(An Action Research)

Grade II Teacher


Background of the Study

Reading is a fundamental ability for higher learning. The best opportunity to

teach children the skills of reading is in the early grades or earlier if possible. If this

window is missed, then children who have not begun to read and understand what

they read will continue to fall behind unless swift action is taken.

According to Wolf (2007) the point of reading is comprehension; and the point

of comprehension is learning. Children who fail to learn to read in the first few grades

of school are handicapped in later grades as they must absorb increasing amounts of

instructional content in print form. Poor readers cannot develop proper writing skills

and become self-guided learners in other subject areas. The basic reading skills

necessary to become “literate” do not develop naturally; we have to learn to adapt the

part of our brain that recognizes images to be able to recognize written letters and


Children must read fluently to comprehend what they are reading. As pupils

weave together the many strands of reading, including background knowledge,

vocabulary, language structures (syntax, semantics), and literary knowledge (print

concepts and genres) with knowledge of print-sound relationships and decoding, they

get closer to skilled reading and comprehension (Scarborough, 2002). A critical strand


in this process is oral reading fluency, as measured by the number of words read

correctly per minute (Fuchs et al., 2001).

In the contemporary classroom, literacy instruction is one of the most

important disciplines used to prepare pupils for higher education and adult life.

Through teaching children how to read, educators equip their pupils with the tools

necessary not only to succeed throughout their education and careers, but also in

everyday activities such as reading a menu or checking the weather forecast. While

there are multiple aspects to literacy education, one of the most important components

is reading comprehension. All reading instruction, including phonics, fluency, and

vocabulary development, leads to the ultimate goal of comprehension.

As Opitz and Eldridge, Jr. (2004) noted in their article “Remembering

Comprehension: Delving into the Mysteries of Teaching Reading Comprehension”

that Reading comprehension skills are frequently left untaught. How important it is to

remember that comprehension is the essence of reading and that it has to be taught

and cannot be left to chance. While many pupils receive adequate instruction in

phonics and vocabulary at an early age, many do not begin the process of

understanding how to comprehend text until later.

Understanding the nature of education production and identifying viable

strategies for increasing educational quality in resource-constrained settings are

therefore crucial.

Furthermore, effective improvements in reading instruction may be

particularly important because existing research suggests reading at an early age lays

a necessary foundation for subsequent skill development (Scarborough, 2001).

A large number of programs in the United States have focused on providing

children with one-on-one or small group tutoring in reading, specifically those

there is some evidence from randomized evaluations that such programs can be effective in improving pupils’ reading skills. It also implemented different reading intervention activities among such as. The department adopted and implemented the ECARP of Every Child A Reader Program. As it was published in Manila Bulletin of March 9. The Department of Education is doing its best to address the reading problems among elementary pupils in the Philippine public schools. Overall. Read A Thon and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activities as strategy to the reading intervention programs. in- school reading activities such as storytelling sessions. Department of Education says that more pupils will benefit from a new early reading intervention program that will help young readers improve their literacy skills from Primary to Grade II. research analyzed the impact of an educational intervention that provides schools with age-appropriate reading material and then incentivizes reading through a 31-day reading marathon. and posters that display each class’s progress. and while one-on-one tutoring of all children may prove too costly. Using a randomized controlled trial set in Tarlac province of the Philippines. the results demonstrate that reading interventions can be effective. The intervention proved effective. Philippine program has then sought to improve children’s reading skills by encouraging reading amongst elementary pupils. The reading marathon encourages pupils to read as many books as possible through daily. 3 children identified as requiring remedial attention. Three Words A Day. reading games. Educators continually look for strategies to enhance and improve the reading practices of pupils. Drop Everything and Read (DEAR). The program will be rolled out in September and will replace Reading . Scarborough (2001) randomly assigned poor readers to early one-on- one tutoring. 2011.

