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DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF YAGI-UDA

ANTENNA FOR GPS AND MMDS


APPLICATIONS

A Thesis Submitted
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
in
Microwave Engineering

by

AKRITI SINGH
(1501468501)

Under the Supervision of


Mr. Vivek Yadav
Shri Ram Murti Smarak College of Engineering & Technology, Bareilly

to the

Faculty of Electronics and Communication Engineering

Dr. A.P.J. ABDUL KALAM TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY


LUCKNOW
(Formerly Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow)

June, 2017
CERTIFICATE

Certified that AKRITI SINGH (Roll No-1501468501) has carried out the research
work presented in this thesis entitled Design and Optimization of Yagi-Uda Antenna
for GPS and MMDS applicationsfor the award of Master of Technology from Dr.
A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow under my supervision. The thesis
embodies results of original work, and studies are carried out by the student herself and the
contents of the thesis do not form the basis for the award of any other degree to the
candidate or to anybody else from this or any other University/Institution.

Signature
(Vivek Yadav)
Assistant professor,
Electronics and Communication
(SRMS CET, Bareilly)
Date:

ii
Design and Optimization of Yagi-Uda Antenna for GPS and MMDS
Applications

Akriti Singh

ABSTRACT

Modern communication demands high speed data processing and it is basically relying on
the speed and bandwidth. In order to achieve this goal, antenna made of material with high
permittivity and permeability dielectrics are required which allow the enhancement of
directivity and high frequency RF communication and sensing. Yagi-Uda antenna offers
unique directive property which useful in various application areas. Yagi-Uda antenna is
one of the most brilliant innovations in the field of directive antennas. It is simple to build
& has a high efficiency in terms of directivity and losses that occur throughout the antenna
while it is operating at a given frequency. Antennas can serve both as transmitters and
receivers as well. Yagi-Uda antennas have played a crucial role in the establishment of
radar technology, radio communication, television broadcasting & ham radio over the last
eight decades. Yagi-Uda antenna opens up unique perspectives and higher potentials to put
new antennas in the fields of active photonic circuits, quantum information technology,
high density data storage, optical & bio-sensing, medical imaging systems, photovoltaic &
photo detectors.

According to literature survey done, there are various antennas studied like Yagi-Uda
antennas, log-periodic optical, spiral antennas, etc. but there is no any specification
mentioned on the basis of materials. Modern communication demands high speed data
processing which relies on the speed and bandwidth of special design of Yagi-Uda
antenna. To justify the demand of todays high speed data communication and future
advancement, there is a need of proper materials that a designer can use to design required
design at the center frequencies. In this dissertation, I have designed and compared various
value of capacitor which is used for matching purpose and substrate to provide a suitable
support for the antennas. The comparison is done on the basis of return loss, VSWR
(Voltage Standing Wave Ratio), etc. In this work, varying the value of capacitor, which
compared for the identification of proper result. Finally, an optimized Yagi-Uda antenna
has been simulated with the best supporting materials along with an all dielectric Yagi-Uda
antenna and their return loss; VSWR, reflection, etc. have been analyzed.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives me a great sense of pleasure to present the report of the M. Tech Thesis
undertaken during M. Tech. Final Year. I owe special debt of gratitude to Mr. Vivek
Yadav, Associate Professor, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering,
SRMSCET, Bareilly, for his constant support and guidance throughout the work. His
sincerity, thoroughness and perseverance have been a constant source of inspiration for me.
It is only his cognizant efforts that my endeavors have seen light of the day.

I also take the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of Mr. Prabhakar


Gupta, Dean Academics, SRMSCET Bareilly, for his full support and assistance during
the development of the project. I also convey special acknowledgement to Mr. Bimal Raj
Dutta, Head, Department of Electronics and Communication, SRMSCETR, Bareilly I
always had something to take away from his lectures. While he taught, his strong
understanding of the concepts always intrigued me to explore new ideas.

I also do not like to miss the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of all
faculty members of the SRMSCET, Bareilly for their kind assistance and cooperation
during the development of our project.Collective acknowledgments are also owed to my
colleagues; their friendly discussions always inspire new ideas. They have made my
academic career more enjoyable and memorable than I thought possible.

I also want to thanks Ms. Maleeha Khan, Assistant professor Department of


Electronics and Communication, SRMSCET, Bareilly and Mr. Kartik Goyal, Assistant
professor Department of Electronics and Communication, SRMSCET, Unnao for their
regular support at every stage during the simulation of results. I am much indebted to them
for their valuable advice and guidance during our scientific discussions.

My heartfelt gratitude goes out especially to my first two mentors, my dear Mother
and my dear Father. My parents deserve a special mention for their unwavering support
and prayers. They taught me the basics of life. My Mother is the one who sincerely raised
me with her caring and gentle love. My Father is the person who gave me his endless
support and sacrificed so much for me since I was a child.

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I would like to thank everybody who helped in the successful realization of my
thesis. Please accept my apologies that I could not mention your names individually, for
this would require me to fill another two pages!

Signature:
Name: Akriti Singh
Roll No.: 1501468501
Date:

v
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certificate ii
Abstract iii
Acknowledgment iv
List of Figures ix
List of Tables xi
List of Abbreviations xii
List of Symbols xiii

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION 1-8
1.1 Motivation and Objective of thesis work 4
1.2 Contribution and Organization of thesis 6
1.3 Operating System and Tools Used 7
1.4 Work methodology 8

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW 9-13
2.1 Various research work on Yagi-Uda antenna 9

CHAPTER 3
BASIC OF THESIS 14- 44
3.1 Introduction 14
3.1.1 Antenna fundamental 14
3.2 Properties of Yagi-Uda antenna 17
3.2.1 Antenna efficiency, directivity, and gain 17
3.2.2 Wavelength scaling 19

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3.2.3 Narrow bandwidth 20
3.3 Capacitor used for matching purpose 21
3.3.1 What do we mean by impedance matching? 21
3.4 Matching networks design considerations 25
3.4.1 Match range 25
3.4.2 Why chamber impedance is importance 25
3.5 Matching networks design considerations 25
3.5.1 Shunt leg design 25
3.5.2 Parasitic reactance 26
3.6 Balanced condition 26
3.6.1 Parallel line 26
3.6.2 Coaxial cables 27
3.7 Unbalanced lines 27
3.8 Antenna balance 29
3.8.1 Transmitter output 29
3.8.2 Baluns 30
3.9 How Yagi Uda antenna works 30
3.10 Yagi antenna theory - the basics 32
3.10.1 Principle of operation 33
3.10.2 End-Fire Radiation of Yagi-Uda Antenna 35
3.10.3 Yagi antenna gain & directivity 36
3.10.4 Yagi gain / beamwidth considerations 37
3.10.5 Yagi front to back ratio 37
3.11 Yagi-Uda antenna gain considerations 38
3.12 Yagi gain vs number of elements 39
3.13 Yagi feed impedance 39
3.13.1 Feed impedance of Yagi driven element 40
3.14 Yagi matching techniques 40
3.14.1 Balun for Yagi matching 41
3.14.2 Folded dipole 41
3.14.3 Delta match 42
3.14.4 Gamma match 42
3.15 Advantages Of Yagi Antenna 43

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3.16 Applications 44

CHAPTER 4 45-50
IMPLEMENTATION OF PROPOSED DESIGN OF YAGI-UDA ANTENNA

4.1 Choosing antenna material and substrate 45


4.2 Performance depending parameters / factors 46
4.2.1 Return loss 46
4.2.2 VSWR 47
4.2.3 Reflection coefficient 48
4.2.4 Gain 49
4.2.5 Total radiated power 49
4.2.6 Efficiency 49
4.2.7 Radiation pattern 49

CHAPTER 5
ANTENNA STRUCTURE AND DESIGN 50-52
5.1 Introduction 50
5.2 Design On Simulator 51

CHAPTER 6
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 53-69
6.1 Design Configuration 53
6.2 View of antenna on simulator 53
6.3 Results 55
6.4 Related work 61
6.5 Results of Yagi-Uda antenna 66
6.6 Applications Of 1.5GHz And 3GHz 68
Operating Frequency

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CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION 69

CHAPTER 8

FUTURE WORK 70
8.1 For signal phone jammer 70

71-75
REFERENCES
APPENDIX I 76
APPENDIXII 78
List of publications and Curriculum Vitae 80-82

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Wireless communication system 2

Figure 1.2: Geometry of K elements Yagi-Uda 3

Figure 1.3: Antenna as electromagnetic converter 4

Figure 1.4: Flow chart of work methodology 8

Figure 3.1: A typical radiation pattern of an antenna 15

Figure 3:2: Equivalent circuit of impedance matching 22

Figure 3.3: Equivalent circuit of impedance matching 23

Figure 3.4: Equivalent circuit of impedance matching 23

Figure 3.5: Equivalent circuit of impedance matching 24

Figure 3.6: Equivalent circuit of impedance matching 24

Figure 3.7: A parallel transmission line 26

Figure 3.8: A coaxial transmission line 27

Figure 3.9: A unbalanced lines transmission line 28

Figure 3.10: Yagi Uda antenna showing element types 31

Figure 3.11: Yagi Uda antenna showing direction of maximum radiation 33

Figure 3.12: A two element array of a half wave resonant dipole as a driver 33
and a shorter one as parasite

Figure 3.13: A 3element-Yagi, superposition of the oscillations caused by the 34


reflector, radiator and director

Figure 3.14: End-fire beam of Yagi-Uda antenna. (a) Driven with parasitic 36
element acts as a reflector. (b) Driven with parasitic element acts

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as a director

Figure 3.15: Yagi-Uda antenna gain vs. beam-width 37

Figure 3.16: Yagi front to back ratio 38

Figure 3.17: Simple folded dipole antenna 41

Figure 3.18: Delta match for dipole - often used for Yagi impedance matching 42

Figure 3.19: Gamma match for dipole - often used for Yagi impedance 43
matching

Figure 3.20: Typical Yagi Uda antenna used for television reception 44

Figure 4.1: Oscillator return loss measurement 46

Figure 4.2: Voltage Measured Along a Transmission Line 48

Figure 4.3: Simple circuit configuration showing measurement location of 48


reflection coefficient

Figure 5.1: Configuration of the proposed dual-band printed Yagi-Uda 51


antenna.

Figure 5.2: Two layer Yagi -Uda antenna on FR4 substrate 52

Figure 6.1: Bottom layer view of Yagi-Uda antenna 54

Figure 6.2: Upper layer view of Yagi-Uda antenna 54

Figure 6.3: Sharp view of capacitor between driven element and director in 55
both layers

Figure 6.4: Simulated return loss 56

Figure 6.5: Simulated gain at 1.5GHz frequency 56

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Figure 6.6: Simulated radiation pattern at 2.6GHz frequency 57

Figure 6.7: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 2.6GHz at =900 57

Figure 6.8: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 1.5GHz at =00 58

Figure 6.9: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 1.5GHz at =900 58

Figure 6.10: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 2.6GHz at =900 59

Figure 6.11: Simulated return loss at 1.6pF 59

Figure 6.12: Simulated return loss at 1.2pF 60

Figure 6.13: Simulated return loss at 0.8pF 60

Figure 6.14: Optimized design by reducing dimensions 61

Figure 6.15: Simulated return loss 62

Figure 6.16: Simulated VSWR 62

Figure 6.17: Simulated gain at 3GHz frequency 63

Figure 6.18: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 3GHz at =900 63

Figure 6.19: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 3GHz at =900 64

Figure 6.20: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 3GHz at =900 64

Figure 6.21: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 3GHz at =00 65

Figure 6.22: Simulated gain at 1.5GHz 65

Figure 6.23: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 1.5GHz at =900 66

Figure 6.24: High frequency discone antenna 68

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 3.1: It Should Be Noted that these Figures are only very 39
Approximate

TABLE 4.1: Table for the details of substrate used 45

TABLE 5.1: Table for the details of design specifications 52

TABLE 6.1: Values of finally calculated parameters at 1.5GHz 67


TABLE 6.2: Values of finally calculated parameters at 3GHz 68

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CST Computer Simulation Technology


2D Two Dimensional
3D Three Dimensional
E Field Electric Field
GPS Global Positioning system
MMDS Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service
CMMB China Mobile Multimedia Broadcasting
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
S-band Short wave
L-band Long wave
PIFA Planar Inverted F Antenna
HPBW Half Power Beam Width
FNBW First Null Beam Width
HFSS High Frequency Structural Simulator
UHF Ultra High Frequency
VHF Very High Frequency
TV Television
RF Radio Frequency
AM Amplitude Modulation
FM Frequency Modulation
PEC Perfect Electric Conductor
RAM Radar-Absorbent Material
S Parameter Scattering Parameter
TE Transverse Electric
TM Transverse Magnetic

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

F Frequency (Hz)
T Time (s)
W/C The Mass Ratio of Water to Cement
0 Free Space Impedance (377)
Electric Permittivity
c Speed of Light in Vacuum
Zin Input impedance of microstrip line

Z0 Characteristic impedance
Phase constant
Angular frequency
0 Wavelength of operating frequency

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

An Antenna is usually a metallic device for radiating and receiving radio waves. Antennas
are employed in systems such as radio and television broadcasting, point-to-point radio [1].
A Yagi-Uda Antenna, commonly known simply as a Yagi antenna or Yagi, is a directional
antenna system consisting of an array of a dipole and additional closely coupled parasitic
elements (usually a reflector and one or more directors). Several critical parameters affecting
an antenna's performance are resonant frequency, directivity, gain, radiation pattern and its
efficiency. The Yagi-Uda antenna was invented in 1926 by Prof. Shintaro Uda of Tokyo
Imperial University, Japan and his colleague Prof. H. Yagi explained the operation in English
in 1928.
Antennas are basic components of any electric system and are connecting links between the
transmitter and free space or free space and the receiver. Thus antennas play very important
role in finding the characteristics of the system in which antennas are employed. Antennas
are employed in different systems in different forms. That is, in some systems the operational
characteristic of the system are designed around the directional properties of the antennas or
in some others systems, the antennas are used simply to radiate electromagnetic energy in an
omnidirectinal or finally in some systems for point-to-point communication purpose in which
increased gain and reduced wave interference are required.
As present wireless communication systems have refined fastly in these years. As antenna is
required for high directivity and good radiation performance because of rising imposition of
GPS function for electronic devices such as Smartphones ,GPS navigation, the embedded
GPS antenna have lots of focus from the academics and industry. The main radiation lobes of
a GPS antenna should straight towards the sky [1]-[2] in order to achieve better
electromagnetic waves from the satellite. As Yagi-Uda antenna acquire good directivity and
also suitable for wireless communication. The purpose of using L band for GPS application
is the least expensive and easiest to implement compared to another frequency band such as
C band and S band. Yagi-Uda antenna specially used for VHF and UHF applications and
also for microwave applications. Yagi-Uda antenna having three element such as concave
reflector, folded dipole as a driven element and parasitic element are joined to the boom.

