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A SEMIOTIC VIEW

OF THE FLUTE CONCERTO GENRE


FROM VIVALDI TO MOZART

BY DOUGLAS E. WORTHEN

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment


o f the
Requirements for the Degree
Doctor o f Musical Arts
The Hartt School, University o f Hartford
September 29, 2007

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The Hartt School
University o f Hartford

Date / / j c}C D f _____

I HEREBY RECOMMED THAT THE DOCTORAL THESIS PREPARED


UNDER MY SUPERVISION BY:

Douglas E. Worthen
ENTITLED:

A SEMIOTIC VIEW OF THE FLUTE CONCERTO GENRE


FROM VIVALDI TO MOZART

BE ACCEPTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE


REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS DEGREE

Thesis Advisor

Division Director

Thesis Committee

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Acknowledgements

I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Michael J. Schiano whose invaluable help and

encouragement has deeply inspired me while studying at the Hartt School, and who has

taught me that a theoretical as well as historical understanding of music is a source of

great pleasure.

I would also like to thank my flute instructor, John Wion, who continues to inspire my

quest for the elusive good taste in all the beautiful repertoire our instrument has to

offer.

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Vitae
Douglas Worthen

Bachelor of Music and Bachelor of Music Education, The Hartt School, 1974

Master of Music in Performance, New England Conservatory of Music, 1980

Doctor of Musical Arts in Performance, The Hartt School


to be conferred September 29,2007

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ABSTRACT

A SEM30TIC VIEW OF THE FLUTE CONCERTO GENRE FROM VIVALDI TO

MOZART BY DOUGLAS E. WORTHEN - Structural designs that grew around the

basic framework of the eighteenth century flute concerto genre can only be seen when

studying a number of concerti at once, using common criteria for evaluation and analysis.

Semiotic charts show how these works were varied and refined over the fifty-year period

being investigated, beginning with Antonio Vivaldis Flute Concerti, Op. 10, including

the concerti o f Naudot, Blavet, Quantz, C. P. E. Bach, J. C. Bach, and concluding with

the concerti of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Comparisons spring from Quantzs

description of A serious concerto for a single solo instrument with a large accompanying

body requires the following characteristics in its first movement. Historical,

hermeneutic, and analytical perspectives of these works are presented, with an appended

chapter on ornamentation and performance practice. Submitted in partial fulfillment of

the requirements for the Degree Doctor of Musical Arts, The Hartt School, University of

Hartford September 29,2007.

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Contents

Chapter One: Introduction.................................................................. 1

Early Development of the Concerto G e n r e ........................................ 6

Italian, French, and German C o n trib u tio n s........................................ 7

Flute Concerto: Defining the Genre 9

Chapter Two: Methodology................................................................ 11

Identifying Elements and Investigative Criteria 12

Quantzs Seventeen Characteristics of a Flute Concerto 13

Identification of Cadences and Key Relationships 15

Keys and Their Character 16

The Sonata Principle 16

Range of the Troverso 17

Time Line 19

Chapter Three: The Flute Concerto in I ta ly ............................................20

History: Antonio Vivaldis Flute Concerti, Op. 10 20

Analysis: Vivaldi, Concerto IV, RV 435 23

Analysis: Vivaldi, Concerto V, RV 434 24

Analysis: Vivaldi, Concerto V, RV 437 26

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Chapter Four: The Flute Concerto in France........................................... 28

History: Jacques-Christophe Naudots Concerti, Op. 1 28

Analysis: Naudot, Concerto II in E Minor, Op. 11 30

History: Michael Blavet, Concerto in A Minor 31

Analysis: Concerto in A Minor 32

Chapter Five: Friedrich the Great and His C o u r t ............................. 35

History: Johann Joachim Quantz, Concerti for Flute 35

Analysis: Concerto in G Major QV5 N. 174 37

History: C. P. E. Bach, Concerti for Flute 38

Analysis: Concerto in D Minor Wq. 22 H 484/1 39

Analysis: Concerto in G Major Wq. 169 H. 445 41

History: Johann (John) Christian Bach 44

Analysis: Concerto in D Major C79 45

Chapter Six: Mozarts flute concerti........................................................... 47

History: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the Flute 47

Analysis: Concerto in D Major K. 314 48

Mozart: Concerto in G Major, K. 313 53

Analysis: Concerto in G Major K. 313 55

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Chapter Seven: Conclusions..................................................... 57

Semiotic Charts: Pattern and Design 58

Appendix...................................................................................... 61

Ornamentation 61

A Note and its Appoggiatura Followed by a Rest 63

Performance Suggestions 64

Bibliography: ................................................................................. 65

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Chapter One: Introduction

Although the eighteenth century flute concerto represents an important

development in the instruments history, specific flute concerti are often studied in

isolation, usually focusing on the works of a specific composer. Yet structural designs

that grew around the basic framework of this genre can only be seen when studying a

number of concerti at once, using common criteria for evaluation. These designs were

varied and refined over the fifty-year period being investigated, beginning with Antonio

Vivaldis Flute Concerti, Op. 10, and concluding with the Concerto in G Major K.313 of

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

An understanding of this genre can be undermined by seeking a predetermined

revelation of so-called sonata allegro form. Hunting for these prefabricated formulae

only succeed in flattening the contours of any musical design. A more effective approach

would be based on creating some method of charting the structure of the music itself, and

then making observations based on documentation of the actual structures that are

observed. The ideal perspective should be holistic, providing historic, hermeneutic, and

analytical views of the works and composers of this study.

Flute concerti were composed in order to feature an individual flutists skills and

musicianship in some kind of orchestral context, and the music developed as an

expression of that purpose. A composers concept of the genre was influenced by his

predecessors, peers, and especially the flutists for whom his works were written.

Fortunately, in 1752, Johann Joachim Quantz (1697-1773) wrote an

important document at the approximate chronological midpoint of this study. It provides

a valuable and fairly specific description of the proportion, content, and style of the flute

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concerto genre, and it will be frequently referenced in the following chapters. Quantz

describes his first exposure to Vivaldis concerti while in Pima in 1714, As a then

completely new species of musical pieces, they made more than a slight impression on

me. I did not fail to collect a considerable assortment of them. In the future the splendid

ritomellos of Vivaldi provided me with good models.1 By 1752, Quantz had met all the

composers in this study except Mozart. Therefore his account of the flute concerto was

informed not only by his experience and his needs as a flutist, but by exposure to earlier

flute concerti written by the foremost performers and composers of his era.

An admittedly tenuous link from Quantz to Mozart can be made through Johann

Sebastian Bachs youngest son, Johann Christian Bach. This link will be strengthened,

however, after theoretical and historical evidence has been presented. J. C. Bach spent

five years in Berlin with Quantz and his older half-brother, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach.

J. C. Bach later became friends with Mozart, making his flute compositions particularly

germane to this study.

Below is a diagram presenting relationships among the French, Italian, and

German composers whose works form the body of this work. It is chronological, read

from top to bottom. The red (thick) lines (figure 1.) indicate the direct contact of each

composer to another, documented by historical record. Note that only Quantz had direct

professional contact with all the composers except Mozart. Jacques-Christophe Naudot,

Michel Blavet, and Johann Joachim Quantz were all virtuoso flutists, and their concerti

were composed as a performance vehicle for that virtuosity. In contrast, Antonio Vivaldi,

1F. W. Marpurg, Historisch-kritische Beytrage zur Aitfrtahme der Musik, I (1755), pp.
197-250 Herm Johann Joachim Quantzens Lebenslauf, von ihm selbst entworfen.
2

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J.C. Bach, C. P. E. Bach, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart were composing virtuosic

works for an instrument they did not play.

Flute Concerti from Vivaldi To Mozart


France
/ Antonio Vivaldi
; 1675-1741
Op. 10, 1727
V J.C. Naudot
Italy 1690-1762
Op. 11, 1731

1
M. Blavet
1700-1768
Concerto in A minor,
I *M 1

C.P.E. Bach \
i 1714-1788
\x Wq.22 D minor 1747 J.J Quantz
1697-1773
QV 5:174

Germany
J.C. Bach V -

1735-1782
Concerto D Major

/ W.A. Mozart N
! 1756-1791
Concertos G&D
17*7

Figure 1.

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Quantz was already a fifty-five year old man by the time he published his

Versuch. By that point in his career, he was in an excellent position to identify and

describe the best musical elements from his personal experience as a teacher, composer,

and performer. Now he could offer his king a comprehensive flute tutor that dealt with

issues of interpretation, ornamentation, and taste. Quantzs On Playing the Flute provided

chapters on flute-related technique, as well as instructions for ripieni, continuo players,

and, in what is of greatest importance to this study, the chapter On How Music and

Musicians should be Judged.2 His treatise made a strong impression on his colleague,

C. P. E. Bach, who published his own treatise a year later (1753)3 on keyboard playing,

as well as Leopold Mozart, whose treatise on playing violin (1756),4 also frequently

seems to assume some knowledge of Quantzs treatise.5 All three tutors were highly

successful publications, and all three were known throughout Europe.

The first part of this thesis will provide historical and theoretical documentation

of a number of concerti from Italy and France, and then compare their salient

characteristics with Quantzs description. The second part will document those concerti

written after Quantzs description of the flute concerto model, and then see how the genre

changed in the next quarter century. Finally, the Mozart concerti will be discussed and

compared to the material previously presented.

2 Quantz, Johann Joachim. On Playing the Flute trans. and ed. Edward Reilly (New York:
Schirmer, 1985). p. 205-344.
3 Bach, Carl Phillip Emanuel. Essay on the True Art o f Playing Keyboard Instruments,
trans. and ed. William J. Mitchel (New York: W. W. Norton, 1949).
4 Mozart, Leopold. A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles o f Violin Playing, trans.
and ed. Editha Knocker (London: Oxford University Press, 1948).
5 Quantz, p. xi.
4

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The Mozart concerti for flute are the most performed compositions in the flute

repertoire. In order to create an historical context of the genesis of the concerti, the study

will begin with Antonio Vivaldis Op. 10, a set of six concerti that were the first ever

written expressly for the transverse flute. Next, the already Italianate6 Six Flute Concerti,

Op. 11, of Jacques-Christophe Naudot (1690-1762) will be included, along with the only

surviving concerto by Michel Blavet (1700-1768), the Concerto in A minor. Quantz knew

and heard both flutists while in Paris in 1726. Quantz and composer J. B. de Boismortier

(1689-1755) described Blavet as the finest flutist in France from this period. C. P. E.

Bachs brilliant Concerto in D minor Wq. 22 and G major Wq. 169, as well as Quantzs

most famous concerto, the G major QV5: 174 will also be investigated. Both composers

were in service to the king of Prussia, Friedrich II, who was himself an accomplished

flutist. Upon J.S. Bachs death in 1750, his youngest son, Johann Christian Bach, then an

adolescent of fifteen, was brought to live with his half-brother, C. P. E. Bach, at King

Friedrichs court. J. C. Bachs Flute Concerto in D major predates Mozarts by a decade.

