmjzpfygw,f/ tay:buf Tool Bar rSm&SdwJh


Simulator icon udk Munfhyg/ ESdyfxm;wJhyHkpHtjzpfeJY azmfjyaeygw,f/ Simulator icon ukd
xyfESdyfvkduf&if atmufajcrSm ay:aewJh Simulator qkdwJhpm aysmufoGm;ygw,f/
Simulator = OFF jzpfoGm;wJh oabm jzpfygw,f/
tcka&;cJhwJh Example program oHk;ckpvHk;rSm program a&;NyD;vkdY compile vkyfvkdufwJh
tcgwkdif; END qkdwJh instruction code 1ck xyfwkd;vmwmukd owdjyKrdMur,f xifygw,f/
WPLSoft u xyfjznfh ay;vkdufwJh instruction code jzpfygw,f/
LD eJY a&;wJh PLC program wkdif;ukd END qdkwJh instruction eJY tqHk;owf&ygw,f/
'grSom PLC u olUukdckdif;xm;wJh instruction NyD;qHk;aMumif;ukd odygw,f/ Version edrfhwJh
tcsdKU programming software awGrSm END qkdwmukd program a&;wJhvl programmer u
xnhfa&; ay;&ygw,f/ END ukd a&;rxm;bJ compile vkyfvkduf&if error jyygw,f/ Version
jrihfwJh software awGrSm END ukd xnhfa&;ay;p&mrvkdawmhygbl;/
Example program: 3 &JU b,fbufjcrf;rSm 0, 2, 4, 7919 vkdY txufatmuf ay:aewJh
*Pef;awGudk program step vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Memory Step jzpfygw,f/ One Step [m One
Word vkdY rSwf,lvkdY &ygw,f/ 7919 qkdwmuawmh total memory size jzpfygw,f/
DVP-14SS2 qkdwJh PLC [m program step aygif; 7919 steps txd vufcHaqmif&Guf
EkdifpGrf; &Sdw,fvkdY azmfjywmjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
154
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Example program: 2 ukd Keyboard Shortcut awGoHk;NyD; a&;wJhenf;udk atmufrSmazmfjy
xm;ygw,f/
X0
a&;&r,fh program u ( Y0 ) jzpfygw,f/
WPLSoft ukd zGifhyg/ Menu Bar ay:rSm&SdwJh File New SS2 OK ukd
ESdyfNyD;wJhtcg Maximize ESdyfNyD; Screen ukd csJUyg/ Cursor ukd tpjyK&r,fhae&m initial point
rSm ae&mcsyg/
NyD;&if keyboard ay:u Enter ukd ESdyfyg/ ay:vmwJh box xJrSm LD vkdY kdufNyD; Space
bar ukd 1csuf ESdyfyg? X0 vkdY qufdkufNyD; Enter ukd ESdyfyg/ (O tkd eJY 0 oHknukd rrSm;ygapeJY)
Enter ukd xyfESdyfyg/ ay:vmwJh box xJrSm out vkdY dkufxnfhNyD; <space> ESdyf? Y0 vkdY dkufNyD;?
<Enter> ESdyfvkduf&if atmufyHkrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; ay:vmygw,f/

Compile vkyfzkdYtwGuf <Ctrl> eJU <F9> ukd wGJESdyfyg/ NyD;&if <Enter> ukd 1csuf ESdyfyg/
atmufyHkrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; END ay:vmygw,f/

NyD;&if Tool Bar ay:u Simulator icon udk ESdyfyg/ Task Bar rSm Simulator qkdwJh pm
ay:vmygvdrfhr,f/ NyD;&if virtual PLC xJ a&;xnfhzkdYtwGuf <Ctrl> eJY <T> ukd wGJESdyfyg/
<Enter> ukd 1csuf ESdyfyg/
Online Mode vkyfzkdYtwGuf <Ctrl> &,f? <Alt> &,f? <O> &,f? ukd wGJESdyfyg/ NyD;&if
virtual PLC ukd RUN zkdYtwGuf <Ctrl> eJY <F8> udk wGJESdyfyg/
Task Bar ay:rSm RUN qkdwJh tpdrf;a&mifpmwrf; ay:vmNyD; X0 [m Highlight jzpfaeyg
vdrhfr,f/ Y0 vnf; Highlight jzpfaeygvdrfhr,f/ t"dyg,fu X 0 [m X0 = OFF jzpfae
vkdY True jzpfwJhtwGuf Y0 [m ON jzpfaew,f vkdY azmfjywmjzpfygw,f/
X0 ay: Cursor csNyD;? right click ESdyf? Set On vkyfyg/ 'DtcgrSm X0 [m Highlight aysmuf
X0
oGm;NyD; Y0 vnf; Highlight aysmufoGm;ygw,f/ t"dyg,fu [m X0 = ON jzpfoGm;

vkdY False jzpfwJhtwGuf Y0 [m OFF jzpfoGm;w,fvkdY azmfjywm jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
155
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
'Dtxd zwfvkdY em;vnfrS? oabmaygufrS? a&SUqufzwfzkdY wkdufwGef;ygw,f/
em;rvnfao;&if Computer ay:rSm program a&;NyD; apmapmu ajymcJhwmawGukd
xyfcgxyfcg prf;vkyfMunhfyg/ NyD;&if pOf;pm;yg/ a&;om; azmfjyxm;wmawGukd [kwfw,f?
rSefw,f? vkdY em;vnfvufcHNyD;rS a&SUqufwufoifhygw,f/
tjcm;ol wpfa,mufukd &Sif;jyEkdifwJhtxd ykdifEkdifatmifavhusihfyg/
Examine ON X0 [m X0 = ON jzpf&if True jzpfw,f/
Examine OFF X0 [m X0 = OFF jzpf&if True jzpfw,f/
Highlight u True jzpfwmukd azmfjywmyJvkdY &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; odem;vnfxm;rSom
olrsm; a&;xm;wJh Program awGudk rSefrSefuefuef t"dyg,fazmfwwf? interpret vkyfwwf? rSm
jzpfygw,f/
aemufwqifhu Logic AND eJY Logic OR taMumif; qufNyD;avhvm&rSm jzpfyg
w,f/ AND eJY OR ukd rajymcif bmaMumifh X0 eJY Y0 vkdY a&;&wmvJqkdwmukd
t&if&Sif;jyygr,f/
tcka&;cJhwJh Example Program 3ck pvHk;udk Delta Electronics u xkwfvkyfwJh wu,fY
PLC jzpfwJh DVP-14SS2 xJukd a&;xnfhNyD; PLC ukd RUN vkdY &wJh WPLSoft vkdY ac:wJh
programming software eJY a&;NyD; WPLSoft xJrSm tqifoifhyg0ifNyD;om; Simulator software
eJY prf;oyfMunhfcJhwm jzpfygw,f/
PLC program 1ckukd a&;awmhr,fqkd&if toHk;jyKr,fY PLC &JU type udk t&ifa&G;cs,f
owfrSwf&ygw,f/ tcka&G;cs,fowfrSwfxm;wJh PLC u DVP-14SS2 jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D SS2
&JU Memory rSm ae&mawG cGJa0owfrSwfxm;yHkukd Memory Map of SS2 rSm azmfjyxm;yg
w,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
156
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
157
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

tJ'D Memory Map of SS2 udk Munhfvkduf&if Input terminal twGuf Input Image
Memory ukd X0 to X377 vkdY azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ Output terminal twGuf Output Image
Memory ukd Y0 to Y377 vkdY azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ DVP-14SS2 rSm Input terminal 8ck eJY
Output terminal 6ckyJ yg&Sdygw,f/ I/O eJY oufqkdifwJh memory rSmawmh X0 uae X377 txd
eJY Y0 uae Y377 txdvkdY azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ X eJY Y &JU memory ae&m ta&twGufukd
Octal Number System eJY a&wGufygw,f/ 'gaMumifh SS2 &JU memory xJrSm X twGufu 256
ae&m (256 bits) Y twGufu 256 ae&m (256 bits) &Sdygw,f/
X0
vkdY a&; xm;wJhtcg ukd Opcode (Operator) vkdY ac:ygw,f/ X0 udk
Operand (Address) vkdY ac:ygw,f/ X0 vkdY a&;xm;wJhtxJu X ukd Device name, 0 ukd
Device address vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Input ukd X vkdY owfrSwfNyD; Output ukd Y vkdY owfrSwfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
Opcode qkdwm vkyf&r,fYtvkyfjzpfNyD;? Operand qkdwmvkyf&r,fYae&mudk qkdvkdyg
w,f/ X 0
&JU t"dyg,fu Input Image Memory xJu X0 qkdwJh bit [m ON jzpfae
ovm;vkdY ppfaq;ckdif;wm jzpfygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfaewmawGU&if True jzpfygw,f/
( Y0 ) vkdY a&;wJhtcgrSm ( ) u Opcode jzpfNyD; Y0 u Operand jzpfygw,f/
( Y0 ) [m olU&JUb,fbufrSm&SdwJh condition eJY jynhfpHk&if Y0 ukd ON vkdufyg vkdY
ckdif;apwm jzpfygw,f/ Output image memory xJu Y0 qkdwJh bit ae&mrSm 1 (ON) vkdY
a&;rSwfvkdufygvkdY ckdif;apwm jzpfygw,f/
X0
'gaMumifh udk read instruction vkdY ac:NyD; ( Y0 ) udk write instruction vkdY
ac:ygw,f/
uvnf; read instruction trsdK;tpm;yJ jzpfygw,f/ Memory rSm a&;rSwf xm;
wmukd zwfMunhfckdif;wm read vkyfckdif;wmjzpfvkdY read instruction vkdY ac:wm jzpfygw,f/
PLC oHk;rsdK;rSm Basic Instruction Code &JU Operand owfrSwfxm;yHkcsif; rwlwmukd
atmufrSm EdkSif;,SOfazmfjyxm;ygw,f/
1. Delta PLC 2. Omron PLC 3. Siemens PLC
Model : DVP-14SS2 CPM1A-20CDR S7-200CPU224
Input : X0 to X377 0.00 to 9.15 I0.0 to I15.7
Output : Y0 to Y 377 10.00 to 19.15 Q 0.0 to Q 15.7
X0 0.00 10.00 I 0.0 Q 0.0
LD : ( Y0 ) ( )
Software: WPLSoft CX Programmer STEP 7-Micro/WIN

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
158
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

1. Delta PLC
DVP-14SS2 rSm
X0 to X377 txd input memory bit aygif; 256 ck&Sdygw,f/ Y0 to
Y377 txd uvnf; output memory bit aygif; 256bits &Sdygw,f/ Octal number eJY azmfjywm
jzpfygw,f/ X u Input ukd &nfTef;NyD; Y u output ukd &nfTef;wm jzpfygw,f/ Program
a&;r,fqkd&if WPLSoft eJY a&;&ygw,f/
2. Omron PLC
CPM1A-20CDR rSm 0.00 to 9.15 txd input memory bit aygif; 160 bits &Sdygw,f/
0.00 rSmyg&SdwJh b,ftpGefu 0 [m word &JUeHygwf jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D 0 aemufu dot u word
eJY bit udk separate vkyf ykdif;jcm;xm;wJhoauFw jzpfygw,f/ Separator vkdY ac:ygw,f/ tJ'D
dot aemufu 00 [m bit &JU eHygwf jzpfygw,f/ 0.00 to 9.15 txd qdkawmh word 0 &JU bit 0
uae word 9 &JU bit 15 txd bit aygif; 160 &Sdygw,f/ Output tjzpf word 10 uae word
19 txd owfrSwfxm;wJhtwGuf output memory bit aygif; 160 &Sdygw,f/ Program a&;r,f
qkd&if CX-Programmer eJY a&;&ygw,f/
3. Siemens PLC
S7-200 CPU224 rSm I0.0 to I15.7 txd input memory bit aygif; 128 bits &Sdygw,f/
Q0.0 to Q15.7 txdvnf; output memory bit aygif; 128 bits &Sdygw,f/ I ukd input vkdY
owfrSwfNyD; Q ukd output vkdY owfrSwf xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ I0.0 qdkwmuawmh Input Byte 0
&JU bit 0 vkdY t"dyg,f&ygw,f/ I15.7 qkdwmu Input Byte 15 &JU bit 7 vkdY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/
'gaMumihf memory xJrSm Input twGuf Byte 16 bytes pm ae&m&Sdygw,f/ One byte rSm 8
bits &SdvkdY pkpkaygif; 128 bits jzpfygw,f/ Program a&;r,fqkd&if STEP 7-Micro/WIN eJY
a&;&ygw,f/
Output ukd ON ckdif;wJh instruction code &JUoauFw symbol ukdvnf; Delta eJY Semens
u ( ) 'DykHeJY azmfjyayrJh Omron uawmh 'DyHkeJY azmfjyygw,f/
xkwfvkyfol awmfawmfrsm;rsm;u input ukd X, output ukd Y vkdY owfrSwfMu
PLC
ygw,f/ toHk;jyKol User awGtwGuf LD eJY program a&;zkdY oif,l&mrSm vG,fulapygw,f/
'DpmtkyfrSm Program taMumif;&Sif;jywJhtcg DVP-14SS2 ukdoHk;NyD; &Sif;jy&wJh
taMumif;&if;u program a&;wJh software (WPLSoft) ukd Delta Automation &JU webiste
rSm w&m;0iftcrJh ay;xm;wmjzpfNyD;? Simulator ukdyg tJ'D WPLSoft xJrSm built-in
xnfhay; xm;vkdY jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
159
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
'Dawmh PLC r&SdbJeJY program a&;NyD; virtual PLC eJY RUN MunhfvkdY &wJhtwGuf
instruction code awG&JU vkyfaqmifcsufukd ppfaq;MunhfvkdY &ygw,f/ OEM &JU Manual
awGrSmvnf; yHkESdyftrSm; printing error awG &Sdwwfygw,f/ Instruction code topf 1ck ukd
awGUwJhtcg OEM &JU Manual rSm olU&JU t"dyg,fowfrSwfcsufukd t&if&Smzwf&ygr,f/ NyD;&if
erlem program a&;prf; Munhf&ygr,f/ tJ'D code &JU function ukd taotcsmodNyDqkdrS
wu,fY Project awGrSm a&;NyD; oHk;oihfygw,f/ vufawGUvkyfief; aqmif&GufwJh ae&mrSm
jrefzkdYxuf? rSefzkdYu ykdta&;BuD; ygw,f/
Logical AND Function Program
tck Logical AND Function ukd LD eJY program b,fvkda&;&w,f qkdwmukd
qufvufazmfjyygr,f/ (vufawGUprf;oyfzdkY PLC r&SdwJholawGu tcka&;om;azmfjy xm;wm
awGukd pdwful;eJY yHkazmfMunhfNyD; Simulator eJY RUN MunfhvkdY &ygw,f)/
Logic AND &JU t"dyg,fu AND vkyfxm; wmawG tm;vHk; ON jzpfrS AND &JU Logic
Result u ON jzpfygw,f/
LD eJY program a&; NyD;vufawGUprf;MunhfzkdYtwGuf vkdtyfwJh ypnf;awGuawmh PLC
1vHk; = DVP-14SS2-11R, Pushbutton (N.O) 2ck? 24V, 3W Lamp 1vHk;? 24VDC power
supply 1ck wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/

P.B 1 Lamp 1
X0 Y0

+
P.B 2 24V

X1 Delta PLC = DVP14SS2-11R COM 0

24V
+ S/S

Input Terminal Output Terminal


yHk(u) Wiring
yHk(u)rSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; wiring jyKvkyf&ygr,f/ Output terminal Y0 rSm 24V, 3W
lamp udk qufoG,fxm;&ygr,f/ P.B1 ukd Input terminal X0 rSmqufoG,fNyD; P.B2 ukd
Input terminal X1 rSm qufoG,fxm;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ P.B1 eJY P.B2 wkdY 2ck pvHk;[m
ESdyfvkdufrS close jzpfwJh N.O contact trsdK;tpm; pushbutton awG jzpfMuygw,f/ P.B1 ukd
ESdyf&if X0 = ON jzpfNyD;? ESdyfxm;wmukd jyefvTwfvkduf&if X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
160
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

'DvkdrsdK; pushbutton ukd momentary contact ygwJh pushbutton vkdY ac:ygw,f/ (Simulator
eJY prf;r,fh olawGu P.B1 ukd ESdyfwJh condition tjzpf X0 ukd Set On vkyfay;&ygr,f/
jyefvTwfwJh condition jzpfatmif X0 ukd Set Off jyefvkyfay;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ 'DvkdvkyfrS P.B1
ukd ESdyfNyD; jyefvTwfvkdufwJh function jzpfygw,f/)

yHk(A) Program

Y0

Time Chart
yHk(A)rSm azmfjyxm;wJhtwkdif; LD program ukda&;yg/ Program a&;NyD;&if compile vkyfyg/
DVP-14SS2-11R ukd 24VDC power supply eJY qufoG,fyg/ PLC ay:u PWR rD;
vif;vm&if programming cable ukd (PC PLC) qufoG,fyg/ 'Dae&mrSm tck program
a&;xm;wJh Computer u COM port (RS-232 port) rygwJh Computer rsdK;? Oyrm? (Laptop)
jzpfcJh&if RS-232 to USB Converter &SdrSom programming cable ukd qufvkYd&ygr,f/
USB Converter cable rsm;pGm&SdwJhtxJu oHk;&wmtqifajywJh cable uawmh ATEN
International Co. Ltd. u xkwfvkyfwJh UC-232A USB-to-Serial Converter jzpfygw,f/ olUukd
oHk;r,fqkd&if UC-232A cable ukd 0,f,lpOfu ygvmwJh driver CD ukd Computer xJxnhfNyD;
driver software ukd t&if install vkyf&ygw,f/ 'gu Computer eJY UC-232A cable ukd
rdwfqufay;wm jzpfygw,f/
Computer eJY PLC (DVP-14SS2-11R) ukd programming cable eJY qufoG,fNyD;&if
WPLSoft xJrSm a&;xm;wJh program ukd PLC xJ a&;xnhfzkdY Tool Bar ay:u Write to PLC
qkdwJh icon ukd ESdyfyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
161
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef


PLC xJukd a&;xm;wJh program a&mufoGm;NyDqkd&if
(1) PLC ay:u RUN rD;vHk; vif;ovm;? rvif;bl;vm;? qkdwmukd t&ifMunhfyg/
RUN LED rD; rvif;&if PLC ay:rSm yg&SdwJh RUN/STOP switch ukd Stop
ae&mrSm t&ifxm;vdkufNyD; RUN ae&mukd a&TUvkdufyg/ RUN LED rD; vif;
vmygvdrfhr,f/
(2) P.B1 ukd ESdyfxm;yg/ PLC ay:u X0 vkdY a&;xm;wJh LED udk Munfhyg/ LED rD;
vif;wmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ Y0 LED udk Munfhyg/ LED rD; rvif;yg/ P.B1 ukd
jyefvTwfvkdufyg/
(3) P.B2 ukd ESdyfxm;yg/ PLC ay:u X1 LED udk Munfhyg/ LED rD; vif;wmudk
awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ Y0 LED udk Munfhyg/ LED rD; rvif;yg/ P.B2 ukd jyefvTwf
vkdufyg/
(4) P.B1 ukd ESdyfxm;yg/ P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;pOf P.B2 ukd xyfESdyfyg/ PLC ay:u X0
LED, X1 LED eJY Y0 LED oHk;vHk;pvHk; rD;vif;wmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ Output
terminal Y0 rSm Lamp1 ukd qufoG,fxm;wJhtwGuf Lamp1 yg rD;vif;wmukd
awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/
(5) WPLSoft &JU Tool Bar ay:u Online Mode ukd ESdyfyg/

'DtcgrSm PLC xJu vkyfaqmifcsufawGukd Computer Screen ay:rSm MunhfvkdY&ygNyD/


P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukd apmapmuprf;ovkd xyfESdyfMunhfyg/ Time chart rSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif;
X0 a&m? X1 yg ON jzpfrS Y0 = ON jzpfwmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ PLC ukd STOP vkyf
NyD;awmhvnf; P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukd ESdyfMunhfyg/ PLC ukd RUN vkyf NyD;awmhvnf; P.B1 eJY P.B2
ukd ESdyfMunhfyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
162
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Logical OR Function Program
Logic OR function qkw d mu OR vkyfxm;wmawGxJu 1ck ON &if OR &JU logic result
u ON jzpfygw,f/ OR vkyfxm;wmtm;vHk; ON jzpf&ifvnf; result u ON jzpfygw,f/
vufawGUprf;zdkYtwGuf AND function rSmwHk;u vdkyJ P.B1 ukd X0 eJY qufyg? PB2 ukd X1 eJY
qufyg? Lamp1 ukd Y0 eJY qufoG,fxm;yg/ OR function ukd LD eJY program a&;wJhtcgrSm
yHk(B) rSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; a&;&ygw,f/ Vertical line ukd a&;csif&if X0 &JU nmbufrSm
Cursor csNyD; <F9> udk ESdyfyg/

yHk(B) Program

Y0

Time chart
yHk(B) utwkdif; WPLSoft rSm a&;NyD;&if Compile vkyfyg/ PLC (DVP-14SS2-11R) ukd
24VDC Supply ay;yg/ PLC eJY Computer ukd programming cable eJY qufoG,fyg/ PLC
ay:u PWR LED rD;? vif;aeNyDqkd&if <Ctrl> eJY <T> ukd wGJESdyfyg/ 'gu Write to PLC
vkyfckdif;wm jzpfygw,f/ PLC ay:u RUN LED rD;? rvif;&if <Ctrl> eJY <F8> ukd wGJESdyfyg/
PLC udk RUN ckdif;wm jzpfygw,f/ RUN LED rD;? vif;vmygvdrhfr,f/
OR function ukd prf;zkdYtwGuf P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;yg/ X0 = ON, eJY Y0 = ON jzpfNyD; terminal
Y0 rSm qufoG,fxm;wJh Lamp1 rD;vif;vmygvdrfhr,f/ P.B1 ukd jyefvTwfvkduf&if Y0 LED =
OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygvdrhfr,f/ P.B2 ukd ESdyfMunhfyg/ Lamp1 rD;vif;wmukd awGU&ygvdrhfr,f/
jyefvTwfvkduf&if? Lamp1 rD; Nidrf;oGm;ygvdrhfr,f/
'Dwcg P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukd wGJESdyfyg/ Y0 = ON eJY Lamp1 = ON jzpfwmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/
Time chart rSm azmfjyxm;wmeJY EdIif;,SOfMunhfyg/ pOf;pm;yg/ 'gqkd&if OR &JU vkyfaqmifcsuf
ukd em;vnfoabmaygufygvdrfhr,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
163
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
PLC eJY vufawGUprf;oyfcGifh r&ao;olawGtwGuf Simulator eJY prf;oyfyHkukd
azmfjyygr,f/
LD eJY program a&;NyD;&if
(1) Compile vkyfyg/
(2) Simulator udk
ESdyfyg/ Task Bar rSm Simulator qkdwJh pmwrf;ay:vmygvdrfhr,f/
(3)Wirte to PLC vkyfyg/
(4)Online Mode ukd ESdyfyg/ Task Bar ukd Munhfyg/
(5)STOP qkdwJh teDa&mifpm ay:ae&if <Ctrl> eJY <F8> ukd wGJESdyfNyD; virtual PLC ukd
RUN vkdufyg/
(6) OR function ukd prf;MunhfzkdY X0 ay: Cursor csNyD;? Right Click ESdyfyg/
(7) NyD;&if Set On vkyfyg/ Y0 = ON jzpfoGm;wmukd tpdrf;a&mif Highlight eJY
awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ X0 ay: Cursor csNyD;? R.C ESdyf? Set Off vkyfyg/
(8) X1 ay: Cursor cs? R.C ESdyf? Set On vkyfyg/ Y0 = ON jzpfwmukd Highlight eJY
jyaeygvdrhfr,f/ NyD;&if Set Off jyefvkyfyg/
(9) X0 ay: Cursor csNyD; R.C ESdyf? Set On vkyfyg/ NyD;&if X1 ay: Cursor cs? R.C ESdyf?
Set On vkyfyg/ Y0 = ON jzpfaeygw,f/
(10) X0 ay: Cursor cs? Set Off vkyfyg/ Y0 = ON jzpfaeqJygyJ/ X1 ay: Cursor cs?
Set Off vkyfvkdufawmhrS Y0 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
tckqkd&if PLC &SdwJholawGu Programming cable qufNyD; PLC xJu vkyfaqmifcsuf
function awGukd Online Mode eJY MunhfwwfNyD jzpfygw,f/ PLC r&SdwJholawGuvnf;
Simulator ukd ON NyD; Online Mode eJY prf;MunhfwwfNyD jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
164
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

'gaMumifh a&hSqufa&;r,fh Logic Function awGtaMumif;ukd prf;oyfenf;awG csefvSyfNyD;


&Sif;jyoGm;ygr,f/ tck Logic AND eJY Logic OR ukd aygif;pyfNyD; program a&;NyD; ckdif;wJhtcg
PLC u aqmif&GufyHkukd qufvufazmfjyrSm jzpfygw,f/ AND eJY OR udk ykHpHtrsdK;rsdK;eJY
aygif;a&;vkdY&ygw,f/ tJ'Dvkdaygif;pyfxm;wJh Logic ukd Logic Block vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Logic
tpktzGJU jzpfygw,f/ tck AND Block 2ck ukd OR vkyfxm;wJh program taMumif; &Sif;jy
ygr,f/

yHk#1

Y0
Y0

Y0

yHk#1 rSm jrif&wJh AND Block 2ck ukd OR vkyfxm;wJh LD program udk WPLSoft eJY a&;NyD;
Simulator eJY prf;Munhf&if X0 eJY X1 2ckpvHk; ON jzpf&ifvnf; Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X2 eJY
X3 2ckpvHk; ON jzpf&ifvnf; Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X0, X1, X2 eJY X3 4ckpvHk; ON
jzpf&ifvnf; Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/ 'Dtajctae oHk;rsdK;rSmom Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
165
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yHk#2