1
Fig1.1: Wireless communication system.

These parasitic elements can be two or more than two or three. More directors are used to
increase the directivity. These parasitic elements pick up power from the driven dipole and
re-radiate it. The phase is different when parasitic Re-radiating there signals thereby some
signal is boosted in some direction and other signals are dropped down to together direction.
By which this is clear that the amplitude and phase are manipulate in the parasitic element
also depends upon their length and spacing between them. Director should vary 0.1-0.25
depending upon design. MMDS (multichannel multipoint distribution service) is a telecasting
and telecommunication services that conduct in the radio spectrum of UHF portion. This
band exists between 2.1GHz and 2.7GHz.This is also called as wireless cable MMDS was
grasp as a spurious for conventional cable television. It also has many application in the
telephone, data communication and fax[5].In MMDS, a medium power transmitter is located
with an omnidirectional broadcast antenna at or near the highest topographical point in the
intended coverage area[2]. The workable radius can reach up to 70 miles in flat terrain
(significantly less in hilly or mountainous areas). Each subscribes is equipped with a small
antenna, along with a converter that can be placed next to, or top of a conventional TV set.
The MMDS frequency band has room for several dozen analog or digital video channels
along with narrow band channel that can be used by subscriber to transmit signals to the

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network. The narrow band channel was originally intended for use in an educational setting
(so called wireless classrooms). The educational app has enjoyed some success but
conventional TV viewer prefers satellite TV services, which have more channels [3]. As
MMDS network can provide high-speed internet access, telephone/fax and TV together,
without the constraints of cable connections.

Fig1.2: Geometry of K elements Yagi-Uda

This antenna is used in a wide variety of applications where an RF antenna design with gain
and directivity is required. It has become particularly popular for television reception, but it
is also used in many other domestic and commercial applications where an RF antenna is
needed that has gain and directivity. Not only is the gain of the Yagi-Uda antenna important
as it enables better levels of signal to noise ratio to be achieved, but also the directivity can be
used to reduce interference levels by focusing the transmitted power on areas where it is
needed, or receiving signals best from where the source is present. Antenna is very important
component of communication systems [4]. By definition, an antenna is a device used to
transform an RF signal, traveling on a conductor, into an electromagnetic wave in free space.
Antennas demonstrate a property known as reciprocity, which means that an antenna will
maintain the same characteristics regardless if it is transmitting or receiving. Antennas need
to be optimized for specific applications like mobile phone, AM/FM, TV etc. And for that
purpose the various properties like Size, Gain, Directivity, etc. are modified to get the best
results. So, in this thesis, we had presented a comprehensive study of antenna terminology by
taking an example in HFSS (High Frequency Structured Simulator).

3
Modern antennas often do not differ much from their ancestors in their outward appearance
but are usually of highly elaborate design tailored to match the application on hand. In radio
communication, for example, efforts are directed at converting one type of wave into another
with a minimum loss. For test antennas, which serve to provide a test receiver with an exact
measure of the field strength at the antenna site, this requirement is of little importance. In
this case it is essential that the physical characteristics of the antenna are exactly known.
From the great variety of antennas used today, only those which are preferably used in
mobile radio and field-strength measurements can be described here. The same applies to the
multitude of wave propagation methods. To provide a broad overview it seems appropriate to
start by defining the physical quantities used to describe and also assess the behavior of
antennas and the propagation of electromagnetic waves [5].

Fig.1.3: Antenna as electromagnetic converter

1.1 MOTIVATION AND OBJECTIVE OF THESIS WORK

The study attempts to analyze the existing designs of the antennas and implementing latest
technology with the name Optimization and design of dual band Yagi-Uda antenna for GPS
and MMDS applications. with the consideration as the base paper. Further the study makes
an effort to create a antenna which has witnessed it a modified version of the base paper. The
major objective of the study is to create a novel design and enhance all the major antenna

4
parameters and the minor objective is to analyze this design on the basis of application and
materials[6].
Yagi-Uda antenna is one of the most brilliant innovations in the field of directive antennas. It
is simple to build & has a high efficiency in terms of directivity and losses that occur
throughout the antenna while it is operating at a given frequency. Because of the increasing
demand on the L1-band Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) functions [1]-[5] and the
emerging and promising digital TV broadcasting services of the S-band China Mobile
Multimedia Broadcasting (CMMB) in China [6], portable devices, such as smart phones,
tablets, notebooks, navigators, and etc. are needed to have embedded antennas to operate at
both these bands. The GNSS L1-band covers the GPS (Global Positioning System, initiated
by U.S. at 1575.42 +/ 1.023 MHz), Glonass (initiated by Russia from 1602 to 1610.44
MHz), Compass (initiated by China from 1559.05 to 1563.15 MHz and from 1587.69 to
1591.79 MHz), and Galileo (initiated by Europe from 1559 to 1563 MHz and 1587 to 1591
MHz) bands [1]-[5]. For CMMB service, in addition to the broadcasting from the terrestrial
base stations, it also utilizes the satellites over the S-band to enhance the broadcasting
coverage to form the hybrid coverage modes, wherein the CMMB S-band ranges from 2635
to 2660MHz [6]. The main radiation beam of a good GNSS or CMMB antenna should be
directed toward the sky , to attain better receiving quality from the satellites and suppress the
unwanted reception of the internal noise interferences from the device systems themselves.
For mobile devices, in general, the limited volume for designing antennas has moved
designers to linearly-polarized internal antenna solutions for the GPS and GNSS receptions
[7]. It is well known that Yagi-Uda antennas possess good end-fire directivity and are
suitable for directive wireless applications. Thus various Yagi-Uda type antennas have been
well studied and popularly applied [8][10]. Nevertheless, in portable devices, printed and
simple designs are much desired to be implemented because of the restricted device volumes
and thicknesses. For these purposes, some simple and innovative designs were proposed with
only one-stage director instead of multiple directors to achieve a printed directive Yagi-Uda
antenna with end-fire radiation for GPS applications.
In this paper, in order to attain dual-band end-fire directive radiations from a compact printed
antenna, the previously proposed single-band printed Yagi-Uda antenna is adopted here first
as the low-band (GNSS L1-band) antenna. Then a pair of strip lines with capacitors as the
matching components on its traces is used to connect the driven dipole of this low-band
antenna to its director. By doing this, the driven dipole and the director of the low-band

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antenna become the reflector and the driven dipole, respectively, of the high-band (CMMB
S-band) antenna, and the dual-band design is thus achieved. The design principle is
discussed, and simulation and measurement results are also presented and analyzed [11].
The Yagi-Uda antennas typically operate in the HF to UHF bands (about 3 MHz to 3 GHz),
although their bandwidth is typically small, on the order of a few percent of the center
frequency. We are probably familiar with this antenna, as they sit on top of roofs everywhere.
Yagi-Uda antennas have played a crucial role in the establishment of radar technology, radio
communication, television broadcasting & ham radio over the last eight decades [12]. Yagi-
Uda nano-antenna opens up unique perspectives and higher potentials to put new antennas in
the fields of active nano photonic circuits, quantum information technology, high density
data storage, optical & bio-sensing, medical imaging systems, photovoltaic & photo
detectors. The recent demand of compact wireless devices propels the development of pattern
reconfigurable antennas, which is capable of changing their main beam direction in real time
other than conventional antennas of fixed radiation pattern. This capability helps in avoiding
noisy environment and strengthening the signal detection from an intended target.
Classically, beam steering or switching is realized with phased arrays, but it might be large or
complex to meet the demand of compactness and low cost of the antenna terminals [13].
When a signal is fed into an antenna, the antenna will emit radiation distributed in space in a
certain way. Most antennas are resonant devices, which operate efficiently over a relatively
narrow frequency band. An antenna must be tuned to the same frequency band of the radio
system to which it is connected; otherwise the reception and the transmission will be
impaired. In this paper, antenna terminology is explained using HFSS Antenna Design.

1.2 CONTRIBUTION AND ORGANIZATION OF THESIS

Major contributions of this thesis are:


Design and simulation of Yagi-Uda antenna with different length of the structures.
Design and simulation of Yagi-Uda antenna with FR4 dielectric structures.
Comparison between previous designs to the modified design using whole
parameters.

The thesis report is organized into five chapters. All chapters describe the project into the
details with different topics into the each chapter. For designing of optical Yagi-Uda antenna,
ANSYS HFSS v15.0 software is used as a tool. The chapter wise detail is given below:

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Chapter 1: In this chapter, with the introduction of Yagi-Uda antenna and the objective of
the thesis work is presented along with the contribution and organization of thesis.

Chapter 2: In this chapter, literature review is done by studying different research papers
presented by authors in the field of Yagi-Uda antenna.

Chapter 3: In this chapter explains Yagi-Uda antenna theory basic, showing properties of
Yagi-Uda antenna and how Yagi-Uda antenna works.

Chapter 4: In this chapter discussion on the implementation of Yagi-Uda antenna,


classification of antenna and their comparative parameters.

Chapter 5: This chapter gives the detailed structure of Yagi on simulator.

Chapter 6: This chapter presents the Thesis work on the design and the analysis of the
obtained results.

Chapter 7: This chapter presents the conclusion.

Chapter 8: Some future advancement.

1.3 OPERATING SYSTEM AND TOOL USED

The operating system and tools used in the thesis are as follows:
Operating system: Windows 7
Ultimate Processor: Intel Core i7-4770M CPU@3.10GHz
Installed memory (RAM): 8GB
System type: 64-bit operating system

Tools used:
Ansoft HFSS 14.0(32bit)

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1.4 WORK METHODOLOGY

Literature survey

Base paper selection

Base paper implementation

No Modifications in the base paper

Yes
Comparative study

Result optimization

Final design

Results and application

Discussions and limitations

Fig.1.4 Flow chart of work methodology

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 VARIOUS RESEARCH WORK ON YAGI-UDA ANTENNA

I have read number of research papers prior to implementing my thesis work. They are as
follows:
In 2015, Huan-Chu Huang, Jen-Chen Lu, and Powen Hsu presented a paper on a
Compact Dual-Band Printed Yagi-Uda Antenna for GNSS and CMMB
Applications. In this paper a printed Yagi-Uda antenna with a meandered driven
dipole and a concave parabolic reflector is proposed for dual-band operations of L1-
band Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and S-band China Mobile
Multimedia Broad-casting (CMMB). The antenna is designed and fabricated on a thin
dielectric substrate, and measured at 1580 MHz in the low band (L1-band) and 2645
MHz in the high band (S-band).For these purposes, some simple and innovative
designs were proposed with only one-stage director instead of multiple directors to
achieve a printed directive Yagi-Uda antenna with end-fire radiation for GPS
applications.
In 2016,Alper alkan, Filiz Gne, Mehmet A. Belen presented paper on , Coplanar
Stripline-Fed Microstrip Yagi-Uda Antenna for ISM Band Application in which
design and experimental results of a coplanar stripline fed Microstrip Yagi-Uda
antenna are presented. The proposed antenna consists of a microstrip line to coplanar
stripline transition, reflector microstrip patch, coplanar stripline-fed driver dipole, and
three director microstrip patches on low-cost FR4. YagiUda antennas with the
conspicuous end-fire radiation patterns have drawn much attention to realize planar
Yagi-Uda antenna in the microwave bands. This antenna have six directors of same
length, at some specified distance, the spacing between the directors is independent of
the physical length. The radial stub is utilized to provide a smooth field matching.
The driven dipole is fed by a coplanar stripline, and a transition is used to transform
the input microstrip mode to the coplanar stripline mode.
In 2010, Huan-Chu Huang, Jen-Chen Lu, and Powen Hsu worked on, A simple
planar Yagi-Uda antenna with a single director and a concave parabolic

