(An Action Research)

Grade II Teacher


Background of the Study

Reading is a fundamental ability for higher learning. The best opportunity to

teach children the skills of reading is in the early grades or earlier if possible. If this

window is missed, then children who have not begun to read and understand what

they read will continue to fall behind unless swift action is taken.

According to Wolf (2007) the point of reading is comprehension; and the point

of comprehension is learning. Children who fail to learn to read in the first few grades

of school are handicapped in later grades as they must absorb increasing amounts of

instructional content in print form. Poor readers cannot develop proper writing skills

and become self-guided learners in other subject areas. The basic reading skills

necessary to become “literate” do not develop naturally; we have to learn to adapt the

part of our brain that recognizes images to be able to recognize written letters and


Children must read fluently to comprehend what they are reading. As pupils

weave together the many strands of reading, including background knowledge,

vocabulary, language structures (syntax, semantics), and literary knowledge (print

concepts and genres) with knowledge of print-sound relationships and decoding, they

get closer to skilled reading and comprehension (Scarborough, 2002). A critical strand

in this process is oral reading fluency, as measured by the number of words read

correctly per minute (Fuchs et al., 2001).

In the contemporary classroom, literacy instruction is one of the most

important disciplines used to prepare pupils for higher education and adult life.

Through teaching children how to read, educators equip their pupils with the tools

necessary not only to succeed throughout their education and careers, but also in

everyday activities such as reading a menu or checking the weather forecast. While

there are multiple aspects to literacy education, one of the most important components

is reading comprehension. All reading instruction, including phonics, fluency, and

vocabulary development, leads to the ultimate goal of comprehension.

As Opitz and Eldridge, Jr. (2004) noted in their article “Remembering

Comprehension: Delving into the Mysteries of Teaching Reading Comprehension”

that Reading comprehension skills are frequently left untaught. How important it is to

remember that comprehension is the essence of reading and that it has to be taught

and cannot be left to chance. While many pupils receive adequate instruction in

phonics and vocabulary at an early age, many do not begin the process of

understanding how to comprehend text until later.

Understanding the nature of education production and identifying viable

strategies for increasing educational quality in resource-constrained settings are

therefore crucial.

Furthermore, effective improvements in reading instruction may be

particularly important because existing research suggests reading at an early age lays

a necessary foundation for subsequent skill development (Scarborough, 2001).

A large number of programs in the United States have focused on providing

children with one-on-one or small group tutoring in reading, specifically those

children identified as requiring remedial attention. Overall, there is some evidence

from randomized evaluations that such programs can be effective in improving pupils’

reading skills. Scarborough (2001) randomly assigned poor readers to early one-on-

one tutoring. The intervention proved effective, and while one-on-one tutoring of all

children may prove too costly, the results demonstrate that reading interventions can

be effective.

Philippine program has then sought to improve children’s reading skills by

encouraging reading amongst elementary pupils. Using a randomized controlled trial

set in Tarlac province of the Philippines, research analyzed the impact of an

educational intervention that provides schools with age-appropriate reading material

and then incentivizes reading through a 31-day reading marathon. The reading

marathon encourages pupils to read as many books as possible through daily, in-

school reading activities such as storytelling sessions, reading games, and posters that

display each class’s progress.

Educators continually look for strategies to enhance and improve the reading

practices of pupils. The Department of Education is doing its best to address the

reading problems among elementary pupils in the Philippine public schools. The

department adopted and implemented the ECARP of Every Child A Reader Program.

It also implemented different reading intervention activities among such as, Drop

Everything and Read (DEAR), Three Words A Day, Read A Thon and the Directed

Reading-Thinking Activities as strategy to the reading intervention programs.

As it was published in Manila Bulletin of March 9, 2011, Department of

Education says that more pupils will benefit from a new early reading intervention

program that will help young readers improve their literacy skills from Primary to

Grade II. The program will be rolled out in September and will replace Reading

Recovery, a program designed to serve a small percentage of struggling Grade 1

readers needing intensive support. The programs can helping pupils learn and excel in

reading and writing is critical to their lifelong success. This will be an example of

what is meant when one says putting children and learning first.