Y0
Y0

Y0

yHk#2 rSm azmfjyxm;wJh program u OR Block 2ck ukd AND vkyfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
tJ'gudk WPLSoft rSma&;NyD; Simulator eJY prf;Munhf&if?
(1) X0 eJY X2 2ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if? (2) X1 eJY X3 2ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if?
(3) X0 eJY X3 2ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if? (4) X1 eJY X2 2ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if?
(5) X0, X1 eJY X2 3ck pvHk; ON jzpf&if? (6) X0, X1 eJY X3 3ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if?
(7) X0, X2 eJY X3 3ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if? (8) X1, X2 eJU X3 3ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if?
(9) X0, X1, X2 eJY X4 4ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if? qkdwJh tajctae condition ukd;rsdK;rSm
Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
166
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yHk#3
yHk#3 rSm azmfjyxm;wJh program u AND Block 2ck ukd OR vkyfxm;wmyJ jzpfygw,f/
'gayr,fh? PLC &JU input terminal X0 eJY X1 udkomoHk;xm;wJh 2-input XOR &JUvkyfaqmifcsuf
function twdkif;aqmif&GufwJh program jzpfygw,f/ 'D program udk WPLSoft rSma&;NyD;
Simulator eJY prf;Munhf&if?
(1) X0 = ON, jzpfNyD;? X1 = OFF jzpfcJh&if?
(2) X0 = OFF, jzpfNyD;? X1 = ON jzpfcJh&if? qkdwJh condition 2rsdK;rSmom Y2 = ON
jzpfygw,f/
'gudk Exclusive OR (XOR) vkdY ac:ygw,f/ XOR &JU Truth Table eJY wGJMunhf&if em;vnf
ygvdrfhr,f/ XOR function qkdwmu XOR vkyfxm;wmawGxJu 1ckxJ ON rS logic result u
ON jzpfygw,f/
tck&Sif;jycJhwJh program 3ck #1, #2 eJY #3 ukd 'DvkdyHkpHeJY ajymif;a&;NyD; Munhf&atmif/

ukd
IF [(X0 = ON) AND (X1 = ON)] OR [(X2 = ON) AND (X3 = ON)] THEN [(Y1 to be ON]
tu,f [X0 a&m X1 yg ON jzpf&if] okdYr[kwf [X2 a&m X3 yg ON jzpf&if]
'gukdvkyfyg [Y2 ukd ON vkdufyg ]
'DvkdyHkpHcsNyD; a&;Munfhvkduf&if AND 2ckukd OR vkyfxm;wJht"dyg,f ay:vGifvmyg
w,f/

ukd
IF [(X0 = ON) OR (X1 = ON)] AND [(X2 = ON) OR (X3 = ON)] THEN [Y2 => ON]
tu,f [X0eJYX12ckrSm1ckON] jzpfNyD; [X2eJYX32ckrSm1ckON] jzpfcJh&if [Y2ukdON] vkdufyg/
'DvkdyHkpHajymif;a&;MunhfwJhtcg OR Block 2ckukd AND vkyfxm;wJhyHkpHudk jrifawGU&rSm
jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
167
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

ukd
IF [(X0 = ON) AND (X1 = OFF)] OR [(X0 = OFF) AND (X1 = ON)] THEN [(Y2 => ON]
tu,f X0 = ON jzpfaewJhtcgrSm X1 = OFF jzpfaeNyD; 'grSr[kwf X0 = OFF
jzpfaewJhtcsdefrSm X1 = ON jzpfaecJhr,fqkd&if Y2 ukd ON vkdufyg/
'DvkdyHkpHcs Munfhvkduf awmh AND Block 2ckukd OR vkyfxm;wm awGU&ygw,f/
'DtxdzwfMunfhvdkYvnf;NyD;NyD? a&;xm;wJhtwkdif;vnf; vkdufvkyfMunhfNyD;NyD? 'gayr,fh
em;rvnfEdkifao;bl;qdk&if Logic taMumif;ukd jyefzwfMunhfyg/ tckqufvufa&;om;
azmfjyrSm awGuawmh LD program ukd a&;wwf? prf;wwfNyD; jzpfwJh olawGtwGuf &nf&G,fyg
w,f/
WPLSoft eJY LD program a&;enf;? PLC eJY prf;enf;? PLC rygbJ Simulator eJY prf;enf;
awGukd em;vnfatmif zwfMunhf? a&;prf;Munhf? NyD;rS a&SUqufzufzkdY wkdufwGef;ygw,f/
zwfMunhf? a&;prf;MunhfNyD;vkdYrS em;rvnfao;&if? ajz;ajz;jyefzwfNyD; pOf;pm;yg/ vufawGU
vkyfMunhfyg/ taMumif;eJYtusdK;qufpyfNyD;em;vnfrS oabmaygufwJhtqifhukd a&mufvmrSm
jzpfygw,f/
LD Program rSm a&;xm;wJh yHkpH Format u atmufyg twkdif; jzpfygw,f/
IF (Condition is True) THEN (Execute the Instruction)
tu,f (azmfjyxm;wJhtajctaetwkdif;&SdcJh?jzpfcJh&if) xkdYaemuf (TefMum;xm;wJhtwkdi f; aqmif&Gufyg )
Program xJrSmygwJh open contact eJY closed contact yHkawGukd jrifawGU&wJhtcg ON ovm;
vkdY ppfaq;ckdif;wm? eJY OFF ovm;vkdY ppfaq;ckdif;wJh instruction code awGvkdY od&rSm?
em;vnf&rSm? jzpfygw,f/ 'DvkdrSr[kwfbJ contact awGtjzpfeJYom jrifodaeao;&ifawmh
program ukd zwfNyD; em;vnfzkdY tvSrf;a0;aeygao;w,f/
Program qkdwm Software jzpfygw,f/ LD program xJrSm hardware jzpfwJh contact awG
r&Sdygbl;/ Software jzpfwJh Instruction Code awGyJ&Sdygw,f/ tJ'D code awGukd kyfyHkeJY
ukd,fpm;jyKNyD; azmfjyxm;wJh Open contact, Closed contact eJY Coil wk&Yd JU oauFw kyfyHk
awGudk xGif;azmufNyD; t"dyg,fudk oabmaygufatmif OmPfeJY Munhfjrif&rSm jzpfygw,f/
em;vnfw,f? oabmaygufw,f? qkdwm OmPf&JU tvkyfjzpfygw,f/ OmPfeJY Munhf rSom
trSefukdodygw,f/ trSefukd odrS ynm jzpfygw,f/ Examine ON qdkwJh instruction ukd LD
(Ladder Diagram) rSm kyfyHkeJY code vkyfygw,f/ IL (Instruction List) rSm pmeJY code vkyfyg
w,f/ Examine ON ukd LD rSm open contact kyfyHkeJY code vkyfNyD;? IL rSm LD qkdwJh pmvHk;eJY
code vkyfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
168
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
'gukdvufawGUod&atmifvdkY LD eJY Program a&; Munhfygr,f/ WPLSoft rSm Program
topfa&;zkdY File New vkyfyg/
(1) b,ftpGefrSm Cursor csNyD;? Enter acguf?
(2) LD qkdwJh pmvHk; kdfufxnhf?
(3) Space Bar 1csuf acguf?
(4) X0 qkdwJh pmvHk;ukd kdufxnhfNyD;?
(5) Enter acgufvkduf&if?

yHk(A) txufrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; open contact X0 qkdNyD; ay:vmygvdrhfr,f/

yHk(A)rSm azmfjyxm;wJh open contact eJY X0 &JU t"dyg,fu Examine ON X0 jzpfyg


w,f/ X0 [m ON jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;MunhfIckdif;wJh TefMum;csuf&JU oauFw kyfyHk
jzpfygw,f/ Open contact, Closed contact eJY Coil wkYd[m graphical symbolic code for
instructions awGom jzpfMuygw,f/ Physical contact eJY physical coil awGukd ukd,fpm;jyKwJh
kyfyHkawG r[kwfMuygbl;/ NyD;&if? Enter acguf? out qkdwJh pmvHk; kdfufxnhf? Space Bar 1csuf
acguf? Y0 qkdwJh pmvHk;ukd kdufxnhfNyD;? Enter acgufvkduf&if?

yHk(B) txufygtwkdif;ay:vmygw,f/
WPLSoft rSm yHk(B) u twkdif; program ukd a&;NyD;&if compile vkyfyg/

yHk(C) txufygtwkdif;ay:vmygvdrhfr,f/
Tool Bar ay:u Instruction List qkdwJh icon ukd ESdyfyg/ 'grSr[kwf View
Instruction List ukd ESdyfyg/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
169
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yHk(D) txufygtwkdif; ay:vmygvdrhfr,f/


LD, OUT, END eJY NOP wkdY[m Opcode awG jzpfMuygw,f/
X0 eJY Y0 u Operand awG jzpfMuygw,f/
LD qkdwmu LoaD &JU mnemonic jzpfygw,f/
OUT qdkwJh mnemonic u output ukd ON ckdif;wm jzpfygw,f/
END qkdwmu a&;xm;wJh program NyD;qHk;aMumif;udk azmfjywJh instructions code jzpfyg
w,f/
NOP qkdwmu vkyfp&m r&Sdawmhbl; No Operation vkdY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/
Program xJrSm ygwJh kyfyHkawG? pmvHk;awG[m? TefMum;csufoauFw instructions code
awGom jzpfMuygw,f/
b,fbufjcrf;rSm 0, 1, 2, 3 vkdY axmifvkduf ay:aewmawGu program step awG jzpfMuyg
w,f/
Ladder Diagram Mode rSmvnf; b,fbufjcrf;rSm axmifvkduf 0, 2, 7919 vkdY ay:aewm
[m pkpkaygif;a&;zkdYusefwJh program step u 7919 jzpfNyD; tcka&;vkdufwJh program u step 2ck
oHk;NyD;oGm;NyDvkdY t"dyg,f&ygw,f/
Ladder Diagram Mode (LD) eJY Instruction List Mode (IL) wkdYukd tjyeftvSef toggle
vkyf ajymif;Munhfcsif&if Menu Bar ay:u View ukd ESdyfNyD; ajymif;MunhfvkdY &ygw,f/
Shortcut eJY ajymif;Munhfcsif&if <Alt> eJY <V> ukd wGJESdyfyg/ NyD;&if <I> ukd ESdyfyg/ 'gqkd&if
IL eJY azmfjyygvdrhfr,f/
<Alt> + <V> <L> qkd&if LD eJY azmfjyygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
170
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Dominant-ON, Dominant-OFF
Relay control system eJY wnfaqmufxm;wJh ON/OFF circuit wpfckudk Fig. 1 rSm
azmfjy xm;ygw,f/ Stop-dominant &JU Status-Time Diagram udk Fig. 2 rSm azmfjy xm;yg
w,f/
+24V 0V
P.B 1 P.B 2 Relay K1

K1
Fig. 1 Electrical Circuit Diagram K1

Lamp L1
K1

1 ON
P.B1
0 OFF
1 ON
P.B.2
0 OFF

1 ON
Status

K1
0 OFF

1 ON
L1
0 OFF
t0 t1t2 Time

Fig. 2 Status-Time Diagram


P.B1 eJY P.B2 wdkY[m momentary contact omyg&SdwJh ESdyfcvkwf pushbutton awGjzpfMu yg
w,f/ P.B1 [m Normally Open (N.O) contact omyg&SdwJh pushbutton jzpfygw,f/ P.B1 udk
rESdyf&if contact [m open tajctaerSm &Sdaeygw,f/ P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;wJhtckduftwefYrSm
contact close jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ P.B1 udk ESdyfNyD; jyefvTwfvdkuf&if contact [m open jyefjzpf
oGm;ygw,f/
ESdyfvdkufwmudk Activate vkyfw,fvdkY ac:ygw,f/ rESdyfwmudk Non-activate vdkY ac:yg
w,f/
N.O udk Non-activate Open vdkY rSwfxm;oifhygw,f/ Activate rvkyf&if Open jzpfae wJh
contact qdkwJh t"dyg,feJY rSwfom;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ N.O udk No energy Open vdkY rSwf
xm;&ifvnf; t"dyg,fay: vGifxif&Sm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
171
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

P.B2 [m N.C pushbutton jzpfygw,f/ P.B2 udk rESdyfxm;&if closed contact


tajctae jzpfaeygw,f/ P.B2 udk ESdyfxm;wJhtckduftwefYrSmom contact open jzpfygw,f/
ESdyfxm;wJh P.B2 ukd jyefvTwfvkduf&if contact [m close jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/
Pushbutton udk ESdyfwm[m pushbutton udk activate vkyfwm jzpfygw,f/ rESdyfwmudk
Non-activate vdkY rSwfxm;oifhygw,f/ 'gaMumifh N.C udk Non-activate Closed vdkY rSwfxm;
oifhygw,f/ N.C udk No energy Closed vdkY rSwfxm;&ifvnf; t"dyg,fay:vGifygw,f/
Fig. 2 rSm azmfjyxm;wJh Status-Time Diagram udk Time Chart vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
tajctae status udk tcsdefeJY twl,SOfwGJ azmfjyxm;wJh yHkjzpfygw,f/ b,ftcsdefrSm b,fvdk
tajctae &Sdw,fqdkwJh status udk azmfjywJh yHkjzpfvdkY Status-Time Diagram vdkY ajymvdkuf&if
oabmt"dyg,fudk rSwfrd? od&dS? em;vnfapygw,f/
Fig. 2 Status-Time Diagram rSm 0 (zero) udk current rpD;wJhtajctae OFF state
tjzpf owfrSwfxm;ygw,f/ 1 (one) udk current pD;wJhtajctae ON state tjzpf owfrSwf
xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
t 0 qdkwJh tcsdefumvrSm P.B1 udkvnf; rESdyfbl;? P.B2 udkvnf; rESdyfbl;/ 'gaMumifh
Relay K1 [mvnf; de-energize jzpfygaew,f/ L1 rD;vHk;vnf; rD;rvif;ygbl;/
t 1 qdkwJhtcsdefrSm P.B1 1ck wnf;udkom ESdyfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh K1 = ON jzpfoGm;yg
w,f/
t 2 tcsdefrSm P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;&mu jyefvTwfvdkufygw,f/ 'DtcgrSm Relay K1 &JJU
N.O contact K1 [m closed jzpfaeESifhNyD; jzpfvdkY Relay K1 [m (K1 = ON) energize
qufjzpf ygw,f/ Relay K1 &JU 'kwd, N.O contact K1 eJY qufoG,fxm;wJh Lamp L1
vnf; ON jzpfNyD; rD;vif;ygw,f/ P.B2 udk rESdyfrcsif; Relay K1 [m ON jzpfaeygw,f/
K1 = ON jzpfaeoa&GU Lamp L1 vnf; rD;vif;aeygw,f/
Fig. 1 circuit diagram rSm jyxm;ovdk qufoG,fwmudk self-holding circuit vdYk ac:
ygw,f/ Self-latching circuit vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Sealing-in circuit vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
P.B2 udk ESdyfvdkufawmhrS Relay K1 de-energize (K1 = OFF) jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ K1 &JU
contact awGvnf; open jzpfoGm;vkdY Lamp L1 rD;Nidrf;oGm;ygw,f/ Fig. 1 rSm P.B1 eJY P.B2
2ck &SdwJh txJu P.B2 [m tc&m dominant jzpfaeygw,f/ P.B2 udk ESdyfxm;wHk;rSm P.B1
udk ESdyfayrJh Relay K1 [m energize rjzpfEdkifygbl;/ 'grsdK;udk OFF-dominant vdkYac:ygw,f/
P.B1 udk Start P.B tjzpf toHk;jyKxm;NyD; P.B2 udk Stop P.B tjzpf toHk;jyKxm;vdkY stop-
dominant vdkY vnf; ac:ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
172
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Fig. 1 rSm Relay eJY vkyfaqmifcJhwJhtvkyf function udkyJ PLC eJY vkyfaqmif apr,f
qdk&if P.B1, P.B2 eJY L1 wdkYudk atmufrSmazmfjyxm;wJh Fig. 3 twdkif; qufoG,f&ygw,f/
P.B 1
Lamp L1
X0 Y0

+
P.B 2 Delta PLC: 24V

X1 COM 0

24V
+ S/S DVP14SS2-11R

Input Terminal Output Terminal

Fig. 3 PLC I/O devices connection diagram


Fig. 3 rSmyg&SdwJh X0, X1, S/S qdkwmawGu PLC &JU Input terminal awG jzpfMuygw,f/
X0 rSm P.B1 N.O Pushbutton udk qufoG,fxm;ygw,f/
X1 rSm P.B2 N.C Pushbutton ukd qufoG,fxm;ygw,f/
S/S [m input twGuf common terminal jzpfNyD; sink or source tjzpf qufoG,f
Edkifygw,f/
Fig. 3 rSm S/S udk -24V eJY qufoG,fxm;wJhtwGuf sink input tjzpf qufoG,f
xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
Y0 eJY COM 0 uawmh PLC &JU output terminal awG jzpfMuygw,f/
Y0 rSm Lamp L1 ukd qufoG,fxm;NyD; COM 0 rSm -24V eJY qufoG,f xm;wJhtwGuf
sink output qufoG,fenf;eJY qufoG,fxm;wmjzpfygw,f/
PLC &JU type u DVP-14SS2-11R jzpfvdkY PLC twGuf power supply udk 24Vdc
ay;&NyD; output u relay output trsdK;tpm;jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
173
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
OFF-dominant Program
Start/Stop program ukd Stop dominant jzpfatmif LD eJY
a&;jyygr,f/
Fig. 2 Status-Time Diagram rSm azmfjyxm;wJh function udk MunfhNyD; LD eJY program
pa&;wJhenf; tqifhqifhudk awG;enf;a&m a&;enf;udkyg atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
P.B1 udk ESdyfvdkuf&if L1 = ON jzpfatmifvdkY atmufygtwdkif; p a&;ygw,f/

X0
(Y0)

t"dyg,fu X0 = ON jzpfrS Y0 udk ON vkdufyg vdkY nTefMum;csuf instruction ay;wm


jzpfygw,f/ 'Dtwdkif;yJa&;xm;cJh&if P.B1 udk ESdyfwJhtcsdefrSmom X0 = ON jzpfNyD;? ESdyfxm;wJh
P.B1 udk jyefvTwfvdkufwJhtcg? X0 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;wJhtwGuf Y0 vnf; OFF jzpf oGm;yg
w,f/ X0 = ON jzpfaewJh tcsdefrSmom Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;&if Y0
vnf; OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
wu,fjzpfcsifwmu P.B1 udk ESdyfNyD;jyefvTwfvdkuf&if Y0 = ON jzpfusefcJh apcsifwm
jzpfygw,f/ 'Dawmh self-hold jzpfatmif (latched jzpfatmif) program udk atmufyg
yHktwdkif; jyifa&;vdkufygw,f/
X0
Y0
()

Y0

t"dyg,fu X0 eJY Y0 2ck xJu 1ck ON jzpf&if Y0 udk ON vdkufyg vdkY nTefMum;csuf
instruction ay;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ Boolean equation eJY a&;r,fqdk&if Y0 = (X0) OR (Y0)
jzpfygw,f/
IF.... THEN yHkpHeJY azmfjy&&if

IF [(X0 = ON)] OR [(Y0 = ON)] THEN [(Y0 ON)] jzpfygw,f/


P.B1 udk ESdyfMunfhyg/ X0 = ON jzpfvdkY Y0 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
P.B1 udk ESdyfNyD; jyefvTwfvdkufwJhtcgrSm X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;ayrJh tJ'DtcsdefrSm Y0
[m ON jzpfNyD;om;rdkYvdkY Y0 [m qufNyD; ON jzpfaeygw,f/ Program udk 'Dtwdkif;om
a&;xm;cJhr,fqdk&if Y0 [m ON jzpfNyD;&if PLC udk RUN xm;oa&GU ON qufjzpfaeygvdrfh
r,f/
b,fawmhrS OFF jyefrjzpfawmhygbl;/ PLC udk RUN uae STOP udk ajymif;vdkufrS
om Y0 [m OFF jzpfoGm;ygvdrfhr,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
174
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Start/Stop circuit t& trSefwu,f jzpfcsifwmu P.B1 udk ESdyf&if Y0 [m ON


jzpfoGm;NyD; P.B2 udk EdSyfawmhrS Y0 [m OFF jyefjzpf&rSm jzpfygw,f/ tJ'DvdkjzpfatmifvdkY
program udk atmufygtwdkif; jyifa&;vdkufygw,f/

X0 X1
(Y)
0

Y0

t"dyg,fu X 0 eJY Y 0 udk OR vkyfvdkY&wJh logic result eJY X 1 udk


AND vkyfvdkufyg/ &&SdvmwJh logic result u True jzpf&if Y0 udk ON vdkufygvdkY cdkif;xm;
wm (instruction ay;xm;wm) jzpfygw,f/ X0 qdkwmu X0 [m ON jzpfaeovm;
vdkY ppfaq;ckdif;wmjzpfvdkYrdkY X0 = ON jzpf&if True ([kwfw,f)? X0 = OFF jzpf&if False
(r[kwfbl;) vdkY owfrSwfygw,f/ X1 rSm qufoG,fxm;wJh P.B2 [m N.C type jzpfvdkY P.B2
udk rESdyfoa&GU X1 [m ON jzpfaeygw,f/ 'gaMumifh X 1 vdkY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
P.B2 udk ESdyfvdkufawmhrS X1 [m OFF jzpfoGm;NyD;? logic result uvnf; False jzpfoGm;
ygw,f/ Output ON Y0 vdkY t"dyg,f&wJh (Y 0 oauFweJY instruction code [m
)
olUa&SUrSm &SdwJh conditional instruction awG tm;vHk;&JU logic result u True jzpfrS output udk
ON vkyfay;ygw,f/
'gjzpfrS 'gudk vkyfvdkY cdkif;xm;wm jzpfw,fvdkY em;vnf&ygr,f/
'D program &JU vkyfaqmifyHkudk tao;pdyfazmfjy&r,fqdk&if P.B1 udk ESdyfvdkufwJhtcg
X0 = ON jzpfNyD;? Y0 = OFF jzpfaewJhtwGuf
X0 Y0
u True, u False, jzpfvdkY True eYJ False udk OR vkyf&if &wJh
result u True jzpfygw,f/
X1
ukdrESdyfao;oa&GU X1 = ON jzpfaeygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
P.B2 [m True
jzpfygw,f/ X 0 eJY Y 0 udk OR vkyfvdkY&wJh True eJY X 1 u &wJh True udk
AND vkyfvdkufawmh result u True jzpfygw,f/ 'DtcgrSm (Y 0 &JU a&SUrSm&SdwJh input
)
condition awG&JU result u True jzpfwJhtwGuf Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
175
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

xl;jcm;wmu P.B2 udk ESdyfxm;vdkY Y0 u OFF jzpfaewJhtcsdefrSm P.B1 udk ESdyfayrJY


vnf; Y0 u ON rjzpfwmudk awGU&ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh 'D program udk OFF-dominant vdkY
ac:yg w,f/ Fail-safe start/stop PLC program jzpfygw,f/
ON/OFF &,f? True/False &,f? Examine ON ^ Examine OFF &,f? wdkYudk
olUt"dyg,feJYol cGJjcm;NyD;odxm;&ygr,f/ b,fvkdqufpyfrI&Sdw,f qkdwmukdvnf; aumif;
aumif;em;vnf xm;&ygr,f/
Signal &Sdwm^r&Sdwmukd ON/OFF vdkY oHk;ygw,f/
nTefMum;cdkif;apxm;wJhtwdkif; jzpfwm^rjzpfwmudk True/False vdkY oHk;ygw,f/
ON/OFF udk hardware ydkif;&JU tajctaeudk azmfjywJhtcgrSm oHk;NyD;? True/False udk
Software ydkif;&JU tajctae logical condition udk azmfjywJhtcgrSmoHk;ygw,f/
2xyf&SdrS rSwfrdwwfwJh olawGtwGuf xyfajym&&if Examine ON qdkwJh
'DoauFw [m ON jzpfaeovm;vdkY ppfaq;cdkif;wmjzpfygw,f/
ON jzpfaewmudkawGU&if True (rSefw,f) [kwfw,fvdkY qHk;jzwfygw,f/ True vdkY
logic result xkwfygw,f/ r ON bJ OFF jzpfaewmudkawGU&if False (rSm;w,f) r[kwfbl;
vdkY qHk;jzwfygw,f/
tJ'DqHk;jzwfcsufudk logic result vdkY ac:ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh X 1 [m X1 = ON
jzpf&if logic result u True jzpfw,fvdkY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/
PLC program [m software jzpfygw,f/ Pushbutton awGu hardware jzpfygw,f/
P.B1 [m N.O (Non-activate Open) jzpfNyD; X0 rSmqufoG,f xm;vdkY P.B1 udk ESdyfrS
X0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
P.B2 [m N.C (Non-activate Closed) jzpfNyD; X1 rSm qufoG,fxm;vdkY P.B2 udk ESdyfrS
X1 = OFF jzpfygw,f/
X0
P.B1 udk ESdyfrS Y0 udk ON jzpfapcsifwmrdkYvdkY vdkY a&;&wmjzpfygw,f/
Terminal Y0 rSm Lamp L1 udkqufoG,fxm;vdkY (Y 0 udk oHk;NyD; Y0 udk ON vdkufygvdkY
)
a&;&wmjzpfygw,f/
P.B2 udk ESdyfrS Y0 udk OFF jzpfapcsifwmrdkYvdkY (P.B2 udk rESdyf&if X1 [m ON jzpfae
wJhtwGuf) P.B2 udk rESdyfoa&GU Y0 ukd ON jzpfaeatmifvdkY X 1 vdkY a&;&wm jzpfyg
w,f/
txl;owdjyK&rSmu hardware jzpfwJh pushbutton &JUobm0 N.O eJY N.C udk electric
circuit diagram rSm eJY tjzpf oauFwjyK a&;om;azmfjyMuygw,f/
Software jzpfwJh LD eJY a&;wJh PLC program rSm contact &JUoauFw eJY
udk ON jzpfaeovm;^OFF jzpfaeovm;vdkY ppfaq;Munfhcdkif;wJh instruction code tjzpf
toHk;jyKxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
Software xJrSm contact awGr&Sdbl;? r&SdEdkifbl;qdkwmudk owd&yg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
176
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Software jzpfwJh LD eJY a&;wJh program xJrSm oufqdkif&m symbolic instruction code
awGudkudk,fpm;jyKwJh machine code awGyJ&Sdygw,f/ eJY awG[m program
a&;wJhvl programmer twGuf rSwfom;&vG,fatmif oauFwjyKxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
PLC u 'DoauFwawGudk em;rvnfygbl;/
'gaMumifh LD eJY program a&;NyD;wJhtcgwdkif; PLC em;vnfwJh machine code udk
ajymif;ay;&ygw,f/ tJ'Dvdkajymif;ay;wmudk compile vkyfw,fvdkY ac:ygw,f/ Convert
vkyfw,fvdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Programming software u ajymif;ay;wm jzpfygw,f/
LD eJY program a&;NyD;wJhtcgwdkif; PLC u em;vnfvufcHEdkifwJh machine code tjzpf
ajymif;NyD;awmhrS PLC xJudk download (write to PLC) vkyf&ygw,f/
Version jrifhwJh programming software awGu LD program udk compile rvkyfbJ PLC
xJ download vkyfwmudk vufcHaqmif&Gufay;ygw,f/ tJ'D software u machine code udk
t&if ajymif;NyD;rS write to PLC vkyfay;oGm;wm jzpfygw,f/
tck a&;om;azmfjycJhwJh &Sif;vif;csufawGudk zwfMunfhNyD;? pOf;pm;MunfhNyD;? hardware
eJY software b,fvdkqufpyfNyD;? tvkyfvkyfovJqdkwmudk taMumif; eJY tusdK;? qifjcif odjrif
EdkifMur,fvdkY xifygw,f/
Fig. 1 rSm azmfjyxm;wJh electric circuit diagram u Stop dominant circuit jzpfyg
w,f/ Start dominant tjzpfqufoG,fxm;wJh electric circuit diagram udk atmufrSm Fig. 4
rSmazmfjyxm;ygw,f/

+24V 0V
P.B 1
Relay K1
K1
P.B 2
K1

K1 Lamp L1

Fig. 4 ON-dominant Circuit Diagram


Status-Time Diagram udk Fig. 5 rSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
177
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
1 ON
P.B1
0 OFF
1 ON
P.B.2
0 OFF

1 ON
Status

K1
0 OFF

1 ON
L1
0 OFF
t0 t1t2Time
t3t4

Fig. 5 Status-Time Diagram


Fig. 2 eJY Fig. 5 Status-Time Diagram 2ck udk EdIif;,SOfMunfh&if vkyfaqmifcsuf
function u twlwlyJ jzpfwmudk awGU&ygw,f/ Fig. 1 eJY Fig. 4 electric circuit diagram 2ck
udk EdIif;,SOfMunfh&if Fig. 4 &JU xl;jcm;csuf (uGmjcm;csuf) u P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;wJh tcsdefrSm
P.B2 udk ESdyfayrJhvnf; Relay K1 [m OFF rjzpfygbl;/
Fig. 4 rSm P.B1 eJY P.B2 2ck &SdwJhtxJu ON button P.B1 u tc&mjzpfaeygw,f/
'gaMumifh ON-dominant jzpfygw,f/ Start/Stop circuit jzpfvdkY start-dominant vdkYvnf;
ac:ygw,f/
ON-dominant Program
tJ'D
ON-dominant function &&Sdatmif program a&;NyD; PLC udk cdkif;apr,fqdk&if
P.B1, P.B2 eJY Lamp L1 wdkUudk atmufrSm jyxm;wJh twdkif; PLC eYJ qufoG,f &ygw,f/
P.B 1
Lamp L1
X0 Y0

+
P.B 2 Delta PLC: 24V

X1 COM 0

24V
+ S/S DVP14SS2-11R

Input Terminal Output Terminal

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
178
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
ON-dominant jzpfapwJh start/stop program udkawmh atmufrSm azmfjyxm;wJhtwdkif;
a&;&ygw,f/

X0
Y0
()