Mozart held Bach in high esteem as both friend and composer, and arranged some of

Bachs piano sonatas into piano concerti,7 presumably for his own use. Jane Stevens

6 Concepiti in una forma tripartite di indubbia derivazione italiana I Six concerto opera
XI si concedona un solo momento di deviazione dal modello vivaldiano quando nel sesto
concerto il largo o adagio centrale e sostituito da unaria en rondeau. Taken from the
introduction by Marcello Castellani in: Naudot, Jacques Christophe. Six Concerto en Sept
Parties, pour un Flute traversiere, trios violins, un alto-viole, avec deux basse, (Firenze:
Scelte, 1983).
7 Three sonatas from J. C. Bachs Op. 5 were the models for Mozarts Piano Concerti K.
107.
5

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presents a number o f other structural and stylistic similarities between Mozarts later
g
piano concerti and the keyboard concerti of both C. P. E. Bach and J. C. Bach.

Early Development o f the Concerto Genre

Under Fedelis musical direction of the orchestra of San Marco in Venice during

the 1660s, interest in instrumental virtuosity began to be cultivated. Among the virtuoso

violinists was G. B. Vivaldi who became one of the thirty-six members of the orchestra,

and Fedelis son, Antonio, who regularly provided a violin solo during the Elevation of

the Host.9 By the beginning of the eighteenth century, virtuosic display placed increasing

pressure on composers to create works in which such musicians could be featured.

Opera arias of the period were already well designed to feature the individual

vocal soloists using an orchestral introduction followed by a series of vocal episodes with

shorter orchestral inteijection of some of the original tutti, and then concluding with the

orchestral introduction material stated once again. What made this so-called ritomello

design more complex than its rondeau predecessor was its harmonic foundation. By

sequential transposition, use of the circle of fifths, and the construction of dominant/tonic

cadences, the wheel of harmony could turn to new key centers, and then return when the

opening orchestral material was again played. In the seventeenth century, the term

concerto simply meant the combination of vocal and instrumentalists in concert. The

instrumental concerto of the early eighteenth century presented an instrumental soloist in

g
Stevens, Jane R. The Bach Family and the Keyboard Concerto: The Evolution o f a
Genre (Warren, Michigan: Harmonic Park Press, 2001). p. 243-47.
9 Selfridge-Field, Elenor. Venetian Instrumental Music from Gabrieli to Vivaldi (New
York: Praeger, 1975). p. 18.
6

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the singers role. After Torellis original string concerti of the 1690s, the genre became

more clearly defined. By the early 1700s, Albinoni settled on a three-movement

configuration, fast-slow-fast, and wrote concerti for solo oboe, as well as violin concerti.

Italian, French, and German Contributions

By the early eighteenth century, a convergence of three disparate cultural

identities contributed to the rise in popularity of the transverse flute, its performers, and

its repertoire. According to Quantz the Germans were the first to revive, if not to

establish, the basic principles of the transverse flute... and he follows with a description

of a renaissance flute in his possession.10 It will become evident throughout this study

that that the flute concerto genre benefited primarily from the structural contributions of

the Italians, while generally the Galant style, technical innovations of the instrument, and

many performers came from France.

In France, Jean Baptiste Lully had added woodwind instruments to his opera

orchestra in the late seventeenth-century. Beginning in the eighteenth century, the first

compositions specifically for transverse flute, as well as the names of flutists who

performed this repertoire, begin to appear. These include members of the Hotteterre

family, J. D. Philador, and Michael de la Barre. Published in 1707, Jacques Hotteterres

Principes de la Flute Traversiere11 described the construction o f the instrument itself,

and his fingering charts and compositions present an instrument capable of a chromatic

10 Quantz, p. 29.
11 Hotteterre, Jacques. Principles o f the Flute, Recorder, and Oboe, Trans.Paul Marshall
Douglas (New York: Dover, 1983).
7

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and even enharmonic12 scale of approximately 2 octaves. About a decade later, with the

inclusion of optional middle joints, the instrument could play in tune at different pitch

levels, enabling a virtuoso to travel and play in different cities where the pitches varied

from his place of origin. It is unclear where these innovations first appeared, but it was in

France that these new possibilities were manifest.

In Italy, brass instruments were the most common complement to the strings.

There is little evidence of solo flute playing in Italy at the close of the seventeenth

century, and Quantz comments that upon his first visit to the country in 1724, he found
13
the level of wind playing to be generally poor. Italian compositional style was

sweeping all of Europe, and the trio sonata and concerto grosso were important

contributions. This new style was vocal, showy, and brilliant. In most cases, popular

compositional fashions had no clear national boundaries. Still, artists enjoyed the

distinctions o f national and regional character, and they wrote about these distinctions at

some length. The following are comments from Quantz regarding national styles and

tastes o f his time:

The French proceed very scrupulously in composition. In their church


compositions, to be sure, you find greater restraint than in those of the Italians,
but also greater aridity. They prefer diatonic rather than chromatic progressions.
In melody they are more straightforward than the Italians, for the sequence of the
ideas can nearly always be divined, but they are less rich in invention. They are
more concerned with the expression of the words than with a melody that charms
or flatters. While the Italians seek for the most part to save the beauties of the
composition for the principal part, so that the bass is sometimes neglected, the
French, on the other hand, ordinarily place more emphasis on the bass than on the
principal part. Their accompaniment tends to be plain rather than elevated. It is
indisputable that the music of the French, when it is considered in all its

i -y
De Lusse provides an enharmonic Air complete with quarter-tone notation and
explanation for its performance in his treatise of 1764.
13 Quantz, p. xvii.
8

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perfection, is much better suited to the dance than any other, while that of the
Italians, on the other hand, is more effective for singing and playing than for
dancing. Yet it cannot be entirely denied that many pleasing and agreeable ideas
are encountered in French instrumental music, especially in their characteristic
pieces, which, because of their coherent and harmonious melodies, may be
intermingled very well with majestic and elevated ideas in the Italian style.14

In the composition o f the modern Italian instrumentalists, with few exceptions,


more eccentricity and confused ideas are found than modesty, reason, and order,
They seek to invent much that is new but as a result laps into many low and
common passages which have little affinity with anything good that they may
intermingle with them. They no longer produce such moving melodies as they
did formerly... .Neither the fruits of labour nor anything venturesome is apparent
in their middle parts; you find simply dry harmony.........They pay but little
attention to the proportions of the work as a whole In a word, they have
altered the style of their predecessors in instrumental music, but they have not
improved it.15

As we progress through the analysis of the following pieces, the above quote will give

guidance to what is meant by French, Italian and German compositional style.

Flute Concerto: Defining the Genre

To begin a comprehensive study of the genre, the term flute concerto must be

defined. Even at the beginning of the 1730s, the word concerto could designate a work

for solo keyboard, a small group of chamber instruments; or a larger group in which one

soloist with a few accompanying instruments alternate with the complete ensemble in

contrasting sections. The advantage of discussing the genre of flute concerto, whereby

the notion of the soloist as distinct from the ripieni is implicit in the instrumentation

14 Quantz, p. 329.

15 Ibid., p. 326.

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itself, creates a clear picture of the genre. In this way, the interplay between the solo and

tutti forces is most clearly audible. Johann Matthesons definition, written in 1713,

presents a description of the type:

most strictly... [concerto is used] of violin [i.e., string] pieces that are set so that
each part becomes prominent at some time, and plays with the other voices in
competition, so to speak. Therefore also in such pieces, and other, where only the
first part dominates and where among many violins one, which is called the
Violino concertino, stands out with [its] particular swiftness. 16

By 1778, the flute concerto as a genre was less than fifty years old. During this

brief period, the solo flute concerto went through some changes, but certain features of its

design were enduring. Among those features, we find certain key sequences, technical

figurations appropriate to the instrument, favored tonalities that highlighted emotional

affects, and so called ritomello structure. The instrument itself changed little in this

period, with only minor changes to the bore that favored the high register.

16 Mattheson, Johann. Das neu-eroffnete Orchestre, p. 173.


10

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Chapter Two: Methodology

The essence o f a musical work is at once its genesis, its organization, and the
way it is perceived. For this reason, musicology, music analysis, and even
approaches to musical interpretation that are less specialized or scientific,
require a theory that deals with the practical, methodological, and epistemological
results o f this_ holistic vision of music. I shall call this general theory musical
semiology. ,17

Key to Reading a Semiotic Chart


v vac Cc-Ke'tc v ;s: ' a e?'C -ra '><>'* tav,o:

kc*_ Green for


m Pink for Exposition RittKne*o 2
Concertino j---:
A or Solo
k u >U

Sign
c / /
Boldface
C A. White for Ritorne* 2
Lines Divide Tutti
Ritomello and Solo Sections
1\ A
*
Or Tuttt 0J
J S_________ *

1 Keyy of r _ n x /
Section
ction r Measure I Yellow for
Number Development

1 A,. B . C . D Blue for RiL 4 Recap.


Recapitulation r-
C . rrrzT

Figure 2.

A semiotic analysis of each of the concertos is presented. Signs18 have been

identified by rhythmic, motivic, harmonic, or melodic observation and audibility, and

recorded in charts for each concerto. The semiotic approach to chart audible phenomena

17
Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology o f Music, Translated
by Carolyn Abbate (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1990). p. x.
1 The term sign is borrowed from Nattiez and used in semiotic analyses in other
disciplines.
11

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is a musical application of techniques attributed to Claude Levi-Strauss, who developed

this approach in the early twentieth century. In the field of linguistics, signs are words or

short phrases. They may have both connotative and denotative meaning. In music, a sign

is a unit of rhythmic, motivic, harmonic, or melodic identity. The process of assigning

letters to signs is quite simple. At a point where music is perceived as being different

than what was heard before, a letter is assigned, and the measure number is recorded. If

the new material is familiar, having been presented in some identifiable context earlier in

the movement, it is labeled with the letter of its former statement. If it is some

permutation of that earlier statement, it may be assigned a superscript. If however, the

material substantively different than what has been heard before, it is assigned a new

letter. Semiotic analysis is particularly helpful in that it does not define a musical idea in

words, while revealing the design created by the music itself.

Black solid lines articulate the beginning and ending of ritomello and solo

sections. The pink areas identify when the soloist is playing. Light green sections on the

far right side of the chart indicate the exposition, yellow the development, and light blue

the recapitulation, where such observations may be helpful. Subscripts indicate measure

numbers, and superscripts indicate some variation of a sign. An X indicates that the

sign is an extension, and an S indicates that this version is a simplification of an earlier

sign.