The new program will also make closer links between board literacy

specialists and classroom teachers, meaning fewer pupils will be taken out of the

classroom. Like Reading Recovery, there will some one-on-one support, but the focus

will be on small groups within the classroom

In support of the program, the Bureau of Elementary Education (BEE)

developed the “Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil IRI).” The Phil IRI will

be administered to all public elementary schools to assess the progress and levels of

reading ability and comprehension of the pupils after the intervention programs.

However, in spite of the reading interventions, the reading comprehensions of

the many of pupils even those who are in the higher grades and in high school are still

poor. Many of them cannot understand what they have read

Thus, educators continually look for strategies to enhance and improve the

reading practices of their student. The Department of Education is doing its best to

address the reading problems among elementary pupils in the Philippine public

schools. The department adopted and implemented the ECARP of Every Child A

Reader Program. In support of the program, the Bureau of Elementary Education

(BEE) developed the “Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil IRI).” The Phil

IRI will be administered to all public elementary schools.

In line with the objectives of the Phil IRI, the DepEd gave and implemented

specific remedial intervention for the program among which are the Drop Everything

and Read, which is guided by the DRTA strategy or Directed Reading-Thinking and

Activities, the Activities for Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC).

A daily DEAR program (Drop Everything and Read) provides pupils with

much more than a just-sit-there-and-read experience. It gives the teacher a structured

time to touch base with each student over a period of time, assess progress, and target

instruction. Even more important, it gives pupils time to read what they want to read,

share what they've read, and receive the support they need for further reading

explorations and reflections. Daily reading sessions last between twenty and thirty

minutes and are followed by fifteen minutes in which pupils can write in their reading

response logs. When a student completes a book, he or she conferences with the

teacher to discuss the book and share his or her reading log.

The Activities for Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC) is developed by

Aravela A. Ramos in 2005. These are learning modules designed to develop the

reading comprehension of the elementary as well as the secondary level students who

want to develop critical thinking. With these modules, a student’s learning gap is

addressed. The child starts where he is, his level of comprehension works up to the

higher level. The learner develops more self-confidence and can now interact in his

different subjects.

The modules are made up of six (6) levels contained in six boxes, color-coded

as red (level 1), yellow (level 2), green (level 3), gray (level 4), blue (level 5), and

brown (level 6). Each box has five (5) skills to develop: 1) noting details, 2) getting

the main idea, 3) predicting outcome, 4) sequencing events, and 5) cause and effect


This research was then undertaken to determine the effect of Drop Everything

and Read (DEAR) as an intervention program to enhance the reading skill and

comprehension of the grade seven pupils at Matuyatuya Elementary School.

Statement of the Problem

This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Drop

Everything and Read (DEAR) and the Activities for Better Reading Comprehension

(ABRC) materials for reading program on the reading skill and comprehension of the

Grade II pupils in learning the English subject.

Specifically, it sought answer to the following questions:

1. What is the reading comprehension of the Grade II pupils at the beginning

of the school year 2016-2017?

2. What is reading comprehension of the Grade II pupils at the end of the

school year 2016-2017 after DEAR reading program was implemented and ABRC

materials were used?

3. Is there a significant difference between the reading comprehension at the

beginning and at the end of the school year after DEAR reading program was

implemented and ABRC materials were used?

Scope and Delimitation

This research studied the effectiveness of Drop Everything and Read Reading

Program (DEAR) and the Activities for Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC) on

the reading comprehension of the Grade II pupils in Matuyatuya Elementary School

for the School Year 2016-2017.

The research will not touch other aspects or learning areas of English such as

listening, speaking, and writing and limited only on assessing the oral reading skill

and comprehension of the Grade II pupils.