In line with the objectives of the Phil IRI. However. The new program will also make closer links between board literacy specialists and classroom teachers.” The Phil IRI will be administered to all public elementary schools. there will some one-on-one support. The Department of Education is doing its best to address the reading problems among elementary pupils in the Philippine public schools. The programs can helping pupils learn and excel in reading and writing is critical to their lifelong success. in spite of the reading interventions. meaning fewer pupils will be taken out of the classroom. the Bureau of Elementary Education (BEE) developed the “Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil IRI). Like Reading Recovery. Many of them cannot understand what they have read Thus. the DepEd gave and implemented specific remedial intervention for the program among which are the Drop Everything . the reading comprehensions of the many of pupils even those who are in the higher grades and in high school are still poor. The department adopted and implemented the ECARP of Every Child A Reader Program.” The Phil IRI will be administered to all public elementary schools to assess the progress and levels of reading ability and comprehension of the pupils after the intervention programs. the Bureau of Elementary Education (BEE) developed the “Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil IRI). In support of the program. but the focus will be on small groups within the classroom In support of the program. 4 Recovery. This will be an example of what is meant when one says putting children and learning first. educators continually look for strategies to enhance and improve the reading practices of their student. a program designed to serve a small percentage of struggling Grade 1 readers needing intensive support.

it gives pupils time to read what they want to read. share what they've read. The learner develops more self-confidence and can now interact in his different subjects. the Activities for Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC). 4) sequencing events. The modules are made up of six (6) levels contained in six boxes. a student’s learning gap is addressed. and 5) cause and effect relationships. . The Activities for Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC) is developed by Aravela A. gray (level 4). his level of comprehension works up to the higher level. 5 and Read. and receive the support they need for further reading explorations and reflections. A daily DEAR program (Drop Everything and Read) provides pupils with much more than a just-sit-there-and-read experience. Ramos in 2005. and brown (level 6). When a student completes a book. 2) getting the main idea. The child starts where he is. color-coded as red (level 1). blue (level 5). which is guided by the DRTA strategy or Directed Reading-Thinking and Activities. These are learning modules designed to develop the reading comprehension of the elementary as well as the secondary level students who want to develop critical thinking. With these modules. 3) predicting outcome. green (level 3). Each box has five (5) skills to develop: 1) noting details. assess progress. and target instruction. he or she conferences with the teacher to discuss the book and share his or her reading log. yellow (level 2). Even more important. Daily reading sessions last between twenty and thirty minutes and are followed by fifteen minutes in which pupils can write in their reading response logs. It gives the teacher a structured time to touch base with each student over a period of time.

Statement of the Problem This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Drop Everything and Read (DEAR) and the Activities for Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC) materials for reading program on the reading skill and comprehension of the Grade II pupils in learning the English subject. What is reading comprehension of the Grade II pupils at the end of the school year 2016-2017 after DEAR reading program was implemented and ABRC materials were used? 3. 6 This research was then undertaken to determine the effect of Drop Everything and Read (DEAR) as an intervention program to enhance the reading skill and comprehension of the grade seven pupils at Matuyatuya Elementary School. What is the reading comprehension of the Grade II pupils at the beginning of the school year 2016-2017? 2. Is there a significant difference between the reading comprehension at the beginning and at the end of the school year after DEAR reading program was implemented and ABRC materials were used? Scope and Delimitation This research studied the effectiveness of Drop Everything and Read Reading Program (DEAR) and the Activities for Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC) on . Specifically. it sought answer to the following questions: 1.