Y0 X1

Y0 X1 X0
eYJ udk AND vkyfNyD;&wJh result udk eJY xyfNyD; OR
vkyfxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfwJhtcg X 0 [m True jzpfNyD; OR &JU
oabmobm0t& Y0 eJY X1 wdkY&JU tajctae[m b,fvdkyJjzpfaeygap? xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;
p&mrvdkawmhwJh dont care jzpfwJh twGuf Y0 [m ON jzpfygw,f/
X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;wJhtcgrSmawmh Y0 a&m X1 yg? 2ckpvHk; ON jzpfaerS Y0 = ON
jzpfygw,f/
P.B1 a&m P.B2 udkyg rESdyfbJxm;&if? X0 u OFF jzpfNyD;? X1 u ON jzpfaeyg
w,f/ P.B1 u N.O jzpfNyD;? P.B2 u N.C jzpfygw,f/
P.B1 udk ESdyf&if X0 = ON jzpfNyD;? jyefvTwfvdkuf&if? X0 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/
'DtcgrSm Y0 = ON jzpfusefcJhygw,f/ P.B2 udk ESdyf&if X1 = OFF jzpfNyD;? jyefvTwfvdkuf&if
X1 = ON jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/ 'DtcgrSm Y0 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
'gu Start/Stop function udk yHkrSeftwdkif; vkyfaqmifaMumif;udk azmfjyygw,f/
xl;jcm;wmu P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;vdkU Y0 uvnf; ON jzpfaewJhtcsdefrSm P.B2 udk
ESdyfayrJYvnf; Y0 u OFF rjzpfwmudk awGU&ygw,f/
'gaMumifh 'D program udk ON-dominant vdkY ac:ygw,f/
Program &JU oabmobm0? Instruction code awG&JU oabmobm0? Boolean Logic
awGjzpfMuwJh AND eJY OR &JU oabmobm0? awGudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;odapzdkY &nf&G,fNyD;
ON-dominant udk LD eJY program a&;jywmjzpfygw,f/
vufawGUtm;jzifh industrial control system awG[m fail-safe jzpfatmif wnfaqmuf
Mu&wmjzpfvdkY Start/Stop program udk OFF-dominant tjzpfom toHk;jyKMuygw,f/
&yfcsifwJhtcsdef? &yfvdkY&rSom ab;uif;w,f? safe jzpfw,fvdkY owfrSwfxm;Muygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
179
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
tcef; (12) Scan Cycle taMumif;/
'Dtcef;ukd zwf&IavhvmNyD;oGm;wJhtcg? atmufygtaMumif;t&mawGukd aumif;pGm
em;vnf oabmayguf oGm;ygvdrfhr,f/
1/ PLC ukd RUN vkdufawmhrS Input Scan, Program Scan, Output Scan tvkyfawGukd
tpOftwkdif;? xyfcg? xyfcg? r&yfrem;? qufwkdufvkyfaqmifygw,f/
2/ Input Scan tvkyfukd vkyfaqmifaewJhtcsdefrSm PLC &JU Input terminal awGrSm
signal &Sd? r&Sd? ukd zwf&INyD; Input Memory rSm rSwfom;xm;ygw,f/
3/ Program Scan tvkyfukd vkyfaecsdefrSm User Program xJu TefMum;csuftwkdif;
aqmif&GufNyD; &&SdvmwJh Result awGukd oufqkdif&m Memory awGrSm rSwfom;xm;ygw,f/
4/ Output Scan tcsdefa&mufawmhrS Output Memory rSm rSwfom;xm; wJhtwkdif;
PLC &JU output terminal awGukd signal xkwfay;ygw,f/
5/ PLC ukd STOP vkyfxm;&if User Program ukd execute rvkyfygbl;/ Input Scan
vnf; rvkyfygbl;/ Output Scan vnf; rvkyfygbl;/
6/ PLC ukd STOP vkyfxm;wJhtcsdefrSm PLC &JU Output terminal awG tm;vHk; OFF
jzpfaeygw,f/
7/ PLC [m t&ifckdif;wmukd? t&ifvkyfygw,f/ aemufrS ckdif;wmukd? aemufrS vkyfyg
w,f/
PLC Scan Process
OUTPUT IMAGE MEMORY
INPUT IMAGE MEMORY

OUTPUT INTERFACE
X0 X1

Output Terminals
INPUT INTERFACE
Input Terminals

(Y)
0

Y0

[ END ]

Program

Input Output
Scan Program Scan Scan

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
180
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yHkrSm azmfjyxm;wmu PLC ukd RUN vkdufwJhtcg pwiftvkyfvkyfyHk jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
181
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

PLC [m pufrIvkyfief;oHk; Computer wpfrsdK;jzpfygw,f/ PLC ukd Power Supply


ay;xm;HkeJY tvkyf rvkyfygbl;/ PLC ukd RUN xm;&ygw,f/ PLC udk STOP vkyfxm;&if
'grSr[kwf Program mode rSmxm;&if PLC [m bmrSrvkyfygbl;/
RUN rD;vHk;Nidrf;aewJhtajctae? STOP mode rSm PLC &JU output tm;vHk;[m OFF
jzpfaeygw,f/
RUN rD;vHk;vif;wJhtajctae? RUN mode ukd ajymif;vkdufawmhrS tvkyf 3 rsdK;ukd
wpfrsdK;NyD;wpfrsdK; tpOftwkdif; vkyfygw,f/ PLC ukd RUN xm;oa&GU tJ'Dtvkyf 3 ckukd
xyfjyefwvJvJ? wpfausmhNyD;wpfausmh qufwkdufvkyfaeygw,f/
PLC ukd RUN vkduf&if vkyfwJh tvkyf 3 rsdK;uawmh
(1) Input Scan tvkyf
(2) Program Scan tvkyfeJY
(3) Output Scan tvkyfwkdY jzpfygw,f/
wpfckNyD;rS aemufwpfckukd ajymif;Ny;D tvSnhfus? vkyfaqmifMuwm jzpfygw,f/ tvSnhf
ausmfNyD; rvkyfygbl;/
(1) Input Scan tvkyfukd vkyfNyD;rS (2) Program Scan tvkyfukd vkyfygw,f/
(2) Program Scan tvkyfukd vkyfNyD;awmhrS (3) Output Scan tvkyfukd vkyfygw,f/
(3) Output Scan tvkyfukd vkyfNyD;oGm;&if aemufwausmh (1) Input Scan tvkyfu
jyefp vkyfygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd ywfcsmvnfvkyfwmukd Scan Cycle vkdY ac:ygw,f/
1-scan cycle wpfausmh MumwJh tcsdefukd Scan time vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Input Scan vkyfaewJh tcsdef&,f? Program Scan vkyfaewJh tcsdef&,f? Output Scan
vkyfaewJh tcsdef&,f? pkpkaygif; MumwJhtcsdef? udk 1-scan time vkdY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
User Program xJrSm toHk;jyKxm;wJh Instruction awG&JUtrsdK;tpm; type eJY ta&twGuf
ay: rlwnfNyD; 1-scan time &JU MumjrifhwJh tcsdefumv[mvnf; tajymif;tvJ&Sdygw,f/
yHkrSeftm;jzifh 1ms uae 100ms avmuf txdMumwwfygw,f/

Input Scan
Input Scan &JUtvkyfuawmh PLC &JU Input Terminal awGrSm signal &Sd? r&Sd? ukd ppfaq;
ygw,f/ ppfaq;vkdY awGU&SdwJhtwkdif; Input Image Memory rSm a&;rSwfygw,f/ tJ'gukd Input
Memory udk update vkyfw,fvkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ PLC &JU Input terminal tm;vHk;ukd ppfaq;
a&;rSwfvkdY NyD;oGm;&if Input Scan &JUtvkyf NyD;qHk;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
182
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Program Scan
Input Scan &JUtvkyfNyD;&if Program Scan &JUtvkyfukd pwifvkyfygw,f/ Program Scan
&JUtvkyfu User Program vkdY ac:wJh LD program xJrSmygwJh TefMum;csufawGeJY ukdufnDrI
&Sd? r&Sd? wkdufqkdifppfaq;rIvkyfNyD; Logic Result tajzxkwfygw,f/ Program Execute vkyf
w,fvkdY ac:ygw,f/ &&SdvmwJh logic result awGukd oufqkdif&m Memory rSm a&;rSwf yg
w,f/
Program ukd execute vkyfwmu jrefrmpm? t*Fvdyfpm? awGudk zwfovkdrsdK; Scan
vkyfoGm;wm jzpfygw,f/ tay:qHk; b,ftpGefu instruction code ukd pNyD; execute vkyf
ygw,f/ NyD;&if nmbufukdwkd;NyD; execute qufvkyfoGm;ygw,f/ tay:pmaMumif; NyD;qHk;&if
atmufpmaMumif;rSm&SdwJh b,ftpGefu instruction code ukd pNyD; execute vkyfygw,f/ NyD;&if
nmbufu instruction code ukd execute qufvkyfygw,f/ nmtpGefu instruction code udk
execute vkyfNyD;wkdif;? oufqkdif&m memory rSm a&;rSwfNyD;awmhrS atmufpmaMumif; ukd
qif;NyD; execute qufvkyfoGm;wmjzpfygw,f/ LD eJY a&;wJh program wkdif;&JU atmufqHk;
pmaMumif;rSm END qkdwJh instruction code yg&Sd&ygw,f/ tJ'D END qkdwJh instruction code
udk a&mufwJhtcgrSm Program Scan &JU tvkyfNyD;qHk; oGm;ygw,f/

Output Scan
Program Scan NyD;&if (3) jzpfwJh Output Scan &JU tvkyfukd vkyfygw,f/ Output Scan &JU
tvkyfu Output Image Memory (Output Image Table) rSma&;rSwfxm;wJhtwkdif; PLC &JU
output terminal awGukd ON oifhwmukd ON vkyfay;NyD;? OFF oifhwmukd OFF vkyfay;
ygw,f/ 'Dvkdvkyfwmudk Output Update vkyfw,fvkdY ac:ygw,f/
PLC tvkyfvkyfyHk Scan cycle ukd twdkcsKyfNyD; azmfjy&&if
(1) Input Scan [m input memory ukd update vkyfygw,f/
(2) Program Scan [m program ukd execute vkyfNyD; output memory udk update
vkyfygw,f/
(3) Output Scan [m output terminal udk update vkyfygw,f/
'Dae&mrSm oHk;xm;wJh execute vkyfw,fqkdwmu program xJrSm TefMum;xm;wJh control
logic awGtwkdif; aqmif&Gufwmjzpfygw,f/
PLC tvkyfvkyfyHk Scan cycle ukd aemufwpfrsdK; ajym&&if
(1) Input Scan qkdwm Reading the physical inputs jzpfygw,f/
(2) Program Scan qkdwm Executing the control logic in the program jzpfygw,f/
(3) Output Scan qkdwm Writing to the physical outputs jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
183
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Scan Cycle udk aoaocsmcsmem;vnfzkdY atmufyg LD program ukd a&;NyD; wqifhcsif;


&Sif;jyygr,f/
X0 Y1
#1 (Y 0
)

X0
#2 (Y 1
)
yHk (u)
yHk(u) rSmazmfjyxm;whJtwkdif; LD program ukda&;yg/ atmufrSm azmfjyxm;whJ yHkukd
Munfhyg/

Simulator eJY prf;MunhfzkdYtwGuf Simulator udk ON yg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
184
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
atmufrSm azmfjyxm;whJ yHkukd Munfhyg/

NyD;&if Write to PLC vkyfyg/


atmufrSm azmfjyxm;whJyHkukd Munfhyg/

NyD;&if Online Mode vkyfyg?

atmufrSm azmfjyxm;whJyHkukd Munfhyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
185
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
NyD;&if PLC ukd RUN yg/

yHkawGukd Munhfyg/

X0 ay: Cursor wif? Right Click ESdyfNyD; Set On vkyfyg/ rsufjrifrSmawmh computer
screen ay:rSm Y1 wckxJ ON jzpfaewmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ 'Dawmh Y0 u vHk;0 r ON cJh
bl;vm;/ trSefu Y0 = ON jzpfcJhygw,f/ Y0 [m 1-scan time Mumatmif ON jzpfcJhygw,f/
'gukd rsufped JYrjrif vkduf&ygbl;/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
186
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Y0 = ON trSefwu,f jzpfcJhw,fqkdwmukd oufaojyEkdifwJh program ukd yHk(c) rSm


azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
X0 Y1
#1 (Y 0
) yHk(c) twkdif; LD program ukda&;NyD;
X0 Simulator udk ON yg/ Write to PLC vkyfyg/
#2 (Y 1
)
WPLSoft &JU Tool Bar ay:u Online Mode ukd
Y0 X1 ESdyfyg/ Computer Screen &JUatmufajc rSm&SdwJh
#3 (Y)
2
Task Bar ukd Munhfyg/ STOP qkdwJh teDa&mif
Y2 pm ay:ae&if <Ctrl> eJY <F8> ukd waygif;
wnf; ESdyfNyD; Virtual PLC ukd RUN vkdufyg/

yHk (c)
X0 ay: Cursor wif? Right Click ESy d fNyD;? Set On vkyfyg/ Y0 = ON jzpfwmudk rjrif
vkduf&yJ Y1 eJY Y2 wkdY ON jzpfoGm;Muwmukd awGUjrif&ygvdrfhr,f/
Y1 = ON jzpfwmuawmh X0 = ON jzpfaevkdY jzpfygw,f/
Y2 = ON jzpfwmuawmh X1 u wcsdefvHk; OFF jzpfaeNyD;? Y0 u ON 1cg jzpfcJhvkdY
jzpfygw,f/
X0 = ON jzpfNyD;vQifNyD;csif;? yxrqHk; 1st Scan rSm
X0 Y1
#1 (Y 0 ukd
) Munhf&if X0 [m ON jzpfNyD; Y1 [m OFF jzpfae wHk;
rkdYvkdY Y0 [m ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
X0
1st Scan rSmyJ #2 (Y 1 udk Munhf&if X0 [m ON jzpfvkdY
)
Y1 vnf; ON jzpfoGm; ygw,f/
#1 ukd execute vkyfaewHk;u (#1 ukd execute vkyfaewJhtcsdefrSm) #2 ukd execute
rvkyf& ao;ygbl;/
#1 ukd t&ifvkyfNyD;awmhrS #2 ukd p vkyfrSm jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh #1 ukd execute
Y1 Y1
vkyfwJhtcg ukd ppfMunhfawmh Y1 u OFF jzpf aewmukd awGUvkdY uTrue
X0
jzpfygw,f/ X0 uvnf; ON jzpfaevkdY [mvnf; True jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh #1 rSm True eJY True udk AND vkyfvkdufawmh logic result u True jzpfvkdY
Y0 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
X0 = ON jzpfNyD;vsif? NyD;csif; 1st Scan rSmyJ Y0 [m ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
187
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Y0 X1
#3 Y2
() ukd Munhf&if #1 eJY #2 wkdYukd tpOftwkdif; execute
vkyfNyD;rS #3 ukd execute vkyfwJhtcsdefrSm Y0 [m ON
Y2
jzpfaeNyD;om;? jzpfvkdYrkdY Y 0 [m True jzpfyg
w,f/
Y2
Y2 [m OFF jzpfaeqJrkdY [m False jzpfygw,f/
tJ'D Y 0 True eJY Y2
False udk OR vkyfvkdufwJhtcg logic result u
True jzpfygw,f/ &vmwJh logic result ukd temporary memory rSm cPrSwfxm;ygw,f/
NyD;awmhrS X 1 ukd execute vkyfygw,f/
X1
X1 [m tNrJwrf; OFF jzpfaeygw,f/ 'gaMumifh [m True jzpfygw,f/
'D True eJY apmapmu temporary memory rSmrSwfxm;wJh OR Block &JU logic result u
True wkdYukd AND xyfvkyfvkdufawmh logic result u True &ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh Y2 ukd ON
vkdufygw,f/
Y0 Y2
# 3 udk execute vkyfwJhtcgrSm eJY ukdt&ifqHk; OR vkyfygw,f/ 'D
X1
OR Block &JU logic result eJY udk xyfNyD; AND vkyfygw,f/ Final logic result u
True jzpfrS Y2 ukd ON vkyfay;wmjzpfygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfNyD;vsif? NyD;csif; 1st Scan
rwkdifcifu? X0 [m OFF jzpfaevkdYrkdY Y0, Y1 eJY Y2 wkdYyg OFF jzpfaecJhMuygw,f/
X0 = ON jzpfNyD;vsif? NyD;csif; 1st Scan rSm Y0 = ON, Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = ON jzpfoGm;
Muygw,f/
X0 Y1
1st Scan NyD;vdkY 2nd Scan a&mufawmh #1 Y 0 udk Munhf&if
()
X0
u True jzpfNyD; 1st Scan rSmwHk;u Y1 = ON jzpfcJhwm rkdYvkdY Y 1 u False
jzpfygw,f/ 'D X 0 True eJY Y 1 False udk AND vkyfvkdufwJhtcg logic result u
False jzpfNyD; Y0 [m OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
Y0 [m 1st Scan rSm ON jzpfNyD;? tck 2nd Scan rSm OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/
X0
2nd Scan rSm #2 (Y 1 ukd Munhf&if X0 = ON jzpfaevkdY
)
X0
[m True jzpfNyD; Y1 vnf; ON qufjzpf aeygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
188
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Y0 X1
#3 (Y
2 ) Y0
ukd Munhf&if
#3 u ( Y0 = OFF ) jzpfae
Y2
vkdY False jzpfNyD; Y 2 u ( Y0 = ON ) jzpfae
vkdY True jzpfygw,f/ 'D False eJY True ukd OR vkyfvkdY &wJh logic result u True jzpfygw,f/

X1
u (X1= OFF) jzpfaevkdY True eJY apmapmu OR Block &JU logic result True
wkdYukd AND xyfvkyfwJhtcg logic result u True &NyD; Y2 qufNyD; ON jzpfygw,f/
twkdcsKyfNyD; ajym&&if 1st Scan rSm Y2 = ON jzpf&wmu Y0 = ON jzpfaevkdY
jzpfygw,f/
2nd Scan rSm Y2 = ON qufjzpf&wmu Y2 [m 1st Scan rSm ON jzpfcJhvkdY jzpfygw,f/
tJ'gukd self hold, self-latched, sealed-in vkyfw,fvkdY ajymMuygw,f/
X0 Y1
3rd Scan rSm #1 udkMunhf&if X0 = ON eJY Y1 = ON
Y0
()

jzpfaevkdY X 0 u True jzpfNyD; Y1


u False wdkYjzpfMuygw,f/
'DESpfckudk AND vkyfvkdY&wJh logic result u False jzpfvkdY Y0 [m 3rd Scan rSm OFF
qufjzpfygw,f/ tJ'Dawmh Y0 = ON jzpfwJhtcsdefumv[m X0 = ON p jzpfcgp 1st Scan
tcsdefwdk uav;om Mumjrifhygw,f/ 1-scan time yJ oufwrf;&SnfwJh ON jzpfygw,f/ 'gudk
1-scan pulse output vkdY ac:ygw,f/

#1 a&;NyD;rS #2 udk tpOftwkdif;


X0 Y1
#1 Y0
()
X0
#2 Y1
()

Y0 X1
#3 Y2
()

Y2

tckvkd a&;rS Y0 [m 1-scan time


Mumatmif ON jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
189
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

#2 ukd t&ifa&;NyD;? #1 ukd olYatmufrSm X0


#2 Y1
()
X0 Y1
#1 ()
Y0
yHk (*) Y0 X1
#3 ()
Y2

Y2

tckvkd a&;cJh&if?
#1 rSm Y0 [mb,fawmhrS ON rjzpfawmh ygbl;/ Y0 is never ON jzpfygw,f/
#3 rSm Y0 is never ON jzpfvkdU Y2 [mvnf; b,fawmhrS ON rjzpfawmhygbl;/
'gukdvufawGUprf;MunfhzkdY yHk(*) rSm jyxm;ovkd LD program ukd a&;yg/ Simulator ukd
ON NyD; Write to PLC vkyfyg/ NyD;&if? txufrSm azmfjycJhwJhtwkdif;? wpfausmhjyefNyD; prf;Munhf
yg/ X0 udk ON &ifyJjzpfjzpf? OFF &ifyJjzpfjzpf? Y0 [m b,fawmhrS ON rjzpfEkdifawmhygbl;/
taMumif;uawmh X0 ukd ON vkyfNyD;p 1st Scan rSm #2 ukd pNyD; execute vkyfygw,f/ NyD;rS #1
udk execute vkyfygw,f/ #1 udk execute vkyfwJh tcsdefrSm Y1 u ON jzpfNyD;om; &Sdaeygw,f/
#2 ukd t&if execute vkyfwmrkdYvkdY Y1 u ON NyD;om; jzpfaewm jzpfygw,f/ Y1 = ON jzpfae
wm awGUvkdY Y 1 u False jzpfygw,f/ Y0 vnf; OFF jzpfygw,f/
LD program 1ckukd t"dyg,fazmfwm rSefuefzkdYtwGuf PLC &JU tvkyfvkyfyHkudk Scan
by Scan yHkazmf awG;Munhfwwf &ygr,f/ PLC &JU vkyfyHkukdifyHk trltusihf behaviour udk em;
vnfrSom qkdvkd&if;trSefukd bmomjyefwwfrSm jzpfygw,f/
atmufrSm 1-scan pulse output udk toHk;jyKNyD; toggle output (flip-flop) &atmif
a&;xm;wJh LD program ukd wqifhcsif; &Sif;jyxm;ygw,f/ yHk(C) rSm jyxm;wJh LD program
ukd WPLSoft rSm File New SS2 ukda&G;NyD; vufawGUa&;prf;Munhfyg/
X0 Y1
#1 Y0
()
X0
#2 Y1
()

Y0 Y2 yHk (C)
Y2
()
#3
Y0 Y2

pmcsnf;oufoufzwfvkdY uawmh bmudkqkdvdw


k ,fqkdwm em;vnfrSm r[kwfygbl;/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
190
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yHk(C) rSm azmfjyxm;wJh program ukda&;NyD;wJhtcg Simulator ukd ON NyD; Write to PLC
vkyfyg/ Online Mode vkyfyg/ PLC u STOP jzpfae&if PLC ukd RUN yg/
X0 ay: Cursor wif? Right click ESdyfNyD; Set On vkyfyg/ Y1 eJY Y2 wkdY ON jzpfoGm;wm
udk awGUjrif&ygvdrfhr,f/
X0 ay: Cursor wif? Right click ESdyfNyD; Set Off vkyfyg/ Y0 eJY Y1 u OFF jzpfNyD; Y2
uquf ON jzpfaeygvdrfhr,f/
aemufwBudrf X0 ukd Set On vkyfyg/ Y0 = OFF, Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = OFF jzpfoGm;
wmudk awGUjrif&ygvdrfhr,f/ X0 ukd Set Off vkyfyg/ Y0 = OFF, Y1 = OFF eJY Y2 = OFF
jzpfaeygvdrfhr,f/
X0 ukd Set On, Set Off 5Budrf avmufvkyfMunhfyg/
X0 = OFF to ON jzpfwkdif; Y2 &JUtajctae ajymif;oGm;wmukd owdjyKMunhfIyg/
tcka&;NyD;prf;MunhfaewJh program udk Toggle Output vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Push-ON/Push-
OFF vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
#1 eJY #2 ukd waygif;wnf; tpOftwkdif; a&;rS Y0 u one scan pulse output
xGufygw,f/ #1, #2 eJY #3 ukd aygif;a&;rS Y2 u toggle output jzpfygw,f/
P.B 1 Lamp 1
Delta PLC = DVP14SS2-11R
X0 Y0
X0 Y1
#1 Y0
() +
P.B 2 X0 24V
#2 Y1
()
X1 COM 0
Y0 Y2
24V Y2
()
+ S/S #3
Y0 Y2

Input Terminal LD Program Output Terminal


yHk (AA)
PLC&JU input terminal X0 rSm pushbutton P.B1 (N.O) ukd qufoG,fxm;ygw,f/ yHk
(AA) ukd Munhfyg/
Toggle Output Status-Time Diagram udk yHk (C)(1) rSm az:jyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
191
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Scan

2rd Scan

Scan

Scan
3rdScan

3 Scan

3rdScan
3rdScan
1stScan

1stndScan

1stScan

1stScan
2nd

2nd

2nd
1 ON
X0
0 OFF
1ScanTime
1 ON
Y0
0 OFF

1 ON
Y1
0 OFF

1 ON
Y2
0 OFF

t0t1t2t3t4t5t6t7t8

yHk (C)(1) Toggle Output Status-Time Diagram


yHk(C)(1) rSm azmfjyxm;wJh graph yHkukd Status-Time Diagram vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Time
chart vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Timing diagram vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Operation diagram
vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ vkyfaqmifyHktqifhqifh Operation Sequence ukd tcsdef Time eJY
EIdif;,SOf azmfjyxm;wJh yHkjzpfygw,f/
X0, Y0, Y1 eJY Y2 wkdY&JU tajctae Status ukd axmifvkdufrsOf;eJY azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
0 (zero) u OFF State jzpfNyD; 1 (one) u ON State jzpfygw,f/
tvsm;vkdufrsOf;u tcsdefuGmjcm;rIukd azmfjyygw,f/
axmifvkduf a&;qGJxm;wJh rsOf;jywf (tpufcsrsOf;) awG[m wcsdefwnf;rSm &SdaeMuwJh
(wcsdefwnf;rSm jzpfay:aeMuwJh) X0, Y0, Y1 eJY Y2 wkdY&JUtajctae status awGukd EdIif;,SOf
MunhfzkdY tcsdefwlrsOf; jzpfygw,f/
yHkrSm t 0 uae t 1 tcsdeftxd X0 [m OFF jzpfaeygw,f/ t 1 uae t 2 tcsdeftxd X0
[m ON jzpfaeygw,f/
yHkrSm t 0 uae t 1 tcsdeftxd X0 [m OFF jzpfaeygw,f/ 'gaMumifh t 0 uae t 1
ra&mufcif tcsdefxd P.B1 ukd rESdyfbl;vkdY t"dyg,f&ygw,f/
t 1 eJY t 2 Mum;rSm X0 = ON jzpfaeygw,f/ 'gu P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;wJh t"dyg,f
jzpfygw,f/ P.B1 [m (N.O) pushbutton trsdK;tpm;jzpfwmaMumifh ESdyf&if X0 = ON jzpfNyD;?
rESdyfawmh&if (ESdyfNyD;jyefvTwfvkduf&if) X0 = OFF jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
192
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

'Dvkd P.B1 udk ESdyfvkduf^vTwfvkduf vkyfNyD;prf;zkdYtwGuf yH(k AA)rSm jyxm;ovkd


wu,fh PLC rSm wu,fh pushbutton ukd qufoG,fwyfqif&rSm jzpfygw,f/
tckuawmh Simulator eJY prf;oyfrSm jzpfwJhtwGuf rdrd&JUpdwful;xJrSm P.B1 udk PLC
&JU X0 eJY qufxm;NyD; P.B1 ukd ESdyfw,fqkd&if X0 ukd Set On vkyfay;yg/ jyefvTwfvkdufw,f
qkd&if (rESdyfawmhbl; qkd&if) X0 ukd Set Off vkyfay;yg/
tck Toggle Output Program ukd zwfenf;tqifhqifh Scan by Scan ukd a&;om;
azmfjyygr,f/ PLC ukd STOP vkyfxm;&if output tm;vHk; OFF jzpfaeMuygw,f/
PLC ukd RUN vkdufwmeJY Input Scan Program Scan Output Scan Input Scan
Program Scan Output Scan Input Scan 'Dtwkdif; pOfqufrjywf ywfcsm vSnhfNyD;
PLC u r&yfrem; vkyfaeygw,f/
Scan oHk;rsdK; (wpfBudrfNyD;atmif MumwJhtcsdef) wpfausmhNyD;atmif MumwJhtcsdefukd one
scan time vkdY ac:ygw,f/
X0 udk ON vkdufNyD; yxrqHk;vkyfwJh Scan (1st Scan) upNyD; Program Scan rSm PLC
u b,fvkd execute vkyfw,fqkdwmukd pOf;pm;Munhfygr,f/
X0
X0 = ON jzpfNyD;vsifNyD;csif; 1st Scan rSm X0 [m ON jzpfaewJhtwGuf [m
True jzpfygw,f/ Y 1 udk MunhfwJhtcg Y1 udk OFF tjzpfeJYawGUvkdY True jzpfygw,f/
tck execute vkyfaewmu instruction code awGeJYa&;xm;wJh tay:qHk; pmaMumif;
X0 Y1
ukd pNyD;vkyfwmjzpfygw,f/ #1 Y 0 vkdY a&;xm;wJhTefMum;csuf #1
()
X0
ukd pwif execute vkyfaewm jzpfygw,f/ #2 Y 1 vkdY a&;xm;wJh
()
TefMum;csuf #2 udk vHk;0rvkyf&ao;ygbl;/
X0 = ON rjzpfcif? X0 = OFF jzpfaepOfu execute vkyfxm;vkdY Y1 [m OFF state
rSmyJ &Sdaeygao;w,f/
t0 uae t1 rwkdifciftxd X0 u OFF jzpfaewJh twGuf Y0, Y1, Y2 wkdYtm;vHk; OFF
jzpfaeMuygw,f/ 'gaMumifh X 0 u True eJY Y 1 uvnf; True wkdYukd AND vkyfvkdY
&vmwJh logic result uvnf; True jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh X0 = ON jzpfNyD;vsif NyD;csif; 1st Scan rSm Y0 [m ON jzpfygw,f/ Output
Memory rSm Y0 = ON vkdY rSwfxm;vdkufygw,f/
X0 Y1
#1 ()
Y0 ukd execute vkyfNyD;rS ol&JUatmufrSm a&;xm;wJh
X0
#2 ()
Y1 ukd execute qufvkyfygw,f/ tck 1st Scan rSm Y1
vnf; ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
193
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