9
reflector, on a thin dielectric substrate is proposed. Through the innovative design,
the simple Yagi-Uda antenna can achieve the high directivity of, front-to-back ratio,
cross-polarization level, bandwidth, and the radiation efficiency in terms of the 3D
average gain. This proposed antenna is especially suitable for the mobile devices with
GPS functions. To achieve a highly directive pattern, a Yagi-Uda antenna is a quiet
suitable candidate. In addition, a reflector surface, such as a concave parabolic one,
can also enhance the radiation directivity [10]; that is, it can enable the concentration
of radiated energy towards a specific direction. Hence, this proposed design adopts
the innovation of the concave parabolic reflector with the driven dipole located
around its focus to modify a common Yagi-Uda antenna to attain a novel simple
antenna with high directivity.
In 2007, Xue-Song Yang, Bing-Zhong Wang worked on, A slot-loaded Yagi patch
antenna with dual-band and pattern reconfigurable characteristics. The beam
can scan in the E-plane by switching the modes of the antenna, which is implemented
by changing the states of the switches installed in the slots etched on the parasitic
patches. Different modes of the antenna have different radiation patterns and
operating frequency bands. It has one driven patch and four parasitic patches. By
etching slots on the parasites, external capacitances or inductances are introduced and
the parasites can be used as directors or reflectors. By using switches installed in the
slots to change the states of the slots, directive and reflective roles of the parasitic
elements can be changed and the reconfigurable characteristics of the microstrip Yagi
antenna is obtained.
In 2009, Ramadan A. Alhalabi and Gabriel M. Rebeiz presented their work on A
high-efficiency microstrip-fed Yagi-Uda antenna has been developed for
millimeter-wave applications. The antenna is built on both sides of a Teflon
substrate which results in an integrated Balun for the feed dipole. These antennas
utilize planar microstrip-to-coplanar stripline (CPS) transition which is based on a
half-wave delay line to achieve the 1800 phase shift for the balanced dipole feed, and
the frequency dependence of the balun limits the antenna performance versus
frequency.
In 2004, Phillip R. Grajek, Bernhard Schoenlinner, worked on A 24-GHz High-Gain
YagiUda Antenna Array, in which a compact 24-GHz YagiUda antenna has
been developed using standard design tables and simple scaling to take into account

10
the added capacitance due to the supporting dielectric substrate these antennas result
in a broadside pattern which may not be compatible with azimuthally switching beam
systems. For endfire radiation patterns, the most widely used antenna is the tapered-
slot antenna, but it suffers from a relatively high cross-polarization level and occupies
a lot of space on the substrate.
In 2008, Naoki Honma, Tomohiro Seki and Kenjiro Nishikawa presented their work
on Compact Planar Four-Sector Antenna Comprising Microstrip YagiUda
Arrays in a Square Configuration a simple four-sector antenna configuration is
proposed that has a square configuration of microstrip YagiUda arrays and has
common parasitic elements with terminations at the corners of the square. The square
arrangement of four microstrip YagiUda arrays and commonly shared elements
enable downsizing of the antenna, and the termination of commonly shared element
enables high front-to-back ratio.
In 2008, D.C. Nascimento*, R. Schildberg, and J.C. da S. Lacava , presented their
work on Low-Cost Yagi-Uda Monopole Array in which the proposed Yagi-Uda
array was designed for broadband operation in the GPRS frequency range (Tx -
1.710 to 1.785 GHz and Rx - 1.805 to 1.885 GHz) with VSWR < 1.5 and Zin =
50 o keep costs low, a FR4 substrate (loss tangent = 0.02 and r = 4.4) was used
as the thin dielectric layer. After simulations performed with HFSS.
In 2008, Ryan S. Adams, Benton ONeil, and Jeffrey L. Young worked on Integration
of a Microstrip Circulator with Planar Yagi Antennas of Several Directors in
which an integration methodology is presented to design antenna systems
incorporating a ferrite circulator. Two integrated systems comprised of a microstrip
circulator and Yagi planartype antennas are presented as validation of the proposed
methodology. Excellent pass band characteristics are observed in the experimental
and numerical data for both systems.
In 2010, Andrea Antonio Serra, Paolo Nepa, and Riccardo Massini worked on A
Low-Profile Linearly Polarized 3D PIFA for Handheld GPS Terminals in which
a 3D planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) is proposed for a Global Positioning System
(GPS) receiver. The antenna is designed to be integrated in a portable device and
must meet compact size requirements. The 3D PIFA consists of a single metal sheet
properly cut and bent in order to minimize costs for realization, materials and series
production. The linearly polarized antenna exhibits good impedance matching

11
performance, wide beam radiation patterns and a relatively high gain, which allow the
reception from a wide angle toward the satellite constellation. An antenna prototype
has been embedded in a commercial GPS receiver and an experimental measurement
campaign has been carried out to evaluate the most important performance
parameters.
In 2014, Kartik Goyal, Anvita Srivastava, Vishumendra Thakur, presented a paper in
a national conference on applications of mathematics in science, technology, and
management to review and compare the characteristics of circular loop arrays and
square loop arrays with an objective to find suitability of both for IEEE 802.11 wi-fi
standard. The major factors of concern were the gain, input impedance, radiation
pattern, etc. They also concentrated on the advantages of Yagi-Uda loop array
antenna over Yagi-Uda linear array elements.
In 2012, Ivan S. Maksymov, Isabelle Staude, Anfdrey E, Miroshnichenko, and Yuri
S. Kivshar, discussed several extensions of the conventional Yagi-Uda antenna
design for broadband and tunable operation, for applications in nano photonic
circuits and photovoltaic devices by reviewing recent theoretical and experimental
activities on optical Yagi-Uda Nantennas, including their design, fabrication and
applications. They also introduced conventional antennas, which are widely
employed to transmit radio and TV signals, can also be used at optical frequencies as
long as they are shrunk to nanometer-size dimensions. They also discussed the ability
of optical antennas that can enhance and manipulate light on the scale much smaller
than the wavelength of light. Based on this ability, optical Nantennas offer unique
opportunities regarding key applications such as optical communications,
photovoltaic, non-classical light emission, and sensing. They also introduced an
optical analogue of the well-established radio-frequency Yagi-Uda antenna, stands
out by its efficient unidirectional light emission and enhancement.
In 2009, Russell Willmot, Dowon Kim, and Dimitrios Peroulis,worked on A Yagi
Uda Array of High-Efficiency Wire-Bond Antennas for On-Chip Radio
Applications in which a high-efficiency nonplanar YagiUda antenna array consisting
of six wire bonds for on-chip radio applications. The measured and simulated results
are presented for the radiation pattern, gain, and radiation efficiency of the antenna at
40 GHz.

12
In 2016, Syed S. Jehangir and Mohammad S. Sharawi worked on A Miniaturized
Dual Wide-band Loop Excited Quasi-Yagi Antenna using a Defected Ground
Structure in which A dual wide-band Quasi-Yagi antenna with loop excitation
and its 52% miniaturized model using novel defected ground structure (DGS) is
presented, targeting the 2 GHz band. The printed version of classic Yagi antenna
consists of a driven element (the one which is directly excited) and two parasitic
elements, which consists of director and reflector elements.
In 2016,Giulia Mansutti , Davide Melazzi and Antonio-Daniele Capobianco Hybrid
Metal-Plasma Yagi-Uda Antenna for Microwave Applications In this work, a
feasibility study of a hybrid metalplasma Yagi antenna operating at 1.55GHz is
presented. In particular, the directors of the antenna are constituted of microplasma
discharges that allow realizing very thin and short plasma tubes, thus overcoming
some issues related to the use in the GHz regime of classic thick plasma discharges.
We will show that this design choice leads to good results in terms of gain with
respect to the classic metal Yagi antenna, thus paving the way to a new class of
hybrid reconfigurable antennas operating at high frequencies.

13
CHAPTER 3

BASICS OF THESIS

3.1 INTRODUCTION

We start by reviewing counterpart concepts in the well-established field of radio antenna


engineering followed by a brief discussion of the electromagnetic of metals which is also
essential in understanding phenomena of Yagi-Uda antenna [14]. Finally, we review the
antenna research literature, including both the antenna characteristics and promising
technological applications. In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process
of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a
modulating signal which typically contains information to be transmitted.

3.1.1 ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS

An antenna is a device for receiving or radiating electromagnetic energy [17].When


incoming radiation causes a dynamic current distribution to occur on an antenna, it is said to
be a receiver, when an externally driven dynamic current distribution on the antenna causes
radiation it is said to be a transmitter. Most antennas are reciprocal meaning that they both
receive or transmit. Moreover, some antennas focus incoming electromagnetic waves,
receiving and transmitting simultaneously.

When an electric charge accelerates it radiates energy in the form of electromagnetic waves
[18]. Thus, Hecht defines the condition for radiation from an antenna as acceleration or
deceleration of free charges on the antenna. In other words time varying current on the
antenna provides radiation into the surrounding medium. The resulting radiation field is
transverse to charge velocity. A source with a particular electronic circuitry generates time
varying current and a particular guiding device is responsible for appropriate current
transport from source to antenna. Antennas are generally described with characteristic
performance parameters: radiation pattern, radiation power density, radiation intensity, beam
width, directivity, gain, bandwidth, polarization, and input impedance [19] .The radiation
pattern represents directional variation of performance parameters in a transmitter antenna. A
trace of electric or magnetic field at a constant distance from the antenna is the amplitude

14
field pattern whereas a similar trace of electric or magnetic power density is the amplitude
power pattern. The radiation pattern is usually has bulging portions called lobes. Radiation
lobes are high intensity directions surrounded by weaker radiation directions. The major lobe
includes the direction of maximum radiation which is the desired radiation direction. Any
lobe other than the major lobe is a minor lobe [20]. The radiation pattern of an antenna
changes depending on the distance from the antenna. This change in field pattern results that
the space surrounding the antenna divided into three field regions: reactive near field,
radiating near field (Fresnel) and far field (Fraunhofer). The reactive near field region starts
from the radiating surface of the antenna and terminates about a wavelength of the
transceiver wave. In this region the energy decays very rapidly with distance from the
radiating surface (energy decays with the third and fourth power of the distance) and the field
pattern is nearly homogeneous although there are localized energy fluctuations. The radiating
near field region is between reactive near field and far field regions [21].

Fig.3.1 A typical radiation pattern of an antenna

In this radiation field region the field pattern depends on the distance from the antenna and it
begins to form lobes. If the antenna dimensions are very small compared to wavelength, the
radiating near field region diminishes [22]. The boundary between radiating near field and far
field regions is defined as the distance 2D2/ where D is the largest dimension of the antenna.
Beyond this distance is the far field region where the field pattern is well formed and does
not vary with distance from the antenna. Here the energy decays with the square of distance
from the radiating surface. The radiation power density W of an antenna is the time average

15
Poynting vector whereas the radiation intensity U is the directional power radiated from the
antenna per unit solid angle. Radiation intensity U is a far field parameter and obtained by
multiplying the radiation power density by distance square, U = r2W .
The beam width of an antenna is a quantity associated with the radiation pattern [23]. The
angular distance between two identical points on opposite sides of the field pattern is defined
to be the beam width. As a convention, half power beam width (HPBW) is defined to be the
angle between two sides of the field pattern where the radiation intensity is half of its peak
value in the direction of maximum antenna radiation. Furthermore, first null beam width
(FNBW) is the angle between first nulls of the field pattern [24]. Figure demonstrates
radiation pattern, lobe and beam width concepts.
The directivity D of an antenna is the ratio of the radiation intensity U in a particular
direction to the radiation intensity averaged over all directionsU0 = Prad/4. If a particular
direction is not specified, it is taken to be the direction of maximum radiation [25].

U U
D
U o Prad (3.1)
4

The gain G of an antenna is the ratio of the radiation intensity U in a particular direction to
the antenna input power intensity averaged over all directions. Again, if a particular direction
is not specified, it is taken to be the direction of maximum radiation. A constant called
radiation efficiency ecd is defined in order to relate input and radiated power intensities Prad=
ecdPin. Radiation efficiency embodies conduction and dielectric losses of the antenna [26]. It
does not include the mismatch loss between source and guiding device couple and the
antenna. Thus directivity and gain can be related as:

U
G ecd D (3.2)
Pin 4

The bandwidth of an antenna is the range of frequencies where the antenna performance
parameters individually have an acceptable value compared to those at the antenna center
frequency.