data gathered may help enhance and improve the instructional competencies of teachers in the teaching –learning process and remedial work may be given to pupils to better hone their comprehension skill in reading. . results of this may serve as an eye opener for them initiate changes in the development of various reading instructional supplementary materials that will enrich and enhance the quality of education provided to learners. results of this study will also be beneficial to the following: For the educational policy makers. This may also serve as basis for revitalizing and identifying a more effective and efficient learning materials and reading programs within an acceptable cost to enhance the reading skill and comprehension skill of the pupils. For the school administrators. Results may give teachers lots of insights in redesigning reading intervention such as DEAR that they can make use as daily reading intervention. results of this study may be used by them to redesign and updates modules and program for the improvement of reading comprehension of the pupils in all levels to attain a higher reading comprehension and proficiency level. Significance of the Study The result of this study will give significant to the following groups of individuals: Specifically. speaking. For the teachers. and writing and limited only on assessing the oral reading skill and comprehension of the Grade II pupils. 7 the reading comprehension of the Grade II pupils in Matuyatuya Elementary School for the School Year 2016-2017. The research will not touch other aspects or learning areas of English such as listening.

.a process called comprehension. and motivation. and then coordinates identifying words and making meaning so that reading is automatic and accurate an achievement called fluency. II. The Nature of Reading Reading has been defined in different disciplines by many authors and reading experts in many ways. fluency. Results of this study may help them to progress smoothly from one level to another and provide opportunities to practice reading skills and perform better under different conditions. constructs an understanding for them. results of this study may be used as bases for comparison. It requires that a reader identifies the words in print-a process called word recognition. the reading intervention program DEAR may help them improve their ability to read and to comprehend at their own pace. thereby enriching materials to be used for reading intervention such as DEAR in order to provide overall assessment of the intervention or the reading program. comprehension. For the future researchers. Reading also means making meaning from print. Leipzig (2001) defined reading as a multifaceted process involving word recognition. 8 For the pupils. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This presents selected literature and related studies pertinent to the study to give additional insights and information for better understanding of the problem presented for investigation. They may become more motivated to learn and that learning may be more interesting and meaningful to conduct independent reading and study.

sampling. It contributes to personality changes for it provides pupils with reading materials that meet their needs or some have application to their lives. It demands knowledge of orthographic regularity and irregularity. encoding. it is a complex interaction between the text and the leader which is shaped by the reader’s prior knowledge. Surely reading is one of our most complex daily activities". The reader attempts to reconstruct a message from the writer. decoding. According to Gray. It integrates letters. and of sharing information and ideas. 9 The Reading Process According to Fisher (1981) A variety of cognitive skills are required for reading involves sequencing of eye movements. The reading process requires continuous practice. and language community which is culturally and socially situated. in drawing outcomes and conclusions. words. reading is defined as “a complex cognitive process of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning. of communication. development.” It is a means of language acquisition. experiences. and passages with past experience. and refinement. It is a thinking process that concerns with the reader’s skill in making interpretation and generalization. Consideration will now be given to some of these cognitive processes. From Wikipedia. In her book. Like all languages. Villamin (2001) cited several meanings of reading from different authors published in the International Reading Association publications by Harris and Hedges as follows: Reading is viewed by Spoche as a developmental task. attitude. selecting. sentences. and utilizing linguistic awareness. reading is an interaction between the reader and the writer. .

This is referred to as reading comprehension and can be viewed as product f two necessary components: decoding and linguistic comprehension. for specific information. determining sequence. drawing conclusions. The act of reading is a process which involves steps to achieve and reinforce understanding namely: word perception. comprehension. Reading Comprehension Reading is the gateway to comprehension. The goal of reading is to extract meaning. and following directions. It is a two-way process involving the perception and comprehension of written messages cited by Tinker. to locate materials dealing special problems or to share information with others. Reading is a tool for learning and in mastering all other subjects in the curriculum. built up through experience and the construction of new meanings through manipulation of concepts already possessed by the reader. It is in this sense that several reading skills are needed to comprehend and react to the selection. a part of communication arts and a means to an end. (2009) mentioned that reading is one of the four macro skills taught in the English subject. People read for pleasure. and Thorndike. Cullough. 10 predicting. finding cause and effect relationships. Learning performance in almost all the child’s school words depend to a great measure on his proficiency in reading. It is also believed that reading involves the recognition of printed or written words which serve as stimuli for the recall of meaning. noting details or proof sentences. Mercado et al.. making judgment. predicting outcomes. . All are needed to fully grasp the message. Relative to this. Such skills are getting the main idea. comparing and confirming activity in which the reader selects as a sample of useful and graphic cues based on what he sees and what he expects to see. The resulting meanings are organized.