Identifying Elements and Investigative Criteria

Once we have charted the design of each concerto in this study, which features

would be most effective in comparing them? A point of departure would be taken from

12

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an eighteenth-century source that describes some of the salient characteristics of the flute

concerti from this period. In 1752, Quantz provided a remarkable description of how the

quality of a flute concerto, in his words, should be judged. This list of attributes

presents a model to which concerti from both before and after 1752 can be compared.

Whether the model is historically advanced or behind its time will not effect on our

results, for the same reason that a time line must begin by some arbitrary assignation of a

beginning date.

It will be useful to see which of these attributes were already an integral part of

early concerti by Antonio Vivaldi or Jacques-Christophe Naudot. Also, new innovations

contributed by J. C. Bach and Mozart will become more apparent as they differ from

Quantzs model.

Quantzs Seventeen Characteristics of a Flute Concerto

A serious concerto for a single solo instrument with a large


accompanying body requires the following characteristics in its first
movement.

1. A majestic ritomello must be carefully elaborated in all the parts.


2. The melodies must be pleasing and intelligible.
3. The imitations must be correct.
4. The best ideas of the ritomello must be dismembered, and intermingled during
or between the solo passages.

5. The fundamental part must sound well, and must be appropriate to the bass.

6. There must be no more middle parts than the principal part allows; a better
effect is frequently produced by doubling the principal parts than by forcing in
unnecessary middle parts.

13

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7. The progressions of the bass part and the middle parts must neither impede the
liveliness of the principal part nor drown or suppress it.

8. [a] The ritomello must be of suitable length. It must have at least two principal
sections. [b]The second, since it is repeated at the end of the movement, and
concludes it, must be provided with the most beautiful and majestic ideas.

9. If the opening idea of the ritomello is not sufficiently singing or is not


appropriate for the solo, a new idea quite unlike it must be introduced, and
must be joined to the opening materials in such a way that it is not apparent
whether it appears of necessity or with due deliberation.

10. [a] At times the solo sections must be singing, and at times these flattering
sections must be interspersed with brilliant melodic and harmonic passage
work appropriate to the instrument; [bjthese sections must also alternate with
short, lively, and majestic tutti sections, in order to sustain the fire [of the
piece] from beginning to end.

11. The concertante or solo sections must not be too short, and the tutti sections
between them must not be too long.

12. The accompaniment during the solo sections must not have progressions that
might obscure the concertante part; it must consist alternately of many parts at
one time and few at another, so that the principal part now and then has a
chance to distinguish itself with greater freedom. In general, light and shadow
must be maintained at all times. If it is possible, a good effect is produced if the
passagework is invented in such a way that the accompanying parts are able to
introduce a recognizable part of the ritomello simultaneously.

13. Correct and natural progression must always be observed, and any too-distant
key that might offend the ear must be avoided.

14. [a] Metrics, which must be carefully attended to in composition in general,


must also be carefully observed here. The caesuras or divisions of the melody
must not fall on the second or fourth crotchets in common time, or on the third
or fifth beats in triple time, [b] The metrical scheme must be continued as it is
begun, whether by whole or half bars, or in triple time by two, for, or eight
bars; otherwise the most artful composition will be faulty. In an Arioso in triple
time that has frequent rests, successive caesuras are permitted after three bars
and then after two bars.

15. Transpositions of passage-work must not be tediously continued in the same


way; the passage-work must be broken off and shortened imperceptibly at the
proper time.

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16. [a] The end of the piece must not be hurried or cut short; it must be clearly
confirmed, [b] The piece must not conclude with entirely new idea; in the last
solo section the most pleasing o f the ideas previously heard must be repeated.

17. Finally the Allegro must be concluded as briefly as possible in the last tutti
with the second part of the first ritomello.19

Further reference to the above points will be indicated in the following way:

Quantz
Point Appropriate
Reference Number

Identification o f Cadences and Key Relationships

The basis of understanding of tonality and the developing design of modulation

relies on clear identification of cadences. William Caplins explanation of the this feature

helps to define its meaning:

In the eighteenth centuiy, models of natural language had a profound impact on


music theory in general, and the idea of cadence as closing gesture was strongly
associated with grammatical punctuation of language, especially in the writings of
Mattheson, Riepel, Kimberger, and Koch. With the origins of harmonic theory
early in that centuiy, cadential classifications became based primarily on harmony
rather than on melodic or contrapuntal interval. Moreover, the sense of cadence
enlarged considerably when Rameau took the fateful decision of recognizing the
harmonic content of the cadence parfait as the fundamental paradigm of harmonic
progression in general. The concept of cadence was thus no longer confined to
musical situations involving gestures of ending. From then on, any harmonic
progression could be considered a cadence, whether or not it occurred at the end
of a musical unit.20

The cadence is used in this study to determine the tonality of a section, thereby

articulating a new designation. (See detail view below)

19 Quantz, p. 311-12.
20 Caplin, William E. The Classical Cadence: Conceptions, and Misconceptions Journal
of the American Musicological society 57:1 [Spring 2004] p. 51-117.

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Keys and Their Character

During the eighteenth century, many contemporary theorists associated specific

tonal symbolism with tonalities. Theorists differ greatly in their characterization of some

tonalities, while on others they seem to be in complete concurrence. M.A. Charpentier,

Rameau, Hoffmann and Lavignac,21 all use similar words to describe G major. To them

the key was gay, joyous, tender and sweet. The traverso produces a strong tonic G and

dominant seventh, where the chords G, B, D, and D, F#, A, C, are all full sounding and

clear notes. F# is slightly flat in comparison to equal temperament. F natural tends to be

sharp and weak, because the F must be cross-fingered. C is somewhat stronger than F. F

major is described as solemn, devout, serious, or concentrated. Charpentier calls D major

joyous (or quarrelsome!) while Rameau and Lavignac describe D as lively and rejoicing,

gay, brilliant, and alert.

The Sonata Principle


" Let us recall for a moment that the principle underlying both the fugue and the
concerto was the recurrence of the theme at every important point of harmonic
arrival, [ritomello]. The corresponding principle for the Classical style, let us call
it the sonata principle for want of a better term, is somewhat more complex. It
requires that important statements made in a key other than the tonic must either

21 Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. Musaic and Discourse: Toward a Semiology o f Music, trans.


Carolyn Abbate, Princeton: Princeton University Press 1990. p. 125.
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be re-stated in the tonic, or brought into a closer relation with the tonic, before the
movement ends.22

The word ritomello was a part of the eighteenth century vocabulary, and the

concept of return of the ripieno players was clearly visible and audible in the score.

Part books from the period were in fact marked, ripieno and solo. Sonata form was

not an eighteenth century concept, although the word sonata was used to describe a

musical work. Part of our investigation with entail documenting evidence of this

principle in the nascent concerto, or whether it became clearly manifest only in the latest

concerti in this study.

Range o f the Traverso

The term traverso was used to indicate a transverse flute, as opposed to the term

flauto which generally meant that a recorder was indicated. The traversos range was

approximately two octaves, however J. S. Bachs famous Partita in A minor BWV 1013

ascends to a high A6 at the end of the first movement. Nowhere in Bachs repertoire does

he write an F6, and in the Partita, he clearly avoided it.23 Although Jacques Hotteterres

treatise (1709) presents fingerings for the third register of the instrument, F6 was left out

because the note was nearly impossible to produce on the larger bore instruments of the

first quarter of the eighteenth century. The lowest note in all concerti studied was D4.

22 Hepokoski, James. Beyond the Sonata Principle, Journal of the American


Musicological Society, 55:1 [Spring 2002] p. 91-154.

23 In the third beat of the fifth measure, the arpeggio containing the F6 drops to the
middle register (F5).
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The highest note in the Vivaldi concerti was E6. In the Concerto IV of Naudots Op. 11,

the highest note is F#6, however the other concerti use D6 with an occasional E6. It is

noteworthy that the highest notes were reserved for the last moments of the last solo

section, indicating that range had a dramatic function. In keeping with the more

conservative, large bore instruments of the court of Friedrich II, Quantzs, and C. P. E.

Bachs concerti have a lower tessitura, and none of the concerti surveyed exceed high E6.

The Mozart Concerto in D does not exceed high E6, however the G major uses F# 6 and

G6, as well as the noteworthy high F natural (6). This is evidence that the intended

instrument was o f the newer, narrower bore type. Mozart had used dramatic octave

displacement leaps in his Bassoon Concerto K. 191 (1774). The G major K 313 exploits

this device as a virtuosic display far more than does the D major K 314.

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Time Line
Date Composers: Event: Flutist/Composers:
1675 B irth of A . Vivaldi
1690 Birth of J. C. Naudot
1697 Birth of J. J. Quantz
1700 Birth o f M. Blavet
1714 Birth ofC. P. E. Bach
1726 Vivaldi meets Quantz
1726 Quantz meets Blavet
1727 Siber hired to teach flute at Pieta
1729 Vivaldis Op. 10 published
1735 Naudot Op. 11 Published
1735 Birth of J. C. Bach
1738 Blavet rejects offer to teach Friedrich II
1741 Quantz & C. P. E. Bach hired by Friedrich II
1741 Death of Vivaldi
1741 Blavet publishes A minor Concerto
1747 C. P. E. Bachs D minor Concerto composed
1750 Death of J. S. Bach
1750 J. C. Bach moves to Berlin to study with
C. P. E. Bach
1755 C. P. E. Bach G major Concerto composed
1756 Birth of Mozart
1762 Death of Naudot
1768 Death o f Blavet
1768 J. C. Bach composes Concerto in D Major
1770 J. C. Bach becomes friends with Wendling
1773 Death of Quantz
1778 Mozart composes D & G major Concertos
1788 Death of C. P. E. Bach
1791 Death of Mozart

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Chapter Three: The Flute Concerto in Italy

History: Antonio Vivaldis Flute Concerti, Op. 10

Antonio Vivaldis Op. 10, written in 1729, was the first set of concerti written

expressly for the solo flute with strings and continuo. By the time Antonio Vivaldi

composed his concerti, the concerto itself was well established as a vehicle of individual

virtuosic display.