16
The polarization of an antenna is the electromagnetic polarization of the radiated wave in a
particular direction. If a particular direction is not specified, it is taken to be the direction of
maximum gain. Polarization is categorized as linear, circular and elliptical. If the electric or
magnetic field vector of the radiated wave at a point is always directed along a line at every
instant of time, the field is said to be linearly polarized [27].
The input impedance ZA of an antenna is the impedance presented by the antenna at its
terminals, ZA= RA+ jXA. Here RA is the input resistance and embodies power dissipations due
to radiative and ohmic losses. XA is the input reactance and represents reactive power losses.
As a consequence of reciprocity theorem, radiation pattern, radiation power density, radiation
intensity, beam width, directivity, gain, bandwidth, polarization and input impedance of an
antenna are identical during transmission and reception. Common radio antenna, half
wavelength linear dipole (l = /2) is a standing wave antenna because the dynamic current
distribution on the antenna has a standing wave pattern. For l = /2 the input reactance XA of
the antenna vanishes and the antenna is said to be resonant in analogy with a resonant RLC
circuit [28]. At resonance the input impedance of the antenna is purely resistive and reactive
losses due to XA are neglected.

3.2 PROPERTIES OF YAGI-UDA ANTENNAS

As mentioned in the introduction, antennas have the function of converting one type of wave
into another. The direction of energy conversion is irrelevant as far as the principle of
operation and the understanding thereof are concerned. The transmitting and the receiving
antenna can therefore be looked at in the same way (reciprocity principle), and the
parameters described below are equally valid for transmission and reception [29]. This also
applies if the parameters are in some cases measurable only for transmission or for reception
or if their specification appears to be meaningful only for one of these modes.

3.2.1 ANTENNA EFFICIENCY, DIRECTIVITY, AND GAIN

The power P calculated above accounts for the total dissipated power, which is the sum of
radiated power Prad and power dissipated into heat and other channels (P loss). The antenna
radiation efficiency rad is defined as

Prad Prad (3.3)


rad
P Prad Ploss

17
While P is most conveniently determined by calculating the field E at the dipoles position.
Prad requires the calculation of the energy flux through a surface enclosing both the dipole
and the antenna [30].

It is useful to distinguish dissipation in the antenna and the transmitter, which is not
accomplished by previous equation. We therefore define the intrinsic quantum yield of the
emitter as

o
Prad
i o ( 3.4)
Prad Pinto rinsicloss

where the superscripts o designate the absence of the antenna. With this definition, antenna
quantum radiation efficiency is given as

o
Prad Prad
rad ( 3.5)
Prad o
Prad Pantennaloss Prad
o
[1 i ] i

The directivity D is a measure of an antennas ability to concentrate radiated power into a


certain direction. It corresponds to the angular power density relative to a hypothetical
isotropic radiator. Mathematically,

4
D( , ) p( , ) ( 3.6)
Prad

when the direction (,) is not explicitly stated, one usually refers to the direction of
maximum directivity, i.e.,

Dmax (4 Prad )Max[ p(, )] ( 3.7)

Because the fields at a large distance from an antenna are transverse, they can be written in
terms of two polarization directions, n and n. The partial directivities are then defined as

4 4
D ( , ) p ( , ) and D ( , ) p ( , ) ( 3.8)
Prad Prad

18
Here, p and p are the normalized angular power measured after polarizer's aligned in
direction n and n, respectively. Because n.n=0, we have

D( , ) D ( , ) D ( , ) ( 3.9)

The influence of an antenna provides a high level of control for the direction and polarization
of the emitted photons.

The gain G of an antenna follows a definition similar to that of directivity, but instead of
normalizing with the radiated power Prad the gain is defined relative to the total power P, i.e.,

4
G p( , ) rad D ( 3.10)
P

D and G are usually measured in decibels. Since perfectly isotropic radiators do not exist in
reality, it is often more practical to refer to an antenna of a known directional pattern. The
relative gain is then defined as the ratio of the power gain in a given direction to the power
gain of a reference antenna in the same direction. A dipole antenna is the standard choice as a
reference because of its relatively simple radiation pattern [40].

3.2.2 WAVELENGTH SCALING


Metals at radio frequencies have very large conductivities and are thus almost perfect
reflectors. The depth that fields penetrate into them, called the skin depth, is negligible
compared with any relevant length scale of the antenna. However, at optical frequencies
electrons in metals have considerable inertia and cannot respond instantaneously. The skin
depth is consequently of the order of tens of nanometers, comparable with the dimensions of
the antenna. Traditional design rules that prescribe antenna parameters only in terms of an
external wavelength are thus no longer valid. Rigorously, treating the metal as strong coupled
plasma is required; this leads to a reduced effective wavelength seen by the antenna [41].
This effective wavelength eff is related to the external wavelength by the surprisingly
simple relation

19

eff n1 n2 eff n1 n2 (3.11)
p p

Where, p is the plasma wavelength of the metal and n1 and n2 are constants that depend on
the geometry and dielectric parameters of the antenna. eff is roughly a factor of 2-6 shorter
than the free space for typical metals (gold, silver, aluminum) and realistic antenna
thicknesses.
The notion of an effective wavelength can be used to extend familiar design ideas and rules
into the optical frequency regime. For example, the optical analog of the /2 dipole antenna
becomes a thin metal rod of length eff/2. Since eff for a gold rod of radius 5nm is roughly
/5.3, this means that the length of a /2 dipole antenna is surprisingly small, about /10.6.
One can similarly construct antenna arrays like the well-established Yagi-Uda antenna
developed in the 1920s for the UHF-VHF region.

3.2.3 NARROW BANDWIDTH


The merit of narrow band communication is to realize stable long-range communication. In
addition to, the carrier purity of transmission spectrum is very good; therefore it is available
to manage an operation of many radio devices within same frequency bandwidth at same
time. In other words, it leads the high efficiency of radio wave use within same frequency
band. Narrow band communication is the optimal in the site where many radio-control
equipments are used, such as a construction site or an industrial plant.

In the field of antennas, two different methods of expressing relative bandwidth are used
for narrowband and wideband antennas. For either, a set of criteria is established to define
the extents of the bandwidth, such as input impedance, pattern, or polarization.

Percent bandwidth, usually used for narrowband antennas, is used defined as



% = 100 = 200 + (3.12)

The theoretical limit to percent bandwidth is 200%, which occurs for FL=0.Fractional

bandwidth or Ratio bandwidth, usually used for wideband antennas, is defined as = and

is typically presented in the form of B: 1. Fractional bandwidth is used for wideband

20
antennas because of the compression of the percent bandwidth that occurs mathematically
with percent bandwidths above 100%, which corresponds to a fractional bandwidth of 3:1.

If % = 200 + = (3.13)

200+
Then = 200 (3.14)

Antenna matching methods that use transformers tend to cover a wide range of frequencies.
A single, typical, commercially available balun can cover frequencies from 3.530.0 MHz, or
nearly the entire shortwave radio band. Matching to an antenna using a cut segment of
transmission line (described below) is perhaps the most efficient of all matching schemes in
terms of electrical power, but typically can only cover a range about 3.5 3.7 MHz wide a
very small range indeed, compared to a broadband balun. Antenna coupling or feedline
matching circuits are also narrowband for any single setting, but can be retuned more
conveniently. However they are perhaps the least efficient in terms of power loss (aside from
having no impedance matching at all!).

3.3 CAPACITOR USED FOR MATCHING PURPOSE

Impedance matching is needed to provide maximum power transfer between the source or
RF energy and its load. This is especially important if you deal with low amplitude signals.
Imagine a radio or TV antenna. To get a good reception every bit of this signal needs to be
used and the designer cannot afford any signal loss a perfect match is desired. So the first
reason for matching is just power efficiency.

The second reason is device protection If RF circuit is not matched we get reflected power.
This reflected power builds standing waves on the transmission line between the source and
load. Depending on the phase between the forward and reflected both waves can either
subtract or add. Because of that on the line we can get places where the voltage is the sum of
both voltages or eventually places where the voltage equals zero (maximum current). If the
standing wave is positioned in such a way on the transmission line so that the maximum
voltage or current is applied to the power FETs they can be destroyed.

3.3.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY IMPEDANCE MATCHING?

For DC it is well known theorem that maximum power transfer can be achieved if source
resistance is equal to the load resistance.

21
For RF we consider impedances. The condition for impedance matching is that real part of
the impedance should be equal to the real part of the load and reactance's should be equal and
opposite in character. For example if our source impedance is R + jX to achieve matching
our load should be R jX.

If we assume that we have a chamber with capacitive discharge the impedance in general will
be R jX. Generator typical output impedance is 50 Ohms. Then the matching network has
to make 50 = Rl and jX = 0.

Let us match a 50 ohm generator to a 2 Ohm load. One of the ways to match is to put a
resistor in parallel to the output of the generator.

Fig.3.2 Equivalent circuit of impedance matching


1 2
= 1 +2
= 2 (3.15)

Matching will be achieved, however not a desirable solution because most of the power will
be lost in the resistor we added. I have chosen here to make 50 Ohm side look as 2 Ohm
because it is easier to correlate to the L circuit which we will derive later.

Now lets see what will happen if we replace the resistor with a capacitor of 1150 pF which
has impedance X=1/2fC =-j10.207 Ohm @ 13.56 MHz

22
Fig.3.3 Equivalent circuit of impedance matching

.()
= = 2 9.8 (3.16)
+()

One can see that by adding the capacitor we were able to transform 50 ohm in to complex
impedance with a real part of 2 Ohms.
One can see that by adding the capacitor we were able to transform 50 ohm in to complex
impedance with a real part of 2 Ohms. So half of the job is done.

Fig.3.4 Equivalent circuit of impedance matching

.()
= +()
= 2 9.8 (3.17)

If we find a way to make the imaginary part equal to zero then the match will be complete.

23
From electrical science we know that inductors and capacitors have impedances with
opposite signs. Inductors have positive sign and capacitors negative.

Fig.3.5 Equivalent circuit of impedance matching

So if we add an inductor which impedance value @ 13.56 MHz is 9.8 Ohm Inductor and
capacitance will cancel each other and our match will be complete. L=115 nH @13.56 MHz
This way we arrived to the basic and most used L shape matching network. By using
capacitors and inductances we can achieve impedance matching without power loss
assuming the components are ideal. Real capacitors and inductors exhibit losses which need
to be minimized during the match design. The most critical component is the inductor. At
high frequencies the skin effect and inter winding capacitance decrease the quality of the
coil.

Fig.3.6 Equivalent circuit of impedance matching

24
3.4 MATCHING NETWORKS DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

3.4.1 MATCH RANGE


Determined by plasma impedance range. Usually determined empirically. One can
use existing matches or design its own box with variable components. Use this
matches to manually tune in to plasma condition. Plasma impedance can be
determined two ways:
Load the input of your box with a 50 ohm load and measure the impedance on the
match output. Measure the values of the series and shunt component and calculate
the impedance.

3.4.2 WHY CHAMBER IMPEDANCE IS IMPORTANT?


Determine range of values for the series and shunt component. Determine current
and voltage capabilities of the components

3.5 MATCHING NETWORKS DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

3.5.1 SHUNT LEG DESIGN


In many cases a large value for the shunt capacitor is required. In this case the
designer has two options
Use fixed capacitance in parallel with the variable cap. The back draw of such design
is that it shifts the impedance. It expands the range at higher end, however it limits
you at the lower end.
A better solution is a series combination of variable capacitor C and a small inductor.
When Xc is at its max value and Xl<<Xc the total X is almost unchanged. So there is
no limiting at the upper end of the tuning range. If Xc is at its lower end and Xc is
comparable but higher to Xl the value of X will be drastically changed. For example
if Xc is 2 Ohms and Xl=1 Ohm, the total impedance will be 1 ohm which is like
doubling the capacitance in value. With such design one needs to make sure that you
are not operating at series resonance (Xl=Xc) at the operating frequency because
currents in the leg will be enormous. X =Xl Xc

25
3.5.2 PARASITIC REACTANCE
Every piece of wire will exhibit inductance and capacitance to ground. Previous circuits we
analyzed do not include any of this stray inductance or capacitance. In real world design all
this should be considered, especially at high frequencies. The rule is keep wires as short as
possible and as far as possible from ground. If not possible every parasitic should be
analyzed and included in your schematic.

3.6 BALANCED CONDITION

Antenna balance is one of those terms that is tossed around quite a bit and subject to many
misconceptions. Actually, the concept of balance stems from transmission line considerations
and has very little to do with actual antenna performance. It does, however, have lots to do
with transmission line performance, so it is important to the function of antenna systems.

3.6.1 PARALLEL LINE

First, consider a parallel transmission line. In the ideal case, the currents on both conductors
are equal and opposite, as shown in the sketch. That means that at any instant the currents on
the lines are flowing in opposite directions. A consequence of this is that the electrical and
magnetic fields surrounding the two conductors are equal in magnitude, but in opposite
directions. At any distance from the line, the fields sum to give the total effect, which is zero,
since one is positive and the other is negative.

Fig.3.7 A parallel transmission line

(Note that for exact cancellation, the conductors have to be at the same exact position, which
is impossible. In practice, of course, the conductors must be only "close", so approximate

26
cancellation occurs. With spacings of 1 inch, which is a small fraction of a wavelength at HF,
the cancellation is good enough for practical purposes. 1 inch is 0.025 wavelengths at 30
MHz and 0.0025 wavelength at 3 MHz.)