Of all these steps. This understanding comes from the interaction between the words that are written and how they trigger knowledge outside the text/message. Comprehension is the act of grasping the meaning. research on the field has focused on the comprehension and the issues that revolve around it. 2000). According to her. 11 reaction. which includes all the events of circumstances and concepts that must be put together. a process of constructing meaning from written texts. As a . It is an integrated skill. In accordance with this theory. The National Reading Panel (2000) states that. “ This statement is supported by Villamin (1994) when she pointed out that reading implies comprehension. there is a need to assess the student’s ability to obtain meaning from the text in a variety of context (Swearinger. A structure is formed. Reading comprehension is defined as the level of understanding of a text/message. She added that developing comprehension which is a constellation of skills or abilities is difficult. Comprehension is a means of integrating information when individuals read. a complex skill requiring coordination of several kinds of interrelated sources of information. an individual must understand what he reads if he is to accomplish any process expect to waste time. Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (PHIL-IRI) In reading. significance or nature of an idea with intellect and specifies understanding as its closes synonym. Allen & Carp. the reader is an active participant in the construction of meaning. “reading comprehension is critically important to the development of children’s reading skill and therefore the ability to obtain an education. and integration. Teachers must acknowledge the importance of reading skills and must plan an effective program of reading instruction with focus on promoting reading culture among learners.

and word identification strategies within context. The student gets 9 to 10 correct answers for comprehension. The student’s oral reading is rhythmical with conversational tone and correct interpretation. Each reading level of the student can be identified by specific indicators. The student is free from tension. finger pointing or lip movement. The independent level. it is the highest level of which a student can read independently and with east without the help of guide of the teacher. The Phil-IRI is an authentic reading assessment that attempts to evaluate reading in a way that is more closely aligned to the actual classroom instruction. the development of reading tool is necessary. while qualitative information reveals word recognition. vocabulary. The instructional level is the level at which the student can profit from instruction. It determines pupils’ thinking processes as well as their reading comprehension. The tool support the DepEd thrust “Every Child a Reader Program (ECARP). The call for a unified assessment toll is the onset of the development of the Philippine Informal Reading Inventory. 12 result. The PHIL IRI gives both quantitative and qualitative information about the pupils’ reading capabilities. The Department of Education is conducting every year the Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (PHIL-IRI) for both silent and oral reading. reading behaviors and attitudes and the measurement of reading growth over time. This tool could provide for reading inventory by providing a common reference point. The student reads with rhythm and with conversational tone and interprets punctuations correctly. Quantitative information shows the reading levels namely: frustration. Under this program. . every child is a reader by the end of grade II. and independent levels. comprehension strengths and difficulties. instructional. patterns of word errors. The student answers correctly 7 out of 10 questions.

Drop Every and Read Drop Everything And Read time. mispronunciation. becomes a regular part of the classroom schedule. When D. . Every year. time conveniently accommodates a variety of student interests and ability levels. E..D. repetition. It is an extra activity that gets plugged into the schedule when another lesson finishes early or dropped from the schedule when a lesson runs longer than expected or a fire drill interrupts class. insertion. E. The student commits errors in reading such as reversal. D. R. supplements the regular reading program by encouraging independent reading. A. A. R. better known as D. substitution. but it does not replace guided reading." D. A. A. R. since each student selects for himself or herself the book or books he or she wishes to read. Results reveal that most the Grade II or formerly first year pupils fall under either frustration or instructional levels. R. E. E. R. R. It is a substitute for other language arts instruction -. 13 The frustration level is the lowest reading level. E. each student should bring a book from home or select a book from the classroom library before D. The student shows withdrawal from reading situations by crying or refusing to read. E. is a time regularly set aside in the classroom schedule for both pupils and their teachers to "drop everything and read. R. When D. English teachers are conducting PHIL IRI for silent and oral reading. time. time begins. R. D. time is "dear. E. E. A. and inability to interpret punctuation. A. A. time is a priority and so that they can look forward to this special period. E. R. A. A. The student gets a score of 5 and below in the reading comprehension check. Certain measures and interventions need to be given to them." It is an important part of the daily or weekly classroom schedule. The student shows evidence of finger pointing or lip movement. is not intended to be. It is scheduled for the same time each day or week so pupils recognize that D.