*kjyKrSwfom;&rSmu program execute vkyfwJhtcg instruction code awGeJY a&;xm;wJh


tay:qHk; pmaMumif;u pNyD; execute vkyfygw,f/ tJ'gukd Network 0 upNyD; execute
vkyfw,fvkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Circuit 0 (zero) upNyD; solve vkyfw,fvkdYvnf; ajymqkdMu
ygw,f/
tay:qHk; instruction pmaMumif;ukd execute vkyfNyD;rS olUatmuf uyfvsufrSm&SdwJh
instruction pmaMumif;ukd qif;NyD; execute vkyfygw,f/ pmaMumif;vkdY oHk;EIef;&wmu
graphical symbolic code awGudk tokH;jyKNyD;? TefMum;csufawGukd a&;om;xm;wmrkdY jzpfyg
w,f/
X0 Y1
1st Scan rSm #1 Y 0 vkdY a&;xm;wJhTefMum;csuf#1 eJY
()
X0
#2 Y1
() vkdY a&;xm;wJhTefMum;csuf#2 ukd execute vkyfNyD;wJhtcg
Y0 Y2
Y2 vkdY a&;xm;wJhTefMum;csuf#3 udkpwif execute vkyfyg
()
#3
Y0 Y2
w,f/ Y0 [m ON jzpfNyD; Y2 [m OFF jzpfcJh&if
('grSr[kwf) Y0 [m OFF jzpfNyD; Y2 [m ON jzpfcJh&if
Y2 ukd ON jzpfatmifvkyfvkdufygvkdY PLC ukd ckdif;xm;
wJh TefMum;csufjzpfygw,f/
AND Block 2ckudk OR vkyfxm;wJh logic instruction jzpfygw,f/
Logic instruction &JU qdkvkdwJhoabmu ('D t ajctaeawG e J Y uk d u f n D & if ? 'D t vk y f
ukd vkyfyg) vkdY TefMum;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ ('DtajctaeawGeJYrudkufnD&if? 'Dtvkyf
ukd rvkyfygeJY) qdkwJh oabmt"dyg,fyg? yg0ifNyD; jzpfygw,f/ ('gjzpfrS 'gvkyf? 'grjzpf&if
tJ'gudk rvkyfeJY) vkdY t"dyg,f 2ck yg0ifygw,f/
tck 1st Scan rSm TefMum;csuf#1 eJY TefMum;csuf#2 ukd execute vkyfNyD;oGm; wJhtcg
Y0 = ON eJY Y1 = ON jzpfw,fqdkwmukd oufqkdif&m memory ae&mawGrSm a&;rSwfxm;
NyD;awmhrS TefMum;csuf#3 ukd execute pvkyfygw,f/
Y0 Y2
'Dtcg TefMum;csuf #3 &JU b,fbufjcrf;u tay:ykdif; ukd pwif
Y0
execute vkyfygw,f/ Y0 = ON jzpfcJhvkdY [m True jzpfygw,f/ Y2 = OFF
Y2
jzpfaeao;vkdY [mvnf; True jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D True 2ckukd AND vkyfvkdufawmh
logic result u True jzpfygw,f/ &vmwJh logic result jzpfwJh True ukd temporary memory rSm
cP a&;rSwfxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
194
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Y0 Y2
NyD;rS TefMum;csuf #3 &JU b,fbufjcrf;u atmufykdif;jzpfwJh udk
Y0 Y2
qufNyD; execute vkyfygw,f/ u False jzpfNyD;? uvnf; False jzpfygw,f/
tJ'D False 2ck ukd AND vkyfvkdY&wJh Logic result uvnf; False yJjzpfygw,f/ tck&wJh False
eJY apmapmurSwfxm;wJh True ukd OR vkyfvkdufwJhtcg logic result u True jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh Y2 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
yHk(C)(1) Toggle Output Status-Time Diagram ukd Munhfyg/
TefMum;csuf#3 ukd execute vkyfNyD;wJhtcg atmufupmaMumif;udk qif;NyD; execute
vkyfygw,f/ TefMum;csuf#3 ukd execute vkyfNyD; atmufrSm&SdwJh END qkdwJh instruction code
ukd awGUawmhrS Program Scan &JU 1st Scan tvkyf[m NyD;qHk;oGm;ygw,f/ Program Scan &JU 1st
Scan tvkyfNyD;wJh tcg Output Scan ukd ajymif;vkyfygw,f/ Output Scan rSm output terminal
awGjzpfwJh Y0, Y1, Y2 wkdYudk ON ckdif;vkdufygw,f/ 1-scan time [m 1ms rjynhfygbl;/ 0.3ms
avmufyJ Mumygw,f/ Computer Screen &JU atmufajcrSm&SdwJh Task Bar ay:rSm Scan Time
0.3 ms qkdwmukd awGUjrif&ygvdrfhr,f/
1st Scan &JU Output Scan NyD;oGm;&if 2nd Scan ukd Input Scan tvkyfu? pNyD;
vkyfygw,f/ X0 [m ON jzpfaeqJrkdY ON vkdYawGUNyD; input memory rSm rSwfxm;ygw,f/
NyD;&if 2nd Scan &JU Program Scan tvkyfudkpvkyfygw,f/ tay:qHk; instruction pmaMumif;
X0 Y1 X0
#1 Y 0 ukd execute vkyfwJhtcg X0 = ON jzpfaevkdY
() [m
True jzpfygw,f/ 1 Scan program execute vkyfwHk;u Y1 = ON jzpfoGm;vkdY Y 1 uawmh
st

False jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D True eJY False ukd AND vkyfvkdufawmh logic result u False jzpfNyD;
Y0 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
X0
vuf&Sd tcsdef 2nd Scan rSm #2 Y1 ukd execute vkyfawmh
()
X0 = ON jzpfaewmrkdYvkdY Y1 = ON qufjzpfygw,f/ vuf&Sdtcsdef 2nd Scan rSm
Y0 Y2
Y2
() ukd execute vkyfwJhtcg b,ftpGef tay:ykdif;jzpfwJh
#3 Y0 Y2
Y0 Y2 rSm eJY Y1 = ON jzpf
Y0 = OFF
aewJh twGuf False AND False jzpfNyD; result uvnf;
False yJjzpfygw,f/ 'D logic result jzpfwJh False ukd temporary memory rSm acw rSwfxm;yg
Y0 Y2
w,f/ NyD;&if #3 &JUb,ftpGefatmufykdif;jzpfwJh ukd execute vkyfwJhtcg
Y0 = OFF eJY Y2 = ON jzpfaewJhtwGuf True AND True jzpfygw,f/ Logic result uvnf;
True jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
195
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
tck&wJh True eJY apmapmu temporary memory rSmrSwfxm;wJh False udk OR
vkyfvkdufawmh logic result u True jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh Y2 [mqufNyD; ON jzpfaeygw,f/
#3 ukd execute vkyfNyD; END ukd execute vkyfygw,f/ 'Dtcsdefa&mufrS Output Scan &JU
tvkyfjzpfwJh output terminal Y0 udk OFF vkyfygw,f/ Y1 udk ON qufvkyfygw,f/ Y2
ukdvnf; ON qufvkyfygw,f/
'Dae&mrSm (tcktcsdefrSm) aoaocsmcsm pOf;pm;yg/
Y0 = ON jzpfwJh tcsdefu 1-scan time yJ Mumygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfNyD; 1st Scan rSm
Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ NyD;awmh 2nd Scan rSm Y0 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/
'D program ukd WPLSoft eJY a&;NyD; Simulator eJY virtual PLC udk RUN MunhfwJh tcg
1-scan time [m 0.3ms yJMumw,fvkdY WPLSoft u azmfjyygw,f/
'kwd, ausmh 2nd Scan &JU Output Scan tvkyfNyD;awmh wwd, ausmh 3rd Scan &JU
Input Scan tvkyfukd qufvkyfygw,f/ X0 udk ON tjzpf? awGUvkdY awGUwJh twkdif; Input
memory rSm rSwfxm;vkdufygw,f/ Input Scan NyD;wJhtcg wwd,ausmh&JU Program Scan ukd
qufvkyfygw,f/
X0 Y1
#1 ukd execute vkyfwJhtcg X0 [m ON jzpfaeNyD; Y1
Y0
()
uvnf; 'kwd,ausmhrSmwHk;u ON jzpfaecJhvkdY X 0 u True jzpfNyD; Y 1 u False
jzpfMuygw,f/ True eJY False ukd AND vkyfvkdY&wJh logic result uvnf; False yJjzpfwJh
twGufaMumifh Y0 [m OFF yJqufjzpfaeygw,f/
X0 X0
#2 Y1
() udk execute vkyfwJh tcg [m True jzpf vkdY
Y1 = ON qufjzpfygw,f/
#3 udk vkyfwJhtcg tay:ykdif; AND
execute
Y0 Y2 Block rSm (Y0 = OFF) jzpfNyD; (Y2 = ON)
Y2
()
#3 jzpfaewm aMumifh Y 0 u False
Y0 Y2
eJY Y 2 u False ukd AND vkyfvkdufwJhtcg
logic result u False jzpfygw,f/
'D result jzpfwJh False ukd temporary memory rSmcPrSwfxm;ygw,f/ atmufykdif;
Y0
AND Block rSm ( u True) eJY ( Y 2 u True) wkdYukd AND vkyfvkdufawmh logic
result u True jzpfygw,f/
tck&wJh True eJY apmapmu temporary memory rSmrSwfxm;wJh False udk OR vkyf
vkdufawmh logic result u True jzpfygw,f/ 'Dawmh Y2 [m ON qufjzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
196
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
yxrtBudrf X0 = ON jzpfwJhtcg
1st Scan rSm Y0 = ON, Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = ON jzpfMuygw,f/
nd
2 Scan rSm Y0 = OFF, Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = ON jzpfMuygw,f/
rd
3 Scan rSm Y0 = OFF, Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = ON jzpfMuygw,f/
yHk(C)(1) Toggle Output Status-Time Diagram ukd Munfhyg/
X0 = OFF jzpf o G m ;wJ h t cg Y0 = OFF, Y1 = OFF eJ Y Y2 = ON jzpf N yD ; usef c J h y gw,f /
aemufwBudrf X0 = ON jyefjzpfwJhtcg 1st Scan rSm (#1) Y0 = ON, eJY (#2) Y1 = ON
jzpfMuygw,f/ (#1) eJY (#2) ukd execute vkyf NyD;rS?
Y2
#3 ukd execute vkyfwJhtcg tay:ykdif; AND Block rSm
Y0
Y2
() Y0 u True jzpfNyD; Y 2 u False jzpfyg
#3
Y0 Y2 w,f/ 'gaMumifh logic result u False jzpfygw,f/
'D AND Block &JU logic result jzpfwJh False ukd
temporary memory rSm cPrSwfxm; ygw,f/
atmufykdif; AND Block ukd execute vkyfawmh Y 0 u False jzpfNyD; Y 2 u True
jzpfvkdY AND Block &JU logic result u False jzpfygw,f/
tck &wJh False eJY apmapmurSwfxm;wJh False ukd OR vkyfvkdufawmh logic result u
False yJjzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh Y2 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ tck 'kwd,tBudrf X0 = ON
jzpfwJhtcgrSm 1st Scan rSm Y0 = ON, Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = OFF jzpfMuygw,f/
X0 Y1 X0
2nd Scan rSm #1 Y0
() #1 udk execute vkyfwJhtcg

u True jzpfNyD; Y 1 u False jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh logic result u False jzpfNyD;


X0
Y0 = OFF jzpfoGm; ygw,f/ #2 Y1
() #2 ukd execute vkyfwJh
X0
tcg u True jzpfvkdY Y1 = ON quf jzpfygw,f/
Y0
#3 ukd execute vkyfwJhtcg tay: AND Block rSm Y0 = OFF jzpfoGm;vkdY u
Y2
False eJY u (1st Scan rSm Y2 = OFF jzpfoGm;cJhvkdY) True ukd AND vkyfvkdY &vmwJh
logic result jzpfwJh False ukd temporary memory rSm cP rSwfxm;ygw,f/
atmufykdif; AND Block ukd execute vkyfwhJtcg Y 0 u True eJY Y 2 u
False ukd AND vkyfvkdY&wJh logic result u False jzpfygw,f/
tJ'D AND Block 2ck &JU result awGjzpfMuwJh False 2ck udk OR vkyfvkdufawmh result
u False yJ&ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh 2nd Scan rSmvnf; Y2 [m OFF yJqufjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
197
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
'kwd,tBudrf X0 = ON jyefjzpfwJhtcg
1st Scan rSm Y0 = ON, Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = OFF wkdYjzpfMuygw,f/
nd
2 Scan rSm Y0 = OFF, Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = OFF wkdYjzpfMuygw,f/
rd
3 Scan rSm Y0 = OFF, Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = OFF wkdYjzpfMuygw,f/

'D Toggle Output Program udk a&;NyD; prf;MunhfwJhtcgrSm?


yxrtBudrf X0 = ON jzpf&if Y2 = ON jzpfNyD;?
'kwd,tBudrf X0 = ON jyefjzpfrS Y2 = OFF jzpfygw,f/
wwd,tBudrf X0 = ON jyefjzpfwJhtcg Y2 u jyefNyD; ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
'D program ukd PLC u b,fvkd Scan by Scan execute vkyfw,f qkdwmukd em;vnf
oabmayguf oGm;&if LD eJY a&;xm;wJh b,fvkd program rsdK;ukdyJjzpfjzpf t"dyg,f rSefatmif
bmomjyefwwfoGm;NyD jzpfygw,f/
tenf;qHk; 1st Scan, 2nd Scan, eJY 3rd Scan txd analyze vkyfwwfzkdY vkdygw,f/
odNyD? wwfNyD? em;vnfNyD? vkdY rdrdukd,frdrd,HkMunf&if atmufrSmazmfjyxm;wJh program ukd
a&;prf;MunfhNyD; Status-Time Diagram ukd a&;qGJMunhfyg/
P.B 1 Lamp 1
Delta PLC = DVP14SS2-11R
X0 Y2

X0 Y2 +
Y2
() 24V

COM 0
X0 Y2
24V
+ S/S

Input Terminal LD Program Output Terminal


yHk (C)(2)
yHk(C)(2) rSm azmfjyxm;wJhtwkdif; pushbutton eJY Lamp1 ukd PLC eJY qufoG,fNyD;
txufrSmaz:jyxm;wJhtwkdif; WPLSoft eJY LD program ukd a&;yg/ yxrOD;pGm Simulator udk
ON NyD; prf;Munhfyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
198
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Program a&;NyD;&if Compile vkyfyg/ Simulator ukd
yg/ Write to PLC
ON
vkyfyg/ Online Mode ukdESdyfyg/ Task Bar ay:rSm Simulator qkdwJhpm eJY RUN qkdwJh
tpdrf;a&mifpm ay:ae&ygr,f/ wu,fvkdY STOP qkdwJh teDa&mifpm ay:ae&if PLC ukd
RUN vkdufyg/


Click on Simulator icon


Write to PLC


PLC to RUN

Online Mode
tckcsdefxd wu,fh PLC eJY qufoG,frxm;&ao;ygbl;/ Virtual PLC eJY prf;oyf
MunfhrSm jzpfygw,f/
X0 ay: Cursor wif? Right Click ESdyfNyD; Set On vkyfyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
199
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Y2 [m ON vkduf? OFF vkduf? jzpfaewmukd Computer Screen ay:rSm awGU&yg
vdrfhr,f/
trSefwu,fu Y2 [m 1-scan time ON, 1-scan time OFF jzpfNyD;? oscillate jzpfaeyg
w,f/
1st Scan ON, 2nd Scan OFF, Next Scan ON, Next Scan OFF jzpfaeygw,f/
Y2 = ON jzpfNyD;wnf&dSaewJh tcsdef[m 1-scan time yJMumjrifhygw,f/
Task Bar rSm Munhf&if Scan Time : 0.6ms vkdY awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ 'D program udk RUN
wJhtcg 1 scan cycle &JU MumjrifhwJh tcsdefudk0.6ms vkdY az:jywm jzpfygw,f/
Computer Screen ay:rSm Y2 ukd ON aeaMumif; Highlight vkyfjywJh tpdrf;a&mif
ay:aewJh tcsdefumv u 1s avmufMumygw,f/
0.6ms yJ Highlight vkyfjy? pdrf;jy? w,fqkd&ifvnf; 0.6ms Mumatmifay:NyD;? 0.6ms
MumatmifaysmufuG,foGm;wJh tpdrf;a&mif ON/OFF jzpfaewmukd vlU&JU rsufpdu cGJjcm;NyD;
odEkdifpGrf; r&Sdygbl;/
'gukd rSefuefaMumif; twnfjyKEkdifzkdYtwGuf wu,fh PLC eJY vufawGU prf;oyf
MunhfzdkY vkdtyfygw,f/
yHk(C)(2) rSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; pushbutton (N.O) 1ck jzpfwJh P.B1 &,f? rD;vHk; (24V,
1W) Lamp1 &,fukd wu,fh PLC (DVP-14SS2-11R) rSm qufoG,fwyfqifyg/
yHk(C)(2) rSmazmfjyxm;wJh LD program ukd WPLSoft eJYa&;NyD; PLC xJukd download
vkyfyg/ PLC ukd RUN yg/ P.B1 ukd ESdyfxm;NyD; PLC ay:u Y2 qkdwJh Output LED ukd
Munhfyg/ LED (Y2) vif;aewmukd jrifawGU&ygvdrfhr,f/
Online Mode ukd ESdyfNyD; Computer Screen ay:u Y2 ukdMunhfyg/ Y2 ae&mrSm tpdrf;
a&mif Highlight ay:vkduf^aysmufvkduf jzpfaewmukd awGUjrif&ygvdrfhr,f/ P.B1 ukd ESdyfxm;
oa&GU tpdrf;a&mif Highlight u ay:vmvkduf^aysmufoGm;vkduf jzpfaeNyD; PLC ay:rSm &SdwJh
Output LED (Y2) uawmh tNrJvif;aewmudk awGUjrif&ygvdrfhr,f/
trSefwu,fjzpfaewmu Y2 [m 0.6ms ON jzpfNyD;? 0.6ms OFF jzpfaewmom jzpfyg
w,f/ P.B1
1
X0 ON
Y2 0 OFF
X0
Status

Y2
() 1 ON
0 Y2 OFF

X0 Y2 1 ON
P.B1 X0
0 OFF
1ScanTime
1 ON
0 Y2 OFF
t0 t1t2t3t4 Time
ykHukdMunhfyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
200
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

P.B1 udk jyefvTwfvkdufwJhtcgrSm jrifawGU&wmu ykdNyD;awmhpdwf0ifpm;p&maumif;yg


w,f/ P.B1 udk ESdyfNyD; jyefvTwfvkdufwJhtcgrSm Y2 [m ON jzpfusefcJhwJhtcg &Sdovkd OFF jzpf
usefcJhwJh tcgvnf; &Sdygw,f/ tBudrfBudrfESdyfMunhfyg/ Y2 ukd ON jzpfusefatmif? OFF jzpf
usefatmif? wrifvkyf,lvkdY r&Ekdifwmukd ukd,fawGUBuHKMu&ygvdrfhr,f/
q,fcg? q,fhig;cg? avmuf P.B1 ukd ESdyfvkduf? vTwfvkduf? vkyfMunhfyg/ Random
jzpfaewmudk awGU&ygvdrhfr,f/ Random qkdwm BuHK&muszrf; jzpfaewmukd qkdvkdygw,f/
P.B1 udk ESdyfNyD; jyefvTwfvkdufwJhtcsdefrSm Y2 [m ON jzpfaewmeJY BuHKBudKuf wkdufqkdif
aecJh&if? Status-Time Diagram &Jh atmufykdif;rSm jyxm;wJYtwkdif; Y2 u qufNyD; ON jzpfNyD;
usefcJhygw,f/ P.B1 ukd ESdyfNyD; jyefvTwfvkdufwJhtcsdefrSm Y2 [m OFF jzpfaeckdufeJY BuHKBudKuf
wkdufqkdifcJh&if? Status-Time Diagram &Jh tay:ykdif;rSm jyxm;wJYtwkdif; Y2 u OFF jzpfNyD;
usefcJhygw,f/
Simulator eJY prf;Munhf&ifvnf;? 'Dvkdjzpfwmukd awGUjrifEdkifygw,f/
P.B1 ukd ESdyfxm;ckdufrSm output status indicator LED Y2 tNrJvif;aewmukdawmh
PLC eJ Y prf ; Munh f r S jrif a wG U &rS m jzpf y gw,f /
Terminal Y2 rSm Lamp1 wyfqifxm;wmjzpfvkdY trSefwu,f Y2 om tNrJ ON jzpf
aew,fqkd&if Y2 LED a&m? Lamp1 yg NydKifwl vif;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ tckawmh Lamp1 u
rD;rvif;yJ? Y2 LED om rD;vif;aew,fvkdY awGUjrifae&ygw,f/
P.B1 ukd ESdyfNyD;jyefvTwfvkdufvkdY Y2 u ON jzpfNyD; usefwJhtcgrSmawmh Y2 LED a&m?
Lamp1 yg NydKifwl vif;aewmukd awGU&ygw,f/
trSefwu,fu output indicator LED Y2 [m 0.6ms ON/0.6ms OFF eJY vif;vdkuf?
rSdwfvkduf? jzpfaeygw,f/
tNrJvif;aew,fvkdY awGUjrif&wmuawmh vlUrsufpd&JU tjrifpGJNrJrIobm0aMumifh jzpf
ygw,f/ vlU&JUrsufpd[m 1/24 second MumwJhtxd tjrifpGJNrJrI &Sdygw,f/
t&ifjrifNyD;om; jrifuGif;yHk&dyfukd tJ'DyHk&dyfaysmufuG,foGm;NyD; 1/24 sec (41.6ms) Mum
onf txd vlUrsufpdu qufNyD; jrifaewwfygw,f/
'gaMumifh ,aeYacwf rD;ajy;pmvHk; LED signboard udk pmvHk;awG a&GUaew,fvkdYyJ
awGYjrif ygw,f/ ay:vkdufaysmufvkduf jzpfaew,fvkdY rjrif? rawGUMuygbl;/
LED signboard awGrSm LED awGudk ae&mtaowyfqifxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ LED
awG[mae&m ra&GUMuygbl;/ LED signboard udk pmvHk;awG a&GUaew,fvkdYyJ awGYjrif&wm[m
rsufpd&JU tjrifpGJNrJrI obm0aMumifh jzpfygw,f/
P.B1 ukd ESdyfxm;oa&GU tcsdefumvrSm PLC &JU Output LED Y2 tNrJvif; aew,fvkdY
awGUjrif&wm[m rsufpd&JUtjrifpGJNrJrI obm0aMumifh jzpfNyD; Lamp 1 rD;rvif;&wmuawmh
Relay &JU contact traveling time aMumifhjzpfygw,f/
You can try this program functionality using any PLC brand with relay output.

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
201
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

DVP-14SS2-11R [m Relay output ygwJh PLC jzpfygw,f/ Output relay energize


jzpfvkdY contact open uae contact close jzpfzdkY travel vkyfwm 10ms Mumw,fvkdY OEM &JU
specification rSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ Output relay contact &JU transition time jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh Terminal Y2 [m OFF uae ON jzpfzkdY 10ms Mumygw,f/ ON uae OFF
jzpfzkdYvnf; 10ms Mumygw,f/
trSefwu,f Y2 = ON jzpfwJYtcsdefu 0.6ms omMumygw,f/ Y2 = OFF jzpfwJYtcsdef
uvnf; 0.6ms yJMumygw,f/
'Dawmh Y2 qkdwJh output relay &JU physical contact u Y2 = ON jzpfvkdY close jzpfr,f
BuHvkduf? 0.6ms Mumawmh Y2 = OFF jzpfoGm;vkdY jyefcGmckdif;vkdY uGmvkduf&? jzpfaevkdY
b,fawmhrS closed rjzpfawmhygbl;/
'gawGukd tao;pdyf a&;jy&wmuawmh Control System awGudk Troubleshoot vkyfwJh
tcg? tJ'D system awGrSm oHk;xm;wJh Device awG&JU physical nature a&m? program nature yg?
logical nature awGukdyg? odxm;rSom trSefudk OmPfeJYqifjcifodjrif EkdifaMumif; message
ay;csifvkdY jzpfygw,f/
Scan Cycle taMumif;ukd pmrsufESm (180) rSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
202
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

PLC tvkyfvkyfyHkudk vG,fvG,frSwfxm;csif&if I, P, O vkdY rSwfxm;yg/ 'gu 1-scan (one


scan) rSmygwJh tvkyfoHk;rsdK; jzpfygw,f/ I u Input Scan jzpfygw,f/ P u Program Scan
jzpfygw,f/ O u Output Scan jzpfygw,f/
PLC ukd power ay;NyD;? RUN xm;vkduf&if? I (tkdif)? P (yD)? O (tdk) oHk;rsdK;[m
wpfckNyD;wpfck qufwkdufvkyfaeygw,f/ I NyD;awmh P, P NyD;awmh? O, O NyD;awmh? I u jyefp?
vkyfygw,f/
I, P, O wpfausmhNyD;atmifvkyfwmukd one scan vkdU ac:ygw,f/
I P O wpfausmhNyD;atmifMumwJhtcsdefukd 1-scan time vkdY ac:ygw,f/
PLC ukd STOP vkyfxm;vkduf&if output tm;vHk; OFF jzpfaeygw,f/ Output terminal
wkdif;rSm signal r&Sdwmukd OFF vdkY ajymwm jzpfygw,f/
PLC ukd RUN vkdufawmhrS I u p?vkyfygw,f/
I (Input Scan) vkyfaecsdefrSm PLC &JU input terminal tm;vHk;&JU tajctaeawGukd
zwfNyD; signal &dS^r&Sdukd input image memory rSm rSwfxm;ygw,f/ I NyD;rS P vkyfygw,f/
P (Program Scan) vkyfwJhtcg tay:qHk; yxr instruction pmaMumif;&JU
b,ftpGefu instruction code upNyD; pmzwfovkdrsdK; wpfckNyD;wpfck execute vkyfygw,f/
&vmwJh logic result awGukd oufqkdif&m memory rSm a&;rSwfxm;ygw,f/ tay:qHk;
TefMum;csufpmaMumif; NyD;qHk;oGm;&if olUatmuf uyfvsufu TefMum;csufpmaMumif;ukd
b,ftpGefu pNyD; execute vkyfygw,f/ P &JU tvkyfu program udk execute vkyfwm
jzpfygw,f/ TefMum;csuf pmaMumif;rSm tykdif;2ykdif; ygygw,f/ Examining ykdif;eJY Executing
ykdif;jzpfygw,f/ Open contact, Closed contact awGu Examining instruction awGjzpfNyD; Coil
u Executing instruction jzpfygw,f/
PLC rSm LD eJY a&;xm;wJh Program [m ('gjzpf r S ? 'guk d v k y f y g) vkdY cdkif;xm;wm
jzpfygw,f/ ('gjzpfrS) qkdwJh Examining ykdif;ukd logic result &atmif aqmif&Gufygw,f/ tJ'D
logic result u True jzpfrS ('guk d v k y f y g) qkdwJh Executing ykdif;ukd aqmif&Gufygw,f/
aqmif&GufNyD; &&SdvmwJh solved result ukd oufqkdif&m Memory rSm a&;rSwf Wirte ygw,f/
NyD;&if atmufukdqufqif;NyD; Program Execute vkyfwm END qkdwJh Instruction Code udk
a&mufawmhrS P &JU tvkyf NyD;qHk;ygw,f/ P NyD;rS O (tkd) ukdk vkyfygw,f/
O (Output Scan) vkyfwJhtcg apmapmu (P vkyfaewHk;u) memory awGrSm a&;rSwf
xm;wmawGukd output terminal awGqD data vTJajymif;wm data transfer vkyfay; vkdufygw,f/
'Dtcsdef a&mufawmhrS PLC &JU output terminal awGu signal ukd &&Sdwm jzpfygw,f/ 'gudk
Output update vkyfw,fvkdY ac:ygw,f/
I (Input Scan) u input memory ukd update vkyfygw,f/ P (Program Scan) u
program ukd solve vkyfNyD; output memory ukd update vkyfygw,f/ O (Output Scan) u output
terminal ukd update vkyfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
PLCtvkyfvkyfyHk scanning process ukd English vkdzwfcsifolawGtwGuf &SmazG&orQukd
atmufrSm EdIif;,SOf azmfjyay;xm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
204
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
205
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
206
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
207
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
208
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

tcef; (13) Programming Exercises


vufawGUprf;oyfa&;MunhfzkdY erlem program awGudk azmfjyvkdufygw,f/ vufawGU
prf;oyfp&m PLC, Pushbuttons, Lamp, Buzzer wkdY vkdtyfygw,f/ tJ'gawG&SdNyD;om;vkdY
oabmxm;NyD; a&;om;azmfjyoGm;rSm jzpfygw,f/
Exercise Program 1
Exercise Program 1 twGuf N.O contact ygwJh pushbutton 1ck? 24V, 3W Lamp 1ck?
24VDC, 1A power supply unit 1ck eJY PLC uawmh DVP-14SS2-11R 1vHk;? wkdYukd toHk;jyK
&rSm jzpfygw,f/
+24V P.B 1 Lamp 0V
yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; pushbutton eJY lamp udk series
qufNyD; 24VDC supply ay;xm;&ygr,f/ Pushbutton
P.B1 ukd ESdyfvdkuf&if Lamp = ON jzpfygw,f/ Pushbutton ukd ESdyfvkdufvkdY contact close
jzpfwmeJY rD;vHk;vif;zdkY signal &wmeJY Mum;rSm tcsdefaESmifhaES;MuefYMumrI r&Sdygbl;/ PLC eJY
'DtvkyfrsdK;ukdyJ program a&;NyD; ckdif;r,fqkd&if contact close jzpfwJhtcsdefeJY rD;vif;zkdY signal
&wJh tcsdefMum;rSm 20ms (milliseconds) avmuf time delay &Sdygw,f/
P.B 1
Lamp
X0 Y0