3.6.2 COAXIAL CABLES

In a coaxial transmission line, the situation is somewhat different. As indicated in the sketch,
there are currents on the internal conductor and also on the shield. Due to the "skin effect",
the currents will flow on the outside surface of the center conductor. To maintain an
electrostatic condition, the current on the shield will flow on the inside surface of the shield.
Once again, if the current on the shield and the conductor are equal, the electromagnetic field
is confined to the inside of the coax. Therefore, no radiation occurs, since the fields cancel
internally and no current is flowing on the outside of the shield.

Fig.3.8 A coaxial transmission line

These represent ideal, balanced conditions. Since away from the transmission line the total
electromagnetic field is zero, the transmission line does not radiate and has no effect on
antenna performance. In this ideal case, neglecting losses in the wires, all of the transmitted
power is delivered to the antenna. That, of course, is what we want.

3.7 UNBALANCED LINES

What happens when the currents on a transmission line are not equal? In the case of a parallel
transmission line, the electromagnetic fields around the conductors will not be the same and
will not cancel, so radiation from the transmission line occurs. In the case of coaxial cable,
the current flowing on the inside of the shield will equal the current on the center conductor,
thereby maintaining an electrostatic balance inside the cable. However, the difference
between the current on the center conductor and the total current on the shield will flow on

27
the outside of the shield. The current flowing on the outside of the shield will not be balanced
against anything and will cause radiation. In either case, the effect of unbalanced
transmission line currents is to cause radiation from the line.

Fig.3.9 A unbalanced lines transmission line

There are various things that can cause a transmission line to be unbalanced. If an antenna is
fed off-center, there may be a natural tendency for more current to flow into one side of the
feed point than the other, resulting in an unbalanced condition. Also, since the transmission
line connects to the antenna, at least part of it is close to the antenna. The radiation from the
antenna will, therefore, induce currents on the transmission line. For parallel line, the effect
may not be too great, since equal currents are induced on both conductors. Parallel line is
often referred to as balanced line. When using parallel line, it is good practice to minimize
the induced currents by running the parallel line perpendicular to the antenna for some
distance away from the antenna itself.

On the other hand, coaxial line has the center conductor shielded, so induced currents will
tend to be mainly on the shield. That leads to an unbalanced condition with radiation from
the feedline occurring as a consequence. In addition, most of the time the coax shield is
connected to ground, either at the antenna or the transmitter. Since the voltage at ground
should be constant, the full voltage differential occurs on the center conductor, which leads
to an unbalanced condition. For this reason, coaxial cable is often referred to as unbalanced
line. Other measures must be taken to minimize the transmission line imbalance.

What happens when the transmission line is unbalanced? In that case, the currents are not
equal and opposite, so at any distance from the line, the electromagnetic fields do not cancel.
That means that some radiation will occur and, of course, whatever part of the power is

28
radiated from the line does not reach the antenna. That's not good, since it means that our
antenna is actually receiving less power than the transmitter is supplying.

What happens to the power radiated from the transmission line? Well, it is radiated, just like
the power radiated from the antenna. In other words, the transmission line has become part of
the antenna, so if we want to understand the performance of the antenna, including its
radiation pattern, we have to include the effect of the transmission line [42].

Is that a bad thing? Well, it depends. If we want to control the pattern and efficiency of the
antenna, it means we better make sure the feedline doesn't radiate or the antenna's pattern
will be distorted and not what we expected. If we don't care about the antenna pattern, then
the energy is radiated, so it will contribute to the total radiated power. In fact, in some
compromise antennas, the radiation from the transmission line may be important and in some
cases may be as great as the radiation from the main part of the antenna.

3.8 ANTENNA BALANCE

Now that we understand the issue of transmission line balance, we can understand the effect
of antenna balance. In order to feed power to the antenna, we need to connect the 2 wires of
the transmission line to the antenna. But the current distribution along an antenna is mainly
determined by its geometry. There will be zero current (essentially) at the ends and the
currents will take a sinusoidal distribution along the wires. If the antenna is symmetric and
fed at the center, it is easy to show that the current on both sides of the feed point is the same
magnitude, but in opposite directions. That is exactly what we need for our balanced feed
line, so the antenna is called "balanced" [43].

However, it is not necessary to feed an antenna in the center, nor is it necessary to make it
symmetrical. In either of those cases, the antenna currents most likely will not be equal and
opposite. When we connect our transmission line to the antenna, the currents in the
transmission line will most likely not be balanced, so feedline radiation will occur. In that
case we say that the antenna is "unbalanced".

3.8.1 TRANSMITTER OUTPUT

A further complication arises due to the way that most transmitters are constructed. The

29
power output of 2 terminals which should be connected to the transmission line, of
course.The problem is that in nearly every practical transmitter, one of the terminals (coax
shield) is connected to ground. Now, by definition, if we have a good ground connection, the
voltage there is always zero relative to ground potential. That means that the full voltage
fluctuation occurs on the other terminal (coax center). Thus, the transmitter output cannot be
balanced and is inherently an unbalanced output.

3.8.2 BALUNS

So what can we do to minimize feedline radiation and get all the available power to the
antenna? The solution is called a balun, which stands for "balanced to unbalanced"
transformer. The subject of balloons is beyond the scope of this discussion, but the purpose is
to force the currents to be balanced on one side of the transformer and yet allow them to be
unbalanced on the other side.

Thus, if we connect coaxial cable to a balanced antenna, like a center-fed dipole, we can use
a balun at the feed point to ensure that the antenna currents stay balanced, but allow the use
of coaxial cable without ill effects. Similarly, if we feed a balanced antenna with a balanced
parallel line, we can put a balun at the transmitter end of the line to ensure balanced currents
on the feedline, but still connect to the unbalanced transmitter output.

It should be noted that many baluns include some impedance transformation for antenna or
feedline matching. Impedance matching is a different issue and will not be discussed in this
section. However, if you see a balun specified as a 1:1 balun, there is no impedance matching
built-in. On the other hand, a 4:1 balun indicates that besides the balun operation, the
impedance is transformed by a ratio of 4:1. This would be useful for converting a 300 ohm
TV twin lead transmission line to 75 ohms, which is perfect for use with 75 ohm coax and is
acceptable for use with a 50 ohm transmitter output [44].

3.9 HOW YAGI UDA ANTENNA WORKS

This antenna form (named after one of its Japanese inventors, Professor Yagi) has especially
been developed for short wave up to the UHF-band. Yagi- antennas are very popular because
their simplicity and relative high gain and are commonly referred to as beam antennas. They
are used also in radar sets however. Yagi-antennas use mutual coupling between standing-

30
wave current elements to produce a traveling-wave unidirectional pattern. It consists of an
array of a dipole and additional closely coupled parasitic elements. The elements in the Yagi
antenna are usually welded to a conducting rod or tube at their centers. This support does not
interfere with the operation of the antenna. Since the driven element is center-fed, it is not
welded to the supporting rod. The center impedance can be increased by using a folded
dipole as the driven element.

Fig.3.10 Yagi Uda antenna showing element types

The various elements are indicated in the figure. The spacing between the elements are not
uniform. The only element of the structure that is excited is the dipole. All other parasitic
elements are closely coupled by radiation. The radiation from the different elements arrives
in phase in the forward direction, but out of phase by various amounts in the opposite
directions. The Yagi antenna shown in the figure 1, has one reflector, one folded dipole as
radiator and three directors. In general, the greater number of parasitic elements (directors
and reflectors) used, the greater the gain. However, a greater number of such elements cause
the array to have a narrower frequency response as well as a narrower beamwidth. Therefore,
proper adjustment of the antenna is critical [45].

The gain does not increase directly with the number of elements used. For example, a three-
element Yagi array has a relative power gain of 5 to 6 dB. Adding another director result in a
2 dB increase. Additional directors have less and less effect.

31
3.10 YAGI ANTENNA THEORY - THE BASICS

The key element to the Yagi theory is the phases of the currents flowing in the additional
elements of the antenna. The parasitic elements of the Yagi antenna operate by re-radiating
their signals in a slightly different phase to that of the driven element. In this way the signal
is reinforced in some directions and cancelled out in others. As a result these additional
elements are referred to as parasitic elements.

In view of the fact that the power in these additional elements is not directly driven, the
amplitude and phase of the induced current cannot be completely controlled. It is dependent
upon their length and the spacing between them and the dipole or driven element.

As a result, it is not possible to obtain complete cancellation in one direction. Nevertheless it


is still possible to obtain a high degree of reinforcement in one direction and have a high
level of gain, and also have a high degree of cancellation in another to provide a good front
to back ratio. The Yagi antenna is able to provide very useful levels of gain and front to back
ratios.

To obtain the required phase shift an element can be made either inductive or capacitive.

INDUCTIVE: If the parasitic element is made inductive it is found that the induced
currents are in such a phase that they reflect the power away from the parasitic
element. This causes the RF antenna to radiate more power away from it. An element
that does this is called a reflector. It can be made inductive by tuning it below
resonance. This can be done by physically adding some inductance to the element in
the form of a coil, or more commonly by making it longer than the resonant length.
Generally it is made about 5% longer than the driven element.

CAPACITIVE: If the parasitic element is made capacitive it will be found that the
induced currents are in such a phase that they direct the power radiated by the whole
antenna in the direction of the parasitic element. An element which does this is called
a director. It can be made capacitive tuning it above resonance. This can be done by
physically adding some capacitance to the element in the form of a capacitor, or more
commonly by making it about 5% shorter than the driven element.

It is found that the addition of further directors increases the directivity of the antenna,
increasing the gain and reducing the beam width. The addition of further reflectors makes no
noticeable difference.

32
In summary:
Reflectors - longer than driven element = Inductive
Directors - shorter than driven element = Capacitive

Fig.3.11 Yagi Uda antenna showing direction of maximum radiation

3.10.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

The basic unit of a Yagi consists of three elements. The length of every parasitic element
differs from the resonant value of the half wavelength. If the length is longer (usually 15
percent), the element has got inductive characteristic and works as a reflector. If the length is
shortening (in steps of 5 percent) the elements have got capacitive characteristic and is
referred to as director since it appears to direct radiation in the direction from the driven
dipole toward the director. For understanding the principle of operation we will begin with
the resonant dipole and add a parasite element to the array close to the fed dipole. The exiting
of the parasite element by radiating happens with a phase delay caused by the distance [46].

Fig 3.12: A two element array of a half wave resonant dipole as a driver and a shorter one as
parasite.

33
The capacitive characteristic by the shorter length affects an additional delay of the currents
and voltages in this element. If the phase delay corresponds with the distance of the elements,
then both radiating fields are in-phase in one direction and out of phase in the other direction.
Since the amplitudes of oscillation in both elements are not equal, the sum of both fields are
increased in one direction and decreased in the other one.

The single end fired beam created by using a driven dipole alone with a director suggests that
even further enhancement could be achieved with a reflector and a director on opposite sides
of the driven dipole. This is indeed the case. This three-element Yagi achieves an antenna
gain up to 6 decibels. The longer reflector has an induced current in it that contributes a wave
in the backwards direction that just cancels the backward wave from the driven element.

Fig3.13 A 3element-Yagi, superposition of the oscillations caused by the reflector, radiator


and director

The director elements is cut a little short, its self-impedance is capacitive and it have to be
spaced closer than a half-wavelength in order to maintain equality of phase in the radiation
contribution with the wave arriving from the radiator. The gain of a Yagi can be increased by
increasing the number of elements, but every additional element has got a less and less effect.
For moderate numbers of elements, the forward gain is proportional to the number of
elements. The array of elements of the Yagi-antenna can be described as a slow wave
structure. The Yagi-antenna is categorized to as Travelling-Wave Antenna therefore. So the
travelling wave structure supports a non-attenuating wave in the forward direction, and the
currents in the directors are all approximately the same size, although with a progressive
phase delay. This phase propagation speed is about 0.7 to 0.9 of the speed of light [46].

34
3.10.2 END-FIRE RADIATION OF YAGI-UDA ANTENNA

Because of the arrangement of this antenna, it exclusively operates as an endfire array, and it
is achieved by having the parasitic elements in the forward beam act as directors while those
in the rear act as reflectors. The end-fire beam pattern occurs when the parasitic elements in
the direction of the beam are somewhat smaller in length than the driven element. Typically
the driven element length is between 0.45 and 0.49 whereas the length of the directors
should be about 0.4 to 0.45. However, the directors may not necessarily have the same
length. The distance between the directors is typically 0.3 to 0.4, and that is not necessarily
for optimum designs. It has been shown experimentally that for a Yagi-Uda array of 6 total
length the overall gain was independent of director spacing up to about 0.3. However, for a
director spacing greater than 0.3, a significant drop in the gain was noticed [1]. This loss
refers to a rapid drop in the magnitude of the currents between the driven element and the
director. The length of the reflector is somewhat greater than that of the driven dipole. In
addition, the separation between the driven element and the reflector is somewhat smaller
than the spacing between the driven element and the nearest director, and it is 20 found to be
near 0.25 [1]. The length of the reflector is greater than its resonant length, the impedance
of the reflector is inductive, and its current lags the induced voltage. Differently, the length of
the director is smaller than its resonant length which means the impedance of the director is
capacitive, and its current lead the induced voltage. These chosen lengths along with spacing
between antenna elements will form an array with currents approximately equal in magnitude
and with equal progressive phase shifts which will reinforce the field of the driven element
toward the director. Thus, Yagi-Uda antenna may be regarded as a structure supporting a
traveling wave whose performance is determined by the current distribution in each element
and the phase velocity of the traveling wave [1]. Figure illustrates a directional pattern
formed by this configuration of Yagi-Uda antenna [3]. The forward and backward gain, input
impedance, bandwidth, front to back ratio, and magnitude of minor lobes are the most
radiation characteristics of interest for Yagi-Uda antenna. These characteristics can be
improved by optimizing parameters, such as the lengths and diameters of reflectors and
directors, as well as their respective spacing. There is a trade-off between radiation
characteristics of the antenna.