yellow (level 2). a student’s learning gap is addressed. The learner develops more self-confidence and can now interact in his different subjects. gray (level 4). The child starts where he is. . 4) sequencing events. Getting the main idea is getting important information that tells more about the overall idea of the paragraph or section. These are learning modules designed to develop the reading comprehension of the elementary as well as the secondary level students who want to develop critical thinking. Sequencing event is arranging events based on what you read. With these modules. Ramos in 2005. Each box has five (5) skills to develop: 1) noting details. color-coded as red (level 1). such that one or more are the results of the other or others. blue (level 5). every student should be prepared to pull out immediately a pre-selected book and begin to read. green (level 3). and brown (level 6). his level of comprehension works up to the higher level. Predicting outcomes is telling what might possibly happen next in the story. and 5) cause and effect relationships. The modules are made up of six (6) levels contained in six boxes. 2) getting the main idea. 3) predicting outcome. Activities for Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC) The Activities for Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC) is developed by Aravela A. 14 time arrives. Noting details is reading comprehension skill that involves picking out from a piece of text the particular piece or pieces of information to achieve a given purpose such as answering question in a test. Cause and effect is a relationship between actions or events.

The following are the guides and steps on how to use the modules/materials: 1. Once the pupil gets . As soon as the pupil has finished answering the questions. The grade level of pupils after administering the reading test is first determined.Level 3 d. Yellow . It is the level wherein the pupils should start reading the different skills in the box.Level 1 b. Green . Each box has 5 skills to develop namely: A. he or she can check his or her answers using the Key to Correction found at the back of each box. he or she is instructed to start with skill A.Level 2 c. 15 There are 35 exercises per skill followed by questions that intends to test comprehension of the reader. the pupil is informed the color of the box that he or she is working on. Cause and Effect 5. The Red is the lowest level. Getting the Main Idea C. with each box having own levels as follows: a. Based on the result of the reading test. Brown -Level 6 Each color-coded level is arranged according to the complexity of the exercises. Gray -Level 4 e. There are thirty-five (35) exercises per skill. A sample of the form is enclosed in each box. Noting Details B. There are six boxes. 4. He or she is told to record his or her score on the Individual Record Form. 2. 3. Predicting Outcome D. Sequencing E. Once the learner has identified the color of his or her box. Blue -Level 5 f. Each learner is furnished with his or her own Individual Record Form. He or she is instructed to read the story and then answer the questions after reading the story. The pupil is told which exercise to begin. Red .

he or she is then told to report it to the teacher. This type of research is suited in this type of research. . that level is too difficult for the pupil. He or she will be told to go to the next lower level or color. III. 7. The pupil is now tested or told to the next higher skill. then. Research Design This research study utilized the descriptive type of research. In a big concept. As cited by Calmorin (2004). it describes the effects of the intervention program on pupils’ reading profile as it presented the existing relationship between the two variables. Research Hypothesis There is no significant difference on the reading skill and comprehension of the Grade III pupils when DEAR is implemented in the English class and ABRC materials are used. research locale. If a pupil gets a very low scores after 3 or exercises. data collection procedure and the data analysis procedure. since it attempted to describe the improvement of the pupils’ reading ability and comprehension after the DEAR program as reading intervention program. the research instrument. 16 a perfect score. the sample. 6. he or she can proceed to the next higher level or box. the descriptive type of research aims to gather information about the past and present conditions and describes the nature of the variables. Once the pupil has finished with all the skills in a particular box. METHODOLOGY This presents the research design.