+
24V
PLC
COM 0

24V
+ S/S

Input Terminal Output Terminal


yHk
(Ex. 1)
tJ'gukd od&Sdem;vnfzkdYtwGuf yHk(Ex. 1) rSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; P.B1 ukd PLC &JU input
terminal X0 rSm qufoG,fxm;yg/ Lamp ukd output terminal Y0 rSm qufoG,fNyD; LD
program udk yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; WPLSoft eJY a&;yg/

NyD;&if PLC xJukd download vkyfyg/ PLC ukd RUN vkdufyg/ Pushbutton ukd ESdyfMunhf
yg/ jyefvTwfMunhfyg/ rsufjrifrSmawmh aESmif;aES;MuefYMumw,fvkdY od&SdcHpm;&rSmr[kwfygbl;/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
210
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
wu,fwrf; PLC u vkyfaqmif&mrSmawmh pushbutton ukd ESdyfvkdufvkdY contact close
jzpfoGm;wJhtcsdefeJY Input Image Memory rSm X0 = ON vkdY a&;rSwfvkdufwJh tcsdefMum;rSm
10ms Mumjrihfygw,f/ Input delay jzpfygw,f/ Contact bounce aMumifhjzpfwJh noise eJY
electromagnetic interference aMumifhjzpfwJh noise awGudk ppfxkwfNyD; csefxm;cJhcsifvkdY wrif
delay jzpfatmif vkyfxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ 'gukd Input response time vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ 'D
delay time ukd jyifcsif&if D1020 rSm oGm;jyifvkdY&ygw,f/ omreftoHk;jyKoltaeeJY rjyifoifh
ygbl;/ aemufxyf 1scan time delay jzpfygao;w,f/
LD program ukd tckvkdcyfwkdwkda&;xm;&ifawmh 1scan time [m 0.3ms Mumygw,f/
tckoHk;wJh PLC (DVP-14SS2-11R) u relay output jzpfwJhtwGuf relay contact &JU traveling
time 10ms xyfMumygw,f/ pkpkaygif; 20.3ms delay jzpfygw,f/ Pushbutton uk d ES d y f v k d u f v k d Y
terminal X0 rS m signal a&muf N yD ; 20.3ms MumrS terminal Y0 u signal xk w f a y;ygw,f /

PLC wk d i f ; rS m 'Dvkd I/O responding time tNrJ & S d y gw,f /

yHk(Ex. 1) rSm jyxm;ovkd Pushbutton eJY Lamp ukd PLC rSmqufoG,fNyD; LD program
ukd Examine OFF X0 eJY a&;cJh&if P.B1 ukd rESdyfbJxm;wJhtcgrSm Y0 = ON (Lamp = ON)
jzpfNyD; P.B1 ukd ESdyfvkdufawmhrS Y0 = OFF (Lamp = OFF) jzpfygw,f/ I/O responding time
uawmh 20.3ms yJjzpfygw,f/
PLC tvkyfvkyfyHktqihfqihfukd Scan Cycle taMumif; pmrsufESm (180) rSm
azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Exercise Program 2
Exercise Program 2 ukd vufawGUprf;zkdY yg0ifwJh ypnf;awGuawmh
(1) P.B1 (N.O contact) 1ck?
(2) P.B2 (N.C contact) 1ck?
(3) Lamp 24VDC, 3W 1ck?
(4) DVP-14SS2-11R PLC 1ck? eJY
(5) 24VDC, 1A power supply unit 1ck? wkdYjzpfMuygw,f/
Pushbutton 2ck eJY Lamp 1ck ukd yHkrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; qufoG,fyg/
P.B 1
Lamp
X0 Y0

+
P.B 2 24V
PLC
X1 COM 0 X0 X1 Y0
()
24V
+ S/S [END]

Input Terminal Output Terminal LD Program

LD program udk yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; WPLSoft eJY a&;NyD; PLC xJ download vkyf


xm;yg/ PLC ukd RUN vkdufyg/ Pushbutton awGudk EdSyfprf;Munhfyg/ P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukd 1ck
csif;pD ESdyf&if Y0 u r ON ao;bJeJY 2ck wGJESdyfrS Y0 u ON jzpfygw,f/ 'gukd Logic AND
vkdY ac:ygw,f/ IF [(X0 = ON) AND (X1 = OFF) THEN [(Y0 ON] vkdY ckdif;xm;wm
jzpfygw,f/ P.B1 ukd ESdyfrS X0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ P.B2 ukd ESdyfrS X1 = OFF jzpfygw,f/
X0 X1 Y0 wu,fvkdY program udk yHkrSm jyxm;ovkd a&;cJhr,f
() qkd&ifawmh? P.B1 1ck xJESdyfrSom Y0 = ON jzpfyg
[END]
w,f/ P.B2 1ck xJESdyf&ifvnf; Y0 [m r ON yg
bl;/ P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukd wGJESdyf&ifvnf; Y0 [m r ON
ygbl;/ PLC ukd ckdif;apwJh program a&;wJhtcgrSm Field Input Device awG&JU N.O, N.C ukd
xnhfoGif;pOf;pm;&ygw,f/
tJ'DtaMumif; tao;pdyfukd pmrsufESm 103 Industrial Alarm System taMumif;
a&;om;&mrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
212
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Exercise Program 3
Logic OR ukd vufawGUprf;MunhfzkdY twGuf yg0ifwJhypnf;awG uawmh
(1) N.O pushbutton 2ck
(2) Lamp 24V, 3W 1ck?
(3) 24VDC, 2A power supply 1ck? eJY
(4) DVP-14SS2-11R PLC 1vHk;? wkdYjzpfMuygw,f/

yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; Pushbutton eJY Lamp awGukd PLC rSm qufoG,fvdkufyg/


P.B 1
Lamp 1
X0 Y0

+
P.B 2 24V

X1 PLC COM 0

24V
+ S/S

Input Terminal Output Terminal

LD program udk WPLSoft eJY a&;NyD; PLC xJ download vkyfxm;yg/ PLC ukd RUN
vdkufyg/ Pushbutton awGukd ESdyfNyD;prf;Munhfyg/ P.B1 eJY P.B2 b,f[mudk ESdyfESdyf Lamp
rD;vif;NyD;? 2ck wGJESdyf&ifvnf; rD;vif;ygw,f/ 'gukd Logic OR vkdY ac:ygw,f/
IF (X0 = ON) OR (X1 = ON) THEN (Y0 => ON) vkdY ckdif;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/
'D program udk a&;csif&if? b,ftpGef Initial point rSm Cursor csNyD;? <Enter> <L> <D>
<Space> <X> <0> <Enter> <O> <U> <T> <Space> <Y> <0> <Enter> <L> <D>
<Space> <X> <1> <Enter> Vertical line udk a&;csif&if? X0 ab;uyfvsufnmbufrSm
Cursor csNyD; <F9> udkEdSyfyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Exercise Program 4
Logic XOR ukd vufawGUprf;MunhfzkdYtwGuf yg0ifwJh ypnf;awGuawmh
(1) N.O pushbutton 2ck?
(2) N.C pushbutton 2ck?
(3) Lamp 24V, 3W 1ck?
(4) 24V, 2A DC power supply 1ck? eJY
(5) DVP-14SS2-11R PLC 1vHk;? wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/

P.B 1
Lamp
X0 Y0
P.B 2
+
X1 24V

COM 0
P.B 3 PLC
X2

P.B 4
X3 X0 X1
Y0
()
24V
+ S/S X0 X1

yHk(A) yHk(B)
yHk(A) rSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; qufoG,fNyD; program ukd yHk(B) rSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; a&;yg/
'D program uawmh Logic XOR jzpfygw,f/ P.B1 1ckxJ ESdyf&ifvnf; Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
P.B2 1ckxJ ESdyf&ifvnf; Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ P.B1 a&m P.B2 yg aygif;ESdyf&ifawmh Y0 =
OFF jzpfygw,f/
IF [(X0 = ON) AND (X1 = OFF)] OR [(X0 = OFF) AND (X1 = ON)] THEN [(Y0 => ON)]
vkdY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
AND Block 2ck udk OR vkyfxm;wmjzpfygw,f/

Program udk 'Dvdka&;xm;&ifvnf; Logic XOR yJ jzpfygw,f/


OR Block 2ckukd AND vkyfxm;wmjzpfygw,f/
P.B1 a&m P.B2 yg N.O pushbutton awGjzpfwmudk owdjyKyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Exercise Program 5
Pushbutton 4ck? eJY Lamp udk yHk(A) twdkif; qufoG,fyg/

yHk(C)
yHk(C) twkdif; program ukd a&;yg/ 'gvnf; XOR yJjzpfygw,f/ P.B2 eJY P.B3 ukd
1ckcsif; pD ESdyfrS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ 2ck wGJESdyf&ifawmh Y0 = OFF jzpfygw,f/
IF [(X1 = ON) AND (X2 = ON)] OR [(X1 = OFF) AND (X2 = OFF)] THEN (Y0 => ON)
vkdY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ AND Block 2ck ukd OR vkyfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
P.B2 u N.O pushbutton jzpfNyD; P.B3 u N.C pushbutton jzpfw,fqdkwmudk owdjyKyg/

Exercise Program 6
Pushbutton 4ck? eJY Lamp udk yHk(A) twdkif;qufoG,fyg/

yHk(D)
yHk(D) twkdif; program ukd a&;yg/ P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukd wGJESdyf&ifvnf; Y0 = ON
jzpfygw,f/ P.B3 eJY P.B4 udk wJGESdyf&ifvnf; Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ P.B 1ckcsif;pD ESdyf&ifawmh
Y0 = OFF jzpfaeygvdrhfr,f/
IF [(X0 = ON) AND (X1 = ON)] OR [(X2 = OFF) AND (X3 = OFF)] THEN [(Y0 => ON)]
vkdY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
AND Block 2ckukd OR vkyfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
P.B1 eJY P.B2 u N.O pushbutton jzpfNyD; P.B3 eJY P.B4 u N.C pushbutton jzpfw,f
qdkwmudk owdjyKyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Exercise Program 7
Pushbutton 4ck? eJY Lamp udk yHk(A) twkdif; qufoG,fyg/

yHk(E)
yHk(E) twkdif; LD program udka&;yg/ Y0 udk ON jzpfapr,fh condition awGuawmh
(1) P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukdwGJESdyf&if?
(2) P.B1 eJY P.B4 ukd wGJESdyf&if?
(3) P.B3 eJY P.B2 ukdwGJESdyf&if?
(4) P.B3 eJY P.B4 ukdwGJESdyf&if?
(5) P.B 4ckpvHk;udk wGJESdyf&if? wkdYjzpfMuygw,f/
IF [(X0 = ON) OR (X2 = OFF)] AND [(X1 = ON) OR (X3 = OFF)] THEN [(Y0 => ON)]
vkdY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
OR Block 2ckukd AND vkyfxm;wmjzpfygw,f/
Exercise Program 1 to 7 udk wu,fh PLC, rSm wu,fh Pushbutton awGeJY qufoG,fNyD;
vufawGU prf;Munhf NyD;&if?
(1) PLC &JU Input Device (sensor) awGrSm N.O/N.C qkdwJh obm0ukd xnhfoGif;
pOf;pm; &r,fqkdwm&,f?
(2) tJ'D N.O/N.C awGeJY qDavsmfatmif LD program xJrSm open contact, closed
contact awGudk a&G;cs,ftoHk;NyD; instruction code tjzpfa&;&w,f? qkdwmukd
em;vnf oabmayguf avmufNyDvkdY xifygw,f/
PLC xJrSm &SdwJh CPU u PLC &JU input terminal rSm wwfqifxm;wJh sensor awG[m N.O
vm;? N.C vm; qkdwmukd odEkdifpGrf;r&Sdygbl;/ Input terminal rSm signal &Sdw,f? r&Sdbl;?
qkdwmukdom odEkdifygw,f/
Signal &SdrS output ukd ON jzpfapcsif&if open contact ukd oHk;&ygw,f/
Signal r&SdrS output ukd ON jzpfapcsif&if closed contact ukd oHk;&ygw,f/
Open contact [m ON jzpfae&if True jzpfNyD; Open contact [m OFF
jzpfae&if False jzpfygw,f/ Closed contact [m OFF jzpfae&if True jzpfNyD; Closed
contact [m ON jzpfae&if False jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Coil ( ) &JU a&SUrSm (b,fbufrSm) &SdaewJh instruction code awG tm;vHk;ukd


Examining instruction vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Examine the condition tajctaeukd ppfaq;&vkdY
jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D condition awGukd examine vkyfvkdY&vmwJh logic result u True jzpfrSom
Coil ( ) [m ON jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D logic result u Flase jzpf&if Coil [m OFF jzpfygw,f/

PLC ukdckdif;wJh yHkpHu ('gjzpfrS ) ('gukdvkyfyg ) qkdwJh yHkpHjzpfygw,f/

X0
( Y0 )

a&SUu Examine ON X0 eJY a&;xm;NyD;aemufu Output ON Y0 vkdY a&;xm;&if


examine vkyf&r,fh condition X0 u ON jzpfaerS output Y0 udk ON vkyfay;ygvkdY PLC
ukd ckdif;wmjzpfygw,f/
'Dawmh examine vkyf&r,fh condition X0 u ON rjzpf&if output Y0 ukd r ON
ygeJYvkdY qkdvkdwJh t"dyg,fygNyD;om; jzpfygw,f/

X0
( Y0 )

a&SUu Examine OFF X0 eJY a&;xm;NyD; aemufu Output ON Y0 vkdY a&;xm;&if


examine vkyf&r,fh condition X0 u OFF jzpfaerS output Y0 udk ON vkyfay;ygvkdY PLC
ukd ckdif;wmjzpfygw,f/
'Dawmh examine vkyf&r,fh condition X0 u OFF rjzpf&if output Y0 ukd r ON
ygeJY qkdwJht"dyg,f ygNyD;jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
217
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
tcef; (14) PLC xJu Counter taMumif ; /

PLC wkdif;rSm Internal Counter awG yg&SdMuygw,f/ tJ'D Counter awG[m Output terminal
eJU qufoG,frIvHk;0 r&SdvdkU internal counter vdkU ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
trsdK;tpm; type rwl&if yg0if wJh Counter ta&twGuf rwlMuygbl;/ Counter
PLC
trsdK;tpm; type vnf; uGmjcm;Muygw,f/ 'gaMumihf rdrdvufxJrSm&SdwJh PLC rSm b,fvkd
Counter trsdK;tpm; awGygovJqkdwm odxm;zkdU vkdtyfygw,f/ odcsif&if OEM &JU
Programming Manual xJu Memory Map ukd &SmMunhf&rSm jzpfygw,f/ PLC rSmygavh&SdwJh
Counter awGuawmh
(1) Up Counter (Incrementing Counter)
(2) Down Counter (Decrementing Counter)
(3) Up-Down Counter (Reversible Counter) eJY
(4) High Speed Counter wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/

b,fvkd Counter rsd K ;uk d y J j zpf j zpf toHk;jyKawmhr,fqkd&if odxm;&r,fYtcsufawGu


(1) Counter function twGuf instruction code ukd b,fvkda&;&r,f qkdwmukd PLC
type eJY wGJNyD; odxm;&ygr,f/
(2) Counter eHygwfeJY Counter type ukd
wGJNyD;odxm; &ygr,f/
(3) Set value (Preset value) ukd b,f PLC rSm b,fvkda&;&w,fqkdwm PLC type eJY
wGJNyD; odxm;&ygr,f/
(4) Set value &JU twdkif;twm range ukd Counter trsdK;tpm;eJYwGJNyD; odxm;& yg
r,f/ NyD;awmh ta&;tBuD;qHk;tcsufu rdrdoHk;r,fh Counter &JU tusihfpkduf
character ukd vufawGUa&;prf;Munhfxm;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ 'grSom ukd,fa&;wJh
program [m ukd,farQmfrSef;xm;wJhtwkdif; rwdrf;rapmif;bJ vkyfaqmif ay;wm
ukd awGU&rSmjzpfygw,f/ pmzwfNyD; odxm;wJhtodeJY rvkHavmufygbl;/ Counter
taMumif; odatmif? em;vnfatmif? vufawGUa&;prf;MunhfzkYd vkdtyfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
218
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
Up Counter
atmufrSm erlem programawGa&;NyD; &Sif;jyxm; ygw,f/ vufawGUtoHk;jyKwJh PLC u
Delta Electronics Ltd. u xkwfvkyfwJh DVP-14SS2-11R2 jzpfygw,f/

yHkrSm jyxm;wJh program ukd WPLSoft eJY a&;NyD; Simulator ukd ON vkdufyg/
Task Bar rSm Simulator qkdwJh pm ay:vmwJhtcg Wirte to PLC vkyfyg/ PLC ukd RUN yg/
Online Mode ukd ON NyD; X0 ay: Cursor cs? Right Click ESdyf? Set On vkyfyg/ NyD;&if X0 ukd Set
Off vkyfxm;cJhyg/ tckvkyfcJhwmu C0 ukd reset vkyfwmjzpfygw,f/
X1 ay: Cursor cs? Right Click ESdyfNyD; Set On vkyfyg/ teDa&mifeJY ay:aewJh K0 uae
K1 ukd ajymif;oGm;ygvdrhfr,f/ 1 digit count vkyfvkdufwm jzpfygw,f/ X1 u counting input
jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D counting input &JU Logic condition u False-to-True jzpfrS Counter 1csuf
wuf oGm;wm jzpfygw,f/

'D Program rSm Examine ON X1 eJY a&;xm;wmjzpfvkdY X1 = OFF-to-ON jzpfrS False-


to-True jzpfNyD; 1 digit count up jzpfygw,f/
wu,fvkdY Examine OFF X1 vkdY a&;cJhr,fqkd&if X1 = ON-to-OFF jzpfrS False-to-True
jzpfNyD; 1 digit count up jzpfygvdrhfr,f/

txufygtwkdif; a&;NyD;prf;Munhfyg/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

tck program rSm tay:qHk;pmaMumif;&JU t"dyg,fu X0 = ON jzpfrS C0 ukd reset vkyfyg


vkdY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfaeoa&GU Scan wkdif; C0 udk reset vkyfaeygw,f/
'gaMumifh X0 ukd ON xm;wJhtcsdefrSm X1 ukd OFF-to-ON vkyf&if C0 [m count up
rvkyfygbl;/
teDa&mifpmvHk;eJY azmfjyaewJh K0 ukd accumulated value vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Present value
vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/ Current value vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/ Counter u a&wGufNyD;om;
ta&twGuf? vuf&Sdwefzkd;jzpfygw,f/
'D program &JU 'kwd,pmaMumif;rSm a&;xm;wmu X1 = OFF-to-ON jzpfwkdif; C0 ukd 1
digit wkd;NyD; 5 digits jynhf&if C0 ukd ON vkdufygvkdY ckdif;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/
tJ'D instruction pmaMumif;rSm ygwJh CNT qkdwmu Counter tvkyfukd vkyfygvkdY ckdif;wJh
instruction &JU code letter jzpfygw,f/ C0 qkdwmu Counter eHygwfjzpfygw,f/ K5 u count
vkyf&r,fh ta&twGuf? a&wGuf&r,fh digit jzpfygw,f/
wwd, instruction pmaMumif;rSm a&;xm;wmuawmh C0 = ON jzpfrS Y0 ukd ON vkdufyg
vkdY ckdif;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/
atmufqHk;pmaMumif;rSm a&;xm;wJh END qkdwJh instruction code u ckdif;xm;wm NyD;NyDvkdY
ajymwmjzpfygw,f/ TefMum;p&m 'gtukefyJvkdY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/
Scan wdkif;? Scan wkdif;rSm END qkdwmukd a&mufawmhrS aemufwqifhukd ajymif;NyD; PLC
u aqmif&Gufwmjzpfygw,f/
Reset function udk a&;csif&if a&;r,fhae&mrSm Cursor cs? Enter ukd 1csuf acgufyg
RST vkdY kdufyg? Space jcm;NyD; C0 vkdY kdufyg? [RST C0] vkdY ay:vmygvdrhfr,f/
Counter function udk a&;csif&if a&;r,fhae&mrSm Cursor cs? Enter ukd 1csuf acgufyg
CNT vkdY kdufyg Space jcm;NyD; C0 vkdY kdufyg Space jcm;NyD; K5 vkdY kdufyg/ Enter
1csuf acgufvkduf&if atmufyHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; ay: vmygvdrhfr,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
220
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yHkrSm yg&dSwJh SV qkdwmu Set Value jzpfNyD; PV u Present Value jzpfygw,f/ 'D Counter
ukd Up Counter vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Counter eJY ywfoufNyD; aemufxyfodxm;&rSmu General Counter eJY Latched Counter
qkdwmjzpfygw,f/
General Counter u PLC ukd RUN-to-STOP vkyfvkduf&if pkrdNyD;om; wefzkd; accumulated
value tm;vHk; reset (clear) jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ PLC ukday;xm;wJh power jywfoGm;&ifvnf;
accumulated value tm;vHk; reset jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ Count vkyfxm;orQ tm;vHk; oHknjzpfoGm;
ygw,f/

Latched Counter
Latched Counter trsdK;tpm;uawmh RUN-to-STOP yJ vkyfvkyf? Power yJ jywfjywf?
accumulated value awGukd rSwfxm;NyD;om;twkdif; raysmufrysufatmif odrf;xm;ygw,f/
Power jyef&NyD; PLC udk RUN vkduf&if count vkyfNyD;om;wefzkd;uae a&SUqufwkd;NyD; count
vkyfoGm;ygw,f/ Resume vkyfoGm;ygw,f/
Counter [m ON NyD;om;?jzpfae&ifvnf; PLC ukd STOP vkyfvkdufwJhtcg PLC &JU output
tm;vHk;u OFF jzpfoGm;ayrJh ON jzpfNyD;om;? Latched Counter uawmh ON qufjzpfaeyg
w,f/ PLC udk jyef RUN vkdufwJhtcg ON NyD;om;? Latched Counter eJY qufpyfywfoufwJh
output awGvnf; ON jyefjzpfygw,f/
DVP-14SS2-11R2 xJrSm C0 u General Counter jzpfNyD;? C112 u Latched Counter jzpf
ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
221
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
atmufrSmjyxm;ovdk program udka&;NyD; prf;Munfhyg/

DVP-14SS2-11R2 rSm yg&SdwJh Counter trsdK;tpm;awGudk atmufrSmaz:jyxm;ygw,f/

C0 to C111 eJY C128 to C199 wkdY[m 16-bit General Up Counter awG jzpfMuygw,f/
C112 to C127 txdu 16-bit Latched Up Counter awG jzpfMuygw,f/
C233 to C242 txd[m 32-bit Latched Up/Down Counter awG jzpfMuygw,f/ if;wkdY[m
32-bit Software High-Speed Counter awG jzpfMuygw,f/
C243 to C254 txd[m 32-bit Latched Up/Down Counter awG jzpfMuygw,f/ if;wkdY[m
32-bit Hardware High-Speed Counter awG jzpfMuygw,f/
16-bit Counter awG&JU Set value ukd trsm;qHk;a&;EkdifwJh wefzkd;u 1 to 32767 jzpfygw,f/
32-bit Up/Down Counter awG&JU Set value ukd -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647 txd
a&;Ekdifygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
222
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Counter ukd count vkyfckdif;csifwJh wefzkd;u a&;vkdY&wJh SV wefzkd;xuf rsm;aer,f qkd&if


Counter 2ckukd yHkrSm jyxm;ovkd cascade vkyfNyD; a&;vkdY&ygw,f/

yHkrSm jyxm;wJh program twkdif;a&;xm;NyD;? Kn1 ukd K30000 vkdY a&;r,f? Kn2 ukd
K20000 vkdY a&;cJhr,f qdk&if? pkpkaygif; Set value (SV) [m n1 x n2 = (30000 x 20000 =
600000000) jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ C5 [m n1 (i.e 30000) wefbkd;jynhfrS 1cg ON jzpfygw,f/ C5 =
ON jzpfoGm;&if C6 ukd 1 digit count-up vkyfckdif;NyD;aemuf C5 ukd reset vkyfypfygw,f/ C6 u
awmh X14 = ON jzpfrS reset jzpfygw,f/

Up/Down Counter
DVP-14SS2-11R2 rSm Up/Dn Counter (C200 to C232) pkpkaygif; 33ck yg&Sdygw,f/

Up/Down Counter ukd toHk;jyKxm;wJh program ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ C200 ukd


yHkrSm
Down Counter jzpfapcsif&if M1200 ukd ON xm;ay;&ygw,f/ M1200 = OFF jzpfae&if
C200 [m Up Counter vkd count vkyfygw,f/ M1200 = ON jzpfaerS C200 [m Down
Counter vkd count vkyfygw,f/ C200 to C232 txd counting direction (Up or Down) udk
ajymif; csif&if M1200 to M1232 ukd oHk;&ygw,f/ C200 to C232 wkdY[m 32-bit Up-Down
Counter awG jzpfwJhtwGuf DCNT qkdwJh instruction code ukd oHk;NyD; program ukd a&;&
ygw,f/ DCNT qkdwm Double Word Counter vkdYt"dyg,f&SdwJh instruction code jzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
223
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Status-Time Diagram rSm azmfjyxm;wmu tu,f C200 [m ON NyD;om;? jzpfae


cJh&if PV = (-5) to (-6) ukd ajymif;rS C200 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ Set Value (SV) ukd (-5) vkdY
program rSm a&;xm;wmukd owdjyKyg/ yHkrSmygwJh PV u Present Value (Current Value)
jzpfygw,f/
PV = (-6) to (-5) increase jzpfoGm;&if C200 = ON jzpfygw,f/ (-5) u (-6) xufBuD; yg
w,f/
PV = (-5) to (-6) decrease jzpfoGm;rS C200 = OFF jzpfygw,f/
DVP-14SS2 xJrSmygwJh Counter awGu 0 (zero) u pNyD; SV (Set Value) a&mufwJhtxd
wkd;wufoGm;wmjzpfvkdY Incrementing Counter vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Omron PLC jzpfwJh CPM1A-20CDR xJrSm yg&SdwJh Counter awGu SV u pNyD; 0 (zero)
a&mufwJhtxd usqif;oGm;wmjzpfvkdY Decrementing Counter vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Counter function udk a&;csif&if a&;r,fhae&mrSm Cursor cs? Enter ukd 1csuf acgufyg
CNT vkdY kdufyg? Space bar ukd 1csuf acgufyg C0 vkdY kdufyg? Space bar ukd
1csuf acgufyg? K5 vkdY kdufyg/ Enter 1csuf acgufvkduf&if atmufyHkrSmjyxm;
wJhtwkdif; ay:vmygvdrhfr,f/