35
Fig. 3.14. End-fire beam of Yagi-Uda antenna. (a) Driven with parasitic element acts as a
reflector. (b) Driven with parasitic element acts as a director.

For instant, increasing the input impedance and expanding the bandwidth of the antenna can
be achieved at expense of other parameters, such as the gain and the magnitude of minor
lobes. However, using a two-element folded dipole with a step-up ratio as a driven can
increase the input impedance of the antenna without affecting the performance of other
parameters.

3.10.3 YAGI ANTENNA GAIN & DIRECTIVITY

One of the chief reasons for using a Yagi antenna is the gain it provides. The Yagi or Yagi-

36
Uda antenna gain is of great importance, because it enables all the transmitted power to be
directed into the area where it is required, or when used for reception, it enables the
maximum signal to be received from the same area.

Gain for reception and transmission are equal when a passive antenna is used - i.e. one
without any active elements.

3.10.4 YAGI GAIN / BEAMWIDTH CONSIDERATIONS

It is found that as the Yagi gain increases, so the beam-width decreases. Antennas with a
very high level of gain are very directive.

Fig.3.15: Yagi-Uda antenna gain vs. beam-width

Therefore high gain and narrow beam-width sometimes have to be balanced to provide the
optimum performance for a given application

3.10.5 YAGI FRONT TO BACK RATIO

One of the figures associated with the Yagi antenna gain is what is termed the front to back
ratio, F/B. This is simply a ratio of the signal level in the forward direction to the reverse
direction. This is normally expressed in dB. The front to back ratio is important in
circumstances where interference or coverage in the reverse direction needs to be minimized.
Unfortunately the conditions within the antenna mean that optimization has to be undertaken
for either front to back ratio, or maximum forward gain.

37
Fig.3.16: Yagi front to back ratio

Conditions for both features do not coincide, but the front to back ratio can normally be
maximized for a small degradation of the forward gain.

3.11 YAGI-UDA ANTENNA GAIN CONSIDERATIONS


A number of features of the Yagi design affect the overall gain :

Number of elements in the Yagi: One of the main factors affecting the Yagi
antenna gain is the number of elements in the design. Typically a reflector is the first
element added in any Yagi design as this gives the most additional gain. Directors are
then added.

Element spacing: The spacing can have an impact on the Yagi gain, although not as
much as the number of elements. Typically a wide-spaced beam, i.e. one with a wide
spacing between the elements gives more gain than one that is more compact. The
most critical element positions are the reflector and first director, as their spacing
governs that of any other elements that may be added.

Antenna length: When computing the optimal positions for the various elements it
has been shown that in a multi-element Yagi array, the gain is generally proportional
to the length of the array. There is certain amount of latitude in the element positions.

38
The gain of a Yagi antenna is governed mainly by the number of elements in the particular
RF antenna. However the spacing between the elements also has an effect. As the overall
performance of the RF antenna has so many inter-related variables, many early designs were
not able to realize their full performance. Today computer programs are used to optimize RF
antenna designs before they are even manufactured and as a result the performance of
antennas has been improved.

3.12 YAGI GAIN VS NUMBER OF ELEMENTS

Although there is variation between different designs and the way Yagi-Uda antennas are
constructed, it is possible to place some very approximate figures for anticipated gain against
the number of elements in the design.

Table3.1-It should be noted that these figures are only very approximate.

APPROXIMATE YAGI-UDA ANTENNA GAIN LEVELS


NUMBER OF APPROX ANTICIPATED
ELEMENTS GAIN
DB OVER DIPOLE
2 5
3 7.5
4 8.5
5 9.5
6 10.5
7 11.5

As an additional rule of thumb, once there are around four or five directors, each additional
director adds around an extra 1dB of gain for directors up to about 15 or so directors. The
figure falls with the increasing number of directors.

3.13 YAGI FEED IMPEDANCE


As with any other type of antenna, ensuring that a good match between the feeder and the
antenna itself are crucial to ensure the performance of the antenna can be optimized.

The impedance of the driven element is greatly affected by the parasitic elements and
therefore, an arrangement needed to be incorporated into the basic design to ensure that a
good match is obtained.

39
3.13.1 FEED IMPEDANCE OF YAGI DRIVEN ELEMENT

It is possible to vary the feed impedance of a Yagi antenna over a wide range. Although the
impedance of the dipole itself would be 73 ohms in free space, this is altered considerably by
the proximity of the parasitic elements.

The spacing, their length and a variety of other factors all affect the feed impedance
presented by the dipole to the feeder. In fact altering the element spacing has a greater effect
on the impedance than it does the gain, and accordingly setting the required spacing can be
used as one design technique to fine tune the required feed impedance.

Nevertheless the proximity of the parasitic elements usually reduces the impedance below the
50 ohm level normally required. It is found that for element spacing distances less than 0.2
wavelengths the impedance falls rapidly away [47].

3.14 YAGI MATCHING TECHNIQUES

To overcome this, a variety of techniques can be used. Each one has its own advantages and
disadvantages, both in terms of performance and mechanical suitability. No one solution is
suitable for all applications.

The solutions below are some of the main solutions used and applicable to many types of
antenna. There also not the only ones:

Balun: A balun is an impedance matching transformer and can be used to match a


great variety of impedance ratios, provided the impedance is known when the balun is
designed.

Folded dipole: One method which can effectively be implemented to increase the
feed impedance is to use a folder dipole. In its basic form it raises the impedance four
fold, although by changing various parameters it is possible t raise the impedance by
different factors.

Delta match: This method of Yagi impedance matching involves "fanning out" the
feed connection to the driven element.

Gamma match: The gamma match solution to Yagi matching involves connecting
the out of the coax braid to the center of the driven element, and the center via a

40
capacitor to a point away from the center, dependent upon the impedance increase
required.

3.14.1 BALUN FOR YAGI MATCHING

The balun is a very straightforward method of providing impedance matching. 4:1 baluns are
widely available for applications including matching folded dipoles to 75 coax.

Baluns like these are just RF transformers. They should have as wide a frequency range as
possible, but like any wound components they have a limited bandwidth. However if
designed for use with a specific Yagi antenna, this should not be a problem.

One of the problems with a balun is the cost - they tend to be more costly than some other
forms of Yagi impedance matching. They may also be power limited for a given size.

3.14.2 FOLDED DIPOLE

The folded dipole is a standard approach to increasing the Yagi impedance. It is widely used
on Yagi antennas including the television and broadcast FM antennas.

The simple folded dipole provides an increase in impedance by a factor of four. Under free
space conditions, the dipole impedance on its own is raised from 75 for a standard dipole to
300 for the folded dipole.

Another advantage of using a folded dipole for Yagi impedance matching is that the folded
dipole has flatter impedance versus frequency characteristic than the simple dipole. This
enables it and hence the Yagi to operate over a wider frequency range.

Fig 3.17: Simple folded dipole antenna

41
While a standard folded dipole using the same thickness conductor for the top and bottom
conductors within the folded dipole will give a fourfold increase in impedance, by varying
the thickness of both, it is possible to change the impedance multiplication factor to
considerably different values.

3.14.3 DELTA MATCH

The delta match for of Yagi matching is one of the more straightforward solutions. It
involves fanning out the ends of the balanced feeder to join the continuous radiating antenna
driven element at a point to provide the required match.

Fig.3.18: Delta match for dipole - often used for Yagi impedance matching

Both the side length and point of connection need to be adjusted to optimize the match. One
of the drawbacks for using the Delta match for providing Yagi impedance matching is that it
is unable to provide any removal of reactive impedance elements. As a result a stub may be
used.

3.14.4 GAMMA MATCH

The gamma match is often used for providing Yagi impedance matching. It is relatively
simple to implement. As seen in the diagram, the outer of the coax feeder is connected to the
center of the driven element of the Yagi antenna where the voltage is zero. As a result of the
fact that the voltage is zero, the driven element may also be connected directly to a metal
boom at this point without any loss of performance. The inner conductor of the coax is then
taken to a point further out on the driven element - it is taken to a tap point to provide the

42
correct match. Any inductance is tuned out using the series capacitor.

Fig.3.19: Gamma match for dipole - often used for Yagi impedance matching

When adjusting the RF antenna design, both the variable capacitor and the point at which the
arm contacts the driven element are adjusted. Once a value has been ascertained for the
variable capacitor, its value can be measured and a fixed component inserted if required.

3.15 ADVANTAGES OF YAGI ANTENNA

The Yagi antenna offers many advantages for its use. The antenna provides many advantages
in a number of applications:

Antenna has gain allowing lower strength signals to be received.

Yagi antenna has directivity enabling interference levels to be minimized.

Straightforward construction - The Yagi antenna allows all constructional elements to


be made from rods simplifying construction.

The construction enables the antenna to be mounted easily on vertical and other poles
with standard mechanical fixings

The Yagi antenna also has a number of disadvantages that need to be considered.

For high gain levels the antenna becomes very long

Gain limited to around 20dB or so for a single antenna

43
Fig. 3.20: Typical Yagi Uda antenna used for television reception

The Yagi antenna is a particularly useful form of RF antenna design. It is widely used in
applications where an RF antenna design is required to provide gain and directivity. In this
way the optimum transmission and reception conditions can be obtained.

3.16 APPLICATIONS

The Yagi-Uda antenna offers many advantages for its use in a number of applications:

It has high gain allowing lower strength signals to be received.


It has high directivity enabling interference levels to be minimized.
This antenna allows all constructional elements to be made from rods simplifying
construction.
The construction enables the antenna to be mounted easily on vertical and other poles
with standard mechanical fixings.
The Yagi antenna is particularly useful in applications where an RF antenna design is
required to provide required gain and directivity. In this way the optimum
transmission and reception conditions can be obtained.
Ease of handling and maintenance.
Less amount of power is wasted.
Broader coverage of frequencies.

The Yagi antenna also has a number of disadvantages that need to be considered.

For high gain levels the antenna becomes very long.


Prone to noise.
Prone to atmospheric effects.
Gain limited to around 20dB or so for a single antenna.

44
CHAPTER 4

IMPLEMENTATION OF PROPOSED DESIGN OF YAGI-UDA


ANTENNA
In the process of designing Yagi-Uda antennas, I am first designing the base paper Yagi-Uda
antenna with 3-elements with same materials and substrates. Afterwards, moving further, I
optimize the design by varying number of elements and by reducing size in order to check
the limit with which a designer can go to get the maximum output. Afterwards,

4.1 CHOOSING THE ANTENNA MATERIALS AND SUBSTRATES


The study of Yagi antennas are one of the most promising areas of activity of the current
research in achieve high directivity due to their ability to bridge the size and impedance
mismatch. As FR4 is a relatively cheaper board, the fabrication tolerances are quite high. So
it is hard to be sure about the exact value of relative dielectric constant. However, in case
there are any differences in simulated and measured results arising due to FR4 board, this
should be able to trace them back by parametric simulation in the software.

FR4 is not exactly a low-loss board, hence not an ideal choice for an antenna. There are
better boards which provide lower losses, but then they cost you more. So looking to validate
a concept for a study, use FR4. There might be some errors arising due to the board, which
can explain by retro-simulation. If for looking to put an antenna in an application, look for a
better substrate.

Table 4.1 Table for the details of substrate used

Substrate/Parameters FR4_epoxy
Relative Permittivity 4.4
Relative Permeability 1
Mass Density 1900
Dielectric Loss Tangent 0.02
Electron Mobility (cm2/Vs) 1.40 103

45
4.2 PERFORMANCE DEFINING PARAMETERS/FACTORS
4.2.1 Return loss:

It is the loss of power in the signal returned/reflected by a discontinuity in a transmission line


or optical fiber. This discontinuity can be a mismatch with the terminal load or with a device
inserted in the line. It is used in modern practice in preference to SWR because it has better
resolution for small values of reflected wave. It is related to both SWR and reflection
coefficient. Increasing return loss corresponds to higher SWR. It is a measure of how well
divides or lines are matched. A match is good if the return loss is low. It is usually expressed
as a ratio in decibels (dB);


() = 1010

The return loss is simply the amount of power that is lost to the load and does not return as
a reflection. Clearly, high return loss is usually desired even though loss has negative
connotations. Return loss is commonly expressed in decibels. If one-half of the power does
not reflect from the load, the return loss is 3 dB. Return loss is a convenient way to
characterize the input and output of signal sources. For example, it is desirable to drive a
Power splitter with its characteristic impedance for maximum port-to-port isolation and,
therefore, it may be desirable to check the output return loss of an oscillator or other source.
The output return loss is measured by applying a test signal to the oscillator through a
directional coupler or circulator.