followed by ten item questions. For silent reading test. For silent or reading comprehension test. Test materials for pre test for (oral reading ability) consist of one reading passage of 88 words which was immediately followed by a prompt consist of ten questions. the test materials. pupils’ oral reading miscues were . For oral reading test. Division of Marinduque. a non-central school in Torrijos District. Data Collection Procedure Pre tests were administered at the beginning of the school year to the grade seven pupils to assess the oral and silent reading abilities. pupils were given one passage consist of 88 words and immediately followed by ten item questions. The choice of the research locale is due to the researcher’s deep concern enhancing the quality of English reading instruction in the said school. The prompt activates the pupils’ motivation to reading. the test materials are consist of 2 reading passages of 88 words for pre test and post test respectively followed by seven prompt questions. it is consist of one reading passage of 88 words for pre test followed by eight item questions and another reading passage of 88 words for post test. During the administration of the pre test. The Sample The subjects of this study were the 29 Grade II pupils. 17 Research Locale The study was conducted in Matuyatuya Elementary School. Research Instruments This research adopted the Phil IRI form 1.

Post tests were administered at the end of the school year. to determine the improvement difference of the grade seven pupils in their oral and silent reading abilities. Miscues and answers were recorded and interpreted as frustration. instructional and independent. pupils were given the materials for Drop Everything and Read (DEAR) program and the Activities for Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC) to enhance the reading ability and comprehension. To get the effects of reading intervention on pupils reading ability and comprehension. The Chi square tested the research null hypothesis. Pupils were given one reading passage of 88 words and seven item questions for post oral test. 18 recorded as well the result of the prompt questions. Results were then interpreted as frustration. Table 1. instructional and independent. Results of the Phil-IRI SY 2016-2017 . After the pre test. one reading passage of 88 words and eight item questions for post silent test. Chi – square was employed. Data Analysis Results of pre and post tests in both oral and silent readings were compared and computed to get the improvement difference using descriptive statistics like percentage.

43 1 7.66 1 6.62% in the pre-test.96 POST TEST Reading Levels Number of Pupils Tested Frustration Instructional Independent Non Reader f % F % f % f % Male 14 4 28.96% in the post test. The total increase is 6.34 7.57 10 71. 19 Grade VI – English Oral Test (Number and Percentage of Pupils per Reading Levels) PRE TEST Reading Levels Number of Pupils Tested Frustration Instructional Independent Non Reader f % f % f % f % Male 14 3 21. In addition.34%.66 2 6. the percent of instructional reading level also increases from 6. Consequently.79 0 0 Decreased 6.00 Table 1 indicates a decrease of frustration from 24. Findings also implied that pupils’ oral and silent (comprehension) abilities have improved after the DEAR program and the ABRC materials were used. Table 2.69 Increased 10.69%. Effects of DEAR Intervention Program and the Utilization of ABRC Materials on Pupils Reading Comprehension .28 Female 15 4 26.67 7 46.89% to 13.24 20 68.42 2 14.14 17 58.89 0 0 Total 29 5 17.79%.14% to 17.9%. The total increase is 10. Findings implied that the decrease of frustration and increase of instructional and independent readers are attributed to the integration of DEAR program and the utilization of the ABRC materials in between teaching of English for the entire school year. It has a total decrease of 6.42 10 71.67 10 66.96 4 13.28 0 0 Female 15 1 6. the instructional level increases from 58. it increases to 68.66 0 0 Total 29 7 24.24%.89 2 6.14 2 14.9 6.62 2 6.