Ignazio Sibers (fl. 1713-1761) appointment to teach transverse flute at Venices

Pieta de Ospedales on December 17,1728 attests the instruments increasing popularity

throughout Europe. In the same year violinist Johann Georg Pinsendel, who had studied

with Vivaldi, became director of the Dresden Orchestra, succeeding Volumier. This

precipitated the orchestras change to repertoire and style that was distinctly Italian,

programming performances of many of Vivaldis concerti each season. Until then, the

wind instruments of choice at the orphanage had been oboe and bassoon, and Siber

himself had taught oboe there from 1713 to 1716. Pinsendels appointment is of

particular interest, coming just after Quantzs visit in 1726,24 and preceding Vivaldis

publication of his flute concerti by a year. Notice of Italian flute players and playing is

rare before this period by comparison to Germany or France. Vivaldis concerti appear to

be the first that were explicitly published for this instrument.25 Form and instrumentation

24 Quantz, p. 254.
25 It is worth noting that Joseph Bodin de Boismortiers Concerts pour Cinq Flutes
Traversieres Op. 15 were published in 1727, thus predating Vivaldis Op. 10 by two
years. Composed for 5 flutes, these Concerti confirm that the term concerto implied
other characteristics than simply the juxtaposition of a solo instrument against a
complement of strings and continuo. Because they do not feature an individual flute solo,
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follow function, and the idea of featuring a particularly adept soloist had to grow in

conjunction with the skills of the performers and the possibilities of the instrument itself

Qualities of French flute playing at this time are encapsulated by David Lasocki:

Ideals of flute sound, and thus performance style, covered the whole range from the

moaning and amorous sighs, in which the French in general were said to excel, to the

brilliance that seems to have characterized Buffardins playing in particular. 26 The

second decade of the eighteenth century saw the development of a flute lathed in four

sections, usually constructed with three to eight replaceable corps de rechange that

allowed a performer to adjust to pitch differences. Pitch was not standardized from region

to region, and this adaptability allowed a flutist to travel and perform with much greater

ease. Providing more evidence of the performance level of this period, J. S. Bachs

sonatas and cantatas from the 1720s require a high level of technical expertise.

By about 1710 the Dresden Hojkapelle, under the patronage of Friedrich August I,

had established an orchestra consisting of virtuosi on both wind and string instruments.

Among the great international virtuosi that comprised the orchestra were flutists P. G.

Buffardin (c. 1690-1768), J. J. Quantz (1697-1773), and J. M. Blockwitz (fl. 1720-1730).

Up to this time, wind players often doubled on a number of instruments, so their skill was

less focused on one single instrument.

Antonio Vivaldis concerti I-IIIRV 443,439, and 428 are programmatic. They

carry the following titles:

these, as well as J. S. Bachs Brandenburg Concerti fall outside the definition of


concerto as studied in this thesis.
26 Lasocki, David, and Powell, Ardal. Bach and the flute: the players, the instruments, the
music. Early Music 23:1 [Feb. 1995] p. 14.

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Concerto I. RV 443, Tempesta da Mare (Tempest of the Sea)

Concerto II RV 439, La Notte (Night)

Concerto III RV 428, II Gardelino (The Bullfinch)

Throughout the last three centuries, the flute has often been associated with a birdlike

quality. The Bullfinch Concerto El RV 428, uses onamatapoetic figurations similar to

those used in Vivaldis Spring movement from his Four Seasons violin concerti, Op. 6.

Although all but one (RV 435) of the concerti from Op. 10 are arrangements of pre

existing material, it is important to remember that at this time in history, Handel and

Bach often used the same compositions in a variety of settings.

The works studied include first movements of the last three concerti of the opus,

RV 435 in G Major, RV 434 in F Major, and RV 437 in G Major. Their affect varies

greatly, largely as a result of his choice of key, tempo, and meter. The Allegro 3/8 meter

o f Concerto IV, RV 435 is energetic, elevating, and dance-like. Concerto V, RV 434 is

marked Allegro ma non tanto, creating an unhurried grace. The choice of F Major also

softens its character (see Keys and Their Character, above). The orchestral unison

opening motif of Concerto VI in G Major is followed by elegantly ornamented material

in the solo flute. By creating such variety, more than one concerto could be presented in a

single concert, and many aspects of a soloists musical ability could be featured as well.

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Vivaldi C cncer:o IV 1 st Mvt (Allegro)

Key
G A; B, R ito rn eilo l
A; B.-.
B- Cr
A, D;. -
C As D : - :f.
D A ;, E jh ,

G A,i B,- c.
Aj4-Jl B j/.* C | 1 Gj# Solo 1
D At;- -ti. R ito rn eilo 2
A sj S o lo 2
c -e
e A7 4 75 E?b R ito rn e lo 3
e -b Jh Kn Solo 3
b A3 ? ;co R ito rn e lo *
b-G 1-103-1 15 S olo 4
G A; ir
M u* Solo 5
Gl27
6 1 JJ
G A; B, R ito rn eilo 5
A, B
B-. C
A: : D ; . ,
C A;3 D ,. :r.
D A; E ,h ,
G A ,, B,- c ,.

Figure 4.

Analysis: Vivaldi, Concerto IV, RV 435

In the Vivaldi Concerto IV, RV 435, note that sign A, B, C, and D (Figure 4) are repeated

many times throughout the exposition with a preponderance of A and B. A (that is, the

opening material) is iterated eighteen times in the movement, and B, nine times. The

first ritomello springs from those primary motifs, rather than being a succession of newly

presented material. At first the flute plays this tutti material again in the first solo

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entrance. Then, signs F through M become the exclusive material of the soloist, while the

ritorneilo again returns to A. The soloist is responsible for all modulation, and wherever

the soloist modulates, the tutti present the ritorneilo in that newly established key. Notice

that before the recapitulation at A, sign G is again heard in the solo. This gives a sense of

turning back home to the end of the solos presentation. In Concerto IV, A (opening)

material is heard at M. 24, and 45 in the solo voice. Altered A material is heard in

Concerto V when played by the solo (Figure 5), and in Concerto VI (Figure 6), the A

material is reserved exclusively for the ritorneilo. By keeping the tutti and solo material

separate, the ritorneilo effect is intensified.

Analysis: Vivaldi, Concerto V, RV 434

Viva d C o n c e r to V 1 s t M vt (Al e g m m a n o n ta n to }

Key
F A. B. Q. Ds R ito rn e ilo 1
C;:
A 1 12 Eis
Fa

C A;i R ito rn e ilo 2


d Cm Hu I it Jw
A ' D-. R ito rn e lo 3

A ** IS .
C pedal FJ
D 1*, E
Dl E7

F A,.s B,v Cm D,.. Rit. 4 R e ca p .

Figure 5.

The Concerto V, RV 434 has a pastoral quality that is quite different than either

concerti IV or VI. Contributors to this quality include the tempo marking, Allegro ma non

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tanto, and the choice of F major as tonic. F is the weakest diatonic note on the traverso,

and must be played relatively softly to be in tune. The D and E signs (Figure 5) also

contribute a static pedal, with the lightly scored bass marking time with repeated quarters.

The chromatic ascent ( D 4 5 ) is somewhat difficult to perform on traverso, and it is feature

used later in the Mozart concerti. Here, it creates an uncertain, searching quality, until it

rests on a strong sustained arrival point (D^i). Like concerto IV, V turns back to earlier

material beginning at F *59 and then D *64 and E67 before arriving at the recapitulation at

ritorneilo 4 (A68). Notice how this procedure, returning to earlier material in the last solo,

is presented by Quantz in his original points in judging a quality concerto: (QP 16[b]

The piece must not conclude with entirely new idea; in the last solo section the most

pleasing of the ideas previously heard must be repeated.27

Material from the ritorneilo 1 is presented during solo 1 in this concerto (Bi9; C 2 5 ) .

It is not until G30 through J4 othat Vivaldi introduces a consecutive series of new signs,

followed by a turning back at D^o before the final ritorneilo, as advocated by Quantz (QP

16b). This is accomplished by a pedal C dominant seventh retransition, creating a return

to F major. The last ritorneilo is a verbatim reiteration of the first.

27 Quantz, p. 312
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Analysis: Vivaldi, Concerto VI, RV 437

Viva d C o n c e rto V I ls : Mvt (Allegro)

Key
G A- B% C . D. : E,v R itorneilo 1

C '-s
1 s t Solo
F G 1,*
F*27 H3 1 I j j
D A ''ji R itorneilo 2
B<c Lit
F-tS G6 2n d Solo
F4 7 G 1*
F* G**SI
b Ms4 Nss
b A-v E!r . R itornel 0 3
e O71 3 'd Solo
E*
E ,- Riornel 0 4
EV
G / Oar 4 :n S o 0

Fl9l G jj
F G 1**
E%s
G A.,. Bv. R itorneilo 5
B \c
R1B3 5 tn solo
El u (c a d e n z a )
D.D E1Ct R itorneilo 6

Figure 6.

Concerto VI, RV 437 presents a number of characteristics that have more in common

with the later works in this study. E 22 (Figure 6) begins as a simple cadential formula. Its

rhythm is fragmented, and then presented in sequential transpositions (E ^ ). Element A lx

extends A by a half bar. The L element extends the B idea by two bars. It is interesting

that these extensions place A on the second part of the bar in M. 38. Even the

recapitulation at Bar 95 begins on beat 3, whereas the movement begins on beat 1. It is


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unclear whether Vivaldi was interested in the effect of beat hierarchy in these pieces,

though he must have been immersed in the dance conventions of the day in which beat

hierarchy was important. Quantz clearly discourages deviation of the beat hierarchy from

the bar line (QP 16b). The fragmentation of the beginning of F, which is then sequentially

transposed, is noteworthy in its use as transitional material.

The popularity of the traverso lay in its dynamic range by comparison to the

recorder. On recorder, the echo effect (M.67) would not have been possible. This

dynamic effect distinguishes Concerto IV from the first three concertos of the Opus 10;

some of which were drawn from previous works for recorder or flautino.

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Chapter Four: The Flute Concerto In France

History: Jacques-Christophe Naudots Concerti, Op. 11

Jacques-Christophe Naudot (ca. 1690-1762) was a flutist, teacher and composer.

He met Quantz in Paris in 1726-1727. His Flute Concerti, Op. 11, were published in

approximately 1731. Not much is known of Naudots life or his reputation as a musician.

One of the few public records reports that in the spring of 1740, he was arrested for his

association with the Freemasons. Underwoods table of clefs and tempo markings reveals

that Naudot used French violin clef and French tempo markings until his Op. 10.

Thereafter, the French clef is no longer used. Underwood goes on to suggest that French

performance practice of the period would suggest equal-voiced ensembles rather than
AO
the concertato style as in Italy. Naudot often uses a dueting technique, whereby the

solo is either doubled or harmonized in parallel thirds or sixths by the ripieno violin. A

larger orchestral ensemble would present serious balance issues, when performed on

period instruments. Unlike the Vivaldi concerti, the published solo part omits the tutti

ritorneilo material, suggesting a difference in performance from the Italian style. More

interesting still with regard to style, Underwood states:

Of the two different solo parts that were engraved for Op. XVII, the one in French
violin clef omits the solo instrument in the tutti sections. The one in treble clef follows
the Italian practice of having the soloist double the tutti sections. This graphically
illustrates the degree to which Naudot was cognizant of an important difference between
29
French and Italian concerto practice.