Significance of the Study

The result of this study will give significant to the following groups of


Specifically, results of this study will also be beneficial to the following:

For the educational policy makers, results of this study may be used by them

to redesign and updates modules and program for the improvement of reading

comprehension of the pupils in all levels to attain a higher reading comprehension and

proficiency level. This may also serve as basis for revitalizing and identifying a more

effective and efficient learning materials and reading programs within an acceptable

cost to enhance the reading skill and comprehension skill of the pupils.

For the school administrators, results of this may serve as an eye opener for

them initiate changes in the development of various reading instructional

supplementary materials that will enrich and enhance the quality of education

provided to learners.

For the teachers, data gathered may help enhance and improve the

instructional competencies of teachers in the teaching –learning process and remedial

work may be given to pupils to better hone their comprehension skill in reading.

Results may give teachers lots of insights in redesigning reading intervention such as

DEAR that they can make use as daily reading intervention.

For the pupils, the reading intervention program DEAR may help them

improve their ability to read and to comprehend at their own pace. Results of this

study may help them to progress smoothly from one level to another and provide

opportunities to practice reading skills and perform better under different conditions.

They may become more motivated to learn and that learning may be more interesting

and meaningful to conduct independent reading and study.

For the future researchers, results of this study may be used as bases for

comparison, thereby enriching materials to be used for reading intervention such as

DEAR in order to provide overall assessment of the intervention or the reading



This presents selected literature and related studies pertinent to the study to
give additional insights and information for better understanding of the problem
presented for investigation.

The Nature of Reading

Reading has been defined in different disciplines by many authors and reading

experts in many ways. Leipzig (2001) defined reading as a multifaceted process involving

word recognition, comprehension, fluency, and motivation. Reading also means making

meaning from print. It requires that a reader identifies the words in print-a process called

word recognition, constructs an understanding for them- a process called comprehension,

and then coordinates identifying words and making meaning so that reading is automatic

and accurate an achievement called fluency.

The Reading Process

According to Fisher (1981) A variety of cognitive skills are required for

reading involves sequencing of eye movements, decoding, encoding, and utilizing

linguistic awareness. It demands knowledge of orthographic regularity and

irregularity. It integrates letters, words, sentences, and passages with past experience.

Surely reading is one of our most complex daily activities". Consideration will now be

given to some of these cognitive processes.

From Wikipedia, reading is defined as “a complex cognitive process of

decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning.” It is a means of language

acquisition, of communication, and of sharing information and ideas. Like all

languages, it is a complex interaction between the text and the leader which is shaped

by the reader’s prior knowledge, experiences, attitude, and language community

which is culturally and socially situated. The reading process requires continuous

practice, development, and refinement.

In her book, Villamin (2001) cited several meanings of reading from different

authors published in the International Reading Association publications by Harris and

Hedges as follows:

Reading is viewed by Spoche as a developmental task. It is a thinking process

that concerns with the reader’s skill in making interpretation and generalization, in

drawing outcomes and conclusions. It contributes to personality changes for it

provides pupils with reading materials that meet their needs or some have application

to their lives.

According to Gray, reading is an interaction between the reader and the writer.

The reader attempts to reconstruct a message from the writer, sampling, selecting,

predicting, comparing and confirming activity in which the reader selects as a sample

of useful and graphic cues based on what he sees and what he expects to see.

It is also believed that reading involves the recognition of printed or written

words which serve as stimuli for the recall of meaning, built up through experience

and the construction of new meanings through manipulation of concepts already

possessed by the reader. The resulting meanings are organized. It is a two-way

process involving the perception and comprehension of written messages cited by

Tinker, Cullough, and Thorndike.

Reading is a tool for learning and in mastering all other subjects in the

curriculum, a part of communication arts and a means to an end. People read for

pleasure, for specific information, to locate materials dealing special problems or to

share information with others. Learning performance in almost all the child’s school

words depend to a great measure on his proficiency in reading. It is in this sense that

several reading skills are needed to comprehend and react to the selection. Such skills

are getting the main idea, noting details or proof sentences, finding cause and effect

relationships, determining sequence, predicting outcomes, making judgment, drawing

conclusions, and following directions. All are needed to fully grasp the message.