05 with df of 0. Summary of Findings. Conclusion . It entails for a continuous implementation of the program and its materials.Test 29 7 17 2 Post Test 29 5 20 3 0. Data indicate that the intervention program to enhance the reading comprehension of the pupils is effective. The oral reading ability of the grade three pupils in Matuyatuya Elementary School is described to be instructional. The level of measurement was set at 0. Majority of the pupils belong to instructional level in spite of the DEAR reading intervention program and the utilization of ABRC materials. the significant level is below the set degree of frequency. the reading intervention materials are effective that brought an increase in the level of reading comprehension from frustration to instructional and 6 of them to instructional level. Nevertheless. IV.049. 2. The result of the chi-square showed that there is a significant effect of DEAR and ABRC materials on pupils’ pupils’ reading comprehension.049 Significant Table 2 reveals that DEAR reading intervention and the utilization of the ABRC materials has significant effect on pupils reading comprehension skill. 20 Sample Frustration Instructional Independent Interpretation Size Level Level Level Tested Pre . Conclusions. and Recommendations Findings of study showed the following results 1.

Guro Ko Program 3. Continuous implementation and monitoring of DEAR program on pupils belonging to Instructional levels to make them independent readers. Buddy-buddy /teach one-each-one d. Although the reading level is described to instructional. 4. VI. Provide individualize education plan with regards to reading to enhance pupils’ reading ability and comprehension. the following recommendations are offered: 1. Literature Cited . The constant use of these materials will eventually improve and develop more the reading comprehension of the Grade II pupils. Intensive monitoring of the reading progress using the individual records. Continuous utilization of the ABRC materials. 3. it shows that only few among them have difficulty in understanding the context of what they have read. this study concludes that the materials used for the reading intervention namely DEAR and ABRC are effective and helpful in developing the reading comprehension of the Grade II pupils. One on one small group tutoring 4. All teachers in all grade levels are encouraged to use the materials. 2. since majority of the children belong to this level. Klasmyt Ko. 21 Based on the findings. Peer teaching b. DepEd other reading intervention programs are also offered:  National English Proficiency Program a. Recommendation In the light of the findings. Mentoring c.

1:97-110.” In S. Neuman and D. R and R.M. Handbook of Early Literacy Research.google.) Los Angeles. Remembering comprehension: Delving into the mysteries of teaching reading comprehension. 2004. 1981. Periodicals/Journals/Unpublished Materials Beckett. New York.F. and R. K. Theory. Pretorius. G. and Student Testing (CRESST). Issue 33: 169-196. Perspectives on reading and listening comprehension.com/#hl=en&output=search&sclient=psy- ab&q=Vellutino+and+Scanlon+(2001&oq=Vellutino+and+Scanlon+(2001&a q=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_l=hp On August10. Inc.B. The relationship between reading ability and achievement in English as a second language and other subjects at matric level.S. Potchefstroom: University of Potchefstroom for Christian Higher Education. 123-130. (CSE Technical Report 670. 2005. Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House. 2001. 1986. Reading Teacher 57 (8): 772- 773. (7): 489- 494.M. 22 A. A. Connecting Early Language and Literacy to Later Reading (Dis)Abilities: Evidence. pp. Scarborough.J. B. and Practice. CA: National Center for Research on Evaluation. 2002. Villamin.(2001).F.). E. Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction promote reading success in all children. Reading in today's schools. In the beginning was the word. Reading ability and academic performance in South Africa : are we fiddling while Rome is burning? Language matJers. 2012). K. Dickinson (Eds. (Retrieved from: http://www. Basic processes in reading. M. 1991. G. Foorman. SAALED News 25: 2-2 Fisher. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice 16 (4):203-212. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. M. pp. 212- 225. Standards. Kokong. Eldridge. Books Gardner. 2001. H. . M. Opitz. Accountable talk in reading comprehension instruction. 2007. Developmental reading. Wolf. D. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception and Performance. Torgesen.K. NY: Guilford Press.

(2001). Online References Leipzig.H. 23 C.org/article/352/Levels of comprehension.readingrockets. D. . What is reading? Retrieved June 2015 from http://www.

24 .

25 .

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.