Fig.4.1 Oscillator return loss measurement


Any reflected energy appears at the test port and will be x dB below the input. This dB drop
is the return loss (after correcting for the couplers loss). The test signal frequency is swept
through or adjusted to be near the oscillators output frequency. A spectrum analyzer
connected to the test port of the coupler will display the output of the oscillator and the
reflected test signal. The dB drop in the reflected test signal below the applied level is the

46
output return loss. The baseline is easily determined by disconnecting the oscillator so that
nothing is connected to the couplers test port. since there is no load all of the energy will
Reflect and a 0 dB return loss reference may be established. In situations where an open is
unacceptable due to high power levels an intentional mismatch will provide a known return
loss. For example, a 75 ohm resistor will exhibit a 14 dB return loss in a 50 ohm system
while reflecting only 4% of the test power [49].
An isolator is a seemingly magical device which allows energy to flow in only one direction
so reflected energy from a load at the test port does not return to the signal generator out is
passed on to the output port regardless of the impedance at any of the ports! This magic
defies linear common sense for passive networks out isolators are highly non-linear
devices employing special ferrite in powerful magnetic fields.

4.2.2 VSWR:

It is a measure that numerically describes how well the antenna is impedance matched to the
radio or transmission line it is connected to. It is a function of reflection coefficient which
describes the power reflected from the antenna.

For a radio (transmitter or receiver) to deliver power to an antenna, the impedance of the
radio and transmission line must be well matched to the antenna's impedance. The
parameter VSWR is a measure that numerically describes how well the antenna is impedance
matched to the radio or transmission line it is connected to. VSWR stands for Voltage
Standing Wave Ratio, and is also referred to as Standing Wave Ratio (SWR). VSWR is a
function of the reflection coefficient, which describes the power reflected from the antenna.
If the reflection coefficient is given by , then the VSWR is defined by the following
formula:

1 + ||
=
1 ||

The reflection coefficient is also known as s11 or return loss. The VSWR is always a real and
positive number for antennas. The smaller the VSWR is, the better the antenna is matched to
the transmission line and the more power is delivered to the antenna. The minimum VSWR
is 1.0. In this case, no power is reflected from the antenna, which is ideal.

47
PHYSICAL MEANING OF VSWR

VSWR is determined from the voltage measured along a transmission line leading to an
antenna. VSWR is the ratio of the peak amplitude of a standing wave to the minimum
amplitude of a standing wave, as seen in the following Figure

Fig.4.2 Voltage Measured Along a Transmission Line.

When an antenna is not matched to the receiver, power is reflected (so that the reflection
coefficient, is not zero). This causes a "reflected voltage wave", which creates standing
waves along the transmission line.. If the VSWR = 1.0, there would be no reflected power
and the voltage would have a constant magnitude along the transmission line.

4.2.3 REFLECTION COEFFICIENT:

It is a parameter that describes how much of an electromagnetic wave is reflected by an


impedance discontinuity in the transmission medium. It is equal to the ratio of the amplitude
of the reflected wave to the incident wave. The reflection coefficient may also be established
using other field or circuit quantities. The reflection coefficient of a load is determined by its
impedance ZL and the impedance toward the source ZS.

Fig.4.3 Simple circuit configuration showing measurement location of reflection coefficient

48

=
+

Notice that a negative reflection coefficient means that the reflected wave receives a 180,
or , phase shift. The magnitude (designated by vertical bars) of the reflection coefficient can
be calculated from the standing wave ratio,(SWR) :

1
=
+ 1

4.2.4 GAIN:
It is an extent to which a practical antenna concentrates its radiated energy relative to that of
some standard antenna.

4.2.5 TOTAL RADIATED POWER:


It is a measure of how much power is radiated by an antenna when it is connected to an
actual radio. It is an active measurement, in that a powered transmitter is used to transmit
through the antenna.

4.2.6 EFFICIENCY:
Efficiency of an antenna basically represents the fraction of total energy supplied to the
antenna which is converted into electromagnetic waves. Mathematically, it is defined as the
ratio of power radiated to the total input power supplied to the antenna.

4.2.7 RADIATION PATTERN:


Radiation pattern of an antenna is nothing but a graph which shows the variation in actual
field strength of electromagnetic field at all points which are at equal distance from the
antenna.

49
CHAPTER 5

ANTENNA STRUCTURE AND DESIGN

5.1 INTRODUCTION

The configuration of the proposed dual-band printed Yagi-Uda antenna is shown in Figure.
It consists of a reflector, a meandered strip dipole, and a straight strip dipole printed on a thin
dielectric substrate. Both the meandered and the straight strip dipoles have one arm on the
top and the other arm on the bottom metal layer. There is no via connected between the top
and bottom layers. The antenna looks similar to that of the single-band antenna presented in
[32], except that the top reflector layer in [32] is removed and a pair of strip lines with
capacitors is added to connect the meandered and the straight strip dipoles for dual-band
operation. For the low-band GNSS operation, the shape of the reflector is designed to be
concave parabolic to reduce the antenna size while retaining the same directivity as that of
using a conventional straight reflector [32]-[34]. The driven dipole is meandered to minimize
the occupied area of the antenna, and it is placed centered around the focus of the concave
parabolic reflector to achieve the end-fire radiation. For the high-band CMMB operation, the
pair of strip lines with capacitors working as the matching components on the traces is used
to transmit the power from the original driven dipole to the director, which has a shorter
length than the original driven dipole, so that the driven dipole and the director of the low-
band antenna become the reflector and the driven dipole, respectively, of the high-band
antenna. Design frequencies are chosen at the central frequencies, 1585 and 2650 MHz, of
the GNSS band (1559 to 1610.44 MHz) and CMMB band (2635 to 2660 MHz), respectively.
The geometry and design parameters of the top and bottom metal layers are shown in Fig. 2.
The focal length of the concave parabolic reflector is designed about 0.2 guided-wavelengths
at 1585 MHz. The length of each of the two arms of the original director for GNSS, or the
driven dipole for CMMB, is designed.

50
Fig.5.1 Configuration of the proposed dual-band printed Yagi-Uda antenna.

5.2: DESIGN ON SIMULATOR


A generic Yagi-Uda antenna consists of an actively driven element called feed surrounded by
passive elements, which are not driven. These elements are usually of two types: a reflector
and a few equally spaced directors. The key parameter of the whole structure is the length of
the feeding element, which should be at resonance at the desired frequency. The lengths of
the reflector and directors are chosen to be off resonance and designed to ad up in phase in
the forward direction, and to cancel in the reverse direction. For that purpose, director
elements are made shorter and the reflector is made longer than the feeding element, which
leads to in- and out-of-phase current distributions.

The dielectric substrate used is FR4 with dielectric constant of 4.4, loss tangent of 0.02, and
substrate thickness of 0.8 mm. The two capacitors on the top- and bottom-layer strip traces
are selected to be of the same capacitance value and with identical package size of 0402 to
enhance the balanced conditions. All dimensions used in the design and fabrication of the

51
proposed antenna are listed in Table I. The photograph of the fabricated antenna using these
dimensions is shown in Fig. 3

Fig 5.2 Two layer Yagi -Uda antenna on FR4 substrate

Table 5.1 Table for the details of design specifications

Top-layer L1 30.3 Bottom-layer L10 30.3


director W1 3.7 director W8 3.7
L2 9.8 L11 9.8
L3 5.8 L12 5.8
Top-layer L4 17.0 Bottom-layer L13 17.0
meandered L5 4.0 meandered L14 4.0
driven L6 12.5 driven L15 12.5
dipole W2 4.5 dipole W9 4.5
W3 4.0 W10 4.0
W4 4.0 W11 4.0
L7 0.8 L16 0.8
Top-layer L8 1.5 Bottom-layer L17 1.5
traces W5 16.8 traces W12 16.8
W6 29.5 W13 26.5
Substrate L9 68.0 Bottom-layer L18 68.0
W7 54.5 reflector W14 16.1
Capacitor pF 1.2 Capacitor Size 0402
value package

52
CHAPTER 6

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

6.1 DESIGN CONFIGURATION


To enhance the directivity of a Yagi-Uda antenna, in ground plane, a reflector surface such as a
concave parabolic can used which is helpful to radiate energy in the specify direction . This
planar antenna consist a driven element, a single director and a concave parabolic reflector only
on ground plane. One of the arm of driven dipole located on the top of the substrate and next
one is located to the bottom layer i.e. ground plane [10]. There two capacitor are inserted on the
top and bottom layer to modify the balanced condition. In this design substrate used the low
cost FR4_epoxy material with substrate thickness is 0.8 mm, dielectric constant is 4.4 and loss
tangent is 0.02. in this having on part of the director ,driven element and concave reflector to
the bottom layer and other arm of director, concave reflector on the substrate with the height of
0.8 mm [8]. Two capacitor are used to matching purpose one on the substrate and other one on
the bottom layer. As capacitor are used to transfer the power signal from driven element to the
director.
There are two operating frequency 1.58GHz for GPS application and 2.68GHz for MMDS
application. The antenna rectangular in shape is 68mm long (L) and 54.5mm wide (W).

6.2 VIEW OF ANTENNA ON SIMULATOR


This view is designed on the ground plane. There are three part in which highlighted portion of
lower one arm is the concave reflector, and middle one is the driven element and last is the
director [12]. The capacitor is adjoining with the trace between driven element and director.
This is used to achieve high gain and decrease the reflection coefficient.
It consists of a reflector, a meandered strip dipole, and a straight strip dipole printed on a thin
dielectric substrate. Both the meandered and the straight strip dipoles have one arm on the top
and the other arm on the bottom metal layer. There is no via connected between the top and
bottom layers.
For the high-band operation, the pair of strip lines with capacitors working as the matching
components on the traces is used to transmit the power from the original driven dipole to the
director,

53
Fig6.1. Bottom layer view of Yagi-Uda antenna
The impedance of each director is capacitive and its current is leading. Similarly the
impedance of the reflector is inductive so its current is lagging and the voltage is induced in
it.

Fig6.2. Upper layer view of Yagi-Uda antenna

This view is designed on the substrate. The feeding point is given to the trace from the x axis.
Middle one is driven dipole and upper one is the director. Whereas the director is only one it is

54
carefully and ingeniously designed to enhance the drawn out ability of the radiation pattern
[11]. There is no via connected with lower surface and upper surface.

Fig6.3. Sharp view of capacitor between driven element and director in both layers

In fig4, shows that the highlighted portion is a capacitor which inserted on the both sides of
the substrate with the same value and the same package size of 0402 to enhance the balanced
conditions [7] and maximum power transfer. Capacitor adjoined with the strip lines acting as
the matching component on the strip traces which are used to transfer the maximum power
from driven element to director. Design frequency at the central frequencies, 1585 and 2680
MHz, for the GNSS band (1559 to 1610.44 MHz) and MMDS band (2500 to 2690MHz) [6].

6.3 RESULTS

This effectively means that for passive devices, return loss expressed in dB is a positive
number, because the reflection coefficient is less than unity. Similarly, for
transmission loss or insertion loss, the value in dB would be positive for passive devices
because the transmission coefficient is less than unity.

Simulated reflection coefficient S11 with the capacitor value is -29dB at 2.6GHz and -17dB at
1.5GHz. Since capacitor used as the matching component at 1.2pF . It is signifying that the
variation of s11 with capacitor is more appreciably in high band than in the low band.
Therefore matching component mainly used for the high band (MMDS).In related work the
parameters of Yagi design achieves good result rather than then the proposed design.

55
Fig.6.4 Simulated return loss

Simulated reflection coefficient s11 with the capacitor value is -29 dB at 2.6GHz and -17dB at
1.5GHz. Since capacitor used as the matching component at 1.2pF [14]. It is signifying that the
variation of s11 with capacitor is more appreciably in high band than in the low band. Therefore
matching component mainly used for the high band (MMDS) [16].

Fig6.5. Simulated gain at 1.5GHz frequency

56
Fig6.6: Simulated radiation pattern at 2.6GHz frequency
Simulated gain at both the frequency is 4dBi for 1.5GHz i.e. GPS application and 3dBi for
2.6GHz i.e. MMDS application.

Fig6.7 Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 2.6GHz at =900

57
Fig.6.8: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 1.5GHz at =00

Fig6.9 Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 1.5GHz at =900

58
Fig6.10 Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 2.6GHz at =900

VARIOUS RESULT WHILE VARYING DIFFERENT CAPACITOR

Fig. 6.11 Simulated return loss at 1.6pF

59
Fig. 6.12 Simulated return loss at 1.2pF

Fig. 6.13 Simulated return loss at 0.8pF

60
Simulated and measured input reflection coefficients |S11| are shown in figure. Since the
capacitors on the traces of the strip lines are used as the matching components in this
proposed design, the variations of |S11| with various capacitance values are also shown in
this figure for a quick comparison. It is noted that the variations of |S11| with capacitances
are more significant in the high band than in the low band. This indicates that the capacitors
are the matching components mainly for the MMDS S-band. The final choice of the
capacitance is C= 1.2 pF.

6.4 RELATED WORK

By reducing the size of the antenna and by added a director, such parameters are achieved

good results.