Underwood, T. Jervis. The Life and Music o f Jacques-Christophe Naudot (North Texas
State University, Ph.D. Thesis 1971). p. 110.
29 Ibid., p. 111.
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The ffontspiece of the Op. 11 publication advertises works for solo flute, hurdy-

gurdy, and other instrumental combinations, though most include the flute in their

instrumentation. His harmonic vocabulary is conservative, based on sequence and

repetition and incorporating canon and voice exchange. Signs in his Allegro movements

are motivic and rhythmic, thus similar to Vivaldis. As a performer, Naudot must have

had a fluid mastery of large intervals, as well as a singing Adagio style, for there are

numerous examples both in this opus. Italian tempo markings in French scores had only

begun to appear in the 1720s. Naudots interest in Italian style reflected a general trend

in France during the entire eighteenth century, manifesting in all art forms.

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Analysis: Naudot, Concerto II in E minor, Op. 11

N a u d o t C o n c e rto m t m n o - A llegro

K e y ________________________________________________________
e A; B., C , , D ,- Tutti R itorneilo
Em F G4 / S o lo 1

G a 55 Bsa Css 2 n d R itorneilo


C 'm
G H 7 7 Ibi S o lo 2
e C 57 3 rd R itorneilo
a J 110 So o 3
G D 4 th R t o n e l 0

e ^134 Ll3a So 0 4
G L: . l 5 5 th R t o n e l 0

e J*!.!
M.i I n t. Rit
D j lM
M,ee I n t. Rit
C
m 1 <5 I n t. Rit
0 J S to
M , I n t . Ri t
e N jtj O jm S o to 5
e A: Bs C ,, D... 6 th R.O a C apo

Figure 7.

Naudot, like Vivaldi, presents a full da capo to conclude the movement, which is

notated as such, rather than written out, thereby suggesting a vocal connection to the new

concerto genre. An important feature of his work is the sparing use of the A and B

material (Figure 7) until the final ritorneilo. This familiar A and B create even more o f a

sense of recapitulation by being coupled with a return to E minor. The episodes of rapid

interplay and harmonic circle-of-fifth sequences from j \ 6i create competition between

the concertino. The tutti (A 5 5 ) is a restatement of Ai in the relative major. Figurations are

impressively demanding for the early date of this concerto, however they remain squarely

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idiomatic to the instrument by virtue of key and tessitura. M. A. Charpentier described
30
the key o f E minor as effeminate, amourous, and plaintive.

Its scoring is richer than the Blavet to follow, including a viola part as well as

differentiation in the ripieno and solo violin parts. It is in the slow movements where

French features are most evident. The ornamentation is fully notated, recalling works by

Rameau and Couperin, however they are updated in the Galant taste, with triplet

figuration, slower harmonic rhythm, and a lighter affect. Naudots contribution, so early

in the development of the genre, has been neglected and publication of this opus in score

form is overdue.

History: Michel Blavet, Concerto in A minor

As a performer, Blavet's contemporaries had no hesitation in rating him as the

leading flute player of his day. Their accounts emphasize not only the technical

perfection of his playing, but especially its remarkable variety, combining brilliance and

expressiveness. During his visit to Paris in the winter of 1726-1727, Quantz got to know

Blavet, who contributed to the style that Quantz later described in such detail in his

Versuch. Similar to his contemporary, Joseph Bodin de Boismortiers Op. 91 and Michel

Blavet's solo sonatas Op. 2 date from the early 1730s.31 Blavets sonatas often bear

titles, usually alluding to important people in his circle of patrons, reminiscent of works

by Rameau and Forqueray. Blavets sonatas include a didactic introduction, including

breath marks in the score. The ornamentation in the slow movements was either notated,

30 Nattiez, p. 225.
31 Boismortiers Op. 91, anticipating the fashion of J.C. Bach, combines a virtuosic
harpsichord part with flute accompaniment. Op. 91 is dedicated to Blavet.
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as in the French style, or left to be added extemporaneously, which was more associated

with Italian compositions. In his Concerto, Blavet introduces a pair of Gavottes to replace

the traditional Adagio slow movement, thereby further connecting the work to its French

lineage.

Analysis: Blavet, Concerto in A minor, Allegro

Blavet C oncerto n A m m o ' Allegro

Key
a A; B3 Exp. Ritorneilo
As
d ,a C9 D.- t.-:
B ,. Nc
G Solo 1
Bj* G
B '
d hi
C D \m K4 7
C
a D...- Em 2nd Ritorneilo
B,. FrJ
U* Solo 2.
DS ,
C \ M
c *
G D 5i E*h 3rd Ritorneilo
e B dc F
Devel. So 0 3
d B 'un
C
D * 105
e 0*107
a Ai::: B ! ; 3 R ecap. 4 th Rjt.
A;::c-
C ,ss
D ua Solo 4

N ia O u j

D*1 )4
P ( ) 7 C adenza
D m i E m,. 5th Ritorneilo
B,,,. F m

Figure 8.

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The Concerto in A Minor is the only surviving concerto by Blavet. Composed in

approximately 1741, its instrumentation, omitting a viola part, allows for either a

chamber performance or a larger ripieno contingent. Unlike the Naudot concerti, the

Blavet has a thinner instrumentation such that the string parts could be doubled without

overpowering the soloist. The eighteenth century musician, Carpentier, suggested a

tender and plaintive affect for A Minor.32 Such a characterization seems to fit only the

opening solo material, after which the flute takes on a more assertive affect. O f note in

the semiotic chart (Figure 8) are the variations of D (notated by superscript), and the

technique, suggested by Quantz (QP 17), of concluding the piece with the second half of

the introductory ritorneilo. Figuration is Italianate, with frequent transposed sequential

bariolage. The general arc of signs from A! to Mg2 anticipates designs of later concerti in

this study. The arc indicates a methodical introduction of new material with momentary

return to earlier signs, as well as frequent modulation. Ritomelli are brief, with the

exception of the introduction. A cadenza, composed by Blavet, is provided. Notated

cadenzas over a sustained pedal were a feature of French composition, whereas the Italian

fashion was to indicate an improvised cadenza with a fermata. The Italian operatic

tradition of the vocal cadenza was already well established at this point. Introducing it to

an instrumental concerto was a natural outgrowth of the bravura and command of the solo

instrumental performer.

The Concerto in A Minor ornamentation is fully notated. French ornamentation

had become highly codified by specific symbols earlier in the century. The more symbols

that were invented, the more each symbols meaning became obscure. By mid-century,

32 Ibid., 126.
33

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composers were writing most ornamentation in standard notation. Whereas most French

ornaments served and accenting function, most Italian ornaments connected intervals and

provided fluidity.

34

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Chapter Five: Friedrich the Great and His Court

History: Johann Joachim Quantz, Concerti for Flute

Johann Joachim Quantz (1697-1773) wrote over three hundred concerti for flute

over a period of about forty years. His contribution to the genre has yet to be fully

assessed, and much of his output is in manuscript and was never published. In addition to

his concerti, Quantz wrote 7 concerti for 2 flutes and strings, 204 sonatas for strings and

continuo, and 45 trio sonatas. His employer, Friedrich II, considered Quantzs work to be

his own property, and most of his music became part of Friedrichs estate. Still, Quantz

had completed 162 flute concerti before 1741, the year he began working for Friedrich II.

He then composed at least another 130 flute concerti while in Friedrichs employ. This

output places Quantz as one of the most important contributors to the flute concerto

genre. Although a thorough study of these works is beyond the scope of this study,

further investigation may shed light on the development of the genre as Quantzs taste

and methods changed throughout his life. Quantzs treatise on flute playing was

published in 1752 and quickly circulated in numerous translations throughout Europe,

becoming a model upon which many other instrumental instruction books was based.

Quantz described the differences between French and Italian performance and

composition, as well as the German mixed style. His views, according to his

autobiography, were in large part forged during his three-year grand tour of Europe,

visiting Italy, France, and England. In his first years working with the Dresden Orchestra,

the French conductor Volumiers attention to detail made a strong impression on him.

Later, in 1719, it was the Italian vocal style of visiting opera singers that most inspired

him in performance.

35

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The G Major Concerto QV5 No. 174, became known in the ninteenth century, and

the manuscript became somewhat corrupted with annotations. The Concerto seems less

formulaic that one would expect from his 17 Points. Working for the avowed

Francophile Friedrich II, Quantz was a great admirer of French instrumentalists with

standards of flute playing set by Buffardin and Blavet. In addition to the brilliance of

virtuoso playing, works of this period often presented other established topics and
J-5
styles which had become an important part of the musical rhetoric of the period. The

concertos second movement is in sensitive style, allowing full expression of Galant,

French taste. The last movement is in brilliant style, with virtuosic figuration in the

final solo.

Leonard Ratner provides an important explanation of the various styles of the late
eighteenth century. The Quantz Concerto, like the J. C. Bach and the Mozart G major
concerti to follow, begin with a Martial style. They include Brilliant style in virtuosic
figuration. In the Mozart Concerto in D Major, there will be a reference to The Hunt in
the accompanying horns.
36

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Analysis: Quantz: Concerto in G Major, QV5 No. 174

Q uantz C oncerto m 6 QV h: 1 /4 Allegro

Kev
G A; B, 1 st Ritorneilo
bT c ,
AS,; D-
A*j* Bj Solo 1
B3 Z Fjs G H? 1*9
Asj Bs5 2na Ritorneilo
B 's; C&3 lc-i
D A** B1* , Solo 2
G A7 0 e 71
e
As? Ritorneilo 3
U* Solo 3
Ks
-1 0 1

G A . Rirtornelio 4
M.
A2 in Bi2 0 Solo 4
8 li Hias IiM
N1K, Ritorneilo 5
O iu Solo 5
Gi b P)41
Q i 4 C adenza
Am . D: 6 th Ritorneilo

Figure 9.

Quantzs opening ritorneilo seems Majestic (QP 1). He does dismember some

of the ritorneilo (A and B) and then there is some variation of both signs, as seen in the

superscript annotations. Note that the final tutti is not the last half of the first tutti

exposition, as Quantz suggested in (QP 17), but consists of a variant of A, followed by D.

He has, however, kept the tutti interludes short, with the exception of the second

ritorneilo. This longer ritorneilo seems to impede the forward motion of the concerto.

Figurations O m to Q i46 contribute a brilliant end to the final solo, and prepare the listener

37

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for a cadenza in brilliant style. There is no clear beginning to the development, and the

piece still functions more on the ritorneilo than the sonata principle.

History: C. P. E. Bach, Concerti for Flute

After his appointment to the court in about 1741, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach

wrote numerous works for the Friedrich II, who was an avid amateur flutist. His duties

included accompanying the monarch, as well as providing him with a varied output of

instrumental compositions. He undoubtedly worked closely with Quantz who was also at

Friedrichs court. Bachs D Minor Concerto, Wq. 22, H.484 also exists in a version for

keyboard. It dates from 1747, the year his father had visited him in Potsdam, and its first

movement is in serious or learned style, containing a great deal of harmonic activity.