K5 qkdwmu udef;aowefzkd; constant value ukd decimal number eJY a&;wm jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
224
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Counter C0 ukd 10 cg count vkyfckdif; csif&if 10 cg ukd decimal number eJY a&;r,fqkd&if
K ukd toHk;jyKNyD; [CNT C0 K10] vkdY a&;&ygw,f/
wu,fvkdY [CNT C0 D2] vkdY a&;xm;cJh&ifawmh t"dyg,fu Counter C0 ukd count
vkyfckdif;wJh ta&twGuf Set value (SV) uddk D2 xJrSm&SdwJh wefbkd;twkdif; a&wGufygvkdY
ckdif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ D2 u udef;&Sifwefzkd; variable jzpfygw,f/ Data register ukd D eJY
owfrSwfazmfjyygw,f/

DVP-14SS2-11R qkdwJh PLC xJrSm D0 to D999 txd yg&Sdygw,f/ Data register [m 16


bits &SdwJh Word Device jzpfygw,f/

X10 = ON jzpfwJhtcg D2 xJudk 20 a&;xnfh vdkufvdkY C0 &JU Set value [m 20 jzpfygw,f/


X20 = ON jzpfwJhtcg D2 xJudk 15 a&;xnfh vdkufvdkY C0 &JU Set value [m 15 jzpfygw,f/
D2 xJudk decimal value 15 a&;xnfhcdkif;wJh [MOV K15 D2] vdkY a&;csif&if? <Enter>
<M> <O> <V> <Space> <K> <1> <5> <Space> <D> <2> <Enter> vdkY kdufyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
225
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
tcef; (15) PLC xJu Timer taMumif ;
PLC wkdif;rSm Internal Timer awG yg&SdMuygw,f/ Output terminal eJU qufoG,frIvHk;0
r&SdvdkU internal timer vdkU ac:wmjzpfygw,f/ Timer 2rsdK; 2pm;&Sdygw,f/ Non-retentive timer
eJY Retentive timer wdkY jzpfMuygw,f/
DVP-14SS2-11R qkdwJh PLC xJrSm 2rsdK;pvHk;ygygw,f/
DVP-14SS-11R qkdwJh PLC xJrSmawmh non-retentive timer trsdK;tpm; 1 rsdK;om yg&Sd
ygw,f/
CPM1A-20CDR qkdwJh Omron PLC xJrSmvnf; non-retentive trsdK;tpm; 1 rsdK;om
yg&Sd ygw,f/
Timer rSm tcsuftvuf parameter oHk;rsdK; &Sdygw,f/
1/ Time base jzpfygw,f/ 1 digit ajymif;zdkY MumwJhtcsdefudk Time Base vdkY ac:yg
w,f/
2/ a&wGuf&r,fh tcsdefyrmPudk azmfjywJh Preset Value jzpfygw,f/ Set Value
(SV) vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
3/ a&wGufNyD;om;wefzdk; accumulated value jzpfygw,f/ Current value vdkYvnf;
ac:yg w,f/ vuf&Sdwefzdk; present value (PV) vdYkvnf; ac:ygw,f/
Timer &JU vkyfudkifaqmif&GufyHkudk erlem program awGa&;NyD; &Sif;jyxm;ygw,f/

program udk a&;xm;cJh&if TMR qdkwmu timer tvkyfudk vkyz


yHkrSmvdk f dkY cdkif;wJh timer
function instruction code jzpfygw,f/ T0 qdkwmu timer &JU eHygwfjzpfygw,f/ K100 qdkwm
u Set value (SV) jzpfygw,f/
PLC xJu timer udk tcsdefudka&wGufcdkif;wJhae&mrSm oHk;&ygw,f/ Time counting
vkyfw,fvdkY ac:ygw,f/ K100 vdkY a&;xm;wmu tBudrf 100 txd a&wGufygvdkY 100
digits txd time counting vkyfcdkif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
tck program rSm X0 = ON jzpfrS T0 udk time counting vkyfyg? 100 digits txd
counting vkyfyg? vdkY cdkif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ 1 digit ajymif;zdkYMumwJhtcsdefudk Time Base vdYk
ac:ygw,f/ T0 &JU Time Base u 100ms jzpfygw,f/
X0 = ON jzpfwmeJY T0 [m K0 upNyD; K1, K2, K3, --- pojzifh wdk;wdk;NyD; count
vkyfoGm;ygw,f/ Set value jzpfwJY K100 a&mufawmhrS T0 [m ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ K1 to
K2, K2 to K3, - - - , K99 to K100 tJ'Dvdkajymif;zdkY digit 1ckcsif;pDtwGuf MumwJhtcsdefudk
Time Base vdkY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/ T0 &JU Time Base [m 100ms (100 rDvDpuefY) jzpfyg
w,f/ 'gaMumifh [TMR T0 K100] vdkY a&;xm;wm[m T0 udk 100ms aygif; 100 txd
a&wGufygvdkY cdkif;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
226
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

K100 vdkY a&;xm;wJhtwGuf T0 a&wGuf&rJh ta&twGufu 100 jzpfygw,f/ 1ck


a&wGufwdkif; MumwJhtcsdef Time Base u 100ms jzpfvdkY K100 qdkawmh pkpkaygif;a&wGufNyD;zdkY
Mumr,fhtcsdefu (Set Value x Time Base) = (K100 x 100ms) = 10000ms jzpfygw,f/
1000ms = 1s jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh 10000ms = 10s = 10 puefY jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh X0 = ON jzpfaewm 10s Mum&if T0 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
X0 = ON jzpfaewJhtcsdef[m 10s xd rMumbJ? 5s MumwJYtcg X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;&if
T0 [m ON rjzpf&ao;cif &yfwhHoGm;ygw,f/ Count vkyfNyD;om; 5s (K50) udkvnf; cancel
vkyf y,fzsufvdkufygw,f/ tJ'Dvdk cancel vkyfwmudk time accumulated value udk reset to
zero vkyfw,fvdkY ajymqdkMuygw,f/ aemuf 1Budrf X0 = ON jyefjzpfwJhtcg T0 [m zero
(K0) u jyefp NyD; time counting vkyfygw,f/
'D program rSm X0 = OFF jzpfwdkif; T0 [m reset jzpfygw,f/
'Dvdk timer rsdK;udk Non-retentive timer vdkY ac:ygw,f/
'D program udk IF [(X0 = ON)] THEN [(TMR T0 K100)] 'Dvdk jrifMunfhr,fqdk&if
t"dyg,fu [tu,f X0 [m ON jzpfcJh&if Timer number 0 udk 100 txd count vkyfyg] vdkY
ckdif;wm jzpfygw,f/
ydk&Sif;atmif ajym&&if X0 = ON jzpfrS T0 udk time counting vkyfyg vdkY cdkif;wmjzpfvdkY
X0 = OFF jzpf&if T0 udk time counting rvkyfygeJY vdkY cdkif;ap&mvnf; a&mufygw,f/
'D program rSm X0 udk T0 time counting vkyfzdkY owfrSwfay;xm;wJh tajctae
executing condition vdkY ac:ygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfrS T0 udk tvkyfvkyfckdif;xm;wm jzpfyg
w,f/
X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;&if T0 [m olvkyfaewJhtvkyfudk &yfqdkif;vdkufygw,f/ &yfqdkif;Hk
wifrubJ vkyfNyD;om; tvkyfawGudkyg cancel vkyf y,fzsufvkdufygw,f/ vkyfNyD;om; tvkyf
awGudk xdef;odrf;rxm;wJh twGuf Non-retentive vdkY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/

#1

#2
Timer Program Status-Time Diagram
yHkrSm Status-Time Diagram eJY 'Doabmudk ay:vGifatmif azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
yHkrSm PV qdkwm vuf&Sdwefbdk; Present Value jzpfygw,f/ yHkrSm SV qdkwm a&wGuf
&r,fY wefbdk; Set Value jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
227
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

'D
program udk a&;csif&if?
<Enter> acgufNyD; LD vdkY dkuf? <Space> 1csuf acguf? X0 vdkY dkufyg/ <Enter>
acgufyg/ NyD;&if TMR vdkY dkuf? <Space> 1csuf acguf? T0 vdkY dkuf? <Space>
1csuf acguf? K100 vdkY dkufxnfhNyD; <Enter> acgufyg/
#1
a&;xm;wJh program #1 &JU t"dyg,fu X0 = ON jzpfrS T0 udk time counting vkyfygvdkY
cdkif;xm;ygw,f/ tcsdefa&wGufNyD;om;*Pef; time counted value 100 jynfhrS T0 udk ON
vdkufygvdkY cdkif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/

#2
Program &JU 'kwd,pmaMumif; #2 udk a&;csif&if? <Enter> acgufNyD; LD vdkY dkuf? <Space>
1csuf acguf? T0 vdkY dkufyg/ <Enter> acgufyg/ NyD;&if OUT vdkY dkuf? <Space>
1csuf acguf? Y0 vdkY dkufNyD; <Enter> acgufyg/
WPLSoft rSm PLC type udk SS2 vdkY a&G;NyD; 'D program udk a&;yg/ Simulator udk ON
NyD; Write to PLC vkyfyg/ Online mode udk ON yg/ X0 ay: Cursor csNyD; right
click ESdyf Set On vkyfyg/
'DtcgrSm [TMR T0 K100] &JU tay:rSm K0 uae K100 txd *Pef;awG ajymif;ae
wmudk awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ K0 rSmyJ &yfae&if Task Bar rSm RUN qdkwJh tpdrf;a&mifpmvHk;&Sd?
r&Sd? udk Munfhyg/ STOP qdkwJh teDa&mifpmvHk;? ay:ae&if PLC udk RUN vkdufyg/ RUN qdkwJh
tpdrf;a&mifpmvHk;? ay:aeygvsufeJY K0 rSmyJ &yfwHhae&if Write to PLC xyfvkyfyg/
tcka&;jywJh tqifhawGudk rvkyfwwf&if pmrsufESm (137) uae (148) txd jyefzwf
Munfhyg/ yHkawGeJY &Sif;jyxm;ygw,f/
teDa&mif K0 uae K100 jzpfoGm;wJhtcg T0 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ Time counting
vkyfcdkif;wJh ta&twGuf (K100) jynfhoGm;vdkY Timer ON oGm;wmjzpfygw,f/ 'DtcsdefrSm X0
[m ON yJ qufjzpfaeayrJh time counting vkyfwmuawmh K100 rSmyJ &yfaeygw,f/
teDa&mif K100 qdkwmu accumulated value a&wGufNyD;om;wefbdk; time counted value
jzpfygw,f/
X0 udk Set Off vkyfNyD;? aemufwpfcg Set On vkyfMunfhyg/ 'Dwpfcgawmh 100 rjynfhcif
5s avmuftMumrSm X0 udk Set Off jyefvkyfvdkufyg/ Accumulated value awG 0 (zero)
jzpfoGm;wmudk awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ 'g[m Non-Retentive Timer &JU obm0 trltusifh
jzpfygw,f/ T0 [m Non-retentive timer trsdK;tpm; jzpfyg w,f/
T0 tpm; T250 udk ajymif;a&;NyD; prf;Munfhyg/ pmrsufESm 230 rSm yHkawGeJY &Sif;jyxm;yg
w,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
228
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

'D program &JU 'kwd,pmaMumif;udk IF [(T0 = ON)] THEN [(Y0 to be ON)] vdkY a&;xm;
wm jzpfygw,f/
t"dyg,fu T0 = ON jzpfrS Y0 = ON jzpfatmifvkyfygvdkY cdkif;wmjzpfygw,f/
DVP-14SS2-11R rSm WPLSoft eJY [TMR T0 K100] vdkY a&;wmudk CPM1A-20CDR rSm
CX-Programmer eJY a&;r,f qdk&if [TIM 000 #100] vdkY a&;&ygw,f/
CPM1A rSm time counting vkyfwmu #100 vdkY a&;xm;&if 100, 99, 98, - - -, 1, 0.
'Dvdk avsmhusoGm;NyD; 0 a&mufrS Timer TIM 000 [m ON jzpfygw,f/ Decrementing Timer
vdkY ac:ygw,f/ DVP-14SS2 xJrSm yg&SdwJh Timer awGu Incrementing Timer awG jzpfMuyg
w,f/
PLC xJ u Timer awG e J Y ywf o uf N yD ; od x m;&rJ h tcsuf a wG u awmh
(1) Retentive Timer eJY Non-retentive Timer udk cGJjcm;NyD; odxm;&ygr,f/
(2) Timer Number eJY Time Base udk wGJNyD; odxm;&ygr,f/
(3) Timer Function Code udk odxm;&ygr,f/
(4) Set Value eJY Accumulated Value udk tquftpyfeJYwuG odxm;&ygr,f/
'Dvdk em;vnfzdkY Delta Elecronics, Ltd. u xkwfwJh DVP-14SS2-11R qdkwJh PLC udk
tajcjyKNyD; a&;om;azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ SS2 xJrSm Timer b,fESpfrsdK; ygovJqdkwm od&
atmif OEM &JU Programming Manual xJu Memory Map udk atmufrSm azmfjyxm; yg
w,f/

tJ'DrSm awGU&wmu T0 to T126 txdeJY? T128 to T183 txdu Non-retentive Timer


awG jzpfMuNyD; olwdkY&JU Time Base u 100ms jzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
229
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

SS2 rSm xl;jcm;wmu T64 to T126 udk 'Dtwdkif;oHk;&if olY&JU time base u 100ms jzpfNyD;?
M1028 udk ON xm;NyD;rS oHk;&if olU&JU time base u 10ms jzpfygw,f/ M1028 [m special
bit jzpfygw,f/ T200 to T245 udk 'Dtwdkif;oHk;&if olY&JU time base u 10ms jzpfNyD;? M1038 udk
ON xm;NyD;rS oHk;&if olU&JU time base u 1ms jzpfygw,f/ M1038 vnf; special bit
yJjzpfygw,f/ Special bit qdkwm special code vkyfxm;wJh bit jzpfygw,f/
Retentive Timer awGxJrSm T240 to T245 txdu time base = 10ms jzpfNyD;? T246 to
T249 txdu time base = 1ms trsdK;tpm;jzpfygw,f/ T250 to T255 txdu time base =
100ms jzpfygw,f/
DVP-14SS2-11R2
Time Base Non-Retentive Timer Retentive Timer
T0 to T126,
100ms T250 to T255
T128 to T183
T200 to T239
10ms T64 to T126 T240 to T245
When M1028 = ON
T127 T246 to T249
1ms T200 to T239 T240 to T245
When M1038 = ON When M1038 = ON
yHkrSm &Sif;atmif trsdK;tpm;cGJjyxm;ygw,f/
Oyrm Delta PLC DVP-14SS2-11R2 rSm yg&SdwJh T250 [m Retentive Timer trsdK;
tpm; jzpfygw,f/

#1

#2

yHkrSm Retentive Timer tvkyfvkyfyHkudk azmfjyxm;ygw,f/


The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
230
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwdkif; program udk a&;xm;&if X0 = ON jzpfwmeJU T250 [m time


counting pwifvkyfygw,f/ X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;&if T250 [m time counting vkyfwm &yfqdkif;
vdkufayrJU Timer reset rjzpfygbl;/ X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;wJhtcsdefrSm &SdaewJh current value
(accumulated value) udk Latch vkyfxm;ygw,f/ xdef;xm;ygw,f/ aemufwpfBudrf X0 = ON
jyefjzpfwJhtcg tJ'D time counting vkyfNyD;om;ae&muae a&SUudk time counting qufNyD;
vkyfoGm; ygw,f/ Resume vkyfwJhoabm jzpfygw,f/ qdkvdkwmu X0 [m ON jzpfNyD; 5s
tMumrSm OFF jzpfoGm;cJh&if accumulated value [m 50 jzpfaeNyD; tJ'gudk xdef;xm; ygw,f/
aemufwpfBudrf X0 jyefNyD; ON jzpfwJhtcg tJ'D 50 u pNyD;? a&SUquf time counting vkyfoGm;
ygw,f/ X0 2cg ON wJh pkpkaygif;tcsdef 10s jynfh oGm;&if? accumulated value vnf; 100
jynfh? T250 vnf; ON wpfNydKifwnf; jzpfygw,f/
T250 = ON jzpfNyD;rS X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;&ifvnf; T250 [m ON qufjzpfaeygw,f/
PLC &JU supply power jywfawmufoGm;&ifvnf; Timer reset rjzpfygbl;/ PLC udk RUN
xm;&m uae STOP vkyfvkduf&ifvnf; Timer reset rjzpfygbl;/ Y0 om OFF jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh Retentive Timer udk toHk;jyKcJh&if RST qdkwJh reset vkyfcdkif;wJh instruction
code udk xnfhoHk;NyD; program udk a&;&ygw,f/

'Dprogram rSm a&;xm;wmu IF [(X0 is ON)] THEN [TMR T250 K100] vdkY jzpfyg
w,f/ X0 = ON jzpfrS T250 udk 100 txd time count vkyfygvdkY cdkif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
X0 = ON jzpfawmhrS T250 [m time counting p vkyNf yD; 10s Mum&if T250 = ON jzpf
oGm;ygw,f/ T250 = ON jzpfzdkYtwGuf 10s ausmfMumatmif X0 = ON jzpfaezdkYawmh vdkyg
w,f/
atmufpmaMumif;rSm a&;xm;wmu IF [(T250 is ON)] THEN [(Y0 to be ON)] vdkY
jzpfygw,f/ T250 = ON jzpfrS Y0 udk ON vkdufygvdkY cdkif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
T250 = ON jzpfNyD;wJhtcsdefrSm X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;&ifvnf; T250 uawmh qufNyD; ON
jzpfaeygw,f/ T250 udk OFF jzpfzdkYtwGuf RST qdkwJh instruction code udk oHk;NyD; reset vkyf
ay;&ygw,f/ yHkrSm X1 = ON jzpfrSom T250 reset jzpfNyD; T250 = OFF jzpfygw,f/ T250 reset
jzpfoGm;rS accumulated value vnf; 0 (zero) jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
231
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
atmufrSm toHk;0ifwJh erlem Timer program awGa&;NyD; &Sif;jyxm;ygw,f/
tJ'gawGuawmh
(1) ON-delay Timer Function
On-delay qdkwmu
Input = ON jzpfwJh
tcg Output u
OUT
csufcsif; ON rjzpf
ao;bJeJY owfrSwf
xm;wJh tcsdefjynfhrS ON jzpfwmudk ac:ygw,f/

ON-delay Timer Program

X0 = ON jzpfNyD; 10s aESmifYaES; MuefYMumrI


delay jzpfNyD;rS Y0 = ON jzpf vdkY ON-delay
Timer vdkY ac:wm jzpfygw,f/

ON-delay Non-retentive Timer


Time Chart

(2) OFF-delay Timer Function


OFF-delay qdkwmu
Input = ON jzpfwJh
tcg Output u csuf
csif; ON jzpfygw,f/
OUT Input = OFF jzpfoGm;
wJh tcg rSmawmh
Output u ON jzpfNyD;usefcJhygw,f/ owfrSwfxm;wJhtcsdef set value jynfhawmhrS Output u
OFF jzpfoGm;wmudk OFF-delay vdkU ac:wmjzpfygw,f/

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232
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

OFF-delay Timer Program


X0 = ON jzpf&if Y0 u csufcsif; ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = OFF jzpf&ifawmh 5s
aESmifhaES; MuefYMumrI delay jzpfNyD;rS Y0 = OFF jzpfvdkY OFF-delay Timer vdkY ac:wm
jzpfygw,f/

(3) ON/OFF-delay Timer Function


ON
IN ON/OFF-delay qdkwmu
OFF
Input = ON jzpfwJhtcgrSm Output
ON
OUT u aESmifhaES; MuefYMumrI delay
OFF
jzpfNyD;rS ON jzpfygw,f/
Input = OFF jzpfoGm;&ifvnf; Output u csufcsif; OFF rjzpfbJ delay jzpfNyD;rS OFF
jzpfygw,f/

ON/OFF-delay Timer Program ON/OFF-delay Status-Time Diagram


yHkrSmtJ'Dvdkjzpfatmif T5 eJY T6 udk oHk;NyD; program a&;jyxm;ygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfNyD;
5s aESmifhaES; MuefYMumrI delay jzpfNyD;rS Y4 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = OFF jzpfNyD; aESmifhaES;
MuefYMumrI delay 3s jzpfNyD;rS Y4 = OFF jzpfygw,f/ tJ'gudk ON/OFF-delay Timer vdkU
ac:wm jzpfygw,f/ ON-delay/OFF-delay Timer vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
T6 = ON jzpfaewJh umv[m tvGefwdkygw,f/ T6 [m 1 scan time yJ Mumjrifhatmif
ON jzpfaeNyD; Reset jyefjzpf oGm;ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh T6 = ON jzpfwJh taxmuftxm;udk

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OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
omrefrsufpdeJY rjrif? rawGUEdkifygbl;/ Y4 = OFF jzpfoGm;wmudk taMumif;jyKNyD;awmhom T6
[m ON jzpfcJhw,fqdkwmudk odEdkifygw,f/
'D program rSm Y4 udk ON cdkif;wmu T5 eJY jzpfygw,f/ Y4 udk OFF cdkif;wmu T6 eJY
jzpfygw,f/ Start/Stop program yHkpHyJ jzpfygw,f/ Y4 = ON jzpfaewHk; X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;rS
T6 [m time counting p vkyfygw,f/ Set value K30 (3s) jynfhoGm;rS T6 = ON jzpfoGm;yg
w,f/ Next Scan a&mufrS Y4 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ Y4 = OFF jzpfwmeJY wNydKifeuf T6
vnf; OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh Status-Time Diagram rSm T6 = ON jzpfwJhumvudk
T eJY azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ T u 1 scan time udk ajymwm jzpfygw,f/ 'D program udk
a&;NyD; prf;Munfh&if 1 scan time [m 0.3ms yJ Mumygw,f/

(4) Single Pulse Output (Single Shot Timer) Function


Input [m ON jzpfNyD;quf ON
ON jzpf ae&ifvnf; Output u 1
IN
OFF csufyJ ON jzpfwmrsdK;udk Single
ON pulse output vdkY ac:ygw,f/
OUT
OFF
Single Pulse Output Time Chart

Single Pulse Output Program


X0 = ON jzpf&if Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ Y0 = ON jzpfNyD; 5s MumwhJtcg X0 u
qufNyD; ON jzpfaeayrhJ Y0 u OFF jzpf oGm;vdkU Single Pulse Output vdkU ac:wm jzpfyg
w,f/ Single Shot Timer vdkUvnf; ac:ygw,f/

(5) Delayed Single Pulse Output Function


Input [m ON jzpfNyD;? quf ON jzpf
ON ae&ifvnf; Output u Delayed jzpfNyD;rS
IN
OFF 1csufyJ ON jzpfwmrsdK;udk Delayed Single
ON pulse output vdkY ac:ygw,f/
OUT
OFF
Delayed Single Pulse Output
Time Chart

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
234
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Delayed Single Pulse Output Program


X0 = ON jzpfNyD; 3s aESmifhaES;MuefUMumrI delay jzpfNyD;rS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ Y0 = ON
jzpfNyD; 2s MumwhJtcgrSm X0 u quf NyD; ON jzpfaeayrhJ Y0 u OFF jzpf oGm;vdkU Delayed
Single Pulse Output vdkU ac:wm jzpfygw,f/ Delayed Single Shot Timer vdkUvnf; ac:yg
w,f/
(6) Pulse Train Output Function (Flashing Output)

Pulse Train Output Program Pulse Train Output Status-Time Diagram


Pulse Train Output qdkwmu Input = ON jzpfwmeJY Output u ON vdkuf? OFF vdkuf?
jzpfaeygw,f/ ON-time eJY OFF-time udk rdrd&JU vdktyfcsuftwdkif; owfrSwfay;xm;vdkY
&ygw,f/ yHkrSm Kn1 eJY Kn2 qdkwm ON-time eJY OFF-time udk owfrSwfwJh wefzdk;t&Sif
variable awG jzpfMuygw,f/ n1 udk 20 xm;NyD; n2 udk 30 vdkY owfrSwfNyD;a&;cJh&if Kn1=K20
jzpfNyD;? ON time = 2s, Kn2=K30 jzpfNyD;? OFF time = 3s jzpfygw,f/
X0 u ON jzpfNyD;? T2 u OFF jzpfcJh&if T1 [m time counting pwif vkyfygw,f/ Set
value Kn1 jynfhoGm;rS T1 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ T1 = ON jzpf&if T2 [m time counting
pwif vkyfNyD; Set value Kn2 jynfhoGm;rS T2 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ T2 = ON jzpf&if T1 [m
reset (T1 = OFF) jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ T1 = OFF jzpf&if? T2 vnf; reset (T2 = OFF) jzpfoGm;yg
w,f/ X0 = ON jzpfNyD;? T1 = OFF jzpf&if Y1 [m ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfNyD; T1 =
ON jzpf&if Y1 [m OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
X0 u qufNyD; ON jzpfae&if (Kn1 x 100ms) Mumatmif Y0 = ON jzpfvdkuf (Kn2 x
100ms) Mumatmif Y0 = OFF jzpfvdkuf qufcg? qufcg? jzpfaeygw,f/ wu,fvdkU Kn1 u
K20 jzpfNyD;? Kn2 u K30 jzpfchJ&if? (K20 x 100ms = 2000ms) 2s Mumatmif Y0 = ON
jzpfvdkuf? (K30 x 100ms = 3000ms) 3s Mumatmif? Y0 = OFF jzpfvdkuf xyfcg? xyfcg?
qufwdkuf? jzpfaeygw,f/ 'Dvdkqufwdkuf? ON/OFF jzpfaevdkU Pulse Train Output vdkU
ac:wm jzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
235
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

(7) Timing Extension


Timing Extension qdkwmu Set value &JU tuefYtowf limit xuf ydkMumwJh tcsdefudk
time counting vkyfckdif;csif&if Timer awGudk cascade csdwfqufNyD; time counting vkyfckdif;
wmudk timing extension vdkU ac:wmjzpfygw,f/

Timer &JU Set value [m tuefYtowf&Sd ygw,f/ DVP-14SS2-11R2 qdkwJh PLC rSm Set
Value udk K1 to K32767 txdyJ a&;vdkY &ygw,f/ 100ms time base &SdwJh T0 udk oHk;r,fqdk&if
3276.7s (54minutes and 36.7seconds) txdom time counting vkyfckdif;vdkY &ygw,f/
tJ'Dxuf ydkMumwJh tcsdefudk time counting vkyfckdif;csif&if Timer awGudk cascade csdwfquf
NyD; oHk;&ygw,f/
Oyrm X0= ON jzpfNyD; 1 em&D 10 rdepfMumrS Output Y1 udk ON jzpfapcsif&if
Kn1 = 30000, Kn2 = 12000, xm;NyD;
IF [(X0 = ON)] THEN [TMR T11 K30000] eJY IF [(T11 = ON)] THEN [TMR T12 K12000] vdkY
a&;&ygw,f/
K30000 u 3000s = 50 minutes jzpfygw,f/ K12000 u 1200s = 20 minutes jzpfyg
w,f/ pkpkaygif; MumjrifhwJh tcsdefumv [m (n1 = 50 minutes) + (n2 = 20 minutes) jzpfwJh
twGuf 1Hr 10Min jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
Programa&;enf;? prf;Munfhenf;udk pmrsufESm (137) rSm tao;pdyf azmfjyxm;yg
w,f/
Timer awG[m 16 bits &SdwJh Word Device awGjzpfMuygw,f/ Timer &JU Set Value udk
K100 vdkY a&;xm;&if 100 vdkY decimal value eJU a&;xm;wmjzpfNyD; 100 txd time counting
vkyfckdif;wm jzpfygw,f/