Fig 6.14 Optimized design by reducing dimensions

61
Fig 6.15: Simulated return loss

Fig.6.16: Simulated VSWR

62
Fig.6.17: Simulated gain at 3GHz frequency

Fig.6.18: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 3GHz at =900

63
Fig.6.19: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 3GHz at =900

Fig.6.20: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 3GHz at =900

64
Fig.6.21: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 3GHz at =00

Fig.6.22: Simulated gain at 1.5GHz

65
Fig.6.23: Simulated 2D radiation pattern at 1.5GHz at =900

6.5: RESULTS OF YAGI-UDA ANTENNA

For good antenna performance various parameters are to be studied. For these parameters the
equations involved are;

10( Re turnloss /20)

[1 10( Re turnloss /20) ]


VSWR
[1 10( Re turnloss /20) ]

100(1 )
2
Through Power

Pav Return loss(1 )


2

100*
2
Reflected Power

66
On the basis of above equations we obtain the values. Which are very much in similarity to
the simulated values.

Table. 6.1 Values of finally calculated parameters at 1.5GHz

Parameters Calculated Result

Reflection Coefficient 0.07638

Return Loss -22.34 dB


Voltage Standing Wave Ratio 1.39

Average Power 41.89%

Through Power 99%

Reflected Power 0.5%

Gain (in the direction of directors) 3.77 dB

Table. 6.2 Values of finally calculated parameters at 3GHz

Parameters Calculated Result

Reflection Coefficient 0.113

Return Loss -18.91 dB


Voltage Standing Wave Ratio 1.97

Average Power 41.89%

Through Power 98%

Reflected Power 1%

Gain (in the direction of directors) 4dB

67
6.6: APPLICATIONS OF 1.5GHZ AND 3 GHZ OPERATING
FREQUENCIES
High frequency discone antenna shown in Figure 3 was used to measure signals
between 1 GHz and 3 GHz.

Fig.6.24: High frequency discone antenna

Due to the propagation conditions that prevail in the frequency range from 3 GHz to
300 GHz (radio links are basically limited to line-of-sight communications), fixed
monitoring systems (FMS) are not useful for detecting interference due to their
limited range. Mobile monitoring systems (MMS) are also usable only to a limited
extent unless they are situated at an exposed location. Moreover, the typically very
low transmitted power levels of spurious emissions in this frequency band limit the
range of conventional microwave monitoring systems.
GPS uses two radio frequencies: one for commercial services and the other for
military. Commercial GPS receivers are based on a single frequency in the L1 (1.5
GHz) band and any interference in this band could stop them from working.
Therefore, traditional evasion techniques such as frequency-hopping or use of
frequency (and time and space) diversity are not available to them. Military systems
have the benefit of both bands and are therefore less susceptible to jamming.
It is likely that GPS will remain the hub around which navigation applications are
centred for some time to come, although gradually this role will be taken on by a few
different GNSS, including Galileo and Glonass, which will work alongside GPS.

68
CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSION

A dual-band Yagi-Uda antenna printed on a thin substrate has been presented. The antenna is
modified from the previously proposed single-band one without increasing any antenna area.
The modification is done by removing the top layer reflector in the single-band antenna and
adding a pair of strip lines with capacitors as the matching components on its traces to
connect the original driven dipole and the director to accomplish the dual-band operation.
The proposed antenna has been designed, fabricated, and measured to have good
performance on the dual-band operations of GNSS and CMMB. This antenna is a promising
candidate for use in the low-profile wireless communication systems where both end-fire
radiation and dual-band operation are required. However, to integrate this antenna in mobile
devices, further studies are needed on the reduction of the antenna size.

The performance of a Yagi-Uda antenna is controlled the lengths of the elements and the
distances between them. The front-to-back ratio is affected by the reflector and the driven
dipole. However, the driven dipole has large impact on the input impedance of the antenna.
The length and spacing of the director have significant effect on the forward gain and input
impedance matching.

This chapter has demonstrated a directional Yagi antenna. To realize the function of the
proposed design, The lumped port as a feeding network for the antenna presents a good
performance and expected achievement. The antenna is fabricated on a single substrate (FR4)
with metallization on both sides. The bottom side is a truncated ground plane located under
the feeding network, and it serves as a reflector element for the antenna. The top side consists
of the proposed design and two dipole elements, one of which is the driven element fed by
the proposed capacitor and the second is the parasitic director. The antenna has been
simulated and tested. The measured results are in close agreement with the simulated results.
The director effect on the antennas performance is introduced and verified. The results show
that the input impedance and the gain of the antenna have been affected by the absence of the
parasitic director. The simulated and measured results of the return loss and the gain agree
well, demonstrating a significant reduction in the antennas performance.

69
CHAPTER 8

FUTURE WORK

This antenna is a promising candidate for use in the low-profile wireless communication
systems where both end-fire radiation and dual-band operation are required. However, to
integrate this antenna in mobile devices, further studies are needed on the reduction of the
antenna size.

8.1 FOR SIGNAL PHONE JAMMER

Mobile phone is one of the most widely used today in mobile communications. This
technology is very useful for communication but this raises several problems in a situation
where silence is required such as in libraries, places of worship, classrooms and others.
Mobile phone jammer is a device that used to block the incoming signal to a mobile phone
from the base station. If the mobile phone jammer is turned on then it cant form the
incoming or outgoing calls even sms.

Fig8.1 Diagram Block of Jammer

70
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75
APPENDIX I

FR4 DIELECTRIC SUBSTRATE

FR-4 (or FR4) is a grade designation assigned to glass-reinforced epoxy laminate sheets,
tubes, rods and printed circuit boards (PCB). FR-4 is a composite material composed of
woven fiberglass cloth with an epoxy resin binder that is flame resistant (self-extinguishing).

FR-4 glass epoxy is a popular and versatile high-pressure thermoset plastic laminate grade
with good strength to weight ratios. With near zero water absorption, FR-4 is most
commonly used as an electrical insulator possessing considerable mechanical strength. The
material is known to retain its high mechanical values and electrical insulating qualities in
both dry and humid conditions. These attributes, along with good fabrication characteristics,
lend utility to this grade for a wide variety of electrical and mechanical applications.

PARAMETERS VALUE UNITS

Specific gravity/density 1,850 kg/m3

Water absorption -.125" < .10 %

Temperature index 140 (284 F) C

Dielectric Constant, r 4.30.5 -

Dissipation Factor, tan 0.0180.002 -

Dielectric strength 20 kV/mm

Thermal conductivity 0.81 W/mK

76
FR-4 materials are being used in numerous PCB applications. They are well proven,
relatively low constant their performance is well understood. Some PCB applications will
have a dynamic thermal environment. The circuit may be exposed to a range of temperatures
for differing periods of time.

FR-4 is also used in the construction of relays, switches, standoffs, washers, arc shields,
transformers and screw terminal strips. r=4.7 (has been reported between 4.35 and 4.8, and
is slightly frequency dependent and varies by manufacturer and lot-to-lot) When it comes to
dielectric constant, FR-4 is an example of an anisotropic material. tan=0.018 (which really
stinks! and varies by manufacturer and lot-to-lot).

77
APPENDIX II

SOFTWARE INTRODUCTION

We used HFSS 14.0(32 bit) for designing purpose throughout the thesis.

HFSS is an interactive software package for calculating the electromagnetic behavior of a


structure. The software includes post-processing commands for analyzing this behavior in
detail.

Using HFSS, you can compute:

Basic electromagnetic field quantities and, for open boundary problems, radiated near and
far fields.

Characteristic port impedances and propagation constants.

Generalized S-parameters and S-parameters renormalized to specific port impedances.

The eigen modes, or resonances, of a structure.

You are expected to draw the structure, specify material characteristics for each object, and
identify ports and special surface characteristics. HFSS then generates the necessary field
solutions and associated port characteristics and S-parameters.

HFSS Process Flow:

Create 3D Add Add Set-up the Post


Solve
Model Boundaries Excitation Solution Processes

In order to generate an electromagnetic field solution, HFSS employs the finite element
method. In general, the finite element method divides the full problem space into thousands
of smaller regions and represents the field in each sub-region (element) with a local function.

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In HFSS, the geometric model is automatically divided into a large number of tetrahedra,
where a single tetrahedron is a four-sided pyramid. This collection of tetrahedra is referred to
as the finite element mesh.

To calculate the S-matrix associated with a structure with ports, HFSS does the following:

Divides the structure into a finite element mesh.

Computes the modes on each port of the structure that are supported by a transmission line
having the same cross-section as the port.

Computes the full electromagnetic field pattern inside the structure, assuming that one
mode is excited at a time.

Computes the generalized S-matrix from the amount of reflection and transmission that
occurs.

The resulting S-matrix allows the magnitude of transmitted and reflected signals to be
computed directly from a given set of input signals, reducing the full 3D electromagnetic
behavior of a structure to a set of high frequency circuit parameters.

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AKRITI SINGH
Proficiency
Subjective: Microwave Engineering, Antenna, Wireless Communication,
Optical Communication, Digital Electronics

Technical Software: ADS v2011.10, HFSS v13, v14, v15,

Educational Qualification
Board Year of Percen
M. Tech (Microwave Examination College/Institute
University Passing tage
Engineering)
Dr. A.P.J.
Shri Ram Murti
Abdul Kalam
Address: M. Tech in Smarak College of
Technical
Microwave Engineering & Pursuing 76.5
University,
Engineering Technology,
AZAD KIRANA Lucknow
Bareilly (U.P.)
STORE (U.P.)

333-A ADARSH
NAGAR COLONY Sir Chhotu Ram
BANDIA,NEAR B. Tech. in Institute Engg Chaudhary
NAMAK FACTORY Electronics & &Technology, charan singh
KICHHA Communicati university 2013 81
on Meerut Meerut
Engineering (U.P.)
UTTARAKHAD
UDHAM SINGH
NAGAR
PIN CODE - 263148,
G.G.I.C Kichha,
12TH UT 2009 65
Uttarakhand

Phone: +91-
7500227974
G.G.I.C Kichha,
10TH UT 2007 74.1
E-Mail: Uttarakhand

akritisingh129@gmail.c
om

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National Publications & Courses

Personal Data:

Date of Birth: A paper titled A High-Frequency Magnetron for MICROWAVE


Heating Applications in 7th National conference on Advances in
November, 1,1992 Communication Engineering & Sensor Technology- A vision of
future held at SRMSCET, Bareilly on 5th, Nov, 2016.
Sex: Female
A paper titled Simulation & Calculation for Cylindrical
Waveguidein NCAMSTM2016, 3rd National Conference on
Application of Mathematics in Science, Technology &
Management, on 22nd-23rd January, 2016 held at SRMSCET,
Fathers Name: Bareilly.

Suresh Chandra Azad A paper titled Sensor and System Role In Biomedical Electronic
on Role of Electronics in Automation and Bio-Medical
Mothers Name:
Engineering - REABE-2015, held at SRMSCET, Bareilly on 31st,
Prabha Kumari Azad October,2015.

Nationality: Indian Webinars


Marital Status: Single A Webinar titled "Design and Analysis of Antennas for a Modern
Smartwatch" in PDH IEEE Continuing Education, held at 29th
September,2016,NewYork.

A Webinar titled "Analyzing HF & LF RadHaz scenarios with 3D


EM simulation" in PDH IEEE Continuing Education, held at 3rd
November,2016,NewYork.

A Webinar titled "Multimode Cavity Filter Simulation" in PDH


IEEE Continuing Education, held at 27th October, 2016, New
York.
A Webinar titled "Simulation of RF Interference in Electronics"
in PDH IEEE Continuing Education, held at 13th October, 2016,
NewYork.

A Webinar titled "Signal Integrity And Emission Of Flexible


Printed Circuit" in PDH IEEE Continuing Education, held at 20th
October,2016,NewYork.

International Publications

Presented a paper entitled W-Band Filter for Satellite


Application in INDIAcom-2017 IEEE Conference (ISSN 0973-
7529; ISBN 978-93-80544-24-3).

A paper titled Dual band Yagi Uda antenna for GPS and
MMDS application in International Journal for Science and
Research (IJSART) in Technology Volume 03, Issue 05, and May

81
2017 (ISSN: 2395-1052).

Accepted a paper entitled An End-Fire Dual Band Yagi Uda


Antenna for GPS and MMDS Applications in 12th International
Conference on Innovative Computing, Information and Control
(ICICIC2017), to be held in Kurume, Japan, August 2830, 2017. ".

Abstract accepted entitled " L-Band Yagi-Uda Antenna for Global


Positioning System Application" in ICMTS-2017 held at IIT
Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

Accepted a paper entitled Optimized End-fire Dual band Yagi


Uda antenna for GPS and MMDS application" in International
Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR) Journals.

Paper accepted entitled GPS and MMDS Applications Based Yagi


Uda Antenna in South Asian Research Centre (SARC)
International Conference on Industrial Electronics and Electrical
Engineering (ICIEEE -2017).

Symposium

Attending symposium entitled Writing up A Quality Research


Paper & Avoiding Plagiarism in IEEE Awareness & Leadership
Workshop held at RIM&T on 26, March, 2017.

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