Reading Comprehension

Reading is the gateway to comprehension. The goal of reading is to extract

meaning. This is referred to as reading comprehension and can be viewed as product f

two necessary components: decoding and linguistic comprehension,

Relative to this, Mercado et al., (2009) mentioned that reading is one of the four

macro skills taught in the English subject. The act of reading is a process which involves

steps to achieve and reinforce understanding namely: word perception, comprehension,

reaction, and integration. Of all these steps, research on the field has focused on the

comprehension and the issues that revolve around it.

Reading comprehension is defined as the level of understanding of a

text/message. This understanding comes from the interaction between the words that are

written and how they trigger knowledge outside the text/message.

Comprehension is the act of grasping the meaning, significance or nature of an

idea with intellect and specifies understanding as its closes synonym. It is an integrated

skill, a process of constructing meaning from written texts, a complex skill requiring

coordination of several kinds of interrelated sources of information. Comprehension is a

means of integrating information when individuals read. A structure is formed, which

includes all the events of circumstances and concepts that must be put together.

The National Reading Panel (2000) states that, “reading comprehension is

critically important to the development of children’s reading skill and therefore the ability

to obtain an education. “ This statement is supported by Villamin (1994) when she

pointed out that reading implies comprehension. According to her, an individual must

understand what he reads if he is to accomplish any process expect to waste time. She

added that developing comprehension which is a constellation of skills or abilities is


Teachers must acknowledge the importance of reading skills and must plan an

effective program of reading instruction with focus on promoting reading culture among


Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (PHIL-IRI)

In reading, the reader is an active participant in the construction of meaning. In

accordance with this theory, there is a need to assess the student’s ability to obtain

meaning from the text in a variety of context (Swearinger, Allen & Carp, 2000). As a

result, the development of reading tool is necessary. This tool could provide for reading

inventory by providing a common reference point. The tool support the DepEd thrust

“Every Child a Reader Program (ECARP).

Under this program, every child is a reader by the end of grade II. The call for a

unified assessment toll is the onset of the development of the Philippine Informal Reading

Inventory. The Department of Education is conducting every year the Philippine Informal

Reading Inventory (PHIL-IRI) for both silent and oral reading. The Phil-IRI is an

authentic reading assessment that attempts to evaluate reading in a way that is more

closely aligned to the actual classroom instruction. It determines pupils’ thinking

processes as well as their reading comprehension, vocabulary, and word identification

strategies within context. The PHIL IRI gives both quantitative and qualitative

information about the pupils’ reading capabilities. Quantitative information shows the

reading levels namely: frustration, instructional, and independent levels, while qualitative

information reveals word recognition, patterns of word errors, comprehension strengths

and difficulties, reading behaviors and attitudes and the measurement of reading growth

over time.

Each reading level of the student can be identified by specific indicators.

The independent level, it is the highest level of which a student can read

independently and with east without the help of guide of the teacher. The student gets 9

to 10 correct answers for comprehension. The student is free from tension, finger

pointing or lip movement. The student reads with rhythm and with conversational tone

and interprets punctuations correctly.

The instructional level is the level at which the student can profit from instruction.

The student answers correctly 7 out of 10 questions. The student’s oral reading is

rhythmical with conversational tone and correct interpretation.

The frustration level is the lowest reading level. The student gets a score of 5 and

below in the reading comprehension check. The student shows evidence of finger

pointing or lip movement. The student shows withdrawal from reading situations by

crying or refusing to read. The student commits errors in reading such as reversal,

repetition, substitution, insertion, mispronunciation, and inability to interpret punctuation.

Every year, English teachers are conducting PHIL IRI for silent and oral reading.

Results reveal that most the Grade II or formerly first year pupils fall under either

frustration or instructional levels. Certain measures and interventions need to be given to


Drop Every and Read

Drop Everything And Read time, better known as D. E. A. R. time, is a time

regularly set aside in the classroom schedule for both pupils and their teachers to

"drop everything and read.." D. E. A. R. time conveniently accommodates a variety of

student interests and ability levels, since each student selects for himself or herself the

book or books he or she wishes to read. D. E. A. R. is not intended to be.