The second movement is in sensitive style, while the third is in brilliant style. The

movements are each in a single affect, but there is strong contrast from one movement to

another. The G major Concerto Wq. 169, H. 445 exists in versions for solo flute, solo

harpsichord and solo organ, and according to his own catalog, was written in 1755 during

his last years as the court harpsichordist to Frederick II of Prussia. The unusual score has

the solo flute on the top system and the solo keyboard version at the very bottom. The

first movement of the concerto is 333 measures long and the last is 335, and it is the

longest concerto in this study. The range is conservative for this date: D4 to E6. This

reflects Quantz and King Friedrichs preference for the more conservative, larger bore

instruments that favored the middle and low register. Both this and the Concerto in D

Minor exist in versions for other instruments, and there is evidence that they were

conceived with the idea of varied instrumentation.

38

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Analysis: Concerto in D Minor Wq.22 H.484/1 (1747)
lpl bacn a rrmor Aiicgro
(not n Wq. (1747)

0 A tutti Ritorneilo
A . B. c,
9 D!
F c I;
a A'.-- D,.. E; ;
N/d F.,
d A- G-;
A-..
A Solo 1
Ase Ba
C 1
F A*. Second Group
Ai* k U.
Ar, 2nd Ritorneilo
A ... B,- C,.
BP D..
C C D r;
F C-..r
A -.
A' u
A'a: Development
9 Nib (2nd Sclo)
d
Aij
A,4.
A .. intern, kit.
........................ ...........
F Ol5*
L*;
C AS*-) 0*171
K:w ?1MQiu
d A:.. 3-d Ritorneilo
A'..,. B:..
d C,r.;
C A.,
d E. ;
N/d F.;
d tl;
C'ia 3-d &J0
d A;-.- 4th Rit. Recap
A'....
Cnt 4th <felo
F A*45 6m
Am Rmi
d A. 5th Ritorneilo
A; B,~
r z ----------------------------- 5th 5olo
9 N'iij
d OS*,
A... 6th Ritorneilo
A- , E-.:- r-:., G,;
a ;!J H...

Figure 10.

39

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After the ritorneilo presents signs A through H in the exposition, new signs (I through R)

are introduced as solo material. The soloist uses previously presented signs from either

ritorneilo or solo material, or adds new signs during any episode. The recapitulation is

weakened by frequent repetition of A and its variants, and there is no strong dominant

(retransition) before the actual recapitulation. Sequential transpositions of L are a primary

means of extending solo material. The trill termination is often in question because it falls

on awkward notes for the flute.

40

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n nl C v a;c* >'.q 1tr*3 ! C

GiV

1
Lr A
K- .
A
A .
A
Soo 1 Lxpa.
OUi

5ZEZIZ ii d Ih a re

"T" Lml.
T-
X T
v
Uc Jw K V
U,
A*
J A *5, C: -V RtOTTB' o
A l

n .
A
A
A .
l i d Soto Dev.
r a Tntofna Rit.
tiiC 'us
G Imema Rit
*
G< ;n :eiri nt
;*

r H J hi
A.u Vt
- M
n V:u
W,,.
J A 15, C, ^ L, f J-2 R.tane g
i A G
r a 01
j M ..

A. . -
'* A*3j4 V ; Rain
nr*.
A

Hji
Tui
G V
. f... 4T1 Rlt3'F a
" m %B*. Ta i 4 ;i Sa>g

Figure 11.1.

41

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Figure 11.2 (Continuation)

Analysis: Concerto in G Major Wq. 169, H. 445 (1755)

Ai and B 3 (Figure 11.) create an antecedent/consequent phrase relationship. The

A! and B 3 material create a four bar phrase, as does C5 It is then completed and

punctuated by D6. E provides a winding chromatic unison descent to the trill on Eb, and

builds a wonderful tension before its D natural resolution (A 11 3 ) . The bass consists of

repeated eight-note Gs during the first four measures of the piece. In contrast with his

earlier Baroque style, the harmonic rhythm is much slower.

D is always some kind of arresting punctuation followed by silence. After the

silence, H obscures the tonality by having no harmonic support. Such musical hiatuses

would never impede the forward motion of his earlier Concerto in D minor. Both

concerti solos require a brilliant and rapid articulation, as well as great dynamic contrast.

A young blind flutist by the name of Friedrich Dulon aspired to study with Carl

Philipp Emanuel Bach, and so was required to audition for him. His account attests to

Bachs interest in two specific skills. First, he had the boy improvise both in a free

manner and then on a specific theme. Then, Bach sat at the keyboard and modulated from

42

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key to key, trying to trick Diilon into losing his sense of tonal center. 34 Although this

account describes an incident late in Bachs life, it is indicative of two important features

that distinguish his concerti from his contemporaries. Notice V through W in the semiotic

chart (Figure 11). These signs are brilliant and nearly improvisatory in character. Even

the opening solo immediately departs from earlier ideas, spinning its own web of

relationships. Bach was well known for his keyboard improvisations, and in his Concerto

in G major, his figurations take on an improvisatory character. Leta Miller describes C. P.

E. Bachs improvisatory interjections in the following excerpt:

[C. P. E.Bachs] sonatas, like the sample bass lines in [his] Versuch, typically contain
passages that can only be understood as interjections in and otherwise straightforward
narrative, exploratory diversions that distract the listener with unexpected harmonies or
dramatic melodic turns of phrase.... [In] the sonata for flute and continuo, 1739.... its
deceptive cadence, repetitions with octave displacement, and startling diminished seventh
chord- could simply be extracted from the composition merely by raising the flutes
cadential e one octave. After this typically empfindsam interjection, the narrative takes up
where it left off, though it is naturally transformed by the parenthetical excursion.35

These interjections are illustrated in the semiotic chart detail below:

; I____i i J__ L .
i:~. H Z

F r -f
' ' 'n ,G ' Figure 11.3 (Detail)

34Miller, Leta E. C.P.E. Bach and Friedrich Ludwig Dulon: Composition and
Improvisation in late eighteenth century Germany Early Music 23:1 (Feb. 1995) p. 65-
69.

35
Ibid., 80
43

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This can be compared to the opening tutti (Figure 11.4), where the sign progression: A \ 3j

Gis. Die, is not interrupted by an inteijection.

Figure 11.4

History: Johann (John) Christian Bach

Upon his fathers death, the fifteen-year-old Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782)

was accompanied to Berlin by his older brother, Willhelm Friedemann, to live with Carl

Philipp Emanuel Bach. J. C. Bach remained with his half-brother, C. P. E. Bach, until

1755, however no reliable information describes their relationship. J. C. Bach became a

good friend of Mozart, who performed and arranged his works. While in Mannheim,

Bach became friends with Johann Baptiste Wendling, who was principal flutist of the

Mannheim orchestra. According to Toff, Bach had performed with Wendling while in

London . 36 Bachs Flute Quartets, written c. 1763, may have been written for Wendling.

In 1777, when Mozart visited Mannheim, Wendling helped him obtain the commission

for both concerti and the quartets for flute and strings. The relationship of Wendling and

Mozart is further documented by Mozarts orchestration of Wendlings Flute Concerto,

listed by Koechel as K 284e. J. C. Bachs flute concerti share many similar attributes to

Mozarts, including final Rondo movements {Rondeaux, in the case of J. C. Bachs

works), and a much slower harmonic rhythm than earlier works in the genre. Many of

Bachs other works are o f a structure more akin to the Sinfonia Concertante genre,

however they feature the flute prominently.

36 Toff, Nancy. The Flute Book (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). p. 235.
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Analysis: Concerto in D C79 (1768)

Q uantz C oncerto m G QV 5: 174 Allegro

Key
G A; B, 1st Ritorneilo
B\ C:
A1:,: D-.
B* Solo 1
B1* eh 6 H? L*
As< Bss 2 nd Ritorneilo
B V Cm Ui
~8

CD

D Solo 2
S

G A70 En
e ^7
Ay? K dc Ritorneilo 3
Solo 3
1(95
1-101
G AlZr; Rirtornelio 4
M,
A*1U Bx2C Solo 4
R1
D 112 Hl25 ll29
n , k, Ritorneilo 5
0 |)2 Solo 5
G ijs Pl4l
Qi4 Cadenza
A ! ;.i. Dvv 6th Ritorneilo
Figure 12.

The range of the concerto is conservative, going up to E 6 . Harmonic motion is

very slow by comparison to the C. P. E. Bach D minor Concerto. The leaps of a tenth or

more and figuration of and B \s 4 (Figure 12) will be seen to be very similar to the

Mozart G major Concerto K. 313, found later in this study. Sign Fn appears to be an

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augmentation of B 4 . M. 73 features a two-octave leap, again anticipating both Mozart

concerti, and many signs seem to be of the same character. The final tutti touches upon

earlier material, however A is used only to open the movement for both tutti and soloist,

and at the recapitulation. The design is clearly in only three parts, such that the sonata

principle has all but supplanted the ritorneilo principle. This movement, as well as the

Mozart concerti that follow in this study, can be described as being in double exposition

sonata form. The ritorneilo material is extensive at the beginning o f the concerto,

however once the solo has begun, subsequent tutti are much shorter than the earlier

concerti in this study. This aspect enhances the dominant role of the soloist.

The manuscript of the final movement, Rondeaux, was found in a separate

collection and was previously attributed to C.P.E. Bach, however Raymond Meylan

contends that it is definitively the final movement of this Concerto, and in his

introduction to the published edition states: It was possibly performed by the flute-

player Joseph Tacet in a concert in London on June 2nd 1768, who was, together with

Bach and Abel, one of the soloists of the evening. The slow middle movement provided

in his edition is not authentic, and exists only as a reconstruction. 37

37
Bach, Johann Christian. Concerto in D Major, ed. Raymond Meylan (Zurich:
Universal, 1958).
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Chapter Six: Mozarts Flute Concerti

History: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the Flute

Mozart left for Munich, Mannheim, and Paris in 1777 with his mother, in search

of a position of stable employment. While in Mannheim, he became friends with

members of the Mannheim orchestra, including concertmaster Christian Cannabich,

Ignaz Holzbauer, and the flutist, 54 year-old Jean-Baptiste Wendling. Wendling

introduced Mozart to a Dutch amateur flutist named Ferdinand Dejean (or DeJong), who

commissioned Mozart to write some quartets38 and concertos for the flute. The most

common explanation of the D Major Concertos provenance follows. Having tired of

completing the commission (and having fallen behind schedule), Mozart arranged his

oboe concerto for the flute, in order to provide a second concerto for Wendlings

commission. Franz Vester presents a differing opinion of the Concertos origins:

In spite of all discussion, this concerto remains in my opinion a flute


concerto and not an oboe concerto (in C). This is probably the lost flute concerto.
played by Castel on the occasion of the nameday of Mozarts sister Nannerl on
July 26,1777. (See Mozart. Die Dokumente sein Lebens, gesammelt un erlautert
von Otto Erich Deutsch, Kassel 1961, p. 144. (For further information on this
concerto see Ingo Goritzkis article Mozarts Oboenkonzert unter neuen Aspekten.
Tibia 2/79 pp. 302-308).39

38 Cannabich, Holzbauer, and Wendling, as well as J.C. Bach and Mozart, had written or
would write quartets for flute and three strings. The popularity of sonatas for flute and
keyboard during the classical period had declined from its height in the late baroque. In
their place the quartet, especially for the quickly growing amateur consumer market,
became the fashionable instrumentation. Arrangements of popular operas were especially
marketable, but newly composed works were also regularly published and performed.