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236
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

tcef; (16) Program Summary


#1
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = ON jzpfrS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = OFF jzpf&if Y0 = OFF
jzpfygw,f/ tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter OUT Y0 Enter ESdyf yg/

#2
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X1 = OFF jzpfrS Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpf&if Y1 = OFF
jzpfygw,f/ tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDI X1 Enter OUT Y1 Enter ESdyf yg/

eJY wkdY[m Input Instruction awG jzpfMuygw,f/


eJY wkdY[m Output Instruction awG jzpfMuygw,f/
Input Instruction awGukd Examining Instruction vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Output Instruction awGukd Executing Instruction vkdY ac:ygw,f/

[m X0 = ON jzpf&if True jzpfNyD; X0 = OFF jzpf&if False jzpfygw,f/

[m X1 = OFF jzpf&if True jzpfNyD; X1 = ON jzpf&if False jzpfygw,f/


Input Instruction u True jzpfrS Output Instruction ukd Execute vkyfygw,f/

Oyrm?
#3
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = ON jzpfrS Timer T0 ukd execute vkyNf yD; time counted value =
50 jzpfoGm;rS T0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter TMR T0 K50 Enter ESdyf yg/

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237
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

#4
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X1 = OFF jzpfrS Timer T0 ukd execute vkyfNyD; time counted value =
50 jzpfoGm;rS T0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDI X1 Enter TMR T0 K50 Enter ESdyf yg/

#5
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X1 = ON to OFF 1cg jzpfwkdif; counter C0 u 1 digit count up
vkyfNyD; counted value = 10 jzpfoGm;rS C0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDI
X1 Enter CNT C0 K10 Enter ESdyf yg/

#6
vkdY a&;xm;&if X2 = ON jzpfaeoa&GU? scan wkdif;? scan wkdif;? C1 &JU set value (SV)
xJukd K20 a&;xnfhay;aeygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X2 Enter MOV K20 C1 Enter ESdyf yg/

#7
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&ifawmh X2 = OFF to ON jzpfwdkif; C1 &JU set value (SV) xJukd K20
a&;xnfhay;ygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDP X2 Enter MOV K20 C1 Enter ESdyf yg/

#8
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&ifawmh X2 = ON to OFF jzpfrS C1 &JU set value (SV) xJukd K20 a&;
xnfhay;ygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDF X2 Enter MOV K20 C1 Enter ESdyf yg/
#9

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238
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = OFF to ON 1cg jzpfwdkif; D0 xJudk 1 wdk;rSwfNyD;? X1 = OFF to


ON 1cg jzpfwdkif;? D0 xJu 1 avsmhrSwfygw,f/
D0 xJu wefzdk; eJU 12 eJU nDrS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
D0 xJu wefzdk; eJU 15 eJU nDrS Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDP X0 Enter INC D0 Enter LDP X1 Enter
DEC D0 Enter LD= D0 K12 Enter OUT Y0 Enter LD= D0 K15
Enter OUT Y1 Enter ESdyf yg/

#10
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if D0 xJu wefzdk; value [m 5 eJU nDrS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD= D0 K5 Enter OUT Y0 Enter ESdyf yg/

#11
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&ifawmh D0 xJu wefzdk;u 5 xufBuD;rS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD> D0 K5 Enter OUT Y0 Enter ESdyf yg/

#12
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&ifawmh D0 xJu wefzdk;u 5 xufi,frS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD< D0 K5 Enter OUT Y0 Enter ESdyf yg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
239
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

#13
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter CMP K7 C0 Y0 Enter ESdyf yg/
X0 = ON jzpfae&if 7 eJY? counter C0 xJu count vkyfNyD;om;wefzdk; counted value eJY? ukd
scan wkdif;? EdIif;,SOfrI compare vkyfNyD;? C0 xJu count vkyfNyD;om;wefzdk;xuf 7 u BuD;&if Y0
= ON jzpfygw,f/ C0 xJu count vkyfNyD;om;wefzdk;eJY? 7 eJY? nD&if Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/ C0
xJu count vkyfNyD;om;wefzdk;xuf 7 u i,f&if Y2 = ON jzpfygw,f/

'Dvkd a&;xm;&if?
S 1 (Source 1) xJuwefzdk; eJY? S 2 (Source 2) xJuwefzdk; wkdYukd EdIif;,SOfvkdY&wJh Result
uawmY? yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif;? S 1 u BuD;&if D (Destination) u ON jzpfNyD;? S 1 eJY S 2 nD&if
D+1 u ON jzpfygw,f/ S 1 u i,f&if D+2 u ON jzpfygw,f/

#14
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = OFF to ON jzpfrS first scan om M0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
aemufwenf;ajym&&if X0 = OFF to ON jzpfaeckduf rSmom M0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter PLS M0 Enter ESdyf yg/

#15
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = ON to OFF jzpfrS M0 u one scan time Mumatmif ON
jzpfygw,f/ aemufwenf;ajym&&if X0 = ON to OFF jzpfaeckduf rSmom M0 = ON
jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
240
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

#16
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = ON to OFF jzpfrS one scan time Mumatmif M0 = ON jzpfyg
w,f/ aemufwenf;ajym&&if X0 = ON to OFF jzpfaeckduf rSmom M0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter PLF M0 Enter ESdyf yg/

#17
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = OFF to ON jzpfrS one scan rQom M0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
aemufwenf;ajym&&if X0 = OFF to ON jzpfaeckduf rSmom M0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDI X0 Enter PLF M0 Enter ESdyf yg/
#18
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = OFF to ON jzpfaeckduf one scan rQom Y10 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDP X0 Enter OUT Y10 Enter ESdyf yg/
#19
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = OFF to ON jzpfrS one scan rQom Y10 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter PLS Y10 Enter ESdyf yg/

Program #17, #18 eJY #19 wdkY&JU result u twlwlyJjzpfygw,f/

#20
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X1 = ON to OFF jzpfrS one scan rQom M1 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDF X1 Enter OUT M1 Enter ESdyf yg/
#21

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X1 = ON to OFF jzpfrS one scan rQom M1 = ON jzpfygw,f/


tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X1 Enter PLF M1 Enter ESdyf yg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
241
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

Program #20 eJY #21 &JU result u twlwlyJjzpfygw,f/

#22
#23
#24

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
242
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef
yHkrSmjyxm;ovdk program ukd a&;xm;cJh&if
#22 X0 = OFF to ON jzpfNyD; first scan rSmom Y10 = ON jzpfygw,f/
#23 X1 vnf; ON jzpfae&r,f/ X2 vnf; OFF to ON jzpf&r,f/ tJ'DESpfrsdK; NydKifwl
jzpfaeckduf rSmom Y11 = ON jzpfygw,f/
#24 (X3 or X4) = OFF to ON jzpfaeckduf rSmom Y12 = ON jzpfygw,f/

#25
tJ'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDP X0 Enter ALT Y10 Enter ESdyf yg/

ALT qdkwm &SdNyD;om; tajctaeudkajymif;jyef vkyfwm alternate state jzpfygw,f/


Examining condition = True jzpfwdkif; ALT udk execute vkyfygw,f/

#26

#27
vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if
#26 X0 = OFF to ON jzpfrS Y10 = ON jzpfwm one scan rQom Mumygw,f/
#27 X1 = ON to OFF jzpfrS Y11 = ON jzpfwm one scan rQom Mumygw,f/


Input Instruction = False to True jzpf a eck d u frSmom PLS ukd execute vkyfygw,f/
Input Instruction = True to False jzpf a eck d u f rS m om PLF uk d execute vk y f y gw,f /

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
243
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

#28

Operation is as follows with a program like the one shown above.

Program ukd #28 rSm jyxm;ovdk a&;cJh&if? X0 wpfckwnf; OFF to ON jzpfrSom Y0 u


1scan time Mumatmif ON jzpfygw,f/ X1 wpfckwnf; OFF to ON jzpf&ifvnf; Y0 u 1scan
time Mumatmif ON jzpfygw,f/ 'gayrJh X0 = ON jzpfaecsdefrSm X1 = OFF to ON jzpf&if? Y0
u 1scan time Mumatmif ON rjzpfawmhygbl;/ X1 = ON jzpfaecsdefrSm X0 = OFF to ON
jzpf&ifvnf;? Y0 u 1scan time Mumatmif ON rjzpfawmhygbl;/
Please use a program as follows when Y0 is turned on at the rise of either X0 or X1.

#29

Using a differential instruction makes it easier to adjust a program.

Program ukd #29 rSm jyxm;ovdk a&;xm;&ifawmh X0 = OFF to ON jzpf&if? 'grSr[kwf


X1 = OFF to ON jzpf&if? Y0 u 1scan time Mumatmif ON jzpfygw,f/ X1 = ON
jzpfaecsdefrSm X0 = OFF to ON jzpf&ifvnf;? Y0 u 1scan time Mumatmif ON jzpfygw,f/
X0 = ON jzpfaecsdefrSm X1 = OFF to ON jzpf&ifvnf;? Y0 u 1scan time Mumatmif ON
jzpfygw,f/

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#30

Explanation of example

yHk #30 rSmjyxm;ovdk program ukd a&;xm;cJh&if


X0 vnf; ON jzpfae&r,f? X1 u vnf; ON jzpf&r,f? tJ'DESpfrsdK; NydKifwljzpfaerSom
Y10 = ON jzpfygw,f/
X0 vnf; ON jzpfae&r,f? X2 u vnf; ON jzpf&r,f? tJ'DESpfrsdK; NydKifwljzpfaerSom
Y11 = ON jzpfygw,f/
X0 vnf; ON jzpfae&r,f? X3 u vnf; OFF jzpf&r,f? tJ'DESpfrsdK; NydKifwljzpfaerSom
Y12 = ON jzpfygw,f/

#31

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Description
The SET instruction executes when the trigger is turned on. Output turns on and holds on
even if the triggers state changes.
The RST instruction executes when the trigger is turned on. Output coil turns off and stays
off even if the triggers state changes.
yHk
#31 rSmjyxm;ovdk program ukd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter SET Y30
Enter LD X1 Enter RST Y30 Enter ESdyf yg/
X0 = ON jzpf&if Y30 = ON jzpfoGm;NyD; X0 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;&ifvnf; Y30 u ON jzpf
usefcJhygw,f/ X1 = ON jzpfrS Y30 u OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/ X1 = ON qufjzpfaecdkufrSm
X0 = ON jzpfayrJhvnf; Y30 u ON r jzpfygbl;/ yHk #31 rSmvdk program udk a&;xm;&if
Reset-dominant jzpfygw,f/ Set-dominant jzpfcsif&if RST Y30 udk tay:rSma&;NyD;rS SET
Y30 udk atmufrSm a&;&ygw,f/ pmrsufESm 249 rSmvnf; &Sif;jyxm;ygw,f/

#32

yHk #32 rSmjyxm;ovdk program ukd a&;xm;cJh&if? X1 = ON jzpfrS C100 udk reset vkyfyg/
X0 wpfBudrf ON jzpfwdkif; count up wpfcg vkyfyg? 10Budrf txd vkyfygvdkY C100 udk cdkif;xm;
wm jzpfygw,f/
X0 = OFF to ON wpfBudrfjzpfwkdif; Counter C100 u count-up wpfcg vkyfygw,f/
Count vkyfwm 10Budrf jynhfwJhtcg C100 = ON jzpfygw,f/ C100 = ON jzpfrS Y31 [m ON
jzpfygw,f/ X1 udk ON vdkufvdkY Counter reset jzpfawmhrS C100 a&m Y31 yg OFF jzpf oGm;yg
w,f/

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#33 An oscillating circuit with cycle nT+T

X0 = ON jzpfwm (n * 0.1) sec MumwJhtcg? T0 = ON jzpfoGm;NyD;? Y1 vnf; ON


jzpfygw,f/ Y1 = ON jzpfvkdY T0 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/ T0 = ON jzpfaewm 1-scan time
T yJ Mumygw,f/ Y1 = ON jzpfwm (n * 0.1) sec Mumygw,f/ Y1 = OFF jzpfwm 1-scan
time Mumygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfaeoa&GU Y1 u ON vdkuf? OFF vdkufeJY oscillate jzpfaeyg
w,f/

#34 Flashing Circuit

(n1 * 0.1) sec Mumatmif Y1 = ON jzpfvkduf? (n2 * 0.1) sec Mumatmif Y1 = OFF jzpf
vkduf? eJU X0 = ON jzpfaeoa&G hoscillate jzpfaeygw,f/

#35 Flip-Flop Circuit

X0 = OFF to ON jzpfrS Y1 = ON jzpfoGm;NyD;? X0 = OFF to ON aemuf 1cg? xyfjzpfrS


Y1 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/ X0 aemuf 1cg OFF to ON xyfjzpfrS Y1 jyef ON ygw,f/
Toggle output vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
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#36 ON/OFF delay circuit

X0 = ON jzpfaewm 5 sec MumawmhrS Y4 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;NyD; 3 sec


MumawmhrS Y4 = OFF jyefjzpfygw,f/ T6 = ON jzpfaewJh tcsdef[m 1-scan time yJ? Mumyg
w,f/

#37 Timing extension circuit

X0 = ON jzpfoGm;NyD; (n1 x T) sec MumrS


T11 = ON jzpfygw,f/

T11 = ON jzpfoGm;NyD; (n2 x T) sec MumrS


T12 = ON jzpfygw,f/

'gaMumifh X0 = ON jzpfoGm;NyD;
(n1 x T) sec + (n2 x T) sec MumrS
Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/
Timer resolution: T qdkwmu
Time Base udk ajymwm jzpfygw,f/
'DtaMumif;udk pmrsufESm 235 rSm
&Sif;jy xm;ygw,f/

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#38 Counting Range Extension Circuit

The counting range of a 16-bit counter is 0 ~ 32,767. The above circuit uses two
counters to increase the counting range as n1*n2. When value in counter C6 reaches n2, the
pulses counted from X13 will be n1 * n2.
X13 = OFF to ON jzpfwm? tBudrf n1 jynhfrS C5 = ON jzpfNyD; C6 udk 1Budrf count up
vkyfygw,f/ C6 udk 1Budrf count up vkyfNyD;rS C5 udk reset vkyfvkdufvkdY C5 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;
ygw,f/ C5 = OFF to ON jzpfwJhtBudrf n2 jynhfrS C6 = ON jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh C6 = ON
jzpfzdkY X13 = OFF to ON tBudrfaygif; (n1 * n2) jzpf&ygw,f/

#39 Set-dominant and Reset-dominant program

#39
Reset dominant program Set dominant program
Stop first qdkwmu Reset-dominant udk ajymwm jzpfygw,f/ X1 eYJ X2 wkdY NydKifwl ON
jzpfcJh&if Y1 = OFF jzpfygw,f/
Start first qdkwmu Set-dominant udk ajymwm jzpfygw,f/ X1 eYJ X2 wkdY NydKifwl ON
jzpfcJh&if Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/

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#40 Retentive program


M512 [m retentive memory bit jzpfygw,f/ M512 udk latched memory bit vdkYvnf;
ac:ygw,f/ PLC udk RUN to STOP yJ vkyf? vkyf? Power udkyJ jzwf? jzwf? M512 [m &dS&if;pGJ
tajctaetwdkif; quf&dSaeygw,f/ qdkvdkwmu M512 [m ON NyD;om;? jzpfae&if quf
ON aeNyD;? OFF NyD;om;? jzpfae&ifvnf;? qufNyD; OFF jzpfaeygw,f/

#41 Sequence control Circuit


Y1 u t&if ON jzpfaerSom? Y2 udk ON vkdY&ygw,f/ Y1 = OFF jzpfoGm;&if Y2 yg OFF
jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ Output ESpfckudk tpOftwdkif;? wpfck ON NyD;rS aemufwpfckudk ON csifwJh
tcgrSm oHk;avY&Sdygw,f/

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#42Interlocking Circuit


Y1 = ON t&ifjzpfae&if? X2 = ON jzpfayrJh? Y2 u ON rjzpfygbl;/ Y2 u t&if ON
jzpf ae&ifvnf;? X1 = ON jzpfayrJh? Y1 u ON rjzpfygbl;/ Y1 eYJ Y2 Output 2ck OD;pm;ay;
r&dSyJ? NydKifwl ON rjzpfapcsif&if program udk txufrSmvdk a&;&ygw,f/
X0 Y1
#1 Y0
()
X0
#2 Y1
()

Y0 Y2
Y2
()
#3
Y0 Y2

yHkrSmjyxm;ovdk program ukd a&;xm;cJh&if


Y0 Y1 Y2
X0 = OFF OFF OFF OFF
X0 = ON
1st scan ON ON ON
2nd scan OFF ON ON
3rd scan OFF ON ON
X0 = OFF
1st scan OFF OFF ON
2nd scan OFF OFF ON
3rd scan OFF OFF ON
X0 = ON
1st scan ON ON OFF
2nd scan OFF ON OFF
3rd scan OFF ON OFF jzpfygw,f/
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WPLSoft Version 2.20.07 keyboard shortcuts


< Ctrl > + < F9 > = Compile (Convert)
< Ctrl > + < D > = Delete Vertical Line
< Ctrl > + < U > = Read from PLC
< Ctrl > + < T > = Write to PLC
< Ctrl > + < F7 > = PLC to STOP
< Ctrl > + < F8 > = PLC to RUN
< Ctrl > + < Alt > + < O > = Online Mode (Toggle)
< Ctrl > + < F > = Find/Replace

< F1 > = Examine ON instruction

< F2 > = Examine OFF instruction


< F7 > = -----( ) Output Coil instruction
< F6 > = -----[ ] Application instruction

< F3 > = Examine Rising Edge instruction

< F4 > = Examine Falling Edge instruction

< F8 > = Horizontal line

< F9 > = Vertical line

< F11 > = Invert Operation Result instruction

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tcef; (17) Periodic Inspection and Preventive Maintenance

The PLC requires regular inspection and maintenance for proper operation. The following
items should be checked every six months.

Test
Item What to Check Criteria
Equipment
Does the voltage
measured within the Voltage must fall within
Supplied
power terminal fall the power module input Voltmeter
Power
within the specified voltage specifications.
range?
Does the temperature fall
within the specified 0 to 55C (32 to 131F) Thermometer
range?
Does the humidity fall
Environment Humidity levels below
within the specified Hygrometer
20% RH.
range?
Is there any dust Present? No dust. Visual
Does the control voltage Control voltage must fall
supplied to the I/O within the input and
I/O Power Voltmeter
modules fall within the output modules
specified limit? specifications.
Are all of the modules
Module secure?
Mounting Is the connection cable All should be firmly
Screwdriver
and secure? secured.
Wiring Is the external wiring
screw loose?

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PLC System Maintenance


pufvnfywfrI tjrJwrf; aumif;rGefaeap&eftwGuf jyKjyifxdef;odrf;wJh tvkyfawGukd
tcsdefrSef aqmif&GufzkdY vkdtyfygw,f/ PLC ukd wyfqif toHk;jyKxm;wJh ywf0ef;usif&JU
tajctaeay:rlwnfNyD;? 1v 1Budrf? 6v 1Budrf? 1ESpf 1Budrf? pojzifh maintenance
vkyf&r,fhumvukd tawGUtBuHKay:rlwnfNyD;? tusdK;aus;Zl; jzpfxGef;atmif owfrSwfMu&yg
w,f/
PLC ukd pufHk? tvkyfHkawGrSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKzkdY &nf&G,f wnfaqmufxm;wmjzpfayrJh?
maintenance ukd tywfpOf? vpOf? ykHrSefaqmif&GufoGm;r,fqkd&if? pufysufvdkY&yf&wmrsdK;
down time ukd ododomom avsmhenf;apygw,f/
1/ PLC ukd trIHawG r0ifEdkifatmif dust proof tjzpf wnfaqmufxm;wm r[kwfvkdY
control panel, control desk, control cabinet, p wm awGxJrSm wyfqifwJhtcg? av0if
avxGuf vrf;aMumif;rSm filter wyfqifxm;cJh&if? tJ'D filter ukd tcsdefrSefrSef
aq;aMum oefUpifay;yg/
2/ PLC xJukd trIHawG 0ifpkaecJh&if? a&aiGUpdkxkdif;rIaMumifh vQyfppfpD;aMumif; jzpfay:
apNyD; csdKU,Gif;rI jzpfapwwfvkdY PLC ay:rSm zkHawG? trIHawG? r&Sdatmif zkHpkyfpuf
vacuum cleaner ukd tokH;jyKNyD;? oefU&Sif;a&; jyKvkyfay;yg/
3/ wkefcgrI vibration &SdwJh ae&mrSm PLC ukd wyfqifxm;cJh&if? PLC txkdif ckdif? rckdif? eJY
wire terminal awG acsmif? racsmifukd vpOf? ykHrSefppfaq;yg/
tJ'Dvkd ykHrSefppfaq;rI tenf;i,fukd *kwpkduftcsdefrSef aqmif&Gufay;wJhtwGuf
tusdK;aus;Zl; trsm;BuD;ukd jzpfxGef;apygw,f/

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Troubleshooting the PLC Input Interface


PLC rSm input LED awGyg&SdwJhtwGuf input sensor awG aumif;? raumif;? eJY PLC xJu
input interface aumif;? raumif;? udk tvG,fwul ppfaq; Munhf&I Edkifygw,f/
owdjyK&rSmu PLC wdkif;rSm RUN/STOP switch ygwmr[kwfvdkY? RUN/STOP switch
rygwJh PLC trsdK;tpm; jzpfaecJh&if? RUN condition uae STOP condition udk ajymif;zdkY
tcufBuKH&wwfygw,f/ PLC udk power ydwf vkduf&if tckaz:jyr,fY prf;oyfenf;udk vkyfvkdY
r&awmYygbl;/ 'gaMumifY PLC udk power ay; xm;&ygr,f/ 'DtcgrSm PLC [m RUN ae&if?
input awGudk ON vkduf? OFF vkduf? vkyfwJhtcg oufqdkif&m output awGuyg ON vkduf? OFF
vkduf? jzpfNyD; pufvnfrSmjzpfwJhtwGuf vl eJY puftE&m,f rjzpfatmif txl;owdjyK&rSm
jzpfygw,f/
omreftajctaerSm PLC ay:u RUN LED rD;vif;ae&if? input awGudk ON/OFF vkH;0
rvkyf&ygbl;/ tckaz:jyr,fY prf;oyfenf;udk PLC vkH;0tvkyf rvkyfawmYwJh tcgrSom
prf;oyf vkyfudkif&rSm jzpfygw,f/
vla&mpufyg ab;uif;apzdkY output terminal rSm qufoG,fxm;wJh wire tm;vkH;udk
jzKwfxm;&ygr,f/
'DvkdjzKwfwJhtcg PLC udk power t&if ydwf&ygr,f/ NyD;&if output terminal awGrSm
voltage &Sd? r&Sd? udk voltmeter eJY wdkif;Munhfyg/ Voltage r&SdrS? wire awGudk rSwfom;NyD;
aqmif&GufwJhol ab;uif;atmif jzKwfxm;&ygr,f/ Terminal block type jzpfaecJh&if? tJ'D
terminal block udk jzKwfvkduf&if? tcsdefukefoufomygw,f/
qdkvkdwmu PLC udk power ay;vkduf&if? RUN rD; tNrJvif;aewwfwJh PLC twGuf
output terminal rSm bm wire rQ r&SdwJhtcgrSom tckaz:jywJhPLC &JU input interface
aumif;? raumif;? prf;oyfenf; udk vkyf&rSm jzpfygw,f/
PLC udk power ay;xm;ayrJhvnf; RUN rD; rvif;atmif vkyfvkdY&wJh PLC rSm
RUN/STOP switch udk awGUatmif&Smyg/ NyD;&if? STOP position rSmxm;NyD; RUN rD;? Nidrf;?
rNidrf;? aocsmatmifMunhfyg/ RUN/STOP switch udk STOP rSm xm;NyD; RUN rD; rvif;
wJhtcgrSom tckaz:jywJhPLC &JU input interface aumif;? raumif;? prf;oyfenf; udk
vkyf&rSm jzpfygw,f/

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PLC &J U input interface aumif ; ? raumif;? prf;oyfenf;/


1/ Input sensor wpfckcsif;pD udk activate/de-activate vkyfyg/ 'Dvkd vkyfvkdufwJhtcg PLC rSm
&SdwJh oufqdkif&m input status LED awG vif;vkduf? rSdwfvkduf? jzpf&ygr,f/ (Oyrm? Input
terminal X0 rSmqufoG,fwyfqifxm;wJh sensor udk activate/de-activate vkyfvkduf&if
PLC ay:u LED X0 [m vif;vkduf? rSdwfvkduf? jzpf&ygr,f/)
2/ tJ'Dvkd input LED [m vif;vkduf? rSdwfvkduf? jzpfaecJh&if? input sensor a&m? PLC xJrSm
&dSwJh input ykdif;yg? ESpfckpvkH; aumif;aevkdYjzpfygw,f/
3/ wu,fvkdY X5 rSmqufoG,fwyfqifxm;wJh sensor udk activate/de-activate vkyfayrJh LED
X5 uajymif;vJrIr&SdcJh&if? sensor aomfif;? PLC &J h input ykdif; aomfif;? csdKU,Gif;aewm
jzpfEdkifygw,f/
4/ 'gaMumifh uJGuJGjym;jym; cJGjcm;od&zdkYtwGuf X5 rSmqufxm;wJh wire udk jzKwfvkdufyg/ tJ'D
X5 rSm wire topf? twdk wpfacsmif; cequfxm;yg/ NyD;&if X6 LED rD; vif;atmif X6
&JU terminal rSm qufxm;wJh sensor udk activate vkyfyg/
5/ X6 LED rD; vif;vmwJhtcgapmapmu X5 rSm qufxm;wJh wire twdkpeJY X6 &JU terminal
udk xday;vkdufyg/ 'DtcgrSm X6 LED a&m? X5 LED yg? rD;vif;vmcJh&if? PLC &JU input
interface aumif;vkdY jzpfygw,f/
6/ txufygtwdkif; prf;oyfMunhfvkdY X5 LED rD;vif;vmwmudk jrif&&if? X5 &JU terminal rSm
qufxm; wJh sensor eJY wiring ykdif;udk ppfaq;yg/
7/ txufygtwdkif; prf;oyfMunhfvkdY X5 LED rD; rvif;cJh&if? PLC xJucsdKU,Gif;aewm
jzpfygw,f/
rSwfcsuf/ / X5 wkdY? X6 wkdY? qdkwmu PLC &JU input terminal ukd OyrmtaeeJY trnfwwf
ajymwm jzpfygw,f/ X5 [m jypfcsuf&SdwJh input terminal jzpfchJNyD;? X6 [m
jypfcsufuif;wJh input terminal jzpfcJh&ifvdkY t"dyg,f aumuf,lyg/

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Troubleshooting the PLC Output Interface


PLC &JU output ykdif; output interface aumif;? raumif;? udk prf;oyfr,fqdk&if? PLC xJrSm
a&;xnhfxm;wJh program udk aumif;pGmt"dyg,f az:wwfrSom prf;oyfvkdY&ygw,f/ 'Dvkd
r[kwfcJh&if? output udk ON atmif b,fvdk vkyf&r,fqdkwmudk odrSmr[kwfygbl;/
tckaz:jyrSmuawmh PLC &JU output LED rD;vif; aeNyD; tJ'D output terminal eJY
qufoG,fxm;wJh device awG tvkyfrvkyf wJhtcg tjypf&SmazGwJhenf; jzpfygw,f/
PLC &J U output interface aumif ; ? raumif;? prf;oyfenf;/
Output terminal rSm qufoG,fxm;wJh wire tm;vkH;udk jzKwf xm;&ygr,f/
1/ yxrOD;pGm odxm;&rSmu PLC &JU output type jzpfygw,f/ Contact output vm;?
Transitor output vm;? qdkwmudk OD;pGmcJGjcm;NyD; odatmifvkyfxm;&ygr,f/
2/ Contact output jzpfcJh&if? output LED rD;vif; aewJhtcsdef output ikwf eJY common
ikwfMum;rSm Ohmmeter eJY wdkif;Munfhyg/ 10 ohm xufykdrsm;ae&if? output interface
ysufwm jzpfygw,f/
3/ Transistor output jzpfcJh&if? diode wkdif;wJhenf;udk toHk;jyK&rSm jzpfygw,f/
4/ Output LED rD;vif; aewJhtcsdefrSm output ikwf eJY common ikwfMum;udk diode
function test vkyfMunhfwJhtcg? Forward voltage drop [m 0.6V xuf rykd&if? tJ'D
output transistor aumif;ygw,f/
rsm;aomtm;jzifh output interface ysufwmu enf;yg;NyD;? output device ysufwmu
tjzpfrsm; ygw,f/ txufygtwdkif; prf;oyfMunfhvdkY output interface aumif;aeNyD; Output
LED rD;vif; aevsufom;eJY PLC eJY qufoG,fxm;wJh output device awG tvkyfrvkyfwm
qdk&if? tJ'D output terminal rSm qufoG,fxm;wJh actuator eJY wiring ykdif;udk ppfaq;yg/
PLC eJY control vkyfwJh system awGrSm csdKU,Gif;rI jzpfcJh&if? PLC xJu ysufpD;vkdY csdKU,Gif;
wmu 5% yJ jzpfwwfNyD;? PLC &JU jyify u field devices awGysufpD;vkdY csdKU,Gif;wmu 95%
jzpfwwfygw,f/
PLC xJuysufpD;rI 5% xJrSm PLC &JU I/O ykdif;ysufpD;vkdY csdKU,Gif;wmu 90% jzpfwwfNyD;?
CPU ysufpD;vkdY csdKU,Gif;wmu 10% yJjzpfwwfygw,f/

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Preventing PLC System Malfunctions


1. Use an isolation transformer and line filter on the incoming power to the PLC when
in the vicinity of equipment using or producing high current, high voltage, or large
magnetic fields.
2. Separate the main PLC power line ground from all other power grounds. Always use
triple grounding.
3. Do not exceed the current and power rating of the external 24 VDC provided by the
clean power supply.
4. Avoid system faults due to programming errors by reading and fully understanding
PLC system manual and the PLC instruction set.
5. Perform regular preventive maintenance on installed systems, checking devices and
wiring for potential breakdowns and failures.