It is a substitute for other language arts instruction -- D. E. A. R. supplements

the regular reading program by encouraging independent reading, but it does not

replace guided reading. It is an extra activity that gets plugged into the schedule when

another lesson finishes early or dropped from the schedule when a lesson runs longer

than expected or a fire drill interrupts class. D. E. A. R. time is "dear." It is an

important part of the daily or weekly classroom schedule. It is scheduled for the same

time each day or week so pupils recognize that D. E. A. R. time is a priority and so

that they can look forward to this special period. When D. E. A. R. becomes a regular

part of the classroom schedule, each student should bring a book from home or select

a book from the classroom library before D. E. A. R. time begins. When D. E. A. R.

time arrives, every student should be prepared to pull out immediately a pre-selected

book and begin to read.

Activities for Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC)

The Activities for Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC) is developed by

Aravela A. Ramos in 2005. These are learning modules designed to develop the

reading comprehension of the elementary as well as the secondary level students who

want to develop critical thinking. With these modules, a student’s learning gap is

addressed. The child starts where he is, his level of comprehension works up to the

higher level. The learner develops more self-confidence and can now interact in his

different subjects.

The modules are made up of six (6) levels contained in six boxes, color-coded

as red (level 1), yellow (level 2), green (level 3), gray (level 4), blue (level 5), and

brown (level 6). Each box has five (5) skills to develop: 1) noting details, 2) getting

the main idea, 3) predicting outcome, 4) sequencing events, and 5) cause and effect


Noting details is reading comprehension skill that involves picking out from a

piece of text the particular piece or pieces of information to achieve a given purpose

such as answering question in a test.

Getting the main idea is getting important information that tells more about the

overall idea of the paragraph or section.

Predicting outcomes is telling what might possibly happen next in the story.

Sequencing event is arranging events based on what you read.

Cause and effect is a relationship between actions or events, such that one or

more are the results of the other or others.

There are 35 exercises per skill followed by questions that intends to test

comprehension of the reader.

The following are the guides and steps on how to use the modules/materials:

1. The grade level of pupils after administering the reading test is first

2. Each learner is furnished with his or her own Individual Record Form. A

sample of the form is enclosed in each box.
3. Based on the result of the reading test, the pupil is informed the color of

the box that he or she is working on. There are six boxes, with each box

having own levels as follows:
a. Red - Level 1
b. Yellow - Level 2
c. Green - Level 3
d. Gray -Level 4
e. Blue -Level 5
f. Brown -Level 6

Each color-coded level is arranged according to the complexity of the

exercises. The Red is the lowest level. It is the level wherein the pupils should start

reading the different skills in the box.

4. Once the learner has identified the color of his or her box, he or she is

instructed to start with skill A. Each box has 5 skills to develop namely:
A. Noting Details
B. Getting the Main Idea
C. Predicting Outcome
D. Sequencing
E. Cause and Effect
5. There are thirty-five (35) exercises per skill. The pupil is told which

exercise to begin. He or she is instructed to read the story and then answer

the questions after reading the story. As soon as the pupil has finished

answering the questions, he or she can check his or her answers using the

Key to Correction found at the back of each box. He or she is told to

record his or her score on the Individual Record Form. Once the pupil gets

a perfect score, he or she is then told to report it to the teacher. The pupil is

now tested or told to the next higher skill.
6. Once the pupil has finished with all the skills in a particular box, then, he

or she can proceed to the next higher level or box.
7. If a pupil gets a very low scores after 3 or exercises, that level is too

difficult for the pupil. He or she will be told to go to the next lower level or


Research Hypothesis

There is no significant difference on the reading skill and comprehension of

the Grade III pupils when DEAR is implemented in the English class and ABRC

materials are used.


This presents the research design, research locale, the sample, the research
instrument, data collection procedure and the data analysis procedure.