Vester, Franz. Flute Music o f the Eighteenth Century, (Monteux, France: Musica Rara,
1985). p. 320.
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Analysis - Mozart D Major Concerto K.314
M ozart D.AIIegro Aoe-to

Key
D A, Bf. D- , F-.; G,,. H/.-i 1 .. J, K.:, Tutti Ritorneilo
c!...
Al L M44>5 Solo 1 Expo.
J.S, Km.
Kso Nsi
Nh
K$
F Ks, P64 Q*s Rm
673
D/m
C t* 2nd Group
A F*o
F2 Gm Tm
J9 *
H57 I;CO J.30 K;D3 2nd Ritorneilo
Ki k Nj07 Dev. Solo 2

N110
K ui
ItlU N it) U m i-.
Q u*
D A12C R ecapitulation
* 123 '12S Solo 3
Fl127
F*i33 Pi 36

M i
Nw
----------------------------- Gl4*------ llV
D.7G

Um
A ;m 3rd Ritorneilo
C adenza
H: ,*i. 1.-/ J K,*, 4 th Ritorneilo

Figure 13.

The concerto opens in D major with an orchestral tutti, consisting of strings and

oboes and homs in pairs. The first theme A (Figure 13) is five measures long40. The flute

40 Asymmetrical phrase length was observed in all the concerti in this study.

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soloist never plays this first theme. Often cited as a highly inventive and amusing feature

of this concerto, Mozart was not alone nor the first to have thought of it. Nadots Op. 11

No. 4 (Figure 7) and C.P.E. Bachs G major Concerto (Figure 11) reserve A material as

the exclusive domain of the ritorneilo players. Naudot answers the opening A ritorneilo

with E 29 C. P. E. Bach opens the first solo in the G Major Concerto Wq. 169 (Figure 11.1

above) with N39. This sign is nothing like his first theme A. Quantz (QP 9) is again

quoted here, indicating that the idea must have been somewhat common:

9. If the opening idea of the ritorneilo is not sufficiently singing or is not appropriate for
the solo, a new idea quite unlike it must be introduced, and must be joined to the opening
materials in such a way that it is not apparent whether it appears of necessity or with due
deliberation.41

From the beginning of the movement, the bass line repeats eighth note Ds,

giving an illusion of harmonic stasis. Mozart moves to the subdominant in second

inversion, a very unstable chord. (C. P. E. Bach and Vivaldi move to the subdominant in

second inversion in the first measures of their flute concerti as well). Mozart creates

ambiguity by emphasizing the IV chords 5th (D) in the melody. The flutists entrance is

preceded by what I will call the primary sign (K31) of the entire concerto. It is nothing

like the sweeping opening theme, being only a measure in length, and, as the listener and

orchestra ready themselves for the soloists first entrance a bar later, it could pass

unnoticed.

k
Figure 15. Primary Sign (K 31 )

41 Quantz, p. 311-12.

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The soloist responds to the primary sign with a shake and an ascending scale that

mimics the rhythm of the previous measure and inverts its direction. Soon hung up on a

high D, the flute provides a pedal to the opening theme, joining the orchestra in the last

bars of the phrase. Notice the similarity in the J. C. Bach Concerto, where the a high E is

held while the orchestral tutti continues (Figure 12. O 9 1 ). After the primary sign is played

by the tutti, the flutists first phrase lasts only seven bars. Was the flutist was a little slow

at getting started, or missed the entrance by a bar? David Lewins essay, Figaros

Mistakes, presents a more thorough discussion of Mozarts use of misstatement and

miscounting. 42 Following the flutists entrance, there is a virtuosic display of leaping

sixteenths, closing the soloists first section.

After a tutti interlude, the primary motif is presented by the soloist alone (K50),

and the trill termination of G# implies a direction toward the dominant, however this

section is still in the tonic. G# s are added intermittently, creating a gradual transition

toward the dominant harmony. By having the soloist introduce the primary sign and

incorporating a G# in the resolution of the trill (K 5 0 ), the sign creates ambiguity by

masquerading as the second theme. Only at cS s is the key of A major firmly established

by a perfect authentic cadence, marking the second repeated half-note sign (C1} as the

beginning of the second group. So far, this primary sign has been used to create a false

start for the soloist, and phantom second theme.

The development ( K 1 0 5 ) utilizes the primary sign with the addition of a more lyric

consequent phrase. The first and second statements are set in A Major and then D Major.

42Stein, Deborah. Engaging Music, Essays in Music Analysis (New York & Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2005). p. 99-109.
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The third statement lands the antecedent on a vii/ V in D Major, setting up the

retransition. Thus again, the primary sign has been used in the development, where it is

customary to use some part of the first or second theme.

The final mistake in this movement is the canonic entrance of the primary sign

(K 187) in the oboes and homs, two bars before the end of the movement. Perhaps they too

got a little behind the strings.

The development is of unusually brief proportions by comparison to the rest of

the piece. Developments of solo concerti usually offer an opportunity for virtuosic

display and for excursion to distant harmonic areas. The flute and oboe of the period were

able to play in remote keys, however the more remote the key, the more limited the

virtuosic display became. Like the opening, the recapitulation leaves the first theme to the

orchestra and the section remains in the tonic, D major. Beginning in bar 134, Mozart

returns to the virtuosic style of the exposition. Material from the first group is extended

and elaborated until bar 152. It makes perfect sense to have this display in the

recapitulation, since it is a section that remains in the tonic harmony, thereby favoring the

instruments strengths. Bars 72 and 147 are the only instances of a German Sixth chord.

Bar 72 is further emphasized by the forte/piano dynamic. The transverse flutes ability to

play loud and soft was an important feature, and lead to its popular supremacy over the

recorder (Blockflote). Bar 147 features an impressive chromatic scale. Indeed, playing a

chromatic scale on a one-keyed classical flute was a difficult feat, especially in

sixteenths. In these two instances, Mozart used harmony to feature the strengths of this

wind instrument. The final ritorneilo (H 179 to K 187), is identical to the second ritorneilo

section. (H 9 7 to K 1 0 5 ) . Taken from the end of the first ritorneilo, it follows Quantzs (QP

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17) ideal. By using this identifiable unit, Mozart creates a balanced clarity of the overall

design. However, the twist of the wind entrance (K i87) makes this anything but ordinary.

Structural Overview: Mozart Concerto in D Major K 314,


Allegro Aperto

Section: Measure #: Tonality

Exposition (tutti) 1-32

First Theme: 1 -1 1 D Major

Second Theme 1 2 -2 1 D Major

Solo Exposition 32-105 D Major

First Group 32-77 D Major

Second Group 78-96 A Major

Closing Material 97-105 A major

Development 106-119 A, D Major

Retransition 113-119 A Major

Recapitulation 119-173 D Major

Coda 174-end D Major

Figure 14.

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Mozart: Concerto in G Major, K. 313

Mozarts G Major Concerto K. 313 differs from his concerto in D in a number of ways.

The range is greater by a minor third, thus ascending to G6. The movements are longer

and pose far greater demands on the soloist. The greater length of the movement has a less

rigid design than the D Major Concerto. Tutti interjections are more frequent, and there is

much more of a teleological direction toward the final solo climax. This concerto has a

large variety of topics, from the opening majestic to the brilliant, both in the

development of the first movement to the opening figuration in the third. The slow and

chromatic second movement is expressive but not in the anxious, emfmdsam affect so

typical of C. P. E. Bach. The final Rondo movement was the most popular dance of the

century, the Minuet. Its curious mixture of brilliance and poise is achieved by the

juxtaposition of the slower dance meter in contrast with the rapid figuration. Although

there is an existing copy of the concerto indicating flutes rather than oboes in the second

movement tutti orchestration, there is no doubt that oboes would be the better choice.

Using oboes in the orchestration would be preferable in performance in order to preserve

timberal contrast with the solo flute.

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v ?.7.ir C. M .ijr-' A. *'-r 'r.

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Analysis: Mozart G Major Concerto, K.313

The themes of this concerto are highly differentiated. The movement, marked

Allegro Maestoso, recalls the very word that Quantz used to describe the character of an

opening first movement (QP 1) 1. A majestic ritorneilo must be carefully elaborated in

all the parts. The martial opening theme A is not the exclusive material of the tutti. It is,

however, used sparingly, only appearing at the most important structural articulations. In

addition to the opening tutti, it opens the first solo, the development, the recapitulation,

and the coda. The soloists use of this theme helps to reinforce its initial entrance, as well

as the soloists recapitulation at Ai54. Although ritomello/solo structure is still present in

that there are five ritorneilo statements of A, the design of this concerto clearly divides

into three parts. The first (Ai to L \ i 3) has the same sequence of signs as the

recapitulation.(A 149 to L ^ is ), although the brief segment from A 31 to B 37 is omitted. Note

that the second theme in the recapitulation (M 164) remains in the tonic (G major) rather

than modulating to the dominant (M46).

The development is exactly 50 measures long ( A 9 1 to 3i42 ). Compare this to the D

Major Concertos development of only 10 measures. It contains rapid modulations

through the circle of fifths, (T 127), as well as dramatic leaps, and a difficult and chromatic

flourish introducing the recapitulation ( 0 \ 4 8). Reviewing the semiotic analysis and other

features of these two works, the D major Concerto has a more limited range than the G

Major, and its overall structure demands less of the flutist than does the G major

Concerto. It is shorter, including an extremely short development, with almost no

figuration. It would seem likely that once Mozart became aware of the flutes

possibilities, he would demand more, not less, of a second concerto for the instrument.

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Whether Franz Vester is correct in his assertion that the D Major was in fact originally a

flute concerto will require further information and study, however it is interesting that the

G Major is often referred to as Flute Concerto No. 1 in light of this semiotic analysis.