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Terminology
This section introduces some terminology you should know.
address. (1) The location in a computers memory where particular information is stored.
(2) The alphanumeric value used to identify a specific I/O rack, module group, and
terminal location.
analog signal. A continuous signal that changes smoothly over a given range, rather than
switching suddenly between certain levels as discrete signals do.
AND. A logical operator that requires all input conditions to be logic 1 for the output to be
logic 1. If any input is logic 0, then the output will be logic 0.
arithmetic instructions. Computer programming codes that give a PLC the ability to
perform mathematical functions, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division,
and square root, on data.
ASCII code. (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) A standard computer
code used to facilitate the interchange of information among various types of data-
processing equipment.

backplane. A base to which Units are mounted to form a Rack. Backplanes provide a series
of connectors for these Units along with wiring to connect them to the CPU and Power
Supply. Backplanes also provide connectors used to connect them to other Backplanes.
In some Systems, different Backplanes are used for different Racks; in other Systems,
Racks differ only by the Units mounted to them.
backup. A device or system that is kept on hand to replace a device or system that fails.
battery backup. A battery or set of batteries that will provide power to the processors
memory in the event of a power outage.
baud rate. Transfer speed between two devices in a system measured in bits per second.
binary coded decimal (BCD). A binary number system in which each decimal digit from 0
to 9 is represented by four binary digits (bits). The four positions have a weighted value
of 1, 2, 4, and 8, respectively, starting from the least significant (right-most) bit.
Conversion of BCD values can be done in hexadecimal calculations. For example, the
BCD representation of decimal 27 would be two sets of 4 bits: 0010 0111.
binary number system. A base 2 number system that uses only the numbers 0 and 1 to
express all values. Each digit position of a binary number has a weighted value of 1, 2,
4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and so on, starting with the least significant (right-most) digit.
bit. For binary digit. The smallest piece of information that can be represented on a
computer. A bit has the value of either zero or one, corresponding to the electrical
signals ON and OFF. A bit is one binary digit.

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Boolean operators. Logical operators, such as AND, OR, NAND, NOR, NOT, and
exclusive-OR, that can be used singly or in combination to form logical statements that
have output responses of TRUE or FALSE.
byte . A byte is made up of 8 bits. It can hold data values from 0 to 255. In base 16, or
hexadecimal, a byte can be expressed as 0 to FF. You cannot have a value greater than
255 when using one byte.

central processing unit (CPU). The part of a programmable controller responsible for
reading inputs, executing the control program, and updating outputs. Sometimes
referred to as the processor, the CPU consists of the arithmetic logic unit,
timing/control circuitry, accumulator, scratch pad memory, program counter, address
stack, and instruction register.
code. (1) A binary representation of numbers, letters, or symbols that have some meaning.
(2) A set of programmed instructions.
coil. A ladder diagram symbol that represents an output instruction.
communication cable. Cable used to transfer data between components of a control system
and conforming to the RS-232C or RS-422 standards.
contact. A ladder diagram symbol that represents an input condition.
control panel. A panel that contains instruments used to control devices.
Control System. All of the hardware and software components used to control other
devices. A Control System includes the PLC System, the PLC programs, and all I/O
devices that are used to control or obtain feedback from the controlled system.
counter instructions. Computer programming codes that allow a PLC to perform the
counting functions (count up, count down, counter reset) of a hardware counter.

data. A general term for any type of information.


debugging. The process of checking for errors in a program.
digital device. A device that processes and sends discrete (two-state) electrical signals.
digital signal. A noncontinuous signal that has a finite number of values.
discrete input interface. An input circuit that allows a PLC to receive data from digital
field devices.
discrete output interface. An output circuit that allows a PLC to send data to digital field
equipment.
documentation. An orderly collection of recorded hardware and software information about
a control system. These records provide valuable reference data for installing,
debugging, and maintaining the PLC.
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Double Word. A double word is made of 32 bits. It can hold data values from 0 to
4,294,976,295. In base 16 a double word can be expressed as 0 to FFFFFFFF. In the
PLC, a double word is made up of two consecutive word addresses.
download. To transfer data to a device.
downtime. The time when a system is not available for use.

edge . An edge is defined as the point when an input changes state. For example, a rising
edge occurs during the very first scan after the input has changed from OFF to ON. A
falling edge occurs after the input has changed from ON to OFF.
EEPROM . EEPROM is electronically erasable and programmable memory that retains its
data even through loss of power. The PLC program is stored in EEPROM and will be
retained when power is off.
ethernet. A specification for local communication networks that employs coaxial cable as a
passive communications medium to interconnect different kinds of computers,
information processing products, and office equipment at a local site.
exclusive-OR (XOR). A logical operation, which has only two inputs, that yields a logic 1
output if only one of the two inputs is logic 1 and a logic 0 output if both inputs are the
same, either logic 1 or logic 0.
execute. To perform a specific operation by processing either one instruction, a series of
instructions, or a complete program.

firmware. A series of instructions for internal use by the processor only.


flag. A signal device in a microprocessor system that alerts the operator, or the system itself,
to the occurrence of some desired or undesired event.
function block diagram (FBD). A graphical PLC programming language in which
instructions are programmed as blocks that are then used as needed to control process
elements.

gate. A circuit having two or more input terminals and one output terminal, where an output
is present only when the prescribed inputs are present.
ground loop. A condition in which two or more electrical paths exist within a ground line.

hard copy. A printed document.


hardware. All the physical components of a programmable controller, including
peripherals, as opposed to the software components that control its operation.

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Hex (Hexadecimal) . A hexadecimal number is a value expressed in Base 16. A base 16
number system that uses the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 and the letters A, B,
C, D, E, and F to represent numbers and codes. In a byte, word, or double word, each
set of 4 bits corresponds to a single hex digit. For example, the binary value 0100 1111
would correspond to the hex value 4F, and a decimal value of 79.
host. A central computer in a network system.
host computer. A computer attached to a network that provides such services as
computation, database access, or special processes or programming languages.

IEC 61131 programming standard. A standardized set of PLC programming guidelines,


set forth by the International Electrotechnical Commission, that includes general PLC
information, equipment and test requirements, programming languages, user
guidelines, and communication standards.
image table. An area in a PLCs memory dedicated to I/O data where 1s and 0s represent
ON and OFF conditions, respectively.
input. Information sent to the processor from connected devices.
input device. Any connected equipment, such as control devices (e.g., switches, buttons,
and sensors) or peripheral devices that supply information to the central processing
unit. Each type of input device has a unique interface to the processor.
input table. The area of a PLCs memory where information about the status of input
devices is stored.
Instruction Program. An alternative method to a ladder diagram, for producing a PLC
program. It is similar to a low-level assembly type microprocessor program. It was, at
one time, the only method available for producing PLC programs before the
availability of ladder diagram software. All ladder diagram programs though have to be
converted to Instruction Programs for downloading to the PLC. It is not possible for
ladder diagram programs to be directly downloaded or uploaded to/from a PLC.
instruction list (IL). A low-level, text-based PLC programming language that uses
assembly languagelike mnemonics to represent the control program.
interface. A circuit that permits communication between a central processing unit and a
field input or output device. Different devices require different interfaces. An interface
is the conceptual boundary between systems or devices and usually involves changes in
the way the communicated data is represented.

internal output. A program output that does not drive a field device and is used for internal
purposes only. It provides interlocking functions like a hardwired control relay. An
internal output may also be referred to as an internal storage bit or an internal coil.
interrupt. The act of redirecting a programs execution to perform a more urgent task.
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I/O. This term is used to describe the total number of inputs and outputs allocated to a
particular PLC.
isolation transformer. A transformer that protects its connected devices from surrounding
electromagnetic interference.

ladder diagram language (LD). A graphical set of instructions that implements basic relay
ladder functions in a PLC.
ladder relay instructions. Computer codes that implement relay coils and contacts and
their corresponding functions in a PLC.
language. A set of symbols and rules for representing and communicating information
between people and machines.
latch. To retain a state even when the input conditions change.
least significant bit (LSB). The bit representing the smallest value in a nibble, byte, or
word.
light-emitting diode (LED). A semiconductor diode whose junction emits light when
current passes through it in a forward direction.
Limit Switch. A switch that detects when an object has reached the limit of its movement
by actually making contact with the object. Limit Switches are fitted to electric
elevators, traveling cranes, etc. to indicate when a certain part of the equipment has
traveled to the specified limit.
load. The power used by a machine or apparatus.
location. A storage position or register in memory identified by a unique address.
logic. The process of solving complex problems through the use of simple functions that can
be either true or false.
logic diagram. A drawing that uses interconnected AND, OR, and NOT logic symbols to
graphically describe a systems operation or control.

machine language. Processor instructions written in binary code.


master. A device used to control other devices.
master-slave. A mode of operation where one data station (the master) controls the network
access of one or more data stations (the slaves).
memory. The part of a programmable controller that stores data, instructions, and the
control program either temporarily or semipermanently.
memory map. Shows how a systems memory is allocated.
message. A group of data and control bits transferred as an entity from a data source.

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microprocessor. A digital, electronic logic package (usually on a single chip) capable of
performing the program execution, control, and data-processing functions of a central
processing unit. A microprocessor usually contains an arithmetic logic unit, temporary
storage registers, instruction decoder circuitry, a program counter, and bus interface
circuitry.
most significant bit (MSB). The bit representing the greatest value of a nibble, byte, or
word.

NEMA Standards. Property characteristics adopted as standard by the National Electrical


Manufacturers Association.
network. A group of computing devices (computers, programmable controllers, etc.) that
are connected to each other by communication lines to share information and
resources.
network communications instructions. Computer codes that allow a PLC to share data
with other PLCs connected to a local area network.
network interface module. A special function interface that allows PLCs and other
intelligent devices to communicate and transfer data over a high-speed local area
communication network.
nibble. A group of four bits.
nonvolatile memory. A type of memory whose contents are not lost or disturbed if
operating power is lost.
normally closed contact. (1) A relay contact pair that is closed when the coil of the relay is
not activated and open when the coil is activated. (2) A ladder program symbol that
allows logic continuity (flow) if the referenced input is logic 0 when evaluated.
normally open contact. (1) A relay contact pair that is open when the coil of the relay is
not activated and closed when the coil is activated. (2) A ladder program symbol that
allows logic continuity (flow) if the referenced input is logic 1 when evaluated.
NOT. A logical operator that yields a logic 1 output if a logic 0 is entered at the input and a
logic 0 output if a logic 1 is entered at the input. The NOT function, also called an
inverter, is normally used in conjunction with AND and OR functions.

octal number system. A base 8 number system that uses eight numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
and 7 to represent all values.
off-line. The state of not being in continuous direct communication with the processor.
one shot. A programming technique that sets a storage bit or output to a certain state for
only one scan.
on-line. The state of being in continuous communication with the processor.
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operand. The register address numbers that identify the elements in a program.
optical coupler. A device that couples signals from one circuit to another by means of light
radiation.
OR. A logical operator that yields a logic 1 output if any input is logic 1 and a logic 0
output if all inputs are logic 0.
output. Information sent from the processor to connected field devices.
output device. Any connected equipment, such as control devices (e.g., motors, solenoids,
and alarms) or peripheral devices (e.g., line printers, disk drives, and color displays),
that receives information or instructions from the central processing unit. Each type of
output device has a unique interface to the processor.
output table. The area of a PLCs memory where information about the status of output
devices is stored.

panel enclosure. The physical enclosure that houses a PLCs hardware and components.
peripheral. Those devices which support but are not directly involved in the control
operation.
Photoelectric Switch. A switch that uses light to detect the presence of an object.
PLC. An abbreviation for Programmable Logic Controller. It is used in the automatic
control of machinery and plant equipment. The great advantage of a PLC is that it can
be programmed using software, such as Gx-Developer, Cx-Programmer, to carry out a
wide variety of tasks.
Port. A communication channel between two devices.
power supply. The unit that supplies the necessary voltage and current to a systems
circuitry.
Program. A sequence of instructions to be executed by the programmable controller
processor to control a machine or process.
program. A planned set of instructions stored in memory and executed in an orderly
fashion by the central processing unit.
programming device. A peripheral device used to write programs and to input a program to
a PLC or to alter or monitor a program already stored in the PLC. There are dedicated
programming devices, such as Programming Consoles, and there are nondedicated
programming devices, such as a host computer.
program scan. The time required by the processor to evaluate and execute the control logic.
This time does not include the I/O update time. The program scan repeats continuously
while the processor is in the run mode.

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random-access memory (RAM). A volatile, alterable memory that provides storage for the
application program and data.
read. (1) To acquire data from a storage device. (2) The transfer of data between devices,
such as a peripheral device and a computer.
read-only memory (ROM). A type of memory that permanently stores an unalterable
program or set of instructions.
redundancy. Duplication of either hardware or software for reliability assurance.
reset. 1) To turn off and back on. 2) To clear. 3) To restore the default parameters.
resolution. The smallest detectable increment of measurement.
RS232. A serial communications system used for transferring information. Used in a PLC
system for downloading and uploading instruction programs.
SCADA. Abbreviation for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition.
scan. The process of reading all inputs, executing the control program, and updating all
outputs.
scan time. The time necessary to completely execute the entire PLC program one time,
including update of I/O, communications, and other housekeeping tasks.
Scan Time . The CPU follows a procedure in which it 1) reads the inputs, 2) processes the
ladder program, and 3) updates the outputs. It continually repeats this process. This 3-
step process is called a scan, and the time it takes to complete this process is the
scan time. In a typical PLC application, most of the scan time is used to process the
program. When programming, keep in mind that the scan time will increase as you
increase the number of inputs and outputs and/or the size of the program.
sensor. A device that produces a voltage or current output representative of some physical
property being measured (speed, temperature, flow, etc.). Generally, the output of a
sensor requires further processing before it can be used elsewhere.
sequential function charts (SFC). An object-oriented programming framework that
organizes actions written in IEC 61131-3 programming languages (ladder diagram,
instruction list, function block diagram, and structured text) into a unified sequential
control program.
sink. A term, which describes the direction of current flow into or out of either an input or
an output terminal of a PLC. To operate a PLC sink input, the direction of current flow
will be from a positive voltage supply through a closed input switch/ proximity
detector and then into the PLC input terminal.
software. The programs that control the processing of data in a system.
source. A term, which describes the direction of current flow into or out of either an input
or an output terminal of a PLC. To operate a PLC source input, the direction of current

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flow will be out of the PLC input terminal through a closed input switch/ proximity
detector and then into a COM (common) terminal.
structured text (ST). A high-level, text-based PLC programming language, resembling the
BASIC and PASCAL computer languages, that allows a control program or any other
complex task to be broken down into smaller tasks.
switch. An input device that sends either an ON or OFF signal to the Control System. A
switch can be operated either by a person or by the movement of a piece of equipment
or material.
switching capacity. The voltage/current that relay can switch ON and OFF.
system. A set of one or more PLCs, I/O devices and modules, computers, associated
software, peripherals, terminals, and communication networks that together provide a
means of performing information processing to control a machine or process.
thumbwheel switch. A rotating switch used to input numeric information into a controller.
time base. A unit of time generated by the system clock and used by software timer
instructions. Typical time bases are 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 seconds.
timer instructions. Computer codes that allow a PLC to perform the timing functions (ON-
delay, OFF-delay, reset) of a hardware timer.
triac. A semiconductor device that functions as an electrically controlled switch for AC
loads.
TRUE. As related to PLC instructions, a set logic state associated with a binary 1.
truth table. A table that shows the state of a given output as a function of all possible input
combinations.
twisted pair. A communications medium consisting of two insulated wires loosely twisted
together.
upload. To transfer data from a device.
USB. An abbreviation for Universal Serial Bus. A modern type of communications system
for connecting peripherals, i.e. mouse, printer, scanner, internet modem, to a computer.
There are adapters available, which enable a Mitsubishi Electric SC09 communication
cable to be connected to the USB port of a computer.
volatile memory. A memory that loses its information if the power is removed from it.
weighted value. The numerical value assigned to any single bit as a function of its position
in a word.
word . A word is made of 16 bits. It can hold data values from 0 to 65,535. In base 16 a
word can be expressed as 0 to FFFF.
write. To enter data into a storage device.

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Reference
1. PLCs Theory and Implementation 2nd Ed (L. A. Bryan) 1997
2. Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation (Tony R. Kuphaldt) 13 June 2012
http://openbookproject.net/books/socratic/sinst/book/
3. Beginners Guide to PLC Programming (Neal Babcock) 2008
4. A PLC Primer www.industrialtext.com
5. Basics of PLC Programming - Industrial Control Systems, Fall 2006
6. DVP-PLC Application Examples of Programming, April 2012
7. FX-Series PLC Training Manual using GX-Developer, 2006
8. Micro PLC Self Teach Manual GFK-0811, June 1993
9. NAIS FP series PLC Programming Manual, 2000
10. GE Fanuc Micro PLC Programmers Guide, April 1994
11. FX PLC Applications and Programming (John Ridley) 2004
12. EC Series Micro-PLC Programming Manual (Emerson) 2007
13. Programmable Controllers - An engineers guide 3rd Edition (E.A. Parr) 2003
14. IEC 61131-3 Programming - Industrial Automation Systems (Karl-Heinz John)
2010
15. PLC Programming Methods and Applications (John R. Hackworth)
16. Industrial Electronics (Frank D. Petruzella) International Editions 1996

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Omron PLC Example Programs
1. Packaging Line Control


yHk (1)
Operation
When PB1 (START Push Button) is pressed, the box conveyor moves. Upon
detection of box present, the box conveyor stops and the Apple conveyor starts. Part sensor
will count for 10 apples. Apple conveyor stops and box conveyor starts again. Counter will
be reset and operation repeats until PB2 (STOP Push Button) is pressed.

yHk (2)

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CNT003

yHk (3) Time Chart


yHk (1) uae yHk (10) txdrSm az:jyxm;wmudk Munfhr,fqdk&if?
yHk(4) u LD program udk print screen vkyfxm;wJhyHk jzpfNyD;? yHk(5) u LD program udk
print out xkwfxm;wJhyHk jzpfygw,f/
tJ'DyHk(5)&JU b,ftpGefrSmygwJh 000000 u rung number jzpfNyD;? (000000) u step
number jzpfygw,f/ Rung No. 00000 &JUnmtpGefrSm az:jyxm;wJh a01 a04 a09 qdw k mawGu
internal bit 200.00 udk read vkyfcdkif;wJh a contact symbol eJU az:jyxm;wJh instruction code
awG[m step number 01 ae&m? 04 ae&m? 09 ae&m?awG rSm&dSw,fvkdY nTefjyxm;wm jzpfyg
w,f/
Rung No. 00001 &JUnmtpGefrSm az:jyxm;wJh b10 qdkwmu output bit 10.01 udk read
vkyfcdkif;wJh b contact symbol eJU az:jyxm;wJh instruction code [m step number 10 ae&m rSm
&dSw,fvkdY nTefjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
a contact qdkwm N.O jzpfNyD;? b contact qdkwm N.C jzpfygw,f/

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yHk (4)

yHk (5) LD Ladder Diagram Program [CPM1A-CPU20]

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yHk (6) IL Instruction List Program


Rung Step Instruction Operand Comment
0 0 LD 0.00 Start (N.O)
1 OR 200.00 Run
2 ANDNOT 0.01 Stop (N.O)
3 OUT 200.00 Run
1 4 LD 200.00 Run
5 LDNOT 0.03 Box Sensor
6 OR CNT003 Apple counter
7 ANDLD
8 OUT 10.01 Box-conveyor
2 9 LD 200.00 Run
10 ANDNOT 10.01 Box-conveyor
11 OUT 10.00 Apple-conveyor
3 12 LD 10.00 Apple-conveyor
13 AND 0.02 Apple Sensor
14 LDNOT 0.03 Box Sensor
15 CNT 003 Apple counter
#10
yHk (7) Program Mnemonics

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2. Filling/Draining Control Operation

yHk (8)
Operation procedure
1. As the PB1 is pressed, MV1 opens and the water begins to fill the tank. At the same
time, the stirring motor M starts operations.
2. When the water level passes TLB2 and reaches TLB1, the MV1 closes and the stirring
motor stops.
3. Next, MV2 opens and starts draining the water. When the water levels drops below
TLB2, MV2 closes.
4. When the cycle of operation has repeated four times, the operation END indicator
illuminates, and the filling and draining operation will not restart even if PB1 is pressed.

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yHk (9) LD Ladder Diagram Program [CPM1A-CPU20]


u Falling Edge Detection vdkY t"dyg,f&dSNyD;? u Rising Edge Detection vdkY
t"dyg,f&wJY instruction code symbol awG jzpfMuygw,f/ DIFD, DIFU oHk;rSay:vmwJh
symbol awGjzpfMuygw,f/

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yHk (10) IL - Instruction List Program Program Mnemonics

Instruction awGudk t*FvdyfpmvHk;eJU code vkyfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/

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Siemens PLC Example Programs
1. Packaging Line Control
Operation
When PB1 (START Push Button) is pressed, the box conveyor moves. Upon
detection of box present, the box conveyor stops and the apple conveyor starts. Part sensor
will count for 10 apples. Apple conveyor stops and box conveyor starts again. Counter will
be reset and operation repeats until PB2 (STOP Push Button) is pressed.
Input Devices Output Devices
I0.0 START Push Button (PB1) Q0.0 Apple Conveyor
I0.1 STOP Push Button (PB2) Q0.1 Box Conveyor
I0.2 Apple Sensor
I0.3 Box Sensor

I0.0

I0.1

I0.2

I0.3

M0.0

C3

Q0.0

Q0.1

Status-Time Diagram
Siemens PLC S7-200 twGuf program udk LD eJY a&;NyD;? FBD, STL wkYdeJY ajymif;Munfh
vdkY &ygw,f/ Symbolic address qdw
k mu memory location awGudk Label uyfNyD;? emrnfay;
address a&;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/

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yHk (11) Symbolic Addressing LD Program

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yHk (12) LD Ladder Diagram Program

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yHk (13) FBD - Function Block Diagram Program

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yHk (14) STL Statement List Program

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2. Filling/Draining Control Operation
Operation procedure
1. As the PB1 is pressed, MV1 opens and the water begins to fill the tank. At the same
time, the stirring motor M starts operations.
2. When the water level passes TLB2 and reaches TLB1, the MV1 closes and the stirring
motor stops.
3. Next, MV2 opens and starts draining the water. When the water level drops below
TLB2, MV2 closes.
4. When the cycle of operation has repeated four times, the operation END indicator
illuminates, and the filling and draining operation will not restart even if PB1 is pressed.

Input Devices Output Devices


I0.0 Start Button (PB1) Q0.0 Water Supply Valve (MV1)
I0.1 Stop Button (PB2) Q0.1 Drain Valve (MV2)
I0.2 Reset Button (PB3) Q0.2 Stirring Motor (M)
I0.5 Upper Level Switch (TLB1) Q0.4 End Indicator
I0.6 Lower Level Switch (TLB2) Q0.5 Buzzer

Siemens PLC S7-200 udk program a&;r,fqdk&if STEP 7-Micro/WIN eJY a&;&ygw,f/
Omron PLC CPM1A udk program a&;r,fqdk&if CX-Programmer eJY a&;&ygw,f/
CX-Programmer xJrSmygwJY DIFU, DIFD qdkwJY instruction code awGeJYwlnDwJY instruction
code awG STEP 7-Micro/WIN xJrSm ryg&dSvdkY function wlatmif yHk(15) rSmvdkyJ a&;vdkY &yg
w,f/

STEP 7-Micro/WIN xJrSm yg&dSwJY eJY wdkY eJY wlnDwJY instruction code
awGvnf; CX-Programmer xJrSm ryg&Sdygbl;/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
281
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yHk (15) LD Ladder Diagram Program

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
282
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
283
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yHk (16) FBD Function Block Diagram Program


tckqdk&if LD program xJrSmygwJh open contact, closed contact, eJY coil awG[m
instruction code awGrQom jzpfw,fqdkwmudk oabmaygufvufcHEdkifMuNyDxifygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
284
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

yHk (17) STL Statement List Program

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
285
OD;pdk;wifh PLC vrf; nTef

pmtkyfa&;om;jyKpkol OD;pdk;wifhudk rEav;wdkif;? rw&mNrdKU? [vif;BuD;GmwGif


trd a':BudKif? tb OD;bpdef wdkYrS 1948 ckESpf Zefe0g&DvwGif arG;zGm;cJhonf/
wuodkvf0ifwef;udk rEav;NrdKU? txu (2) rS 1966 ckESpfwGifatmifjrifcJhNyD;?
AGTI (EC)'Dyvdkrmudk rEav;NrdKU? Government Technical InstituterS 1969 ckESpfwGif
&&SdcJhonf/
1970 ckESpf Zefe0g&DvwGif rauG;wdkif;? acsmufNrdKUe,f? pavNrdKU&Sd
"gwfajrMoZmpufkH Instrumentation XmewGif Sub Assistance Engineer
tjzpfpwifwm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf/
1984 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif *syefEdkifiH? wdkusdKNrdKU Japan Cooperation Centre
Petroleum (J.C.C.P) Modernization of Instrumentation Course (1)v oifwef;udk
wufa&mufcJhonf/
1996 ckESpfrS 1997 ckESpftxd puFmylEkdifiH Westinghouse Industry Services
Asia Pte. Ltd. wGif Field Service Engineertjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf/

1998 ckESpfrS 2007 ckESpftxd &efukefNrdKU General Service Engineering Group


(GSE)wGif Instrumentation Engineertjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf/

2000 ckESpfwGif GSE Instrumentationoifwef;udk pwifoifMum;ydkYcscJhonf/


2008 ckESpfrS 2010 ckESpftxd HyperTech PLC oifwef;udk tcsdefydkif;
oifMum;ydkYcscJhonf/
2011 ckESpfrS 2013 ckESpftxd Multi Engineering PLC oifwef;ESifh HMI
oifwef;udk tcsdefydkif; oifMum;ydkYcscJhonf/
2012 ckESpfrS 2014 ckESpftxd Glory Carrier Training Centre PLCoifwef;udk
tcsdefydkif; oifMum;ydkYcscJhonf/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.
286