Research Design

This research study utilized the descriptive type of research. As cited by

Calmorin (2004), the descriptive type of research aims to gather information about the

past and present conditions and describes the nature of the variables. This type of

research is suited in this type of research, since it attempted to describe the

improvement of the pupils’ reading ability and comprehension after the DEAR

program as reading intervention program. In a big concept, it describes the effects of

the intervention program on pupils’ reading profile as it presented the existing

relationship between the two variables.

Research Locale

The study was conducted in Matuyatuya Elementary School, a non-central

school in Torrijos District, Division of Marinduque.

The choice of the research locale is due to the researcher’s deep concern

enhancing the quality of English reading instruction in the said school.

The Sample
The subjects of this study were the 29 Grade II pupils.

Research Instruments

This research adopted the Phil IRI form 1, the test materials. For oral reading

test, the test materials are consist of 2 reading passages of 88 words for pre test and

post test respectively followed by seven prompt questions. For silent reading test, it is

consist of one reading passage of 88 words for pre test followed by eight item

questions and another reading passage of 88 words for post test, followed by ten item


Data Collection Procedure

Pre tests were administered at the beginning of the school year to the grade

seven pupils to assess the oral and silent reading abilities. Test materials for pre test

for (oral reading ability) consist of one reading passage of 88 words which was

immediately followed by a prompt consist of ten questions. The prompt activates the

pupils’ motivation to reading. For silent or reading comprehension test, pupils were

given one passage consist of 88 words and immediately followed by ten item

questions. During the administration of the pre test, pupils’ oral reading miscues were

recorded as well the result of the prompt questions. Results were then interpreted as

frustration, instructional and independent. After the pre test, pupils were given the

materials for Drop Everything and Read (DEAR) program and the Activities for

Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC) to enhance the reading ability and


Post tests were administered at the end of the school year, to determine the

improvement difference of the grade seven pupils in their oral and silent reading

abilities. Pupils were given one reading passage of 88 words and seven item questions

for post oral test; one reading passage of 88 words and eight item questions for post

silent test. Miscues and answers were recorded and interpreted as frustration,

instructional and independent.

Data Analysis
Results of pre and post tests in both oral and silent readings were compared

and computed to get the improvement difference using descriptive statistics like


To get the effects of reading intervention on pupils reading ability and

comprehension, Chi – square was employed.

The Chi square tested the research null hypothesis.

Table 1. Results of the Phil-IRI SY 2016-2017

Grade VI – English Oral Test (Number and Percentage of Pupils per Reading Levels)

PRE TEST Reading Levels
Number of Pupils
Tested Frustration Instructional Independent Non Reader
f % f % f % f %
Male 14 3 21.42 10 71.43 1 7.14 2 14.28
Female 15 4 26.67 7 46.66 1 6.66 0 0
Total 29 7 24.14 17 58.62 2 6.89 2 6.96
POST TEST Reading Levels
Number of Pupils
Tested Frustration Instructional Independent Non Reader
f % F % f % f %
Male 14 4 28.57 10 71.42 2 14.28 0 0
Female 15 1 6.67 10 66.66 2 6.89 0 0
Total 29 5 17.24 20 68.96 4 13.79 0 0
Decreased 6.9 6.69
Increased 10.34 7.00

Table 1 indicates a decrease of frustration from 24.14% to 17.24%. It has a

total decrease of 6.9%. Consequently, the instructional level increases from 58.62% in

the pre-test, it increases to 68.96% in the post test. The total increase is 10.34%. In

addition, the percent of instructional reading level also increases from 6.89% to

13.79%. The total increase is 6.69%.

Findings implied that the decrease of frustration and increase of instructional

and independent readers are attributed to the integration of DEAR program and the

utilization of the ABRC materials in between teaching of English for the entire school

year. Findings also implied that pupils’ oral and silent (comprehension) abilities have

improved after the DEAR program and the ABRC materials were used.