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Chapter Seven: Conclusions

Although Vivaldis concerti seem simpler in design than the flute concerti that

followed, many important features of the genre are clearly evident. The extension and

modulation of signs, harmonic design, and basic structural ritomello/solo relationship are

all present from the beginning of the genre. The flutes light, birdlike quality is often

featured in figuration appropriate to the instrument All of the concerti discussed are

challenging and brilliant vehicles for presenting a flute soloist with string orchestra,

including the earliest works in the genre. Slow movements allow for enormous creativity

through ornamentation. The overall structure of departure and return is already a

component of the Vivaldi concerti, yet a clear development is lacking once hedeparts

from the home key.

Many of Quantzs Points imply changes in the relationship between soloist and

composer, and by mid-century, the flute concerto genre had greater focus on the

presentation of the soloist. This was particularly true when the composer and soloist were

one in the same. The solo passages demanded mastery of unparalleled agility in large

melodic leaps, as well as dynamic control. Long, sustained notes brought attention to the

performers ability to produce a clear, powerful tone above the tutti. As with other

musical genres, there was a clear shift to a slower harmonic rhythm.

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Semiotic Charts: Pattern and Design

As we look at the group of charts as a whole, patterns emerge. When a row o f signs

creates horizontal pattern, for example the first row of the tutti exposition in the Mozart,

the material is being presented in one key only. The pattern of a long slow arc of signs in

the exposition can be created either if there are regular returns to earlier material, as in

the C. P. E. Bach G major (Figure 11.), or if there are key modulations as new ideas are

introduced. There are a number of examples of the latter. Nadots Concerto in E minor

(Figure 7) is one of the earliest examples, but it is most evident in the J. C. Bach

Concerto (Figure 12). Large structures, such as an entire exposition and recapitulation

often have patterns that are clearly and quickly visible and comparable. Note the design

created by the column of Fs beginning with F 59 (Mozart G Major, Figure 16), which can

be traced to the line of F through K, followed again by a column of Ks. This design is

again found in the recapitulation at Fi75. These larger structures are visible with the help

o f the semiotic chart. Variants on a motif are easy to recognize by scanning columns for

additional superscripts, for example, again in the Mozart G Major, reading the L column

down from L 100 .

An obvious trend can be observed with regard to Quantzs point about lengths and

content of internal ritomellos as well as the final ritorneilo (QP 16 a and b). We see that

Blavet has lengthier inner ritomelli, but Quantzs inner ritomelli are shorter, and then

with J. C. Bach and Mozart, shorter still. The content of the last ritorneilo is often the

second half of the first tutti material, as Quantz suggests, however in the Vivaldi and the

Naudot, the first half of the Ritorneilo is used.

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The Naudot chart (Figure 7.) clearly shows that the tutti signs (A,B,C,D), and the

solo material, (E throught O), remain the exclusive property of each group. J 1154 through

Mj 72 are visible as a sequence in the circle of fifths by looking at their corresponding key

designations. Are these sequences too long, and does Naudot rely too heavily on this

technique? Perhaps this was what Quantz was trying to avoid in (QP 15).

C. P. E. Bach left more of the harmonic action to the tutti in both of his concerti,

They are still Rococo in design and taste, however they are enormously demanding to

play. In his concerti, the solo and tutti play nearly equal roles, rather than the tutti being

subservient to the solo. To an extent, this is also true in the J. C. Bach, but in the Mozart,

solo and orchestra are truly equals. This can be determined by the structural placement of

the signs of each group. C. P. E. Bach allows the tutti a major role in modulation, and

they also participate in articulating the development and the recapitulation, rather than

leaving that role exclusively to the soloist.

The semiotic charts of all the composers show very creative and individual

interrelationships of the signs, which are anything but formulaic. It is impressive to see

how the two Mozart concerti differ so greatly from each other, though they were certainly

composed in the same decade. Still, a balance between the ritorneilo and sonata allegro

designs remains intact. The slow movements seem to foreshadow the personal intimacy

of the next century, and are some of the most beautiful pieces in the repertoire. Though

the last movements were not the object of this study, they are composed in a generally in

a lighter, more virtuosic style than the first and second movements.

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J. C. Bachs concerto is similar to Mozarts in style and design, yet it lacks the

genius and humor of Mozarts incomparable pen. The semiotic chart distills its modem

design while exposing its somewhat facile simplicity. There is no question why the

Mozart concerti have been viewed as the culmination of this centurys flute concerto

genre. Their complexity, inventiveness, and expression are easily heard as well as seen in

the analyses. The semiotic charts of the Vivaldi concerti reveal the breadth of his

creativity, as well as the legacy created for his successors. Without unveiling the designs

that his structures create, Vivaldis music has a surface of repetition and even monotony.

Yet, like the repeated bmsh strokes of a painting, the stunning effect of the complete

work belies the simplicity of its components. His formal organization already defines the

territory of the flute concerto genre. That genre was refined by his Italian, French, and

German successors. Though Mozart can be credited with extraordinary creativity within

the genre, many o f his predecessors contributed interesting, creative, and beautiful

concerti that deserve attention and performance.

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Appendix

Ornamentation

As with most eighteenth century repertoire, we have decisions to make about

performing ornaments in the Mozart concerti. Looking at the context of these ornaments,

their relative consonance or dissonance, and the notation of the ornaments, all give us

clues as to what Mozart might have intended. In Frederick Neumanns book about this

specific topic43, he draws surprising conclusions about the performance of Mozarts

ornaments. Neumanns general thesis is that Mozart was usually writing unaccented

grace notes, or very short appoggiaturas. By citing examples where diction, harmony, and

instrumental accompaniment would dictate specific performance outcomes, Neumann

uses Mozarts vocal compositions to make his argument. By comparing these results to

eighteenth century writings on ornamentation, he postulates that Mozart rarely adhered to

contemporary practices mentioned in treatises of his day, including that of his own father.

Although Neumanns conclusions have had little impact on performances since his

books publication in 1986, he makes a number of suggestions that should be investigated

in the context o f the D Major Concerto for Flute, K. 314.

The first ornaments occur in bar eight. This measure is like measures 12, 78, and

153, however here the ornamented notes are harmonized, whereas the following

examples are not. In this case, Neumanns suggested grace note performance, in other

words, very short and on or slightly before the beat, is an appropriate solution. The chord

43Neumann, Frederick. Ornamentation and Improvisation in Mozart (Princeton:


Princeton University Press, 1986).

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function of the downbeat of measure 9, a V chord, contrasts with the tonic harmony on

the downbeat of bar 13. The A feels different depending on whether it is the fifth of D

major (bar 14), or the root of A major (bar 9). Later, when left unharmonized, it is up to

the listener to imagine what chord might underlie the repeated As. Whatever the

performers decision, accented on the beat, or short and before the beat, it is best if the

soloist is aware of what the violins chose to do in measure 12 , and then choose to reflect

or contradict them.

Bar 10 also favors Neumanns solution of grace notes short and before the beat.

Mozart did write triplet sixteenths, so we should assume he would have written that

rhythm if he wanted it. Removing the grace notes allows us to see the repeated Ds and

F#s. By playing the ornaments short and before the beat, the repeated notes and their

rhythms are preserved.

Bar 27 and its analogs are clearly ornaments superimposed on pre-existing

appoggiaturas, and would therefore be performed short and before the beat as well,

however no recorded performances surveyed were performed in this way.

Ornaments in measures 88 and 89 are best smoothed out as sixteenths. Their

notation is as appoggiaturas, accented dissonances on the beat, in order to accent what

would otherwise be weak beats. This solution may also apply to measure 92.

Measures 107 and 110 are filling in a succession of thirds. Performed gently and

before the beat, they are the definition of coules de tierce, a French ornament common to

the eighteenth century. Also suggested by Neumann, this solution creates a beautiful

contrast from the previous style, making the phrase more flowing and lyrical.

A Note and its Appoggiatura Followed by a Rest

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Measure 64 presents a performers dilemma. If the ornament is short and before

the beat, there is not enough time for its execution, coming off sixteenth notes in the

previous measure. The standard solution, playing the appoggiatura as a quarter note,

creates parallel fourths with the bass. Perhaps Neumann would propose a short

appoggiatura here, in which case we would play it as an eighth, however it creates an

abrupt and active end to the phrase, thus giving away the activity of the following

passagework.

This instance offers the interesting solution of playing the appoggiatura as a full

half note. The main note would resolve in place of the rest as a quarter note. A breath,

necessary at this moment, would be covered by the ascending 6 th eighth note G# in the

bass. This solution is both lyrical and historically accurate.

The following is a brief explanation of standard performance practice that will

support this interpretation. In 1752, Quantz stated: If a rest follows a note, the

appoggiatura receives the time of the note, and the note the time of the rest, unless the

need to take breath makes this impossible. 44

F ig . 23 F ig. 24

Figure 17.

from: Quantz, Versuch. p. 96. (n.b. Fig. 23 written notation, Fig. 24 as played)

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Although this quote is from Quantz, the same performance suggestion is clearly

worded by C.P.E. Bach (1753), and Mozarts father, Leopold (1756).45 As late as 1791,

Tromlitz describes the practice in his Flute Treatise:

The value of the long appoggiatura varies; if it is written in front of an ordinary


note, it is worth half of it. But if there is a dot after the note, then the appoggiatura
is worth as much as the written note, and the dot is played alone, and slurred onto
the long appoggiatura. One proceeds in just the same way if instead of the dot
there is a rest after the note.46

Measure 64 presents just such an example, where a long appoggiatura avoids parallel

fourths in the bass, and where there is time to breathe after the resolution.

Would it not likely that Mozart would have thought this solution to be a musical one, if it

avoided a theoretical problem, and sounded well? Here, as in all performance

considerations, the ear must be the guide of good taste.

45 Mozart, Leopold A treatise on the fundamental principles o f violin playing (trans.


Knocker), London; New York: Oxford University Press, 1951 p. 170.
46 Tromlitz, Johann George, Ausfiihrlicher undgriindlicher Unterricht die Flote zu
spielen, (ed. Franz Vester), Berlin 1791. ed. Franz Vester, Amsterdam: Knuf, 1973.

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Performance Suggestions

As a result of harmonic analysis, we create a new picture of the structure of this

Concerto. From this picture, we can see Mozarts creative humor and subtlety. By

understanding the architectonics of the movement, we can see how different sections and

motifs relate to the overall structure of the composition. This understanding can help in

everything from memorization to dynamic implications.

Secondly, serious references, such as Frederick Neumanns book on Mozarts

ornamentation, give us new and interesting suggestions that would be historically

accurate. Reaching beyond his book, the source materials such as Quantz, C.P.E. Bach,

Leopold Mozart, and Tromlitz, present surprising performance suggestions, such as the

appoggiatura followed by a rest. As for the performance of ornaments in the movement, a

combination of analysis, combined with as sense of Good Taste and a firm historical

grounding of eighteenth century performance practiced, comprise the necessary tools for

these decisions.

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