Table 2. Effects of DEAR Intervention Program and the Utilization of ABRC
Materials on Pupils Reading Comprehension

Sample Frustration Instructional Independent Interpretation
Size Level Level Level

Pre - Test 29 7 17 2

Post Test 29 5 20 3 0.049 Significant

Table 2 reveals that DEAR reading intervention and the utilization of the ABRC

materials has significant effect on pupils reading comprehension skill. The level of

measurement was set at 0.05 with df of 0.049, the significant level is below the set

degree of frequency. Data indicate that the intervention program to enhance the

reading comprehension of the pupils is effective. It entails for a continuous

implementation of the program and its materials.

IV. Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Findings of study showed the following results

1. The oral reading ability of the grade three pupils in Matuyatuya Elementary

School is described to be instructional. Majority of the pupils belong to instructional

level in spite of the DEAR reading intervention program and the utilization of ABRC

materials. Nevertheless, the reading intervention materials are effective that brought

an increase in the level of reading comprehension from frustration to instructional and

6 of them to instructional level.

2. The result of the chi-square showed that there is a significant effect of

DEAR and ABRC materials on pupils’ pupils’ reading comprehension.


Based on the findings, this study concludes that the materials used for the

reading intervention namely DEAR and ABRC are effective and helpful in developing

the reading comprehension of the Grade II pupils. Although the reading level is

described to instructional, since majority of the children belong to this level, it shows

that only few among them have difficulty in understanding the context of what they

have read. The constant use of these materials will eventually improve and develop

more the reading comprehension of the Grade II pupils.


In the light of the findings, the following recommendations are offered:

1. Continuous implementation and monitoring of DEAR program on pupils
belonging to Instructional levels to make them independent readers;
2. Continuous utilization of the ABRC materials. All teachers in all grade
levels are encouraged to use the materials.
3. Intensive monitoring of the reading progress using the individual
4. DepEd other reading intervention programs are also offered:
 National English Proficiency Program
a. Peer teaching
b. Mentoring
c. Buddy-buddy /teach one-each-one
d. Klasmyt Ko, Guro Ko Program
3. One on one small group tutoring
4. Provide individualize education plan with regards to reading to enhance
pupils’ reading ability and comprehension.

VI. Literature Cited

A. Books

Gardner, K. 1986. Reading in today's schools. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. pp. 212-

Kokong, M.M. 1991. The relationship between reading ability and achievement in
English as a second language and other subjects at matric level.
Potchefstroom: University of Potchefstroom for Christian Higher Education.
pp. 123-130.

Villamin, A.M.(2001). Developmental reading. Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing
House. Inc.

B. Periodicals/Journals/Unpublished Materials

Beckett, G. 2005. Perspectives on reading and listening comprehension. SAALED
News 25: 2-2

Fisher, D.F. 1981. In the beginning was the word. Basic processes in reading. Journal
of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception and Performance. (7): 489-

Foorman, R and R. Torgesen. 2001. Critical elements of classroom and small-group
instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities
Research and Practice 16 (4):203-212.

Opitz, M.F. and R. G. Eldridge. 2004. Remembering comprehension: Delving into the
mysteries of teaching reading comprehension. Reading Teacher 57 (8): 772-

Pretorius, E.J. 2002. Reading ability and academic performance in South Africa : are we
fiddling while Rome is burning? Language matJers, Issue 33: 169-196.

Scarborough, H.S. 2001. Connecting Early Language and Literacy to Later Reading
(Dis)Abilities: Evidence, Theory, and Practice,” In S.B. Neuman and D.K.
Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of Early Literacy Research. New York, NY:
Guilford Press. 1:97-110.

Wolf, K. M. 2007. Accountable talk in reading comprehension instruction. (CSE
Technical Report 670.) Los Angeles, CA: National Center for Research on
Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). (Retrieved from:
q=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_l=hp On August10, 2012).

C. Online References
Leipzig, D.H. (2001). What is reading? Retrieved June 2015 from
http://www.readingrockets.org/article/352/Levels of comprehension.

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